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Power Plant

Lab Report
Submitted By: 2009-ME-357
Submitted to: Mr. Saqib

ASME Standards .

by water. Once-through (OT) or no-drum boilers Types of Boiling: Boiling is the addition of latent heat at constant temperature. which keeps the surface cool and close to the liquid temperature. Subcritical boilers 2. Nucleate Boiling 2. Supercritical (SC) boilers with ∼200 bar serving as the dividing line. In fire tube boiler the hot products of combustion pass through the tubes. Water tube 2. Fire tube In water tube boilers. the water film at the bottom quickly evaporates and is replaced by a steam film with low conductance. This is nucleate boiling. Based on Circulation 1.Boiler A boiler. as the name suggests. is a device that boils (water to produce steam). carrying heat with them. which are surrounded. As a result. Forced circulation boilers 3. The bottom surface is always covered by the water film. Film Boiling Consider heating water in a pan. Boiler Classification The boilers can be classified according to the following criteria. According to flow of water and hot gases 1. Based on Operating Pressure 1. Natural circulation or drum-type boilers 2. This is film boiling. More scientifically. a boiler converts the chemical energy in fuel into the heat energy in steam. the surface is no longer cooled adequately and tends to attain a temperature close to the heat source. water circulates through the tubes and hot products of combustion flow over these tubes. and all efforts are made to stay in this regime in a boiler as the water absorbs its latent heat. The earliest form of boiler is the kettle. It is of two types. bubbles form at the bottom and rise up. Water moving at . becoming severely overheated in no time. When the heating is too high and heat flux is large. 1. or the heat energy of hot gases into the heat energy of steam when no firing is involved. When the heating is relatively low. which must be avoided in boiler practice under all conditions.

is heated and steam is produced in them which comes to the upper drums naturally. The colder water is fed from feed water inlet at upper drum and as this water is heavier than the hotter water of lower drum and that in the riser. .velocities of 2–3 m/s at the entry to a tube can effectively prevent i lm boiling. So there is one convectional flow of water in the boiler system. one is upper drum called steam drum other is lower drum called mud drum. Water in the lower drum and in the riser connected to it. Working of Water Tube Boiler It consists of mainly two drums. such as in the evaporator surfaces of boilers. These upper drum and lower drum are connected with two tubes namely down-comer and riser tubes as shown in the picture. the colder water push the hotter water upwards through the riser. In the upper drum the steam is separated from water naturally and stored above the water surface.

the fuel is burnt inside a furnace.Working of Fire Tube Boiler In fire tube boiler. 4. The fire tubes are immersed in water inside the main vessel of the boiler. which is mounted . And if it is continued. the valve closes automatically. When the pressure increases above design pressure. the tubes may burn. 3. When this pressure falls just below design pressure. Fusible Plug: If the water level in the boiler falls below a predetermined level. the valve opens and discharges the steam to the atmosphere. Water Level Indicator: This indicates the water level in the boiler. the boiler shell and tubes will be overheated. The water is fed into the boiler through the feed water inlet. Cochran boiler is a type of fire tube boiler. Pressure Gauge: This indicates the pressure of the steam in the boiler. Safety Valve: The function of the safety valve is to prevent the increase of steam pressure in the boiler above its design pressure. The water level in the boiler should not fall below a particular level otherwise the boiler will be overheated and the tubes may burn out. the heat energy of the gasses is transferred to the water surrounds them. This steam is then taken out from the steam outlet for utilizing for required purpose. Its major auxiliaries are discussed below. 2. As a result steam is generated in the water and naturally comes up and is stored upon the water in the same vessel of fire tube boiler. It can be prevented by stopping the burning of fuel on the grate. When the temperature of the shell increases above a particular level. 1. the fusible plug. As the hot gases are passed through these tubes. Usually the valve is spring controlled. The hot gases produced in the furnace then passes through the fire tubes. as the water cover will be removed.

and if they are not removed. sand and.This valve opens towards the boiler only and feeds the water to the boiler. all water entering the furnace enclosure tubes is evaporated into steam as the fluid makes its pass through the furnace circuitry as shown in the figure. Feed Check Valve: The high pressure feed water is supplied to the boiler through this valve. Also the salt content will goes on increasing due to evaporation of water. These deposited salts are removed with the help of blow off cock. they are accumulated at the bottom of the boiler and reduce its capacity and heat transfer rates. The blow-off cock is operated afterevery 5 to 6 hours of working for few minutes. 5. the high-pressure steam pushes the water and the collected material at the bottom is blown out. Thus. 6. 7. This keeps the boiler clean. salt due to heating. The steam from the boilerfirst enters into an ant-priming pipe where most of the water particles associated with steam are removed. Blow-off Cock: The water supplied to the boiler always contains impurities like mud. the circuitry is referred to as“once-through”. The high-pressure steam pushes the remaining water through this hole on the grate and the fire is extinguished. these are deposited at the bottom of the boiler. Steam Stop Valve: It regulates the flow of steam supply outside. When the blow-off cock is opened during the running of the boiler. Blowing some water out also reduces the concentration of the salt. The steam flow rate is established by the feed water pump and the superheat steam temperature is determined primarily by the fuel firing rate. The blow-off cock is located at the bottom of the boiler as shown in the figure and is operated only when the boiler is running. . If the feed water pressure isless than the boiler steam pressure then this valve remains closed and prevents the back flow of steamthrough the valve Once Through Type Boilers:In an OTU type boiler.over the grate as shown in the figure melts and forms an opening.

Forced Circulation:In this type of circulation a pump is used to circulate the feed water in the water tubes of a boiler. Once through boilers of super-critical pressure boilers have higher efficiency.5 times. 3. . Both cases are discussed below. rapidly fluctuating heating/cooling requirements and horizontal evaporators. Generally the power consumption is higher by 5 to 8 % for the same capacity boilers of drum type. 7. The once through boiler has high load response characteristics due to the fact that it does not have a drum and hasa much lower water inventory. Natural Circulation:Natural circulation relies only on the density difference between the saturated water in the down comer and the steam–water mixture in the heated tubes. Forced circulation is employed mostly in waste heat boilers to ensure adequate flow at all conditions with low heat flux. 8. Once through boilers life time cost is expected to be more than the drum type units. 6. Types of Circulation In water tube boilers the water is circulated in the water tubes in either Natural Circulation or Forced Circulation. The drum stores the steam generated in the water tubes and acts as a phase separator for the steam/water mixture. A closer regime of operation is expected in once through boilers.For drum pressures up to 211 bar (3000 psia). As the load demand is met by varying both fuel and feed water flow simultaneously. 5. 2. 4. the controls are more sophisticated and have to be more reliable. The difference in densities between hot and cold water helps in the accumulation of the "hotter"-water/and saturated-steam into the steam-drum. The water quality level is much more stringent than drum type boilers. where the density differential between water and steam is still ∼2. Once through boilers have a separate start-up loop along with all its controls. It is a reservoir of water/steam at the top end of the water tubes. natural circulation has been employed. Boiler Auxiliaries Steam Drum A steam drum is a standard feature of a water-tube boiler.Pros and Cons of Once Through Boiler 1. Natural circulation is the most common type adopted for subcritical pressures because of its simplicity. no pump or associated equipment are required moreover they exhibit self-limiting characteristics. However in the sub-critical range there is no difference in efficiency when compared to the drum type design.

which provides additional fine separation. .Types of Steam Drum: Baffle Plate Separators: Deflection baffles or baffle-type separators as shown in the figure are inertial separators that utilize the change of direction to separate steam and water. The density difference throws the water particles to the periphery and keeps the steam at the center. work on the principle of centrifugal separation and are used for all pressures because the action is more positive. Cyclone Separators: Cyclone separators in contrast. The steam travels upward. The steam–water mixture enters the cyclone tangentially at ∼ 6–8 m/s. where it is decelerated and spread across the whole area of the steam drier. passing through a perforated baffle pyramid.

Parallel and counter flow These flows are based on the overall direction of steam flow with respect to gas flow. the moisture content of the steam can shear the turbine blades. The section is in parallel flow when the two flows are in the same direction and in counterflow when in opposite direction. Superheaters in a furnace are radiant. where the steam temperature rises with load. A super-heater is utilized to remove the moisture content in the steam. This is done by raising the temperature above while keeping the pressure constant. Both radiant and . 2. With increasing load. Types of Super Heater On the basis of Design Super Heater has following three types. The degree of superheat is a term which is used to describe the temperature difference between the raised temperature and the temperature at constant pressure. Steam which undergoes this process is referred to as superheated steam. 1. This moisture content is referred to as the quality of the steam. whereas the steam low reduces proportionally. thereby absorbing greater heat and becoming hotter at low loads.Super Heater: The steam that is produced in the boiler has a certain percentage of moisture content. The converse is true for convective surfaces. They are in the form of platens or wing walls. Due to the high velocities of the steam inside a turbine. the temperature of the steam in a radiant surface reduces unlike on a convective surface. Radiant and convective This function is based on the type of heat transfer that is predominant. This is because the radiation incident is not much lower than that at full load.

across the gas flow. To achieve this end.convective Super heaters are necessary to attain the high steam temperatures needed. 3. . In addition. Their characteristics can complement each other to obtain a fairly constant temperature at all loads. steam may be carried in one or several parallel passes. 20–30 psi pressure drop between headers is recommended to prevent flow reversal at low loads and to avoid unnecessary load on feed pumps. Single and Multi-pass Steam should also be viewed as a coolant for Super heater coils. In other words. Adequate velocity of steam is essential to remove the heat and keep the metal temperature in control. the steam film on the inside of the tube has to be as thin as possible so that the tube metal stays close to the bulk steam temperature. tubes may have to be arranged in parallel in several loops along the gas flow as shown in Figure with a two-loop arrangement. At the same time high steam flow contributes to an excessive steam pressure drop.

It has two types. Another popular surface type is the drum-type attemperator where steam flows through the coils immersed in the water drum. 1. Surface/Drum Type Attemperator: A surface attemperator is a shell and tube heat exchanger (HX) with overheated steam passing through the body and Feed Water through the coils. . Spray Allemperator: In a spray attemperator demineralized deaerated water of high purity is sprayed in a fine mist which evaporates and cools down the temperature of the steam but all the impurities of the spray water are introduced into the final steam. 2.Attemperator Attemperation is the desuperheating of main or reheat steam to control the final temperatures to the set limits.

Airheater exit gas temperature should be higher than the corrosion limit of the Air-Heaters internals and the downstream equipment. adequate pressure drop is created by inserting ferrules for flow equalization. Water in ECONs should always flow upward to allow the steam bubbles to ascend smoothly. It’s a heat exchanger as shown in figure. Air-heaters generally operate in a temperature range of 450–120°C on the gas side and 150– 450°C on air side.Economizers Economizer surfaces transfer heat from flue gases to pressurized and sub-cooled Feed Water on its way to the drum. . In the downward flow. In cases when downward flow is compulsory due to layout. Air Pre-Heater The air-heater is usually the last heat trap in the boiler. steam bubbles can cause flow stagnation and disrupt the operation.

we know that magnitude of hoop stress in much larger in case of external pressurization as compared to the magnitude of hoop stress in result of internal pressurization. which is un-acceptable. one is radial stress and the other one in hoop stress. To accomplish this. we can increase the shell thickness. On the other hand. On the other hand. So we are considering hoop stress in our selection of type of boiler for high pressure utility. We know that fire tube boilers are externally pressurized and the water surrounding the fire tubes exerts pressure on the tubes. There is a limitation in fire tube boiler that the fire tubes must be submerged all the time in the water. we need a bigger radius boiler shell. This can cause failure.which one to choose in High Pressure Requirement Two types of stress act on pressure vessels. thus causing failure. water tube boilers are internally pressurized. the value to hoop stress also increases keeping value of pressure constant. But the immense pressure of surrounding water will deform the flat plate tubesheet into hemispherical shape. . That’s why we will choose water tube boiler for high pressure steam generation. That pressure may cause huge hoop stress in the tubes which may exceed the compressive strength of the tube. But if we increase the radius of shell. Moreover. Experimental and Theoretical data shows that hoop stress is greater than radial stress. because the supporting tubesheets will not face any pressure on them. Thirdly. we need to support the fire tubes in the fire tube boiler through flat plate tubesheets. Thus there is less likelihood of failure of water tube boiler as compared to fire tube boiler for same value of pressure applied. we can support the water tubes in water tube boilers in any manner we can. we do not face any limitation regarding placement of water tubes in water tube boilers. To counter that increase in hoop stress value. But there are manufacturing limitation to fabricate thick wall vessel. as water tubes are outside the water drum. On the other hand.Fire Tube Boiler VS Water Tube Boiler. Water exerts pressure on the inside surface of the tubes that causes hoop stress which are less in magnitude as compared to stress caused by external pressurization.