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Urban planning

1 History

In the Neolithic period, agriculture and other techniques
facilitated larger populations than the very small communities of the Paleolithic, which probably led to the
stronger, more coercive governments emerging at that
time. The pre-Classical and Classical periods saw a number of cities laid out according to fixed plans, though
many tended to develop organically. Designed cities were
characteristic of the Minoan, Mesopotamian, Harrapan,
and Egyptian civilizations of the third millennium BC
(see Urban planning in ancient Egypt). The first recorded
description of urban planning is described in the Epic
of Gilgamesh: “Go up on to the wall of Uruk and walk
around. Inspect the foundation platform and scrutinize
the brickwork. Testify that its bricks are baked bricks,
And that the Seven Counsellors must have laid its foundations. One square mile is city, one square mile is orchards, one square mile is claypits, as well as the open
ground of Ishtar's temple.Three square miles and the
open ground comprise Uruk. Look for the copper tabletbox, Undo its bronze lock, Open the door to its secret,
Lift out the lapis lazuli tablet and read.” [4]

Urban planning designs settlements, from the smallest towns to
the largest cities. Shown here is Hong Kong from Western District
overlooking Kowloon, across Victoria Harbour.

Urban planning (urban, merged urban regions, regional,
city, and town planning) is a technical and political process concerned with the use of land and design of the urban environment, including air and water and infrastructure passing into and out of urban areas such as transportation and distribution networks.
Urban planning guides and ensures the orderly development of settlements and satellite communities which
commute into and out of urban areas or share resources
with it. It concerns itself with research and analysis,
strategic thinking, architecture, urban design, public consultation, policy recommendations, implementation and

Distinct characteristics of urban planning from remains
of the cities of Harappa, Lothal, and Mohenjo-daro in
the Indus Valley Civilization (in modern-day northwestern India and Pakistan) lead archeologists to conclude that
they are the earliest examples of deliberately planned and
managed cities.[5][6] The streets of many of these early
cities were paved and laid out at right angles in a grid pattern, with a hierarchy of streets from major boulevards to
residential alleys. Archaeological evidence suggests that
many Harrapan houses were laid out to protect from noise
and enhance residential privacy; many also had their own
water wells, probably for both sanitary and ritual purposes. These ancient cities were unique in that they often
had drainage systems, seemingly tied to a well-developed
ideal of urban sanitation.[5]

A plan can take a variety of forms including strategic
plans, comprehensive plans, neighborhood plans, regulatory and incentive strategies, or historic preservation
plans. Planners are often also responsible for enforcing
the chosen policies.
The modern origins of urban planning lie in the movement for urban reform that arose as a reaction against the
disorder of the industrial city in the mid-19th century.
Urban planning can include urban renewal, by adapting
urban planning methods to existing cities suffering from
decline. Alternatively, it can concern the massive challenges associated with urban growth, particularly in the
Global South.[2]

Many Central American civilizations also planned their
cities, including sewage systems and running water. In
Mexico, Tenochtitlan was the capital of the Aztec empire,
built on an island in Lake Texcoco in what is now the FedIn the late 20th century, the term sustainable development eral District in central Mexico. At its height, Tenochtithas come to represent an ideal outcome in the sum of all lan was one of the largest cities in the world, with over
planning goals.[3]
200,000 inhabitants.[7]



nience. The basic plan consisted of a central forum with
city services, surrounded by a compact, rectilinear grid
of streets, and wrapped in a wall for defense. To reduce travel times, two diagonal streets crossed the square
grid, passing through the central square. A river usually
flowed through the city, providing water, transport, and
sewage disposal.[14] Hundreds of towns and cities were
built by the Romans throughout their empire. Many European towns, such as Turin, preserve the remains of
these schemes, which show the very logical way the Romans designed their cities. They would lay out the streets
at right angles, in the form of a square grid. All roads
were equal in width and length, except for two, which
were slightly wider than the others. One of these ran east–
Map of Piraeus, the port of Athens, showing the grid plan of the west, the other, north–south, and intersected in the midcity
dle to form the center of the grid. All roads were made
of carefully fitted flag stones and filled in with smaller,
hard-packed rocks and pebbles. Bridges were constructed
1.1 Classical and Medieval Europe
where needed. Each square marked by four roads was
called an insula, the Roman equivalent of a modern city
Traditionally, the Greek philosopher Hippodamus (5th block.
century BC) is regarded as the first town planner and ‘inEach insula was 80 yards (73 m) square, with the land
ventor’ of the orthogonal urban layout. Aristotle called
within it divided. As the city developed, each insula
him ‘the father of city planning’, and until well into the
would eventually be filled with buildings of various shapes
20th century, he was indeed regarded as such. This is,
and sizes and crisscrossed with back roads and alleys.
however, only partly justified. The Hippodamian plan
Most insulae were given to the first settlers of a Roman
that was called after him, is an orthogonal urban layout
city, but each person had to pay to construct his own
with more or less square street blocks. Archaeological
finds from ancient Egypt—among others—demonstrate
that Hippodamus cannot truly have been the inventor of The city was surrounded by a wall to protect it from inthis layout.[9] Aristotle’s critique and indeed ridicule of vaders and to mark the city limits. Areas outside city limHippodamus, which appears in Politics 2. 8, is perhaps its were left open as farmland. At the end of each main
the first known example of a criticism of urban planning. road was a large gateway with watchtowers. A portcullis
covered the opening when the city was under siege, and
From about the late 8th century on, Greek city-states
additional watchtowers were constructed along the city
started to found colonies along the coasts of the Mediterwalls. An aqueduct was built outside the city walls.
ranean, which were centered on newly created towns and
cities with more or less regular orthogonal plans. Gradu- The development of Greek and Roman urbanization is
ally, the new layouts became more regular.[10] After the relatively well-known, as there are relatively many written
city of Miletus was destroyed by the Persians in 494 BC, sources, and there has been much attention to the subject
it was rebuilt in a regular form that, according to tra- since the Romans and Greeks are generally regarded as
dition, was determined by the ideas of Hippodamus of the main ancestors of modern Western culture. It should
Miletus.[11] Regular orthogonal plans particularly appear not be forgotten, though, that there were also other culto have been laid out for new colonial cities and cities that tures with more or less urban settlements in Europe, primarily of Celtic origin.[15] Among these, there are also
were rebuilt in a short period of time after destruction.
cases that appear to have been newly planned, such as the
Following in the tradition of Hippodamus about a century
Lusatian town of Biskupin in Poland.
later, Alexander commissioned the architect Dinocrates
to lay out his new city of Alexandria, the grandest exam- After the gradual disintegration and fall of the Westple of idealized urban planning of the ancient Hellenistic Roman empire in the 5th century and the devastation
world, where the city’s regularity was facilitated by its by the invasions of Huns, Germanic peoples, Byzantines,
Moors, Magyars, and Normans in the next five centuries,
level site near a mouth of the Nile.
little remained of urban culture in western and central EuThe ancient Romans also employed regular orthogonal
rope. In the 10th and 11th centuries, though, there apstructures on which they molded their colonies.[12] They
pears to have been a general improvement in the political
probably were inspired by Greek and Hellenic examples,
stability and economy. This made it possible for trade and
as well as by regularly planned cities that were built by
craft to grow and for the monetary economy and urban
the Etruscans in Italy.[13] (see Marzabotto)
culture to revive. Initially, urban culture recovered parThe Romans used a consolidated scheme for city plan- ticularly in existing settlements, often in remnants of Roning, developed for military defense and civil conve-

[19] One very clear and relatively extreme example is Elburg in the Netherlands. and that the house lots are rectangular. Plan of Elburg in The Netherlands.2 Renaissance Europe Florence was an early model of the new urban planning. Plan by John Speed. it appears that the formal structure of many of these towns was willfully planned. It would not be until the Industrial Revolution that the same level of expansion of urban population would be reached again. many hundreds of new towns were built in Europe. occurred “like the annular rings of a tree”. Munich. Lübeck. steward of the duke of Gelre. Warsaw and Sarajevo.' The deep depression around the middle of the 14th century marked the end of the period of great urban expansion. reflecting the enormous cultural power of Florence in this age. Arent seems to have acted as a private entrepreneur. therefore. typical of ‘modern times. but some of them became important cities. the population of western Europe increased rapidly and the utilized agricultural area grew with it. The highly symmetrical layout is centered on a canalized river and an intersecting street. and juridical advantages granted by the founding lord. Meanwhile. These new towns and town extensions have played a very important role in the shaping of Europe’s geographical structures as they in modern times. by the church in the eastern corner and by the pre-existing street (the only curved one in the whole town) on the northwest side. Elburg was founded in 1392 by Arent toe Boecop. Alessandria. 1611. selling the house lots to the settlers. it clearly appears that it is impossible to maintain that the straight street and the symmetrical. which took on a star-shaped layout adapted from the new star fort. ever more towns were created anew. Klagenfurt.[16] Urban development in the early Middle Ages. Malmö. He had bought a piece of land next to the existing town. and many others were enlarged with newly planned extensions. such as Cardiff. as in eastern Europe. political or military power. defensible ground. or were forced to move from elsewhere from his estates. (see illustration) Looking at town plans such as the one of Elburg. from the highest to the lowest rank. and he obtained permission from his lord to extend and rebuild the town. but most of them were realized from the 12th to 14th centuries. Berlin. The corner bastions and the wide outer ditch were added in the late 16th century. orthogonal town plan were new inventions from ‘the Renaissance.1.' and. The symmetry is disturbed. Most of the new towns were to remain rather small (as for instance the bastides of southwestern France). a fortified abbey. tried to found new towns on their estates. but later on. Montauban. economic. dating from the end of the 14th century. during his second Welsh campaign to end the Second War of Independence. 1. The newly founded towns often show a marked regularity in their plan form. This model was widely imitated. however. although the number of newly created settlements would remain much lower than in the 12th and 13th centuries. ‘s-Hertogenbosch. Bern.2 Renaissance Europe 3 man towns and cities. based on the cadastral plan of 1830. and to resettle the population of the surrounding area. All kinds of landlords. Caernarfon castle and town were re-founded by King Edward I of England in July 1283.[18] From the evidence of the preserved towns. was it still to go on for one or two more centuries. Bilbao. Leeds. and originally largely of the same size. "[t]he Renaissance was hypnotized by one city type which for a century and a half— . in the sense that the streets are often straight and laid out at right angles to one another. characteristically focused on a fortress. following the irregularities of elevation contours like the shapes that result from agricultural terracing. Since the new center was often on high. The agricultural areas of existing villages were extended and new villages and towns were created in uncultivated areas as cores for new reclamations. with a peak-period at the end of the 13th. The settlers of the new towns generally were attracted by fiscal. Only in the parts of Europe where the process of urbanization had started relatively late. in order to gain economical. designed to resist cannon fire. Caernarvon (Wales).[17] whether in an extended village or the center of a larger city. New towns were founded in different parts of Europe from about the 9th century on. or a (sometimes abandoned) Roman nucleus. the city plan took on an organic character. In the 9th to 14th centuries.

took no During the Second French Empire. circumscribable by a “perfect” Pythagorean figure. which remained disorderly and characterized by crowding and organic growth. but it was not identical to that before the cataclysm. Many streets were made as wide as possible to improve traffic flow. Governor Max Emanuel proposed using the reconstruction to completely change the layout and architectural style of the city. the general layout of the city was conserved. but ordinarily not in the industrial suburbs characteristic of this era (see Braudel. did not have the resources for grandiose proposals.[21] This process occurred in cities. no large-scale redesigning was achieved due the complexities of rival . and the aesthetics of the city. wide boulevards. architectural style. The Structures of Everyday Life). modeled on Turin. the circle. 1504 Only in ideal cities did a centrally planned structure stand at the heart. Filarete's ideal city. despite many radical rebuilding schemes from architects such as John Evelyn and Christopher Wren. 1. An exception to this was in London after the Great Fire of 1666 when.[20] Radial streets extend outward from a defined center of military. that of Vigevano (1493–95). as in Raphael's Sposalizio (Illustration) of 1504. This plan was opposed by residents and municipal authorities. not the least of which was the city’s history of street revolutions. In the actual reconstruction. was named "Sforzinda" in compliment to his patron. Following the 1695 bombardment of Brussels by the French troops of King Louis XIV. between 1480 and 1484. foreign. This extraordinary panel exemplifies Renaissance ideals of urban planning and offers a model of the architecture and sculpture that would be commissioned by a virtuous ruler who cares for the welfare of the citizenry. with long. His plan was to transform the medieval city into a city of the new baroque style. 1 HISTORY heed of its undulating terrain in Filarete’s manuscript. authorities did take several measures to improve traffic flow. building on Leon Battista Alberti's De re aedificatoria. the unique example of a rationally planned quattrocento new city center. During this period. communal or spiritual power. straight. As built. surrounded by arcading. sanitation. resembles a closed space instead. uninterrupted views flanked by buildings of a uniform size. The planning was influenced by many factors. its twelve-pointed shape. and resented what they considered the imposition of a new. in which a large part of the city center was destroyed. with straight avenues offering long.4 from Filarete to Scamozzi— was impressed upon utopian schemes: this is the star-shaped city”. with a logical street layout. Disasters were often a major catalyst for planned reconstruction. Haussmann transformed the medieval city of Paris into a modern capital.3 Enlightenment Europe The ideal centrally planned urban space: Sposalizio by Raphael Sanzio. who wanted a rapid reconstruction. The Ideal City by Fra Carnevale. rulers often embarked on ambitious attempts at redesigning their capital cities as a showpiece for the grandeur of the nation. Despite the necessity of rapid reconstruction and the lack of financial means.

His objectives were to improve the health of the inhabitants.4 Modern urban planning 5 ownership claims. developed for the reconstruction of Pombaline Lower Town 1. large avenues and widened streets – the new mottos of Lisbon. Baron Georges-Eugène Haussmann was commissioned to remodel the Medieval street plan of the city by demolishing swathes of the old quarters and laying out wide boulevards. the king commissioned the construction of big squares. Cerdà's Eixample (Catalan for 'extension') consisted of 550 regular blocks with chamfered corners to facilitate the movement of trams. The industrialized cities of the 19th century had grown at a tremendous rate. This last option was chosen by the king and his minister. both in the centre of Paris and in the surrounding districts.4. King Joseph I of Portugal and his ministers immediately launched efforts to rebuild the city.[23] A concurrent plan to extend Barcelona was based on a scientific analysis of the city and its modern requirements.[24] in hygiene and fire safety with wider streets. and public monuments. with healthier environments. the wide thoroughfares facilitated troop movement and policing. with the pace and style of building largely dictated by private business concerns. who initiated the garden city movement in 1898. theorists began developing urban planning models to mitigate the consequences of the industrial age. illustrating urban growth through garden city “off-shoots” The first major urban planning theorist was Sir Ebenezer Howard. sewers and water works. The laissez-faire style of government management of the economy. This was inspired by earlier planned communities built by industrial philanthropists in the countryside. public parks. by providing citizens. the "gaiola cially factory workers. stone construction and access to the river. espeModel of the seismically protective wooden structure. rectilinear. It was drawn up by the Catalan engineer Ildefons Cerdà to fill the space beyond the city walls after they were demolished from 1854. extending outwards beyond the old city limits. The architect Manuel da Maia boldly proposed razing entire sections of the city and “laying out new streets without restraint”. Beyond aesthetic and sanitary considerations. such as Cadburys' Bournville. was starting to give way to a New Liberalism that championed intervention on the part of the poor and disadvantaged. An even more ambitious reconstruction was carried out in Paris.4 Modern urban planning Planning and architecture went through a paradigm shift at the turn of the 20th century. 1.[22] Keen to have a new and perfectly ordered city. All these settlements decentralized the working environment from the centre of the cities. city facilities. towards which the blocks were built around central gardens and orientated NW-SE to maximize the sunlight they re- Ebenezer Howard's influential 1902 diagram. However. In 1852.1 Garden city movement In contrast. and provided a healthy living space . Around 1900. The evils of urban life for the working poor were becoming increasingly evident as a matter for public concern. Lever’s Port Sunlight and George Pullman's eponymous Pullman in Chicago. in fashion for most of the Victorian era. Haussmann’s project encompassed all aspects of urban planning. pombalina” (pombaline cage). improvements were made ceived. He is credited with inventing the term ‘urbanization’ and his approach was codified in his General Theory of Urbanization (1867). after the 1755 Lisbon earthquake.1. The Pombaline buildings were among the earliest seismically protected constructions in Europe. crossed by three wider avenues. and assist social integration. with regulations imposed on building façades.

tree-lined roads. The scheme’s utopian ideals were that it should be open to all classes of people with free access to woods and gardens and that porated the ideas of Howard’s disciple Raymond Unwin. Howard generalized this achievement into a planned movement for the country as a whole. civil engineers. an area 34 miles outside London.[35] The first official consideration of these new trends was embodied in the Housing and Town Planning Act of 1909 that compelled local authorities to introduce coherent systems of town planning across the country using the new principles of the 'garden city'. In the early 1900s. which included over two million members.[38] . and agriculture. Howard published his book Garden Cities of To-morrow in 1898. won the competition run by the First Garden City. New Jersey. and to ensure that all housing construction conformed to specific building standards. extending from the centre. which oriented houses toward a common public path instead of the street. but could not win their financial support. Ltd. In 1910.000 people.[30] In 1904. the Garden City movement was also popular. commonly regarded as the most important book in the history of urban planning. and evolved into the “Neighborhood Unit” form of development. The neighborhood is distinctively organized around a school. He was also influenced by the work of economist Alfred Marshall who argued in 1884 that industry needed a supply of labour that could in theory be supplied anywhere. Raymond Unwin. also in Hertfordshire was also built university course in America was established at Harvard on Howard’s principles. In North America. ‘philanthropic land speculation’. and that companies have an incentive to improve workers living standards as the company bears much of the cost inflicted by the unhealthy urban conditions in the big cities.[26] His idealized garden city would house 32. linked by road and rail. The garden city would be self-sufficient and when it reached full population. 120 ft (37 m) wide. architects. another garden city would be developed nearby. surveyors.[32] 1 HISTORY the housing should be of low density with wide.[25] Howard’s ideas. The response. family privacy and internal spaces. containing proportionate and separate areas of residences. 1.000 acres (2. Howard envisaged a cluster of several garden cities as satellites of a central city of 50. The Town and Country Planning Association was founded in 1899 and the first academic course on urban planning was offered by the University of Liverpool in 1909. The Town Planning Institute was established in 1914 with a mandate to advance the study of town-planning and civic design. instead replacing it with a more ‘organic’ design. as cars were introduced to city streets for the first time.[28] Donors to the project collected interest on their investment if the garden city generated profits through rents or. planned on a concentric pattern with open spaces.2 Urban planning profession Urban planning became professionalized at this period. Thomas Adams was appointed as the first Town Planning Inspector at the Local Government Board. seen first in Radburn.[31] Unwin and Parker planned the town in the centre of the Letchworth estate with Howard’s large agricultural greenbelt surrounding the town. lawyers and others began working together within local government in the UK to draw up schemes for the development of land and the idea of town planning as a new and distinctive area of expertise began to be formed. However. who The Tudor Walters Committee that recommended the extended the movement to regional planning. residents became increasingly concerned with the number of pedestrians being injured by car traffic. although utopian.6 for the factory workers.[27] He founded First Garden City. Garden City Association was Sir Frederic Osborn.[36] Following this Act. were also highly practical and were adopted around the world in the ensuing decades. was the Neighborhood Unit-style development. a noted architect and town planner. with input from utopian visionaries as well as from the practical minded infrastructure engineers and local councilors combining to produce new design templates for political consideration. self-contained communities surrounded by parks. His garden cities were intended to be planned. and began meeting with practitioners. with the intention of providing children a safe way to walk to school. and they shared Howard’s notion that the working class deserved better and more affordable housing. Hertfordshire.[33] building of housing estates after World War One incorThe principles of the garden city were soon applied to the planning of city suburbs.[37] The first Welwyn Garden City.428 ha). Inspired by the Utopian novel Looking Backward and Henry George's work Progress and Poverty. as Fishman calls the process. Unwin diverged from Howard by proposing that the new developments should be peripheral 'satellites’ rather than fullyfledged garden cities. in 1899 to create the first garden city at Letchworth. industry. who demonstrated that homes could be built rapidly and economically whilst maintaining satisfactory standards for gardens.4. along with his partner Barry Parker. the architects ignored Howard’s symmetric design. His successor as chairman of the University in 1924. The first such project was the Hampstead Garden Suburb founded by Henrietta Barnett[34] and planned by Parker and Unwin. Limited to plan Letchworth.000 people on a site of 6. public parks and six radial boulevards.[29] Howard tried to include working class cooperative organizations.

Le Towns being constructed in Britain over the followCorbusier expanded and reformulated his ideas on effort was combined with extensive federal tion of the former. steel-framed office buildings encased in huge curtain walls of glass. Virginia. which. eventually publishing them in La Ville radieuse (The New towns were built in the United States from the 1960s Radiant City) in 1935. who facilitated talk about a ‘Better Britain’ to boost morale. The influential modernist architect Le Corbusier presented his scheme for a “Contemporary City” for three million inhabitants (Ville Contemporaine) in 1922. east-west arranged to catch the sea breeze. The plan of the new town became a success. Other European countries housing in Europe and the United States. Partizánske in Slovakia – an example of a typical planned industrial city founded in 1938 together with a shoemaking factory in which practically all adult inhabitants of the city were employed. while the architect himself produced the plan for Chandigarh in India. making it awkward for car traffic. placed within an orthogo. The damage brought on by the war provoked significant public interest in what post-war Britain would be like. park-like green spaces.4 Modern urban planning 7 including painter-architect Nadir Afonso. These skyscrapers were set within large. It consisted of about 40 blocks. with some public squares. Lúcio Costa's city plan of Brasília and the industrial city of Zlín planned by František Lydie Gahura in the Czech Republic are notable plans based on his ideas. not economic position. an airport. who absorbed Le Corbusier’s ideas into his own aesthetics theory.4 New Towns Ebenezer Howard’s urban planning concepts were only adopted on a large scale after World War II.3 Modernism In the 1920s. 1. and at the top. for the first time. A series of shaded boulevards short cuts the system. The big blocks form a gently undulating street pattern. some successes with new towns. This was a simple and efficient manner to modernize the historical fixed grid patterns.4. Post-war rebuilding initiatives saw new plans drafted for London. Maryference between the Contemporary City and the Radiant land. The centerpiece of this plan was the group of sixty-story cruciform skyscrapers. particularly in the Constructivist decades. and foresaw the emergence of huge urban conurbations. In 1927. sized around 150 meters square. Le Corbusier hoped that politically minded industrialists in France would lead the way with their efficient Taylorist and Fordist strategies adopted from American industrial models to reorganize society.The New Towns Act 1946 resulted many New nal street grid and park-like green space. in which he of satellite suburbs. he exhibited his “Plan Voisin”. The block contained an inner small public garden. This City is that the latter abandoned the class-based stratifica. especially as part of post- . housing was now assigned according to government grants for slum clearance. which was encouraged by the government. In the 1930s. Firstly. zig-zag apartment blocks (set far back from the street amid green space) housed the inhabitants.[39] Another important theorist was Sir Patrick Geddes who understood the importance of taking the regional environment into account and the relationship between social issues and town planning. 1.– examples include Reston. As one moved out from the central skyscrapers. as well as highway intersections. He segregated pedestrian circulation paths from the roadways and glorified the automobile as a means of transportation. Le Corbusier had the fanciful notion that commercial airliners would land between the huge skyscrapers. rectangular. improved and infamily size. the County of London Plan 1943 recognized that displacement of population and employment was necessary if the city was to be rebuilt at a desirable density.[40] Le Corbusier’s the. addressed the issue of decentralization. smaller low-story. Le Corbusier’s thinking also had profound effects on the philosophy of city planning and architecture in the Soviet Union. and new towns. Germany. accessing the sea front. Columbia. the Greater London Plan of 1944 went further by suggesting that over one million people would need to In 1925. disposed into a windmill configuration of inner access roads. he was commissioned to plan the city of Tel Aviv. the ideas of modernism began to surface in urban planning. Moreover. existing proposed to bulldoze most of central Paris north of the be displaced into a mixture [41] rural towns.1. Jonathan. Italy and Sweden also had Many of his disciples became notable in their own right. such as France. north-south commercial.creased housing and road construction and comprehenories were sporadically adopted by the builders of public sive urban renewal projects.[42][43] ism. Perhaps the most significant dif. At the center was a huge transportation hub that on different levels included depots for buses and trains. Minnesota and Riverside Plaza.4. then in the British mandate for Palestine. Seine and replace it with his sixty-story cruciform towers from the Contemporary City.

1. It was seen as one method of the “scientific management” of society and as a tool for a social engineering. uniform tower blocks ended in most countries. however. Residents in compact urban neighborhoods drive fewer miles and have significantly lower environmental impacts across a range of measures compared with those living in sprawling 1.6 New Urbanism Russian Magnitogorsk founded as a planned industrial city in 1929. started in the late 1990s as a new urbanist eco-friendly new town near Malmö Various current movements in urban design seek to create sustainable urban environments with long-lasting structures. buildings and a great liveability for its inhabitants. even though specific land uses are not regulated. planning now concentrates on individualism and towards urban construction that appreciates and develops smart growth. Jakriborg in Sweden. Houston voters have rejected comprehensive zoning ordinances three times since 1948. and classical design.[45] The concept of Circular flow land use management has also been introduced in Europe to promote By the late 1960s and early 1970s. The most clearly defined form of walkable urbanism is known as the Charter of New Urbanism.5 Reaction suburbs. this is the postmodernist era. such as Britain and France. He and his followers significantly reconstructed or founded several industrial cities (Zlín in Czech Republic. It is an approach for successfully reducing environmental impacts by altering the built environment to create and preserve smart cities that support sustainable transport.[46][47] This is in contrast to modernist and short-lived globally uniform architecture. Rather than attempting to eliminate all disorder. Urban planning was popular in the Soviet Union and other socialist countries in the period of 1929-1989.[44] Classical Architecture promotes a sustainable approach Modernist planning fell into decline in the 1970s when the construction of cheap. as well as opposing solitary housing estates and suburban sprawl. blaming them for In sustainable construction.[44] Minimally planned cities still exist. Later Czechoslovak school of city planning continued in this tradition. many planners felt sustainable land use patterns that strive for compact cities that modernism’s clean lines and lack of human scale and a reduction of greenfield land taken by urban sprawl. The pioneer of urban planning in former Czechoslovakia was a Czech entrepreneur Tomáš Baťa (1876-1932). Houston does. sapped vitality from the community.4. walkability. Since then many have been demolished and replaced by other housing types. architectural tradition.[48] Both trends started in the 1980s. the recent movement of New high crime rates and social problems. Many new Soviet cities and cities and suburbs in other socialist countries were established in accordance with the prevailing trends of urban planning. restrict development densities and mandate parking. 1.[49] . Also. Houston is a large city (with a metropolitan population of 5.5 million) in a developed country without a comprehensive zoning ordinance.5 Urban planning in Communist countries diversity in society and the economy. Svit and Partizánske in Slovakia).8 1 HISTORY war reconstruction efforts. private-sector developers in Houston use subdivision covenants and deed restrictions to effect land-use restrictions resembling zoning laws.

sustainable development is a recent. Nature in cities Often an integral party of sustainable Application cities is the Incorporation of nature within a city. as well as on scenario-building and visioning. water. defines CoSGOP is not a planning method but a process model. and the outputs of waste and pollution. implemen.7 1. polluting or de. ban planners.stakeholders. and expectations). widely supported before they can affect institutions and feedback. and causing climate change. The layout of the a new approach characterized by communication with city is referred to as the "Hoddle Grid". efficient resource use.identification of strengths and weakness.[50][49] Elements of CoSGOP However. less pollution and waste. and adjustment of the programme (including regions. decision-making.[49] ble impacts of the improvement program. It is based on sound analysis of available less automobile use.Collaborative planning in the United States mation.1. It was adopted as a theoretical framework for analyzing redevelopment proability cesses in large urban distressed areas in European cities (see “LUDA : Improving quality of life in Large Urban Distressed Areas” project – Research funded by the European Commission. Background of CoSGOP' CoSGOP is derived from goal-oriented planning (Gesellschaft für Technische Zusammenarbeit – GTZ 1988). CoSGOP has been applied in European cross-border polCar free sustainability in city planning can include large icy programming. advocate sustainable cities. creating long-term. opportunities day’s urban planners. of strategic programming. assessment of possiergy. a healthy social ecology. interests. In 2004.[51] stakeholders). as well in local and regional developpedestrian zones or be a totally Car free. ment programming. in a structured process characterized and towns.velopment of goals. sustainable planning measures must be tation. good housing and liv. which natives (requiring intensive communication and active consists of cities that designed with consideration of en.problems. sustainable urban development as “development that im. depreservation of local culture and wisdom. yet bet.ment program and its main activities (based on priorities defined with the stakeholders). such as minimizing the uses of en. a sustainable lems and potentials (including objective problems and economy. The essential elements of CoSGOP are analysis ter access. of stakeholders (identifying stakeholders’ perceptions of the restoration of natural systems. This approach had weaknesses: its logical rules were strictly applied and the expert language did not encourage participation. Some planners argue that modern and threats. It also facilitates stakeholder learncompact. and is oriented towards . EVK4-CT2002-00081). therefore. analysis of probing environments. specification of an improvevironmental impacts. increasing social inequality.” He sketches a 'sustainable' city’s features: by feedback loops.It provides a framework for communication and joint proves the long-term social and ecological health of cities decision-making. strategic planning based on the Sustainable development and sustainability influence to. lifestyles use too many natural resources.[50] Wheeler. the CoSGOP model was Collaborative Strategic Goal Oriented Programming applied in the LUDA Project. CoSGOP introduced Robert Hoddle's survey of Melbourne in 1837. and alterners are now promoting a sustainable city model. controversial concept. Many ur. which was useful for embedding a specific project in a wider development frame and defining its major elements.managing development processes. and monitoring oriented towards defined and specific goals.7 Sustainable development and sustainability 9 Sustainable development and sustain. improvement priorities. Actual implementation is often a complex technical and economic information and perceptions of compromise.[50] Urban plan. and stroying ecosystems.stakeholder participation). in his 2004 book. efficient land use. which was oriented towards the elaboration and implementation of projects based on a logical framework. emphasizes stakeholder participation. continuous monitoring of improvement activities.References[52][53][54] tation. and problems and potentials perceived by stakeholders). starting with an analysis of (CoSGOP) is a collaborative and communicative way the European experience of urban regeneration projects. definition and Because of political and governance structures in most detailed specification of key projects and their implemenjurisdictions. works to Collaborative planning arose in the US in response to the create awareness among actors.the definition of goals as the basis for action. and active involvement of stakeholders and those to be affected by the program. community participation and involvement. flexible programming of interventions by urban heat islands.

and hoardings.[58] Other issues that generate strong debate among urban designers are tensions between peripheral growth. there has been a backlash against excessive human-made clutter in the visual environment.1 Aesthetics The graphical scheme of the Detailed Urbanist Plan for a settlement within the Municipality of Aerodrom within the City of Skopje. There are also debates about the mixing tenures and land uses. it fosters faith in the wisdom and utility of the resulting project. and often materials in practical ways.[56][57] . such as signposts. local identity. expert opinions. uses and features. England. Historically. full government commitment (of both tion and classical design. Active public involvement can help planners achieve better outcomes by making them aware of the public’s needs and preferences and by using local knowledge to inform projects. 2. Collaborative planning is a method designed to empower stakeholders by elevating them to the level of decision-makers through direct engagement and dialogue between stakeholders and public agencies.growth in urban areas and to continue architectural tradimaking authority. traffic.[55] Towns and cities have been planned with aesthetics in mind. with all stakeholders and affected groups invited chitecture seeks to develop aesthetically pleasing smart to the table. housing density and new settlements. Many conventional planning techniques are being repackaged using the contemporary term smart growth. Europe and the rest of the Old World. and participation in the community planning process.10 2 ASPECTS 2 Aspects 2. Regardless. respects heritage. more creative outcomes to persistent problems than can traditional participation methods. participants should be given clear objectives by planning staff. There are some cities that have been planned from conception.Historically within the Middle East. pedestrians. Planners can help manage the growth of cities. many of the cities now thought the most beautiful are the result of dense. Republic of Macedonia.[59] These allowed substantial freedoms. yet enforce styles.[46][47] financial and intellectual resources) must be manifest. It enables planners to make decisions that reflect community needs and values. (See that successful collaborative planning depends on a num. and facilitators should be trained in conflict resolution and commu. inadequacy of traditional public participation techniques to provide real opportunities for the public to make decisions affecting their communities. When properly administered. and research. to solicit ideas. signs. collaboration can result in more meaningful participation and better. versus distinguishing geographic zones where different uses dominate. applying tools like zoning and growth management to manage the uses of land.List of planned cities) ber of interrelated factors: the process must be truly in. In developed countries. 18th-century private sector development was designed to appear attractive. who facilitate the process by providing guidance.The 20th and 21st century trend for New Classical Arclusive. Here in Bath. and the community is given a personal stake in its success. safety. all successful urban planning considers urban character. active involvement. long lasting systems of prohibitions and guidance about building sizes. utilities and natural hazards. the community must have final decision. and while the results often do not turn out quite as Experiences in Portland and Seattle have demonstrated planned. evidence of the initial plan often remains.2 Safety and security consultancy. settlements were located on higher nity organization.

[61] different abilities. retaining walls. Refer to Foucault and the Encyclope. as a model for criminal control. and many consider them a reasonable precaution for any urban space. This stress causes size that many planning policies ignore personal tensions. as well as by making city streets interesting. residents can more easily detect undesirable or criminal behavior. movement of military troops. practicing the notion of “inclusive design. Massachusetts. and increasing the familiarity of residents. though. and shelters. some crimes and some use of illegal drugs. levees. determinism. where large blocks of flats are surrounded by shared and disassociated public areas. (refer to various religious texts and archaeological sites)" Jacobs went further. It was not only reflected in the general structure of the outside of the home but also the inside. flood. environmental determinism. often with the added benefit of open space provision. If the dangers can be localised then the affected regions can be made into parkland or green belt. The theory suggests that abandonment to maximize the accessibility of an area to people with causes crime.2. as an idealization of this persistent occupation and tasking in a condensed city space.[60] By doing this. As those on lower incomes cannot hire others to maintain public space such as security guards or grounds keepers. This was prevalent throughout the middle eastern world during the time of Mohamad. there was a general deterioration of public space leading to a sense of alienation and social disorder. she theorized a continuous animation of social actions during an average city day. She presented the North End in Boston. people likewise fail to maintain their In recent years. Haussmann’s renovation of Paris or “pedestrianisation” as ways of making urban life more created a system of wide boulevards which prevented the construction of barricades in the streets and eased the pleasant. Often these beautiful design in place of functionalism. The medieval walled city of Carcassonne in France is built upon high ground to provide maximum protection from attackers. in stressing the necessity of multiple uses on city streets. such as tors of neglect. By improving ‘natural surveillance’ of shared land and facilities of nearby residents by literally increasing the number of people who can see it. such as broken windows and unkempt lawns. These theories say that an urban environment can influence individuals’ obedience to social rules Other social theories point out that in Britain and most and level of power. Urban planners must consider these threats. These are relatively inexpensive and unintrusive. which would keep city streets interesting and well occupied throughout a 24 hour period. which are hard for residents to identify with.” to anticipate criminal behaviour and consequently Some planning methods might help an elite group to conto “design-out crime” and to consider “traffic calming” trol ordinary citizens. Cities have often grown onto coastal and flood plains at risk of floods and storm surges.countries since the 18th century. Many The “broken-windows” theory argues that small indicacities will also have planned. practitioners have also been expected own properties. so that different people co-mingle with different stores and parks in a condensed part of city space. the transformation of dia of the Prison System for more details. unadorned areas.2 Safety and security 11 because no individual feels personally responsible. Extreme weather. ground (for defense) and close to fresh water sources. in emphasizing the details in how to achieve this 'natural surveillance'. These theories emphadensely developed. rather than crime causing abandonment. built safety features. more traneity to their cities. Jane Jacobs is another notable environmental determinist and is associated with the “eyes on the street” concept. theorists seek a reconsideration of commonly used “stanOscar Newman’s defensible space theory cites the moddards” that rationalize the outcomes of a free (relatively ernist housing projects of the 1960s as an example of unregulated) market. The antidote forcing individuals to live in a condition of perpetual exis believed to be more individual space and better. Anticipating decay. Many people therefore lack the comfort of feeling “at home” when at home. this is not a new concept. promote a feeling that an area is in a state of decay. and . In Rome. The theories societies from rural agriculture to industry caused a difoften say that psychological pressure develops in more ficult adaptation to urban living. or other emergencies can often be greatly mitigated with secure emergency evacuation routes and emergency operations centres. “However. the Fascists in Some city planners try to control criminality with structhe 1930s created ex novo many new suburbs in order to tures designed from theories such as socio-architecture concentrate criminals and poorer classes away from the or architectural determinism a subset of environmental elegant town. as a collective.

high unemployment. During this time. and community centers without government money. after decades of civil war and occupation. but with salvageable parts. or a part of be sensitive to the needs of this community and its exista GIFT [73] City. However.3 2 Slums Main article: Slums ASPECTS 2. they must cope with racial and cultural differences to ensure that racial steering does not occur. Afghanistan. Slums were often “fixed” by clearance. The existing population has needs. with rising real estate values. lic transport within a 10 minute walk to every office and . This “suburbanization of new cities to provide space and facilities that are missing poverty” has important implications for siting affordable in existing cities.[66][67][68] Masdar City. where established slum-dwellers promise to build proper houses.[63] The overall area plan for the reconstruction of Kabul's Old City area. changes in global economies.[65] However. cost $18 billion. water and sewerage are often damaged. urban decay was often associated with central areas of cities in North America and Europe. It is ing culture and businesses. a new city in UAE. religious or social centers also need to be preserved and re-integrated into the new city plan.6 New master-planned cities In the 21st Century. fragmented Urban reconstruction development plans must also work families. needs to Urban decay is a process by which a city. with the conse. sal of urban decay (gentrification) often causes housing affordability in the inner city to decrease. 2. schools. roads. the indigenous population continues to live in the area.Saudi Arabia is building 5 new cities to control congestion quence that poorer residents are pushed out. property abandonment. services and basic infrastructure like power.with government agencies as well as private interests to develop workable designs. often to older and sprawl in existing cities. characterized by depopulation.5 Reconstruction and renewal Main article: Urban renewal Areas devastated by war or invasion challenge urban The rapid urbanization of the last century caused more slums in the major cities of the world.[69] in North America have been experiencing a reversal of the urban decay. late urban landscapes. 2.City of Light Development planners. many of the central urban areas are being built. Resources are scarce. This pattern was different from the pattern of “outlying slums” and “suburban ghettos” found in many cities outside of North America and Western Europe. rever. where central urban areas actually had higher real estate values. During the 1970s and 1980s. and policies fostered urban decay. Asia. particularly the Commonwealth Association of Planners. Any reconstruction plan. Historic.[66] While India is building 7 inner and middle ring suburbs. Planning resources and strategies are needed to address the problems of slum development. parks and pubhousing. Many planners are calling for slum improvement. demolition of obsolete social housing and such as District [71][72] City or Personal Rapid Transit in Masdar a wider variety of housing choices. which. falls into a state of disrepair and neglect. Buildings. more creative solutions are beginning to emerge such as Nairobi's "Camp of Fire" program. and deso. such as cycling paths. in return for land on which they have been illegally squatting on for 30 years. countries in Asia and the MiddleEast have embarked on plans to build brand new large cities.[67] One expert has said building a brand new city for 1 million people would be regarded as a “terrifying concept” in the United Kingdom[69] while in Asia brand new large cities Starting in the 1990s.12 2. the proposed Kabul .[64] Many planners spoke of "white flight" during this time. which has programs in Africa. such as Hisham Ashkouri's City of Light Development. transportation. has regions of rubble and desolation. and South America. economic restructuring.4 Decay Despite this. particularly in developing countries. crime. The “Camp of Fire” program is one of many similar projects initiated by Slum Dwellers International. A prime example of this is the capital city of Kabul. and transportation and social services planning.[62] When urban planners work on slums. smarter Many of these new cities are built to use new technologies cooling and automatic waste collection[70] development. constructing makeshift homes and shops out Main article: Urban decay of salvaged materials. political disenfranchisement. demographics.

However critics of this approach dub the densification of development as 'town cramming' and claim that it lowers quality of life and restricts market-led choice. Parking space for private vehicles requires the construction of large parking garages in high density areas. while most city centres are well above five. Increasing development density has the advantage of making mass transport systems. The density of an urban environment increases traffic.8 Suburbanization home. This is gion and help to reduce both congestion along transport the floor area of buildings divided by the land area. yet are too low to be commercially served by trains or light rail systems.) more viable. United States environment is held to blame for continuing migration to smaller towns and rural areas (so-called urban exodus). Problems can often occur at residential densities between about two and five. Low-density (auto-oriented) suburban development near Colorado Springs. Colorado. City authorities may try to encourage higher densities to Main article: Transportation planning reduce per-capita infrastructure costs. achieving less than 2% ridership. Ratios routes and the wastage of energy implied by excessive below 1.[74] 2. Ratios above five constitute commuting. and urban planners must consider these factors in long term plans (Canary Wharf tube station). recent Transport within urbanized areas presents unique probyears have seen a concerted effort to increase the density of residential development in order to better achieve sustainable development. 2. some cities permit commerce and multi-story apartment buildings only within one block of train stations and multilane boulevards.7 Transport 13 very high density. This space could often be more valuable for other development. Good planning uses transit oriented development. which attempts to place higher densities of jobs or residents near high-volume transportation. and accept single-family dwellings and parks farther away.5 are low density. etc. declining satisfaction with the urban Although an important factor. which can harm businesses and increase pollution unless properly managed. Skyscrapers easily achieve densities of thirty or more. . Most exurbs are below two.[75] These densities can cause traffic jams for automobiles. Walk-up apartments with basement garages can easily achieve a density of three. For example. district heating and other community facilities (schools. lems. there is a complex relationship between urban densities and car use. In the UK. The conventional solution is to use buses. Successful urban planning supported Regional planning can bring benefits to a much larger hinterland or city reFloor area ratio is often used to measure density. but these and light rail systems may fail where automobiles and excess road network capacity are both available.[76] The Lewis–Mogridge Position claims that increasing road space is not an effective way of relieving traffic jams as latent or induced demand invariably emerges to restore a socially tolerable level of congestion. Very densely built-up areas require high capacity urban transit.8 Suburbanization Main articles: Suburbanization and Urban sprawl In some countries. health centres.2.

monly controlled by local governments such as counties or municipalities.12 Water and Sanitation Infrastructure Water and sanitation services are key considerations in the planning of cities. The placement and design of buildings may also be affected by the land on which they are placed. This is commonly done through the assessment of Tall buildings in particular can have a substantial efSustainable urban infrastructure and microclimate. noise pollution was ad- 2. using principles of landscape architecture to achieve a harmonious environment for all living things.1 Access & Health Impacts In urban planning. Germany are regulated by national or federal codes. These services are crucial for public health – thus. properly installed. and sewage infrastructure. the eco-village theory has become popular. Light pollution has become a problem in urban residential areas.[83] fering with existing residents or businesses and to pre. Environmental planners focus now on smaller and larger systems of resource extraction and consumption. Zoning is com. In addition. one aspect of .term referring to street space bordered by very high buildtrols. This type of environment may shade the sidewalk are similar. In practice. See: Geotechnical engineering. commercial or industrial). The microclimate around the building will typically be assessed as part of the environmental impact assessment for 2.11 Light and sound ning authorities or through enabling legislation.10 Scope the building. waste-water treatment. it is rare except in the case of Germany this code includes contents of zon. zoning is used to prevent new development from inter. residential. Hedfors[84] coined 'Sonotope' as a useful concept in urban planning to relate typical sounds to a specific place. Zoning and urban planning in France and level from direct sunlight during most daylight hours. not only as it relates to its effects on the night sky.very dense. such as those ing plans as well as the legal procedure. Another perspective on urban sounds is developed in Soundscape studies emphasising that sound aesthetics involves more than noise abatement and decibel measurements.14 2. though the nature of the zoning regime may be determined or limited by state or national plan.and rock considerations such as depth to bedrock may ingate uses that are thought to be incompatible. This encompasses water provision. agricultural. as in Manhattan. the densities at which those activities can be performed (from low-density housing such as single family homes to high-density such as high-rise apartment buildings). 2.and geological conditions such as fault lines may affect serve the “character” of a community.12. The United States and other federal countries ings. fect in channeling winds and shading large areas. the primary purpose of zoning is to segre. found in Lower and Midtown Manhattan.building requirements. energy production. fluence the height of very tall structures. including roadway air dispersion models to predict air quality impacts of urban highways and roadway noise models to predict noise pollution effects of urban highways.[78] The Phase I Environmental Site Assessment can be an important tool to the urban planner by identifying early in the planning process any geographic areas or parcels which have toxic constraints.2. land under the control of the Commonwealth The urban canyon effect is a colloquial. hyper-tall urban environments. In While an oft-decried phenomenon. In many. but as some lighting is so intrusive as to cause conflict in the residential areas and paradoxically intense improperly installed security lighting may pose a danger to the public. On a small scale. Not only are the specific effects of development to be mitigated. A practice known as Arcology seeks to unify the fields of ecology and architecture. and waste disposal. gardening and other outdoor activities assumes a central role in the daily life of citizens. non-scientific (federal) government is not subject to state planning con. as it emphasizes a traditional 100–140 person scale for communities. In most advanced urban or village planning models. Chicago’s Loop Zoning may include regulation of the kinds of activities which will be acceptable on particular lots (such as open space. but attempts are made to minimize the overall effect of development on the local and global environment. the height of buildi process is known as a Sustainability Appraisal.[79][80][81][82] Environmental protection and conservation are of utmost importance to many planning systems across the world. local context is critical. has reduced this problem considerably. As early as the 1960s.though there is less impact than previously supposed.9 2 Environmental factors Main article: Environmental planning ASPECTS dressed in the design of urban highways as well as noise barriers. and Hong Kong’s Kowloon and Central. sound is usually measured as a source of pollution. An urban planner can use a number of quantitative tools to forecast impacts of development on the environmental. The development of the full cutoff fixture. automated tools have been developed to enable planners to design renewable energy systems at the city scale such as the distribution of roof-mounted photovoltaic systems. producing excessive glare.[77] In Australia. Soil Theoretically.

ethnicity. In the absence of policy to address these infrastructural disparities. women often abstain from excreting waste until nightfall to preserve modesty. and maintaining toilet blocks for communities. however.[90] In India. In India. and sex are major factors which determine family employment and education level. and intestinal parasites.Main article: Toilet umented. which can often lead to gastric issues and other disorders.based-organizations (CBOs) have stepped in. Other methods include flying toilets (in which individuals will excrete waste into polythene bags. The government in Uganda has acknowledged the role of sanitation in improving pub- trines and sewage which can play a critical role in determining health outcomes for urban families.12 Water and Sanitation Infrastructure 15 urban planning is to consider how to best provide these lic health among the poor. Furthermore. the toilets often become very dirty and unsanitary areas of open defecation. Traditionally. there are a number of dis. among the poorest quartile of the services.[92] Flying toilets and open defecation are significant environmental health risks because they expose communities to many of the pathogens and illnesses carried by sewage. Diarrheal illnesses are perhaps today the leading type of waterborne disease with cities like Jakarta experiencing disease rates as high as 50 cases per 1000 people. tie them up.ronments or the high cost of [91] private service providers. However. A study of the social determinants of children’s health in urban settings in India looked at data from India’s National Family Health Survey and found that even within poor urban areas. unlined pit latrines constructed in areas with a high water table are a very common option. and latrine type (for example pit latrine versus toilet). Because most slums are informal settlements with no tenure rights. in order to address some of these access issues. the Alliance has worked with women’s groups to spearhead efforts to pressure municipal service providers into making “big pipe infrastructure” available to com- . and race.2.[87] trine. Hepatitis A. diseases like cholera were particularly feared due to their devastating effects and due to their proliferation in areas with poor waste management practices.[93] To address these issues. In slum areas. are all examples of water-borne illnesses that affect the urban poor. the government has been unable to adeways. including latrine location (in house versus out of house). Unlined pit latrines are problematic due to their contamination of groundwater. Data collected in 2005–2006 revealed that under half of the urban poor could access adequate sanitation compared to about 95% of the urban non-poor. NGOs and community. which has both public health and economic consequences. In Uganda.[92] One solution to the infrastructural issues posed by sewage and wastewater management in urban areas is the development of community toilet blocks. Only a small percentage of slum residents have access to amenities like ventilated improved pit latrines and pour flush toilets.[88] Water and sanitation issues relate directly to health outcomes due to the susceptibility to disease experienced by populations that lack adequate access. but as NGOs and CBOs have services to urban residents in effective and cost-sensitive pointed out. the economic equivalent of approximately 12 billion rupees. NGOs and CBOs parities with regards to access to these services. religion. community toilet blocks have been problematic: municipal corporations often fail to upkeep the toilets. SPARC. both of which have significant environmental health risks associated with them. There are a number of variables surrounding laEconomic status is highly correlated to water and sanitation service access in urban environments. slums compose a major part 2. Therefore access to water and sanitation services is an equity issue that faces urban planners working for urban governments. building. the Alliance (consisting the three NGOs: Mahila Milan. the latrine is a critical aspect of urban household-level layouts and designs. and with these toilets rendered unusable. [85] tary flushes or pit toilets. factors which in turn affect access to sanitation and water.[89] Today diseases such as dengue fever. quately address the need for these services in urban enviprocuring these services from Within urban environments.[86] In India. due to the need to obtain permissions urban population in India.[93] The goal of this program is to elicit community participation in designing. latrine usage (family vs community). then throw them into the surrounding environment) and open defecation. and the National Slum Dwellers Federation) has implemented a multi-city community toilet block program in more than eight different cities.12. caste status. For exare inherently limited in their ability to provide sanitation ample. over 80% lacked access to for undertaking infrastructure projects and due to the high piped water at home and over half did not have sanicosts of implementing them. their illegal status excludes them One aspect of sanitation infrastructure that is a major from official listings and thus excludes them from access determinant of environmental health in slums is the lato municipal water and sanitation services. In the 19th and 20th centuries.2 Latrines of the urban environment – one of the largest barriers to improving slum conditions is that many slums go undoc. the urban poor and minorities suffer disproportionately. waterborne disease accounts for the loss of roughly 180 million person-workdays annually. But economic status is often tied to other demographic characteristics such as caste. as of 2006.[86] Thus inadequate access to water and sanitation among the urban poor and socially disadvantaged leads to systematic vulnerability to disease.

thus allowing for each management system to be adapted to the local commuFrom Britain. the roots of the rational planning movement lie in Britain’s Sanitary Movement (1800-1890). movement of vehicular traffic. In both communities.“Tower in the Park”. and design.12. 3.[97] During this period.[95] out across the world. involving the community groups helped determine the relevant areas of focus for the project. However. British influences combined with local movements to create unique reinterpretations of the 3 Theories of planning rational planning process. but nonetheless influential groups included governmental officials.[96] To identify and design for these spatial factors. Examples of these factors include: exposure to direct sunlight. which would collect waste-water until the vaults needed to be emptied into a nearby cesspool. such a centralized system became possible as larger quantities of water were necessary for watercarriage waste removal. however. Urban households had vaults or tubs beneath their latrines. the rational planning movement (1890–1960) emphasized the improvement of the built environment based on key spatial factors. In areas undergoing industrialization themselves.16 3 THEORIES OF PLANNING munities so that community groups can build their own “little pipe infrastructure” and community toilet blocks to connect to this infrastructure. industrialization. top-down solutions to the problems of industrializing cities. architects Raymond Unwin and Richard Barry Parker exemplify the elite. prior to the 19th century. advocates such as Charles Booth and Ebenezer Howard argued for central organized. more recently. cities often used a decentralized privy vault-cesspool model for waste management. architect Le Corbusier adopted rational planning’s centralized approach Planning theory is generally called procedural because it and added to it a dedication to quantitative assessment generally concerns itself with the process through which and a love for the automobile. In addition. While centralized water-carriage systems have more potential for scalability. and landscape architects. this shortcoming opened rational planning to claims of elitism and social insensitivity. In London and it surrounding suburbs. Many planners are now considering how to properly incorporate waste-water treatment into urban environments in effective. including architects. top-down approach associated with the rational planning movement by using the planning process to establish a uniform landscape and architectural style based on an idealized medieval village. However. and engineers. but it is becoming increasingly critical as urban population levels rise and water conservation becomes a growing concern. 2. In the US. private developers. standardized housing units. predictive modeling. and equitable ways.[94] With the introduction of piped water. In Paris. public participation.[98] Two of the best examples of these communities are Letchworth in Hertfordshire and Hampstead Garden Suburb in Greater London. Although it can be seen as an extension of the sort of civic pragmatism seen in Oglethorpe’s plan for Savannah or William Penn’s plan for Philadelphia. watercarriage sewage management has been preferred by planners due to its scalability. decentralized waste water management has made a resurgence among planners and researchers. In the United States. Together. the rational planning movement spread nity/household needs.3 Waste-Water See main article: Sewage treatment Waste-water collection and treatment has always been an important consideration in urban planning. cooperation between these two entities created a network of new communities clustered around the expanding rail system. urbanization. This model worked at the time due to relatively low urban populations. Frank Lloyd ferent procedural approaches. Due to the high level of training required to grasp these methods. tors yielded the influential planning aesthetic known as Lane (2005) traces the intellectual history through its dif. decentralized systems are simply more efficient because the waste-water is managed closer to where it is generated. urban designers. Other. these community groups create management plans for maintaining the toilets. rational planning relied on a small group of highly specialized technicians. which are designed according to common-usage practices. less common. Through the strategies associated with these professions. the source of planning authority in the Sanitary Movement included both traditional governmental offices and private development corporations. In both theory and practice. In keeping with the rising power of industry. the rational planning movement developed a collection of techniques for quantitative assessment. The improved designs used by community groups often take into account often overlooked factors such as separating male and female entrances and not having them face each other to avoid sexual harassment. these two facplanning occurs and whether or not that process is valid. and population growth during the 19th century led to a dramatic increase in America’s city-dwelling population and thus increased the need for a centralized waste-water collection and processing system. and proximity to green-space. rational planning fails to provide an avenue for public participation. especially as they relate to Wright similarly identified vehicular mobility as a prin- . Since the 19th century.1 Rational planning Following the rise of empiricism during the industrial revolution.[93] In the case of the Alliance.

Lane (2005) describes syn. The first of these schools is Lindblom’s incrementalism.”[101] other than those of planners. urban or rural. this paradigm ing points of view on a particular subject. 17 3. (3) a concern to identify and evaluate alinterests” and because it provides room for the planning ternative policy options. As its name tional level Etzioni argued. As noted above. but slightly different approach.only have a small number consequences and are firmly optic planning as having four central elements: bounded by reality. constantly adjusting the objectives of the planning process and using multiple analyses and evaluations. (2) an emphasis on quanspective of planning could be considered a large step fortitative analysis and predication of the environward in that it recognizes that there are number of “public ment. rational planning lost touch with the public it hoped to serve. marginalized groups have an opportunity to participate in the planning process. the rational planning movement declined in the later half of the 20th century.3 Participatory Planning Participatory planning is an urban planning paradigm that emphasizes involving the entire community in the strategic and management processes of urban planning.[104] Lane (2005) explains the public involve"(1) an enhanced emphasis on the specification ment implications of this philosophy. critiques of the rational paradigm began to emerge and formed into several different schools of planning thought. In addition. The rational environment on multiple levels and then choose different model is perhaps the most widely accepted model among strategies and tactics to address what they found there.[101] . particularly urban ex.3. Louis and the national backlash against urban renewal projects.[103] Throughout both the United States and Europe. planners began to look for new approaches because as happened nearly a decade decisions. that this model does not do much more at nents of this paradigm would generally come up with improving public involvement since the planner or plana list of steps that the planning process can be at least relatively neatly sorted out into and that planning prac.[101] the tactical and the strategic. where Le Corbusier emphasized design through quantitative assessment of spatial processes.3. planning practitioners and scholars. planning as rational and systematic as possible. the synoptic model began to emerge as a ing from small number of policy approaches that can dominant force in planning. the “fall” of blueprint planning in the late 1950s crementally. By focusing so much on design by technical elites. it in practice would only allow for the public to involved in a minimal. the problem was that the idea 3. the mixed scanning approach both the clearly suggests. takes it suggests the idea that the public interest is relatively a similar. He posited that organizaBlueprint and synoptic planning both employ what is tions could accomplish this by essentially scanning the called the rational paradigm of planning.[100] Beginning in the late 1950s and early 1960s. This incremental approach meant choosand early 1960s. and (4) the evaluation process to be less centralized and incorporate the voices of means against ends (page 289).5 Mixed scanning model of a single public interest still dominated attitudes. Wright identified the insights of local public technicians as the key design criteria.4 Incrementalism pressway projects. and is considered by While Lindblom’s approach only operated on the funcmany to be the orthodox view of planning. Lindblom 3. Key events in this decline in the United States include the demolition of the PruittIgoe housing project in St.3 Participatory Planning cipal planning metric.[102] Participatory planning aims to harmonize views among all of its participants as well as prevent conflict between opposing parties. Wright’s Broadacre City provides a vivid expression of what this landscape might look like.[99] The reason for the movement’s decline was also its strength. Etzioni (1968) easy to find and only requires the most minimal form of suggested that organizations plan on two different levels: participation. effectively devaluing the importance of participation because The mixed scanning model. However.ning organization is still at its focus and since its goal is titioners should go through in order when setting out to not necessarily to achieve consensus or reconcile differplan in virtually any area. Though this perof goals and targets. However. the goal of the rational model is to make would allow planning organizations to work on[105] Lane functional and more big-picture oriented levels. has clear implications for public involvement in planning By the late 1960s and early 1970s. more reactive rather than proactive way. Propoexplains though.2 Synoptic planning describes planning as “muddling through” and thought that practical planning required decisions to be made inAfter.[101] Public participation was first introduced into this model and it was generally integrated into the system process described above. community-level planning processes. developed by Etzioni. or. It is often considered as part of community development.

the kinds of knowledge that planners choose to employ and how the planning context is set.[101] 3. it was realized that the current models were not necessarily sufficient.7 Advocacy planning Advocacy planning is another radical departure from past theoretical models.[101] Transactive planning focuses on interpersonal dialogue that develops ideas. Prior to 1950. participation is actually fundamental to the planning process happening. Lane (2005) notes that it is most useful to think of these model as emerging from a social transformation planning tradition as opposed to a social guidance one. Like the advocacy model. participation was a central goal. participation plays a central role under this model. One of the central goals is mutual learning where the planner gets more information on the community and citizens become more educated about planning issues. advocacy. the public was encouraged to take on an active role in the policy setting process. Again. public participation is a central tenet of this model. It concerns itself with ensuring that all people are equally represented in the planning process by advocating for the interests of the underprivileged and seeking social change. which will be turned into action. while the planner took on the role of a distributor of information and a feedback source. The idea is that each individual will approach a conversation with his or her own subjective experience in mind and that from that conservation shared goals and possibilities will emerge. and are. A plurality of public interests is assumed. In fact.18 4 before. As had happened before. .[101] 3.6 Transactive planning Transactive planning was a radical break from previous models. public participation is largely influenced by how planning is defined.8 PROCESS process. Urban Planning was seldom considered a unique profession.[101] Though some might argue that is too difficult to involve the public through transactive. and the role of planner is essentially the one as a facilitator who either advocates directly for underrepresented groups directly or encourages them to become part of the process. so the emphasis is more bottom-up in nature than it is top-down. it is important to note that transportation is perhaps unique among planning fields in that its systems depend on the interaction of a number of individuals and organizations.[107][108] Again.[101] 3. how planning problems are defined. bargaining and communicative models because transportation is some ways more technical than other fields.[101] Looking at each of these models it becomes clear that participation is not only shaped by the public in a given area or by the attitude of the planning organization or planners that work for it.[106] 3. It focuses on using communication to help different interests in the process understand each other.[110] 4 Process Bargaining model The bargaining model views planning as the result of give and take on the part of a number of interests who are all involved in the process.9 Communicative approach The communicative approach to planning is perhaps the most difficult to explain. Instead of considering public participation as method that would be used in addition to the normal training planning process. The model seeks to include as a broad range of voice to enhance the debate and negotiation that is supposed to form the core of actual plan making. but it asserts that each group or individual in our unequal society has a chance to influence planning decisions. and the planner plays a more minor role. Without the involvement of concerned interests there is no planning. This model takes the perspective that there are large inequalities in the political system and in the bargaining process between groups that result in large numbers of people unorganized and unrepresented in the process. this model recognizes that there are inherent inequalities in society. of course. a number of different models emerged. In this model.[111] There were. Decisions are made first and foremost by the public. For the first time.[109] The most interesting part of this theory of planning is that makes public participation the central dynamic in the decision-making Blight may sometimes cause communities to consider redeveloping and urban planning. It argues that this bargaining is the best way to conduct planning within the bounds of legal and political institutions. even if they are unable to dominate it or win the benefits that they are seeking.

[113] The term advocacy planning was coined by Paul Davidoff in his influential 1965 paper. for example by Salingaros see the city as an adaptive system that grows according to process similar to those of plants.[119][120] Carrier-Infill urban design is differentiated from complete urban design. They say that urban planning should thus take its cues from such natural processes. In their paper “Taking Our Bearings: Mapping a Relationship among Planning Practice. 5 See also and Education. capable of integrating the work of other disciplines into a coherent plan for whole cities or parts of cities.[117] Such theories also advocate participation by inhabitants in the design of the urban environment.” the authors demonstrate the importance of educating planners beyond the rational plan• Circles of Sustainability ning model in which planners make supposedly valueneutral recommendations based on science and reason. waterways. They typically worked for national or local governments. The urban ground. Theory. “Advocacy and Pluralism in Planning” which acknowledged the political nature of planning and urged planners to acknowledge that their actions are not value-neutral and encouraged minority and under represented voices to be part of planning decisions. surveying. in which the urban design and architecture were created together. A good example of this kind of planner was Lewis Keeble and his standard textbook.1 Changes to the planning process Strategic Urban Planning over past decades have witnessed the metamorphosis of the role of the urban planner in the planning process. are only represented as unresolved volumes. or engineering. such as in the monumental axis of Brasília.[116] • List of urban theorists Developers have also played huge roles in development. within the social and political context of the planning process. The results suggest this view • List of planned cities of planning as a communicative discourse as a possible • List of planning journals bridge between theory and practice. planning model in education to teach planners to work which can then be infilled by individual architects. The volumes Ozawa and Seltzer (1999) advocate a communicative are representative of the total possible building envelope. open space. which are left to be designed by architects in following stages. Recent theories of urban planning.19 differences from country to country. • Index of urban planning articles Through a survey of employers. bringing to the town planning process ideals based on these disciplines. quality guidelines. More citizens calling for democratic planning & development processes have played a huge role in allowing the public to make important decisions as part of the planning process. was largely an initiative pushed by private developers to redevelop the waterfront into a high- • MONU – magazine on urbanism • Transition Towns (network) • Transportation demand management • Urban acupuncture . it was found that the • Index of urban studies articles most highly rated skills in entry-level professional hiring are communication-based. are represented as total possible building volumes. particularly by planning projects. The planner would know architecture. and infrastructure is designed in detail. carrier-infill is one mechanism of spatial organization in which the city’s figure and ground components are considered separately. designed the district and constructed the development from scratch. Principles and Practice of Town and Country Planning. as opposed to simply leaving all development to large-scale construction firms. including landscape. The urban figure. building codes. typically building site for future construction. landscape architecture.[115] end residential and commercial district. Town planning focused on top-down processes by which the urban planner created the plans. Community organizers and social workers are now very involved in planning from the grassroots level. The carrier-infill approach is defined by an urban design performing as the carrying structure that creates the shape and scale of the spaces. open space.[114] Benveniste argued that planners had a political role to play and had to bend some truth to power if their plans were to be implemented. The infill structure may contain zoning. including future building volumes that are then infilled by architects’ designs. the negative space of the city. are designed to a higher level of detail. Urban planners were seen as generalists. For example. the UK’s Royal Town Planning Institute was created as a professional organisation in 1914 and given a Royal Charter in 1959. for example. The positive space. and indicate that the education of planners needs to incorporate synthesis and • List of urban planners communication across the curriculum. namely buildings. and other infrastructure. namely in-between spaces and open areas. published in 1951. In carrier-infill urban design or urban planning. The contents of the carrier structure may include street pattern. and Solar Access based upon a solar envelope.[112] 4.[118] In the process of creating an urban plan or urban design. The Melbourne Docklands. Many recent developments were results of large and small-scale developers who purchased land. espoused.

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Patrick Geddes. 1994.” McFarland and Co. 7 EXTERNAL LINKS Further reading • Urban Planning.” in Sophie Watson and Katherine Gibson. • A Pattern Language.. a time capsule of photography and design approach. • Yiftachel. 2000. Roger L. ISBN 978-1-55786-918-0. • Yiftachel. 1998. • Urban Development: The Logic Of Making Plans. 3. “Planning Sustainable and Livable Cities”. pp..” Planning Theory. ISBN 978-0-918286-91-8 • Planning the Twentieth-Century American City. 1961 • The Death and Life of Great American Cities. 5. Raymond Unwin. vol.). Stephani (2011). 3. Professor Emeritus. Gordon Cullen. 1996 • “The City Shaped: Urban Patterns and Meanings Through History”. Sara Ishikawa and Murray Silverstein. Jr. Oren. 4. Charles Abrams. 1999 ISBN 978-0-50028099-7 • The American City: A Social and Cultural History.. Camillo Sitte. Spiro Kostof. Matheos (2006). 1999. New Haven: Yale University Press. New York. no. 391 pp. (ISBN 978-0-7864-5968-1). “Cities Going Green: A Handbook of Best Practices. England. Island Press. Cornell University. Oren. UK. 2001. Hopkins. Selected. 1965. Oxford. • Taylor. Lewis Mumford. • Yiftachel. 2008. vol. Oren. no. 1911 • Shrady. • Planning for the Unplanned: Recovering from Crises in Megacities. • The Principles of Scientific Management. Stephen (2004). and Reports. pp. May. USA. Postmodern Cities and Spaces (Oxford and Cambridge. Man-Made America: Chaos or Control?: An Inquiry into Selected Problems of Design in the Urbanized Landscape. Charles Mulford Robinson. eds. The Last Day: Wrath. Jefferson. 395–406. Conference Papers.” Journal of Planning Literature. and London. “Chinese Urban Planning at Fifty: An Assessment of the Planning Theory Literature. • City Planning According to Artistic Principles. Urban Planning Theory since 1945. Kevin Lynch. 1889 • Kemp. England and Malden. Johns Hopkins University Press. Daniel J. ISBN 978-0-14-311460-4 • Cities in Evolution. 1909 • The Image of the City. Wing-Shing. Lewis D. Reps. 3rd edition. Massachusetts: Blackwell Publishers. 1915 • Tang. “The Dark Side of Modernism: Planning as Control of an Ethnic Minority.. MA: Blackwell). 1901 • Town Planning in practice. “Re-engaging Planning Theory? Towards South-Eastern Perspectives. and Carl J. Charles Hoch. Ebenezer Howard. • Tunnard. England and Malden. American Planning Association. (2007). Nicholas.) • Wheeler. “Planning and Social Control: Exploring the Dark Side. 2003. strictly America. Massachusetts: Blackwell Publishers. Christopher and Boris Pushkarev (1963). 2nd Edition. 1961 • The City is the Frontier.24 8 • Santamouris. 1961 • The City in History. Christopher Alexander. Inc. London. and Persuasion. pp. pp.” Journal of Planning Literature. (This book won the National Book Award. no. Monti. vol. Nigel. Penguin. Frederick Winslow Taylor. 1995. 12. Jane Jacobs. 14. 1977 • What Do Planners Do?: Power. Susan Fainstein and Scott Campbell. Politics. 211–222. Sage. 2006. Christopher Silver and Mary Corbin Sies (Eds. Environmental Design of Urban Buildings: An Integrated Approach. 2005). Edited. 347–366. Harper & Row Publishing. NC. Thames and Hudson Ltd. 1960 • The Concise Townscape. 1898 • The Improvement of Towns and Cities. ISBN 155963-853-2 • Readings in Planning Theory. and Provided with Headnotes by John W. by Aseem Inam (published by Routledge USA. 8 External links • Urban and Regional Planning at DMOZ . 1794-1918: An International Anthology of Articles. • Tomorrow: A Peaceful Path to Real Reform. 216–240. Oxford. Routledge. Ruin & Reason in The Great Lisbon Earthquake of 1755.

Oregon. Martini. Research Guides. USA: Georgia Tech. “Urban Affairs & Planning”. “Urban Studies & Planning”. John W. Research Guides. “Urban Planning”. Scientific & Academic Publishing . • Unplanned Urban Growth and its Effect on the Sustainability Discoli. New York: Columbia University. Los Angeles. New York City: CUNY Hunter College. Research Guides. USA: Portland State University. Conference Papers. “City Planning”. Massachusetts Institute of Technology.8.1 Library Guides for Urban Planning Library Guides for Urban Planning • Libraries. Research Guides. • “Urban & Regional Planning”. no. • Hunter College Libraries. • MIT Libraries. “Urban Studies & Planning”. 25 . 2. Topic Guides. • Library. and Reports”. Research Guides. • University Library. “Urban Planning Resources”. USA: Arizona State University. University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign. USA: University of Michigan. • Library. 1794-1918: An International Anthology of Articles. • Harvard University Graduate School of Design. • Library. University of California.Resources and Environment. Research Guides. Carlos. • Reps. Research Guides. “Urban Planning”. (27 November 2002). Research Guides. 3. LibGuides. Massachusetts: Harvard Library. ISSN: 2163-2618.1 8. “Urban Planning and Design”. vol. Irene. “Urban Planning. “Urban & Regional Policy”. Research Guides. • Avery Architectural and Fine Arts Library.

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svg Source: diagrama_1902.svg Li- • Inspired from Developpement durable. transferred to Commons by User:Trengarasu using CommonsHelper. 2002.aerial.jpg License: License: PD Contributors: ? Original artist: ? planning and building of new towns in the 13th and 14th centuries in License: PD Contributors: ? Original artist: ? http://upload. Previously published: I published the plan in: License: ? Contributors: ? Original artist: ? • File:Raffael_098.svg Source: cense: License: Public domain Contributors: ? Original artist: ? • File:NovoLisice.bath. Original artist: Raphael • File:Revised_petrol_use_urban_density.0 Contributors: ? Original artist: ? • File:KABULCITYMAP.wikimedia.jpg License: Public domain Contributors: [1] Original artist: Ebenezer Howard (1850-1928) • File:Nasa_ww_magnitogorsk.wikimedia. Original artist: The people from the Tango! project.0 Contributors: Transferred from 1837 Original artist: Robert Hoddle • File:Hongkong_central_kowloon-full.wikimedia.jpg License: CC-BY-SA-3.0 . thesis Universiteit van DVD-ROM. An architectural-historical research into urban form and its creation’’.JPG Source: Bastide.jpg Source: http://upload.wikipedia • File:Jakriborg.wikimedia.jpg Original artist: • original: Johann Dréo (talk · contribs) • Source: http://upload.jpg Source: Original artist: Original uploader was MarianZubak at en.jpg License: CC-BY-2. Distributed by DIRECTMEDIA Publishing GmbH.jpg License: CC-BY-SA3.jpg Source: http://upload. and Jakub Steiner (although minimally).jpg Source: http://upload.wikipedia • File:Piraeus_map_1908.wikimedia._juni_2005_c.wikimedia.5 Contributors: ? Original artist: ? • File:La_Cité_from_La_Bastide.wikimedia.jpg License: CC-BY-SA-3.000 Meisterwerke der Malerei.JPG License: Public domain Contributors: Map drawn for Government of New South Wales. ISBN 3936122202.aerial.svg License: ? Contributors: ? Original artist: ? • File:Fra_Carnevale_-_The_Ideal_City_-_Walters_37677.” • Source: http://upload.svg Source: Contributors: The plan is a strongly adapted scan of the 1830 cadastral plan of Elburg. Phd.jpg License: Public domain Contributors: [1] Original artist: Council of the Municipality of Aerodrom • File:Partizanske4.3 Content license 27 • File:Commons-logo.jpg License: And according to the meta-data in the file.jpg Source: http://upload.0 Contributors: Own work Original artist: Galinhola • File:Hoddle_Map_1_1837.wikimedia. ISBN 978-90-9025157-8 [1].jpg Source: http://upload.0 Contributors: David Shankbone Original artist: David Shankbone • File:Sustainable_development.svg Source: http://upload.0 Contributors: ? Original artist: ? • File:Lorategi-hiriaren_diagrama_1902. http://www.wikimedia.svg License: ? Contributors: ? Original artist: ? • File:Edit-clear.nautilia. Original artist: Wikiwim2000 • File:Folder_Hexagonal_Icon.jpg Source: http://upload.wikimedia.wikimedia.3 Content license • Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 3. Original artist: en:User:MichaelJanich Original uploader was MichaelJanich at en.crescent.jpg Source: http://upload.wikimedia.nautilia.jpg Source: http://upload.jpg Source: http://upload.jpg Source: http://upload.wikimedia.php?t=36257&page=32 Original artist: Baedeker • File:Portal-puzzle.0 Contributors: Contributors: Transferred from en. jpg License: Public domain Contributors: ? Original artist: ? • File:Suburbia_by_David_Shankbone.jpg License: Public domain Contributors: Baedeker’s Handbook of Source: kowloon-full.svg License: ? Contributors: The Tango! Desktop Project.crescent.jpg License: Source: density.jpg License: CC-BY-SA-3.wikimedia.jpg Source: http://upload.jpg License: Public domain Contributors: The Yorck Project: • File:Royal. specifically: “Andreas Nilsson.jpg License: Public domain Contributors: Donated by the Walters Art Museum as part of a cooperation project Original artist: Attributed to Fra Carnevale • File:Gaiola_pombalina.bath. Wim (2010) ‘’The foundation. Leipzig.wikimedia.jpg Source: http://upload.jpg Source: http://upload.