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SHIPPING





Have multiple meanings. Can be describing as the movement of objects by ship or a physical process of transporting
goods & cargo by land, air and sea’.
Merchant shipping is essential to the world economy, carrying 90% of international trade with 50,000 merchant ships
worldwide
Land or ‘ground’ shipping can be by train or by truck.
In air and sea shipments, ground transportation is often still required to take the product from its origin to the airport or
seaport and then to its destination.
Ground transportation is typically more affordable than air shipments, but more expensive than shipping by sea.

SHIPBUILDING AND SHIP REPAIR





Shipbuilding is the construction of ships and floating vessels.
It normally takes place in a specialized facility known as a shipyard.
Shipbuilders, also called shipwrights
Shipbuilding and ship repairs, both commercial and military, are referred to as "naval engineering". The construction
of boats is a similar activity called boat building.
Consist of activities such as design, procurement, logistic, welding, painting etc.
Example Hyundai Heavy Industries, Samsung Heavy Industries

PORTS AND TERMINALS



A place on a waterway with facilities for loading and unloading ships.
The port may handle one particular type of cargo or it may handle numerous cargoes, such as grains, liquid fuels, liquid
chemicals, wood, automobiles, etc.
Such ports are known as the "bulk" or "break bulk ports".
Those ports that handle containerized cargo are known as container ports.

starting from the search (exploration) of oil & gas to production (exploration) transportation them to the shore. purpose of the activities or a combination of the foregoing features“ . In order to meet the need for offshore exploration & production of oil/gas. OFFSHORE OIL AND GAS      The word offshore in oil & gas industry refers to industrial activities in open sea. which are inaccessible to exploit with the existing technologies. which is determined by some authority to be a fishery. species or type of fish.  Most cargo ports handle all sorts of cargo. also known as terminal operators or stevedores. With the depletion of oil in onshore and offshore shallow water reserves. These marine catches have remained relatively stable since the mid-nineties (between 80 and 86 million tones). According to the FAO. but some ports are very specific as to what cargo they handle. . Directly or indirectly. the exploration & production of oil in deep water has become a challenge to the offshore industry. class of boats. which handle the different cargoes. Offshore exploration & production of minerals is advancing into deeper waters at a fast pace. The offshore industries require continued development of new technologies in order to produce oil in regions. method of fishing. Most marine fisheries are based near the coast. Additionally. the livelihood of over 500 million people in developing countries depends on fisheries and aquaculture Close to 90% of the world’s fishery catches come from oceans and seas. and are operated by different companies. area of water or seabed. FISHERIES        A fishery is an entity engaged in raising and/or harvesting fish. a new generation of bottom supported and floating structures is being developed. as opposed to inland waters. a fishery is typically defined in terms of the "people involved. A fishery may involve the capture of wild fish or raising fish through fish farming or aquaculture. the individual cargo ports are divided into different operating terminals.

recreational sector). anchovy. mullet. 3 types of fisheries sector (commercial sector. Farming can occur in coastal areas. . tuna. traditional sector. but more typically occur inland. in lakes. crab. such as with oyster farms. but increasingly fisheries are farmed. However. and inland in lakes and rivers. but also because fish are much more abundant near the coastal shelf. flounder. cod. productive wild fisheries also exist in open oceans. due to coastal upwelling and the abundance of nutrients available there. Most fisheries are wild fisheries. squid. particularly by seamounts. lobster. Some of these species are herring. shrimp. salmon. tanks and other enclosures. oyster and scallops. ponds.      This is not only because harvesting from relatively shallow waters is easier than in the open ocean.