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Technical Committee 211

Ground Improvement
Comité technique 211

Amélioration des sols

General Report of TC 211
Ground Improvement
Rapport général du TC 211
Amélioration des sols
Huybrechts N.

Belgian Building Research Institute, BBRI & KU Leuven, Belgium

Denies N.

Belgian Building Research Institute, BBRI, Belgium

ABSTRACT: The present General Report highlights the significant contributions of the papers of the Session of the XVIII ICSMGE
dedicated to Ground Improvement. All papers that have been reviewed are referred (in bold) in the General Report in order to provide
a balanced overview of the entire Technical Session.
This General Report discusses the latest developments and current researches in the field of Ground Improvement (GI) works. The
various GI techniques are classified considering the recent classification proposed by Chu et al. (2009). The papers are then tackled
according to the described GI technique and with regard to the topics that are assessed: execution process, mechanical characterization
of the treated material (in laboratory or in situ), case history, Quality Assurance/Quality Control (QA/QC) activities and design
aspects. Conceptual works and numerical modeling are supported by laboratory and field investigations - with in situ monitoring and
large scale tests. Finally, other references on the topics discussed are also given in the report.
RESUME : Le présent rapport général met en évidence les contributions significatives des articles de la session « amélioration des
sols » de la 18ème CIMSG. Tous les articles revus ont été référencés (en gras) dans le rapport général de manière à fournir une vue
d’ensemble équilibrée du contenu de cette session.
Ce rapport discute des derniers développements et des recherches actuelles dans le domaine des travaux d’amélioration des sols. Les
différentes techniques sont classées selon la récente classification proposée par Chu et al. (2009). Les articles sont ensuite abordés en
tenant compte de la technique d’exécution décrite et du sujet choisi par les auteurs : procédé d’exécution, caractérisation mécanique
du matériau traité (en laboratoire ou in situ), cas pratique, activités de contrôle et d’assurance du point de vue de la qualité et aspects
liés au dimensionnement. Les approches de conception et la modélisation numérique sont supportées par des recherches en laboratoire
et par l’expérience de chantier – apportée par le monitoring in situ et par les essais en grandeur réelle. Finalement, d’autres références
concernant le domaine de l’amélioration des sols sont aussi indiquées.
KEYWORDS: ground improvement/reinforcement, deep mixing, drainage, geosynthetics, grouting, inclusions, vacuum consolidation


Ground improvement (GI) is one of the major topics in
geotechnical engineering. With regard to the world population
growth and in response to the expansion needs of our society, it
has become a fast growing discipline in civil engineering as an
alternative allowing construction on soft/weak/compressible
soils. Various specialized ground improvement conferences
have been frequently held in the past and recent years such as
the International Symposium on Ground Improvement
organized by the Technical Committee 211 of the ISSMGE and
recently held in Brussels (Denies and Huybrechts, 2012)
especially with more than 140 papers and 7 General Reports
focusing on GI works. A number of books covering various
topics on ground improvement have been also published in the
past. Most of them are referred in Chu et al. (2009). During the
last decades the importance of the ground improvement market
has enormously increased. New methods, tools and procedures
have been developed and applied in practice. In order to support
this evolution in a scientific way, research programs have been
and are being carried out worldwide, leading to more and better
insights and delivering the basis for the establishment of design
methods, quality control procedures and standards. As a result,
many technical papers on GI works were published in journals
and conference proceedings. It is not possible to mention all.
Separate lists are given on the TC211 website
( Major GI techniques have been

documented by the Working Groups of TC211 and are currently
available on this website.
TC211 adopts a classification system as shown in Table 1 in
Chu et al. (2009) with the following categories (and methods):
- A. GI without admixtures in non-cohesive soils or fill
materials (dynamic compaction, vibrocompaction,…)
- B. GI without admixtures in cohesive soils (Replacement,
preloading, vertical drains, vacuum consolidation,…)
- C. GI with admixtures or inclusions (Vibro replacement,
stone columns, sand compaction piles, rigid inclusions,…)
- D. GI with grouting type admixtures (Particulate and
chemical grouting, Deep mixing, jet grouting,…)
- E. Earth reinforcement (geosynthetics or MSE, ground
anchors, soil nails,…)
This classification is based on the broad trend of behaviors of
the ground to be improved and whether admixture is used or
not. In the following sections, the papers of the Session of the
XVIII ICSMGE dedicated to GI works will be reviewed
according to this classification and with regard to the topics that
are assessed: execution process, mechanical characterization of
the treated material, case history, QA/QC activities and design
aspects. It can already be noted that there is no paper
considering GI without admixtures in non-cohesive soils
(category A) in the present Technical Session.


Pre and post consolidation SPT tests are presented to illustrate the efficiency of the technique. Moreover.installation of PVD and preloading with sand (settlements of more than 30 cm have been measured). smear zone and well resistance can be expressed. Vertical drains were first used to accelerate the consolidation under the embankments (preloading condition). Because the bridge could not tolerate residual settlements. 2012) were not yet published at the time of preparation of this paper. On the basis of design requirements. The soil profile consists of 4 to 6 m thick silty clay. The interest seems to be oriented to the approach of “smear”. Adopting an average well resistance and with some approximation. . the classical assumption of uniform smear zone cannot be measured. which is not in agreement with the real isotropic character of deformation under Vacuum. it is recommended to assess the smear zone on the basis of trial construction with the help of back calculation process. Parameters studies confirm their validity.1 GI WITH ADMIXTURES OR INCLUSIONS Rigid inclusions Moving towards category C.g. dynamic replacement in the upper 4 m with densification of the lower silty sand might have been technically and financially optimal. They are mainly related to the subject of consolidation acceleration by vertical drains combined with surcharge or Vacuum. in the Hamburg Harbour area. Special measures are necessary when the subsoil contains compressible layers. conventionally (NF P94-90-1) for the first test. there is no mechanical link between the pile and the structure. Modification of Hansbo's analysis is proposed to study the degree of consolidation considering the properties of the soil within the smear zone. According to the authors. Variable drain spacing was selected and analytical solutions were proposed. and their technical feasibility under local conditions.Proceedings of the 18th International Conference on Soil Mechanics and Geotechnical Engineering. the dimensionless parameter µ quantifying the effects of PVD spacing. dealing with the design of Column Supported Embankments (CSE). The different aspects of each method are described. Moreover. they observed that the often-made assumption of the equality between the ratio’s Cr/Cv and Kr/Kv is only valid at high levels of stress conditions. many roads are lifted with almost 3 m to ensure safety in case of flooding. At the Hongkongstrasse. Even using 600 kN/m woven geotextiles. Defining Cr and Cv as the radial and vertical coefficients of consolidation and Kr and Kv as the coefficients of radial and vertical permeability. For their part. The ASIRI guidelines (IREX. A solution combining PVD and preloading was adopted for this site. 3 3. was confirmed by the monitoring. isolated or continuous footings can possibly be used to directly transmit the loads to the soilinclusions setup.filling with lightweight aggregate: expanded clay (almost no settlement was observed). A LTP is usually placed between the inclusions and the structure. Lee et al. Controlled Modulus Columns (CMC) were designed and executed. Islam and Yasin (2013) present an application of PVD’s coupled with preloading used for the construction of a large container yard in Bangladesh. referred as the Load Transfer Platform (LTP). For the excess pore pressure dissipation. a clear distinction has to be made between rigid inclusions (e. Jebali et al. GI of the upper soft clay layer was considered essential. The results demonstrate that Vacuum combined with preloading would speed up consolidation compared to preloading alone. not only the absolute costs must be ascertained. Cirión et al. The study was performed in uniaxial consolidation condition. protection and follow-on measures.pile supported embankment including geogrid-reinforced sand layer (measurements are discussed in another paper). . concrete type columns) characterized by a brittle behavior in its Ultimate Limit State . Vacuum results in isotropic consolidation increasing the stability of the surcharge fill (decreasing lateral displacements). Indeed. In a similar way.5 to 7 m high embankments. This GI technique can also be applied for embankments and landfills. Indeed. The conclusion is that when comparing different methods. Oedometer tests were conducted. As a result of their researches. 8 to 10 m of sand and silt and 16 m of clayey silt. (2013) set the constructive procedures and bases of design of rigid inclusions including the LTP. This distribution layer spreads the acting loads from the structure towards the underlying soil-inclusions setup. The paper of Weihrauch et al. the smear zone varies between 1. In rigid inclusion solutions. (2013) describes a combination of GI methods for the improvement of roads in the HafenCity area in Hamburg. the same equation as in Chai and Carter (2013) was adopted. (2013) treat similar subject in conjunction with a real construction site in the Port of Brisbane where the consolidation of thick Holocene clays was performed with PVD’s under surcharge and/or Vacuum loading. Moreover. the paper presented by Kirstein and Wittorf (2013) is an interesting transition between categories B and C. The settlement under preloading was monitored during the consolidation phase. preloading and the use of geotextile.5 m and horizontal displacement up to 27 cm were measured throughout one year of monitoring. As indicated by the authors. consolidation parameters of the smear zone and the undisturbed zone were derived using a simple equation. Indraratna et al. However the pore pressure measurements of the tested samples are in extreme close concordance with the prediction confirming the validity of the approach and the selected parameters. Numerical models are used within the framework of case studies. vertical settlement of around 1. six papers can be put in the category B: GI without admixtures in cohesive soils. Using Hansbo’s (1981) solution. ParsaPajouh et al. (2013) have also studied the effect of the smear zone for a consolidation case history in Busan (South Korea).6 and 7 times the drain radius or 1 to 6 times the mandrel equivalent diameter. The design of the transition interface between the bridge and the embankment. Five alternatives were assessed and compared. but also the project specific reconstruction. three different construction methods have been applied. It is believed that dynamic compaction although economical would not have been technically feasible due to the clayey nature of the upper fill. The aim of the project was the construction of a bridge for a new road in Germany including 1. GI with admixtures or inclusions. the authors demonstrated that the global degree of consolidation computed with respect of the Carillo’s theory can lead to underestimated consolidation times. the authors describe the improvement of soft fat clay using rigid inclusions combined with vertical drains. However. (2013) address this delicate topic so difficult to model due to the lack of field parameters. Paris 2013 2 GI WITHOUT ADMIXTURES IN COHESIVE SOILS In the present Technical Session. namely: . (2013). with a vertical drain allowing only radial drainage for the second one and finally with a drain 2418 allowing vertical and radial drainage for the last one. (2013) have assessed the theory of Carillo using three different oedometer tests carried on Tunis soft soil. as well as the time and flexibility for individual measures. As another case history. According to Carvajal et al. The paper highlights the difference with pile foundation. on the basis of experimental results. The following paper constitutes a good transition with the next topic concerning stone columns. Chai and Carter (2013) present a theoretical approach of Prefabricated Vertical Drains (PVD) and consolidation combining vacuum pressure and surcharge loading.

the main aim of the preloading was the increase of the undrained shear strength of the superficial fine-grained soil layer. from Galli and di Prisco (2013) Hataf and Nabipour (2013) have designed a reduced-scale model in such a way to identify the parameters governing the behavior of the GEC’s installed in clayey soils. real embankments are characterized by a deformable base. Although “stone columns” is nowadays a well-known GI method.reduction of the internal forces in the classical pile foundations. different values of settlement are expected for the top of the column (uc) and for the soil (us) at the base of the embankment. they propose to encapsulate only the upper half of the column. (2013) describe and compare analytical and numerical analyses considering the behavior and the performances of geotextile confined columns (GEC’s). Vlavianos et al. . Numerical results obtained with this methodology (2D FEM with strips) have been compared with the results of a 3D FEM and with the results of a conventional 2D FEM analysis in which the entire soil is represented by a single block with equivalent properties. larger safety factors have to be introduced. when the soft soil does not provide enough lateral support. The authors conclude that the strip model is preferable to the block model for the assessment of the horizontal displacements.increase of the general stability of the embankments. Further research is still necessary to investigate the question of the equivalent strength of the interface in the 2D strip method.mitigation of the liquefaction susceptibility. from Poon and Chan (2013) 3. For the design of the bridge embankments and the pile foundations for bridge piers. characterized by an average stress e) due to the arch effect. the columns can be encased with a geotextile. As another conclusion. it is found that the settlement reduction is nearly the same for different replacement ratios but decreases with the applied load. . stone columns are replaced by equivalent strips. In order to investigate this question. The main contribution of the paper resides in the consideration of the deformable base of the embankment. Poon and Chan (2013) present another methodology to design stone columns. a) b) Figure 2. as illustrated in Fig.8 m and a depth of 23 m by means of the FLAC 3D Finite Difference code. a comparative parametric study was performed with or without stone columns. certainly for very slender elements. Galli and di Prisco (2013) first review the most common design standards and then focus on the interaction between the embankment and the geoencased columns. As a result. This numerical sequence was necessary to correctly determine the area in the surrounding soil influenced by the installation of the stone column and hence to assess with more accuracy the effective diameter of this latter. 2D stone column strips. modeled by the application of an equivalent radial pressure against the internal wall of the cylindrical excavation. the following requirements were met: . as illustrated in Fig. If GEC’s are often used to reduce settlements induced by the construction of large embankments on soft soils.increase of the bearing capacity. For the purpose of investigating this question. columns with smaller diameter are better confined. 2419 . In this analysis. However it has to be remarked that it is not common to consider stone columns as drainage elements. installation effects arising during the execution still remains poorly understood. . 1. Figure 1. also defined as geoencased granular columns (GEC’s). As discussed by the authors. Klimis and Sarigiannis (2013) describe the numerical analysis of the installation of stone columns with a diameter of 0. The high ground water table and the seismicity of the area result in a design solution including GI. The installation of stone columns followed by preloading was selected.a) vibration and compaction. Nevertheless. Mechanical response of the system in case of (a) rigid and (b) deformable embankment. Castro et al. Indeed. Shear stresses are then activated at the GEC-soil interface. Due to the brittle behavior of concrete type columns.Technical Committee 211 / Comité technique 211 (ULS) and stone columns (made of gravel and sand) which demonstrate a ductile behavior in its Serviceability Limit State (SLS) due to its compressibility and drainage characteristics (influence of the consolidation process on the design). The geology of the site consists of soft silty clays and silty sands with high liquefaction susceptibility. This efficiency is mainly related to the contrast of stiffness between the encasement and the soil. As explained by the authors.acceleration of the consolidation process. The General Reporters fully agree that similar approaches cannot be applied for very slender concrete type columns and for stone columns.3 Geotextile confined columns Rigid inclusions are a common GI technique for foundations of embankments in soft soils. up to now no rational displacement based design approach has been introduced. .2 Stone columns In the present Technical Session.b) filling with a linear elastic geomaterial. Finally. A method is proposed to compute this ratio by means of an axisymmetric Finite Element Model (FEM) containing one column and the surrounding soil. The equivalent friction angle of the strips is dependent of the stress concentration ratio which is defined as the ratio of the average applied vertical stress within stone column to the average vertical stress of the surrounding soil at the same level. With the installation of the stone columns. The following papers mainly focus on the geotextile confined columns. Parametric studies of the settlement reduction and stress concentration show the efficiency of GEC’s for GI purposes. The excavation stage has been modeled in one unique step and the realization of the stone column as follows: . As a consequence. 3. . vertical stresses are redistributed at the base of the embankment between the internal zone of the cell (above the column characterized by an average stress i) and the external one (a circular crown above the soil. (2013) propose technical solutions for the design of a road project in the Region of Western Greece. and differential settlements are expected even at the top of the embankment. 2.

(2013) present a history case of soil reinforcement with geosynthetics for the construction of a sixstorey structure in Ohrid (Republic of Macedonia). In practice.6 Microbial methods The use of microbially induced carbonate precipitation (MICP) to cement cohesionless soils has recently received substantial attention from geotechnical researchers. Multi layers geogrids were designed and the effects of the geostatic. important differential settlements were measured thereafter as a result of the defective rainwater recovery system. MICP via ureolytic hydrolysis relies on microbes to generate urease enzyme. Indeed. considering the results of triaxial tests. Investigating the use of geosynthetics for reinforcement under ground mass collapse.5 Sand compaction piles (SCP’s) In the sand compaction pile (SCP) method. Applicable Marginally Applicable Not Applicable 3 6 No Compaction Molding technique 3. from Grisolia et al. its deflection and the surface settlement. The validity of the analysis was demonstrated with the help of in situ measurements obtained for a close similar structure. a gray area still remains concerning the influence of the original nature of the granular material on the resulting properties of the treated soil. many laboratories prepared these samples without standardized procedure. According to Hamdan et al. Paris 2013 Geosynthetic reinforced column or pile supported embankment – the use of geogrids Another way to use geosynthetic material for GI application is the design of geogrids for the support of embankment. (2013) investigate the potential of columns made of loess-sandbentonite mixture for the reinforcement of collapsible loess deposits in Romania. Five molding techniques have been studied and the authors propose the abacus illustrated in Fig. the ground is in situ mechanically (and possibly hydraulically or pneumatically) mixed while a binder. land levees. liquid Low workability. Computational assumptions are proposed for the description of the mechanisms of stress-strain development in the reinforced ground mass. In spite of the good realization and control of the foundation. important deformations in the soil can be observed.. maximum principal stress differences were obtained for the samples with the highest relative density. In the recent years. this influence is strictly correlated to the workability of the soilcement mixture and this latter can be quantified with the measurement of the torque required to turn an impeller in the mixture. But. molding techniques have a great influence on the mechanical characteristics of the stabilized material. based on cement or lime. sand is fed into the ground through a casing pipe and is compacted by vibration. With the help of laboratory and field tests. these collapsible soils require GI works. Nevertheless. 3. In the deep mixing projects. up to now. If it is to date well known that the mechanical properties of the treated soils are directly correlated to the amount of (CaCO3) precipitation. is injected with the help of a specially made machine. Actually. Torque Mt (Nm) High workability. Field tests were performed to estimate the E-moduli before and after improvement. the MICP tends to increase as the relative density of the soil decreases. 3 to define the range of applicability of these techniques in function of this torque. soil stabilization using ureolytic MICP remains currently unusual. consistent Figure 3. Since several decades. as illustrated by the papers of this paragraph.Proceedings of the 18th International Conference on Soil Mechanics and Geotechnical Engineering. In this method. Within the framework of a laboratory campaign. they introduce the ratio of actual tensile force to deformation.4 65 75 Tapping Rodding Static Compaction 25kPa 10 15 Static Compaction 50kPa Dynamic Compaction 0 10 20 30 40 30 40 50 60 70 80 120 90 . (2013). They are characterized by high water sensitivity: when its water content increases. 2420 (2013) investigate the influence of the relative density of sand samples on the MICP. But in recent years. the design can be based on laboratory mixing tests. this technique seems to be very promising for the future but due to the bioplugging (permeability reduction) of the granular material and to the generation of toxic product (ammonium salt). 3. As a result of their study. DMM has been used for GI works. this technique has been increasingly used . According to Grisolia et al. related to “densest specimens with the highest strength” and “results repetitiveness”. as explained in the paper of Alupoae et al. The authors also conducted Finite Element analysis to model the consolidation process and to confirm the design stability under static and seismic conditions. hydrostatic and dynamic loading conditions were studied with the help of FEM calculations. yards and structure foundations (slabs and superficial isolated or continuous footings). Ranges of applicability of the different molding techniques. the DMM is undergoing rapid development. cost effectiveness and environmental advantages. The most common MICP mechanism is hydrolysis of urea. Numerous reviews and recent progresses of the DMM are referred in Denies and Van Lysebetten (2012). On the basis of experimental elongation results. (2013). the use of plant derived urease to induce the carbonate cementation could be the solution to avoid these drawbacks. (2013) The applicability of each molding technique was evaluated by an “Applicability index”. Dimitrievski et al.. In such a way to illustrate this phenomenon. Soil-cement samples are then prepared and tested to study the mechanical properties of the stabilized soil. Mihova and Kolev (2013) analyze the benefit of a geosynthetic reinforced pad of crushed stone used for the foundation of a hall in Sofia over soft saturated soil. particularly with regard to its range of applicability. (2013). 100 mixture's workability. Burlacu et al. which then serves as a catalyst for the calcium carbonate (CaCO3) precipitation reaction. The authors finally present a comparison between experimental measurements and the results of seven different methods used for the calculation of the tensile force in the geosynthetic. the authors present a case study of differential settlement of buildings founded on loess sensitive to wetting. dynamic or static compaction to form columns. Ponomaryov and Zolotozubov (2013) compare the method outlined in British Standard BS 8006 and several design approaches with numerical calculations.1 GI WITH GROUTING TYPE ADMIXTURES Deep Mixing Method (DMM) and soil stabilization The deep mixing method (DMM) is nowadays a worldwide accepted GI technology. SCP’s are mainly used to prevent liquefaction and reduce settlement with similar success in sandy and clayey soils. Tsukamoto et al. 4 4. In light of these results.

the Quality Control (QC) of the execution process is generally based on the results of Unconfined Compressive Strength (UCS) tests performed on cored material. They first give a formula for the assessment of the UCS at 28 days in function of the binder content and the liquidity index (LI) of the soil. (2013) discuss the definition of this value. the carbonation process significantly increased the UCS of MgO-stabilised soils in a very short time. the UCS values of the uncarbonated MgOstabilised soils were much lower than those of the PC-stabilised soils. A normalized UCS is then introduced as follows: UCSLI = UCS x LI. Adding 3 to 8 % of lime. In addition. the improvement of the clayey soil with the lime is mainly related to the coagulation of the clay particles related to the cation exchange. laboratory tests have been performed by Xiao et al. The pozzolanic reaction would play then a secondary role in the stabilization. laboratory tests have been performed to determine the influence of adding polypropylene fibers on the shear strength characteristics of completely decomposed granite (CDG). the residual friction angle (in drained conditions) increases between 3 to 6 %. The test results clearly indicate an important increase of the UCS when adding 0. (2013) highlight the influence of this index on the mechanical properties of cemented Porto silty sand. In a similar way. Nowadays. the clay particles coagulate resulting in a material characterized by an increased internal friction angle. In triaxial drained tests. In their laboratory study. one major issue is the representativeness of the core samples with regard to the in situ executed material. For the purpose of investigating this question.32% fibers of different types. oedometer tests establish this ratio as the governing parameter of the behavior of the soil-cement specimen in one-dimensional compression in lieu of the cement content or the initial void ratio. there are significant environmental impacts associated with its production in terms of high energy consumption and CO2 emissions. Indeed. Nevertheless. The length of the fibers has a significant effect on the ductility of the cement-treated clay for both fiber types. There is an optimum fiber content with regard to performance and workability of the material. In Hong Kong. it can be found limited since in practice execution is mostly performed in soils in the presence of water (unsaturated or saturated conditions). it is thus essential to define the UCS characteristic value that can be taken into account in the design. However. A major advance in DMM could be found in the contribution of Yi et al. both mixes took ~28 days to finish most of their strength development. The authors observed a decrease of the measured pH with time and an increase of the Liquid Limit and the Plasticity Index with time when 5 % of lime was added. Unfortunately the laboratory test results were not compared with full scale test results. Correia et al. (2013) in order to determine the characteristics of the Singapore upper marine clay when mixed with 20 to 50% Portland cement (PC) and up to 0. proposed by the authors. the characteristic strength is defined as an X% lower limit value computed either on the basis of a statistical distribution function or based on the cumulative frequency curve of the original experimental dataset of UCS values obtained from tests on cored samples. the clay content and the water content on the strength of the material were considered. reactive MgO was used as a binder and the MgO-soil samples were carbonated by CO2 to improve the mechanical properties of the soil and reduce the CO2 emission. the applicability of the normalized UCS approach is analyzed for seven other cementstabilized soft soils with successful result.5% of fibers and compacting the CDG at the water content close to the optimum Proctor value. Six zones are identified in the abacus depending on the nature of the soil. the influence of the fiber length is more significant for PVA reinforcement than for PP reinforcement. Triaxial tests resulted in two peak strength envelopes for each predetermined (n/Civ)0. Concerning the strength. Similar observation was also made with indirect tensile strength. As an evident result. such as discussed in Madhusudhan and Baudet (2013).21).21 and finally. strength and ductility of cementtreated clay were improved by fiber reinforcement. Cuira et al. In their study. (2013) present the results of numerical models simulating an axial Static Load Test (SLT) on a soil-cement column. CDG is regularly used for landscaping and as green cover of existing shotcrete slopes. In the first category of approaches. this latter fast reaching the UCS value of the 28-day PC-stabilised soils. If the water/cement (w/c) ratio is often used in attempt to understand soil-mix properties. In such a way to investigate the properties of the soil mix material. They propose an abacus relating the UCS of the specimens to the cement content. If the previous work allows the construction of standardized and international test procedures for laboratory mix samples. Another type of binder largely used for soil stabilization is lime. Szymkiewicz et al. some in situ stabilized soils have also been analyzed. Actually. A well-adapted governing parameter could be then the porosity/cement index defined as the ratio of porosity to the volumetric cement content (n/Civ). According to his study. during the stabilization with lime. the authors also propose a formula valid for granular soils for the estimation of the UCS at 28 curing days. Soil stabilization can also be performed with fiber reinforcement. Portland cement (PC) is the most common binder used in the deep mixing applications. In a second step. Dilation is also reduced. indicating that it could be used to support a structure just after the completion of the carbonation procedure. Lime contents varying between 3 and 10 % of the dry weight of the clay have been considered. Rios et al. Ca2+ ions attach to the surface of clay particles. (2013) with the investigation of the carbonation of reactive magnesia (MgO) for soil stabilization. Denies et al. As part of the semiprobabilistic design approach presented in Eurocode 7. A second approach to determine the UCS characteristic value is the use of the average value of the dataset in combination with a safety factor. The following papers concern the investigation of the mechanical properties of the soil mix material under the field of laboratory or in situ experiments and with the help of numerical modeling. As a result of their study. the authors present the results of a study on the influence of soil inclusions and then they discuss the topic of the scale effect with regard to large scale UCS tests. This formula takes into account the water. Polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) fibers are generally more efficient than polypropylene (PP) fibers except for low cement and water contents. Mesri and Moridzadeh (2013) discuss the results of a laboratory study focusing on the improvement of the Brenna clay (high plastic lacustrine clay of North Dakota) by adding lime. Numerical and experimental results are compared with the help of three Finite Element models and one simplified 2421 . Standardized guidelines for the design of this kind of applications are not currently available. (2013) have carried out a parametric study on lab soil-cement mixtures. Extensive laboratory tests have been performed by Szendefy (2013) for the purpose of determining the effect of lime stabilization on 21 Hungarian clayey soils. a value for the X% has to be defined. the cement and the fine contents. (2013) have performed laboratory tests to study the improvement of soft clayey silt with high organic content by mixing it with a binder made up of 75% Portland cement (PC) and 25% blast furnace slag. the addition of fibers seems to increase the shear strength of the CDG and its stiffness. In addition. Unique trend was obtained between the UCS and an adjusted porosity/cement ratio (n/Civ0. For the first category of approaches. As a result of this high charging. The influences of the particle size.Technical Committee 211 / Comité technique 211 for structural applications. In Singapore.

reduction of active pressure on retaining walls and decrease of liquefaction susceptibility. Both DMM are then assessed using 3D-FEM considering the site requirements in term of stability and settlement. the reduced working spaces and the possible low headroom conditions.2 6. Yamashita et al.8 9. The authors propose a conceptual method allowing the control of ground deformation and ensuring an optimization of the volume of treated soil. Measured vertical ground displacements below raft. Matsui et al. For this kind of facility. The concept is illustrated in Fig. The measurements also learned that the Tohoku earthquake of March 2011 had almost no influence on the settlements and on the load distribution.7m 4. Finally. 4. Recently. GI with soil-cement columns and SMW.0m presented. Traditional DMM are commonly restricted for underpinning. It concerns a 12-storey office building. namely: settlement reduction. This numerical study highlights the nonlinear behavior of the soil-mix material. In a similar way. limitations being mainly related to the capacity of the machine to pass existing foundation structures as reinforced slabs or footings. the contrast of strength (and stiffness) between the column and the soil is lower and has a huge influence on the global behavior. is under construction. The conception is supported by numerical modeling and QA/QC aspects of the project are related to the testing of core and wet grab samples. improvement of slope stability. two DMM were taken into account: the mass stabilization and the soil-cement columns.2m Figure 5.2 Use of stabilized dredged material for construction As previously discussed in Chu et al. After the realization of a contact grouting between the slab and the soil. as shown in Fig. (2009). According to Lindh and Rydén (2013). DMM was developed for GI applications in soft clays and organic soils. as illustrated in Fig. After the end of the construction. A combination of quicklime and ground granulated blast furnace slag (GGBFS) was found to be in agreement with both design and construction requirements.Proceedings of the 18th International Conference on Soil Mechanics and Geotechnical Engineering. Time-dependent load sharing between raft and piles. Koch and Szepeshási (2013) firstly describe results of laboratory tests on chalky silt samples mixed with cement for different w/c contents. such as illustrated in the following paper. (2013) In Lund (southern Sweden) a new generation synchrotron radiation facility. If dredging provides low cost construction material. 14 % by the SMW and 15% by the soil. 2422 . As another result. The method is supported by 2D-FEM and in situ monitoring is performed for the validation of the concept. The optimum solution was achieved with a four meter thick layer of stabilized soil below the concrete foundation. Jeanty et al. it was also dedicated to various structural and environmental applications such as illustrated by the following case histories. (2013) present a case history of underpinning of an existing floor slab in an industrial building using DMM. The two last topics are then illustrated with case histories. The load distribution between piles. Both techniques are explained in details and different applications are If the foundation of embankments and buildings are become both common applications of the DMM. Numerical results are in agreement with the experimental observations all along the SLT but especially regarding to the fracture pattern: structural failure localized in the upper part of the column.3 Dvc Dvs Walls Figure 6. the DMM has been chosen for several Hungarian railway projects involving soft soils.0m 12. from Yamashita et al. the slab and the contact grouting layer are cored. it should be 100 times more efficient than any existing comparable synchrotron radiation facility in the world.2m 7. Various alternatives were discussed and simulated during the conception. 4. such as the restoration of the “Sárrét” railway line crossing an area where the subsoil consists of soft chalky silt.2m As2 10. its blades are opened and the soil-cement column is executed until the predetermined depth. For the foundation of a 4m high embankment. The soil-cement columns were installed with the new Springsol® tool. But more recently. Originally. (2013) deal with the measurements performed underneath a piled raft completed with SMW to reduce the risks of liquefaction. Melentijevic et al. Outside piles Figure 4. dredging and land reclamation have increasingly become important parts of construction activities that involve heavily geotechnical knowledge. (2013) describe the use of the CSM and the Trenchmix methods for the realization of SMW.8m 37. SMW and the surrounding soil has been monitored during a period of three years. In comparison with classical “rigid” piles. 5. The spreadable Springsol® tool is then introduced into the gap. from Yamashita et al. 70 % of the load was taken by the piles. 39. Other case history tackles the topic of liquefaction susceptibility restrained with the DMM. 6. (2013) 36. (2013) Section view 5. (2013) introduce the concepts of an hybrid application of soil-cement columns combined with soil mix walls (SMW) designed for the foundation of an embankment. underpinning with soil mix material constitutes an interesting emerging technique. from Matsui et al.2m Ac2.2m 1. the vibration requirements are very stringent. DMM have been widely used in Japan for the improvement of soft clays and organic soils.5m 1:1.2 Inside piles Ac2. called MAX IV. Paris 2013 semi-analytical model. settlements of 20 mm have been recorded.0m Ac1.9m 21.

(2013) in order to study the reinforcement of low plastic brown weathered shale with polypropylene fibers for the construction of an embankment. Using FLAC 2D Finite Difference model. an extensive monitoring program has been proposed and performed (including levelling point measurements. CONCLUSIONS In the present General Report. landfill stability improvement activities can be divided in two phases: the first one consists in the technical reclamation of the landfill and the second one is the biological restoration of the vegetation cover.e.2 A significant element in the reclamation of landfills is the reinforcement and biological stabilization of the slopes which can be very sensitive to surface erosion.Technical Committee 211 / Comité technique 211 it is sometimes necessary to resort to additional GI methods in order to obtain a product meeting the design requirements. unconfined compression strength and cohesion) and not at all with other properties (i. (2013) 4. no information is given in the paper concerning the installation procedures of the fly ashes and sewerage sludge and how the influence of vegetation can be introduced in the stability calculations. On the other side.3 Recent advances in the jet grouting applications   If special devices have been developed in the past to measure the diameter of the jet grout columns executed in situ. Indeed. internal friction angle and damping ratio). Figure 7. as illustrated in Fig. The grout’s water-to-cement ratio (W/C) and the maximum cement grain size (dmax) are two important parameters controlling the cement grout bleed capacity. 47 papers of the Technical Session on GI of the XVIII ICSMGE are reviewed. It can be noted that 40% of these papers deal with Deep Mixing and soil stabilization. (2013) provide some insights on the effect of grout bleed capacity on the mechanical properties of ordinary and microfine cement grouted sands. Geotextile containment bund. inclinometers and extensometers during and after the construction to verify the design and the performance of the system. as these methods constitute outstanding and cost-effective sustainable construction processes. in conjunction with the effect of the W/C ratio. the necessity of monitoring was also highlighted by several authors of this Technical Session. Moreover the sewerage sludge presents a high nutrition content supporting the development of the vegetation cover. from Loh et al. considerable effort should be made in the understanding of the physical processes governing this parameter. 2423 . beyond the choice of the GI solution. For example. the authors argue it is possible to use recyclable materials such as fly ash or sewerage sludge. According to Koda and Osinski (2013). Based on 2D FEM calculations. it could be therefore used for the capping of the waste disposal. They demonstrate that the distinction between stable and unstable grouts (see EN 12715) may not be an indicator of grout effectiveness since similar effects may be produced by both stable and unstable grouts: e. 2012) but this is not surprising. Bleed capacity correlates very well with some grouted sand properties (i. The authors conclude that the costs of the meticulous and proactive monitoring were minor in comparison with the potential costs of a delayed opening of the hotel. van der Stoel et al. almost all columns had an irregular shape influencing its bearing capacity. Finally. inclinometers and the use of a permanent webcam). (2013) analyze excavated jet grout columns. (2013) present considerations in the design and construction of a containment bund made of modified geotextile tubes (M-GT) filled with cement-mixed soil. the bleed capacity is another indicator of grout effectiveness. Unfortunately. Tabarsa and Hajiesmaeilian (2013) have studied the influence of sand encapsulated non-woven geotextile (sandwich technique) on the stability of clay embankment. The following paper illustrates how GI and dredging are complementary construction processes. Bzówka et al. If ground improvement is really become an efficient and controllable cost-effective alternative to classical foundation technique. 7. Thanks to this monitoring process the consequences of two important accidents during the execution of the excavations could be limited as much as possible. fly ashes can be considered as impermeable and present good compaction properties. hydrographic survey.1 EARTH REINFORCEMENT In a similar way. The experimental results are used to model the bearing capacity of the columns by means of the Z-soil software. On the one side. Pantazopoulos et al. same coefficients of permeability were obtained for a bleed capacity ranging from 5 (stable) to 30 % (unstable suspension). 7 Geosynthetics Vegetation methods ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS The authors wish to thank the chairmen of the TC211 Jan Maertens and Serge Varaksin for their contribution to the review of the papers of the Technical Session on GI works. Mixed with cohesive soil. since it is representative of the volume of voids filled by cement. Vertical and horizontal displacements deduced from the centrifuge tests have been compared with those obtained from FEM analyses. although the jet grout columns have been realized in compacted medium sand underlain by stiff clay. Both approaches demonstrate the contribution of the fibers on the stability. 6 Centrifuge tests have been performed by Bo et al. (2013) discuss a well-documented case history concerning the realization of two deep excavations in the courtyards of a historical building in Amsterdam.g. proving the huge interest in these techniques. dredged soil mixed with cement was used as in-fill material in the M-GT’s and as the core of a large geotextile containment bund. Field instrumentation and monitoring were carried out with the help of strain measurements.e. They discuss the improvement of slope stability of a solid waste disposal with the help of this approach. Loh et al. 5. the sewage sludge protects the seeds from erosion and excessive drying. measure still remains treasure. In the port of Singapore. the authors highlight the efficiency of the method with regard to the geotextile-reinforced and the unreinforced embankments. In the grouting applications. Similar percentage was already observed in the Proceedings of the TC211 IS-GI 2012 (Denies and Huybrechts. Most important was that the time delay remained very small. 5 5. For both phases.

pp. Projet national ASIRI. N. K. and Sinong. Szymkiewicz. D. U. J. B.J.. Egypt. 2013. M. 2013. 2013. A. advances & execution aspects of ground improvement works. and Vollmert.Y. Interaction of stone column and surrounding soil during its construction: 3D numerical analysis. D.E. 2013. and Foti. Correia. S. Foundations of embankments with encased stone columns. Design of Deep Soil Mix Structures: considerations on the UCS characteristic value. Lee. Bridge foundation on very soft alluvia with stone column ground improvement. 2013. and Mengé.. Reiffsteck. M. Improvement of the Soil under the Concrete Pavement of a Plant’s Hall.G. J-L. M. N. B. and Nabipour. Porosity/cement index to evaluate geomechanical properties of an artificial cemented soil. H... editors. F. 2013. Mesri. P.. S. Paulín. and di Prisco. Alexandria. 31 May-1 June 2012. Inagaki. Amsterdam.. Laboratory tests and numerical modeling for embankment foundation on soft chalky silt using deep-mixing. 2013.. Laboratory parametric study of the Deep Mixing material. 2013. Tan. Recommandations pour la conception..bbri.. E.. Varaskin. Fiber Reinforced Cement Treated Clay. N. Laboratory and in-situ experimental study. Improvement of a Clay Deposit using Prefabricated Vertical Drains and Pre-loading . N.bbri. Paris. S. Oehrlein.K. Lindh. 2013. Aşuencei. 2013. J. Indraratna. K. 2013. General Report. and Oteo. 2013. and Van Lysebetten. L. and Yasin. 2013.. Subgrade improvement measures for the main rescue roads in the urban redevelopment area HafenCity in Hamburg... L. and Kolev. Van Lysebetten. Y. Compacted soil columns for foundations on collapsible soils. 2013. N. Chai.L. Ponomaryov.TC211.C. D. and Benhamou. Klimis. H. Madhusudhan. 2013. Zhang.S. F. 2013.S. L. D.. De Cock. S. Jeanty. Sagaseta. J. Belgium (www.A. Proceedings of the International Symposium of ISSMGE . E and O’Donnell. Tabarsa.. S. 2013. and Lam.. Cirión.. Construction Processes. 2013. Sasaki. Performance and Prediction of Vacuum Consolidation Behavior at Port of Brisbane. and Viana da Fonseca. H. 2013. Hamdan. Lee. 2013. F. E.. P.. and Lemos... Pantazopoulos.. Sagaseta. R.. 2013. 2013. and Marzano. (Eds. C. A. N. L. A. I. A. Column Supported Embankments for Transportation Infrastructures: Influence of Column Stiffness. L.. Olinic. G. advances & execution aspects of ground improvement works. K. Vukotić. Tsukamoto. A. Yamashita. Ningyu. D. Basas. F. Mihova. l'exécution et le contrôle de l'amélioration des sols de fondation par inclusions rigides. Y. P.F. C. J. L. C.. 2013. C.K. A.A. 2013. T.. Denies.. Choi. Lameire. E. Islam. Republic Of Macedonia.K.-C. A. Linli. B. J. 2013. Experimental investigation on bearing capacity of geosynthetic encapsulated stone Columns. H. F. Large-scale Piled Raft with Grid-Form Deep Mixing Walls on Soft Ground. and Al-Tabbaa. Vlavianos. Galli. and Oda. F.R. Assessment of bio-mechanical reinforcement materials influencing slope stability. Brussels. Improvement of soft fat clay using rigid inclusions and vertical drains. and Miranda.. J. A. C... and Huybrechts. Grzyb. 2013. Carvajal. C. L.. Lim. V. M. M. 2013. Presses des Ponts. J. based on numerical analyses.Proceedings of the 18th International Conference on Soil Mechanics and Geotechnical Engineering. Session 4 – Soil Mixing 2 – Deep Mixing. Numerical modeling of a soil-mixing column behavior and comparison with a full-size load test. Dimitrievski. Pellet.. V. S. K.H. Melentijevic. Belgium (www.H.. and Glandy. Koch. Influence of relative density on microbial carbonate precipitation and mechanical properties of sand. Initial investigation into the carbonation of MgO for soil stabilisation. Fatahi. M. 2013. S. A.P. N. S. Frikha. P.W. 2012. Ch. A. and Osinski. W. 2013.. J.. J.N.. Consolidation Effects and Cyclic Loading. Construction and Performance of Containment Bund Using Geotextile Tubes Filled With Cement Mixed Soil in Singapore. France. and Chan. P.TC211. B. 2013. 2013. Racinais. S. D. P. and Zolotozubov.K. and A. S. Stress Concentration Ratio and Design Method for Stone Columns using 2D FEA with Equivalent Strips. Numerical Analysis to Quantify the Influence of Smear Zone Characteristics on Preloading Design in Soft Clay.H. Mathieu. A.. Proceedings of the 18th ICSMGE.. Vink. S. and Moridzadeh. S. Prediction of the unconfined compressive strength in soft soil chemically stabilized. Kirstein. A. P. 2013. J. P. J. B. geotechnical design and monitoring. C. and Uţă. 5-9 October 2009. Matsui. Hataf. G. Proceedings of the 17th International Conference on Soil Mechanics and Geotechnical Engineering. Hybrid Application of Deep Mixing Columns Combined with Walls as a Soft Ground Improvement Method Under Embankments. Cañizal. C. 2013. and Strasheski. Rios.). B. and Vervoort.. Consolidation theory for combined vacuum pressure and surcharge loading. Burlacu. Wakai. Da Costa. Time . N. Recent research. K. S. and Carter. Chew. Leder. 4.K. J. Yi. Conservatoriumhotel Amsterdam. Klotz.dependent behaviour of foundations lying on an improved ground. Denies. S. S. Juzwa. W. M. Xiao. Marinelli. 2013.M. Denies..D. Guimond-Barrett.L. 2013.L. Le Kouby. Arcos. G. Dimitrievski. France. 2424 . Koda. and Bouma.J. 2012. Brussels. M. B. E. Vol. X. Y. Mosadegh.. Kavazanjian. and Khabbaz. Effect of Grout Bleed Capacity on the Engineering Properties of Cement Grouted Sands. I.. M. Cuira. C. Castro. E. Displacement rigid inclusions. J. Ishii. and Geng. Proceedings of the International Symposium of ISSMGE . J. and Le Kouby A. Method of improvement of the subsoil under Adora facility – Ohrid.. and Bouassida. Weihrauch. and Horikoshi. Adjusting the soil stiffness with stabilisation to minimize vibration at Maxlab IV – a synchrotron radiation facility in Sweden.A.. 2013.. J. Grisolia.A Case Study. A. Costa d’Aguiar. J. 2009.. G. Evaluation of Vertical Drain-enhanced Radial Consolidation with Modified Analytical Solution. Chu. N.. N. Parsa-Pajouh. J. and Szepesházi. 2013. 2013. 2013. Z. and Hamada. Szendefy. 2013. Centrifugal and numerical analysis of geosynthetic-reinforced soil embankments. Bogoevski. 2013. N. le dimensionnement. Ilievski. Lee.. and Răileanu. W.. J. Paris 2013 8 REFERENCES Alupoae. Application of cement deep mixing method for underpinning. Loh. and Sarigiannis. J. Unluer. Bo. Recent research. 3006-3135. Lj. Assessment of Carillo’s theory for improved Tunis soft Soil by geodrains. Importance and practical examples of inertial soil improvement. and Papageorgopoulou. 2012. Standardization of the molding procedures for stabilized soil specimens as used for QC/QA in Deep Mixing application.. 31 May-1 June 2012. Manea. Geoencased columns: toward a displacement based design. A.Y. Poon. . 2013. G. H. Atmatzidis. IOS Press. Venda Oliveira.J. Van der Stoel. A. S. A. S. Selected problems connected with the use of the jet grouting technique. Yeoh. Bzówka. Carbonate Cementation via Plant Derived Urease. and Wanik. 2013. Impact of the soil-stabilization with lime. M. and Rydén.. and Hajiesmaeilian. and Hong. Lime Remediation of Reactivated Landslides. Liska. Investigation of failure analysis of clay reinforced with sand encapsulated..W. D.. IREX... Reinforcement of completely decomposed granite with discrete fibres. J. and Wittorf. Hamza et al. S.. Huybrechts.. M. and Tacita. 2013. and Wehr. Technique of reinforced soil base calculation under fall initiation in ground mass. F. 2013. Maertens. Mosser. 2013. 2013. Rujikiatkamjorn. C. A. Jebali.

In this case. RÉSUMÉ : Le document présente quelques aspects concernant le comportement en temps des sols améliorés pour les fondations. which change their volume when water content varies). peaty soils (organic matter is present in its structure. the foundation soils can be divided in two categories. silicatization. Il est aussi présenté une étude de cas concernant les problèmes qui peuvent apparaitre au cours de la période d'exploitation de structures. expansive clay. les ingénieurs et les investisseurs rencontrent souvent des sols de fondation de plus en plus difficile. Engineers and investors encounter more and more difficult foundation soils. ce qui a produit des tassements différentiels. 2. which led to differential settlements and.  collapsible soils (are characterised by the fact that when in high humidity develop large deformations). Răileanu P. The entire existence of the building system depends on the stability and strength of the foundation soil and this is the main reason why a special interest is given to the second category of soils and therefore to the specific issues that must be considered in the design. it is necessary to reconsider the possibility of placing a building on a soil that was unsuitable for constructions until now. differential settlement. pre-wetting.  electrochemical methods (electrophoresis and electroosmosis). dynamic... "Gheorghe Asachi” Technical University of Iasi. Faculty of Civil Engineering and Building Services. loess. Aşuencei V. in their desire to efficiently use the construction sites. Large urban areas are a particular problem because. fillings (occur as a result of unconsolidated alluvial deposits) (Iliesi 2012). dynamic). ca veut dire que les bâtiments furent commutés de leur position initiale. Pour utiliser efficacement les terrains des constructions.  thermal treatment of soils. Le document passe en revue les sols de fondation difficiles de la zone de Iaşi et des méthodes de les améliorées. les propriétés physiques et mécaniques du sol doivent être améliorées. Pour conclure. verticale.  chemical soil stabilization (cementation. consequently.      2 DIFFICULT FOUNDATION SOILS  The sites that have a construction soil with good geotechnical characteristics are rapidly decreasing. Department of Roads and Foundations.2 liquefiable soils (especially non-cohesive soils consisting of saturated fine sand which under the action of a dynamic load suddenly loose their shear strength). bentonite etc. jet grouting. soils that during the freezing and thawing phenomena change their structure and properties. such as:  soil compaction which can be made on surface (rolling. 2. after presenting difficult foundation soils from Iaşi area. La présence de l'eau dans le terrain de fondation a eu un impact négatif sur son comportement. expansive soils (cohesive soils such as clays. afin d’assurer des bonnes conditions d’appuis pour l'infrastructure et la structure d'un bâtiment. 1  INTRODUCTION As a result of the analysis performed over time on a large variety of soils and taking into account soil behaviour in the presence of external factors. due to the lack of space.Time-dependent behaviour of foundations lying on an improved ground Temps-comportement dépendant de fondations reposant sur un sol amélioré Alupoae D. considering their capacity to support loads from constructions: good and difficult foundation soils. Le terrain de fondation peut avoir un comportement favorable ou par contre défavorable sous l’action des charges donner par les constructions.1 Difficult foundation soils . Finally the paper presents some conclusions resulting from studies both bibliographic and practical. KEYWORDS: leaning structure. Methods of soil improvement Given the frequency of soils that present unfavourable characteristics for constructions over time were developed methods to improve their mechanical properties.). Dans ce cas. in order to sustain the infrastructure and structure of a building. cushions) or in depth (columns. Romania ABSTRACT: The paper presents some aspects concerning time-dependent behaviour of the improved foundation soils. The presence of water in the foundation soil created a negative impact in its behaviour. 700050. the buildings were switching from their initial vertical position. Iasi. The paper reviews some improvement methods. during the operating period of structures.classification These soils are classified as follows:  macroporous soils (present large cavities in their structure and have the ability to suffer large settlements when are subjected to a wetting process). le document présente des conclusions issues de l’étude bibliographique et pratique à la fois. a cause des ces sols de fondation difficiles. The study also analyzes time-dependent settlements of a construction. 2425 . execution and operating period of a construction.43 Dimitrie Mangeron Bd. physical and mechanical properties of the soil have to be improved. eluvium (formed as a result of decomposition and alteration of existing rocks). have a high and very high compressibility and a low shear strength). The paper presents a case study regarding problems caused by difficult foundation soils that are present in the region. saline soils (are characterized by the settlement phenomena that occurs during a long lasting wetting). The foundation soils can develop favourable or inappropriate resistance properties under the loads submitted by constructions.

Thus it can be stated that the operations of soil improvement using mechanical means were correctly carried out. 2011). with temperatures decreasing in the summer with 10ºC. On site. Among these types of soils there are two specific categories: loess and expansive soils. Loess layer is yellow-brown with variable thickness from 8. the bigger its swelling. Shallow drillings revealed the presence of captive water with low mineralization. as deep as the effects of seasonal variations in moisture content and temperature may not be felt (NE 001-96 1996). 3. Because of this. this reason being more or less a natural barrier for city expansion. Theoretical and practical solutions offered for solving the issues caused by these types of soils present a special interest in the current context (Vieru 2010).00 m lying in the highest areas of the city.moisturized area – if the wet surface under an existing building is insignificant.15%.layer thickness – the thicker the layer is. Figure 1. of the particles making up the clay fraction and the nature of the absorbed ions. Deep layers have a high mineralization.00 m. upper and medium terraces consist of a succession of coarser sediments at the bottom followed by a loess soil sensitive to wetting. Climatic conditions of the area. Paris 2013 The case study refers to the problems that can occur with an improved foundation soil.0 ÷ 6. lead to changes in soil volume. followed by a layer of fat swelling and shrinking clay.0 meters (Section I and Section II). Loess deposits usually consist of silty clay and clayey silt.2.1 Data regarding the constructions from the studied area The constructions were built during two different time frames:  Stage 1 – between 1994 and 1998. 3 CASE STUDY Within the areas with difficult foundation soils. forming a region consisting of eroded hills crossed by Bahlui plateau. The foundation rests on a soil cushion. The sand layer has a thickness of almost 4. Other factors influencing the volume variation are: .00 m and the clay is between 5.20ºC from day to night and heavy rainfall. In 1998 the foundation system was checked and the results showed that the soil cushion placed under the foundation had a degree of compaction of 95. consists of a two section building 22. in 2010 a movement was observed.soil activity – volume variation is influenced by molecular and electro-molecular phenomena reflected by adhesive and capillary water.  Stage 2 – the construction of Section III started in 2001. As far as the soil properties are concerned. Romania. The city lies at the contact between Jijia Meadow and the Moldavian Plateau. Therefore. Regarding the uniformity coefficient. 3.0 x 12. the systems of rainwater collection and disposal are not finished. 43÷47% silt and 24÷32% sand. 1. The method used for improvement is soil replacing (soil cushion).. or an atypical one.hydro-geological conditions – groundwater is present both through deep under pressure aquifers and also through free flow ones.0 meters from the ground surface. . sensitive to wetting. Grain-size distribution is: 25÷29% clay.Proceedings of the 18th International Conference on Soil Mechanics and Geotechnical Engineering. . The increase of water content inside the foundation soil determined a differential settlement and the buildings placed on site were switched from their initial vertical position. was intercepted in drillings up to 9.00 m to 15. Also. their size depending on the mineralogical nature After the initial observations. a structure made of reinforced concrete frames placed on network of foundation beams.1 Soil types in the studied area Studies performed over the last decades into the existing terraces of the region show that almost 70% from the current area of the city have medium and low suitability for construction purpose. To avoid foundation deterioration the minimum foundation depth has been set at 2.. being intercepted only by drilling. has a total ground surface of 530 m2. This section is not entirely finished and the main problem is the fact that no systematization works are carried out. measures have been taken to analyze the technical condition of the building and to establish the necessary actions to ensure a proper exploitation for the constructions.00 m and 6. They have an ascending nature.00 m. Iaşi City is the largest urban settlement located in the eastern part of Romania. The different types of soils existing in the studied area have either a normal behaviour under loads. the loess of Iaşi City is considered to have a good uniformity (Ciornei & Răileanu 2000).0 meters. This clay is actually the foundation soil from the area. The landscape is varied. requiring good knowledge of soil characteristics.2 On site situation The case study follows a residential area placed on one of the hills in Iaşi City. which can be used locally. The loess of Iaşi region has medium plasticity with the liquid limit LL = 30÷50%. the deformations increase and the probability of deterioration grows (Alupoae et al. Structural rearrangement for collapsible soils 2426 . a layer of loess. Bahlui Meadow is characterized as a mixture of sand and gravel layers at the base of the stratification. Bahlui clay falls within the category of high swelling and shrinking soils. sometimes an artesian one. with a built area of about 850 m2 and a structure and height similar to the initial sections. Contraction breaks and cracks 3. Figure 2. Under the soil cushion the thickness of the loess layer is about 5. .0 meter thick.

0 [%] Topographic measurements were made.90 +19.63 18.99 ÷ 32.85 18.90 ÷ 29.83 II Humidity 1998 Section II 19.45 21.  for section II were found higher values of the settlements at the joint between section II and III.77 +5. The lack of systematization works led to rainwater infiltrations in the filling layer above the soil cushion used as an improving method for the loss soil on the site.64 19.61 ÷ 20.14% higher then the optimum compaction humidity (19. Humidity evolution on the site – soil cushion Humidity 2010 [%] Average humidity 2010 [%] Increase of humidity [%] I 21.90 ÷ 29.04 24.20 17. much lower than the admissible relative settlement.30 -20.07 24. The humidity of the cushion became 3.30 -20.69 20.29 16. Humidity variation on the site. which is.18 ÷ 24.15 21. Water bags were formed in the filling layer which supplied the permanent moisture on the layer above the cushion. This occurs where the surface water penetrated the ground and produced a pronounced moistening of the foundation soil.2 Causes that led to differentiated settlements The main cause that led to settlements on the studied case was determined by the increased humidity in the foundation soil. for the three sections of the building Figure 3.40%).70 ÷ 33. Average humidity 1998 [%] 2006 Figure 4. This happed because the values fall within the margin of error of the measurements and also because the variations determined at the markers considered stationary must be taken into consideration.11 ÷ 23. This occurs where the surface water penetrated the ground and produced a pronounced moistening of the foundation soil.80 III --- --- 18. in the earth pillow.50 III --- --- 17. there were no gradients on site to discharge the water and also there were not built ditches and surface drainage systems.65·105 millimetres.81 20.Technical Committee 211 / Comité technique 211 27 Humidity [%] 25 23 Section I 21 Section II Section III 19 17 15 1998 Table 1.53 -3.0 26.001 millimetres.2. By analyzing the results obtained after four cycles of measurements.40 --- Table 2. Also the filling layer recorded higher values for humidity: 25.45 [%] 18 +4.15 ÷ 24. 2427 . This happened as a result of a deficient vertical systematization: no sidewalks.36 22.85 26. Established settlements have small values and pose no danger to the behaviour of the building in time. for the three sections of the building 20. in the filling layer.15 Average humidity 1998 [%] Section III 19 25.36 22.16 I 21 Average humidity 2010 [%] [%] 2010 22 Humidity [%] 3.98 ÷ 29. the following conclusions can be drawn:  for section I the measured values of settlements are insignificant.  for section III were also found higher values of the settlements at the joint between section II and III. Relative settlements have also small values. Humidity variation on the site.70 ÷ 33.31 ÷ 33.40 ÷ 24. 3.37 ÷ 23.57 ÷ 30. Photos showing on site displacements Humidity 1998 2002 Table 3. according to Romanian Standards. Humidity evolution on the site – surrounding area Section Humidity 1998 Average humidity 1998 [%] Humidity 2010 Average humidity 2010 [%] Increase of humidity [%] 26. for verifying settlements that appeared due to moistening of the foundation soil.70 II 17.42 22.03 --- 2002 2006 2010 Figure 4.78 Section Section I 20 Increase of humidity [%] 16.07% ÷ 27.42 22.85 18.52%. Humidity evolution on the site – filling layer Section [%] Humidity 2010 1998 [%] I II 20. 0. on the site.

1996. Geotechnical risk when building on collapsible soils. gradients for water discharge. Rotaru A. 11th International Scientific Conference VSU’. 2012. and Răileanu P. Junimea. The study of Sarmatian clay and covering formations from Iaşi City. PhD Thesis. Vieriu F.T. Thesis.3 Proposed solutions Continuous monitoring of building settlements and conducting topographic readings at least every three months until the constructions are stabilized. 2011. VI 141-146.2.213 mm/day. a series of methods and techniques for improving the difficult foundation soils were developed.061 mm/day after 22 days and further to 0. This led to the conclusion that settlements are slowing down. PhD. 2428 5 ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS This paper was realised with the support of POSDRU CUANTUMDOC “DOCTORAL STUDIES FOR EUROPEAN PERFORMANCES IN RESEARCH AND INNOVATION” ID79407 project funded by the European Social Fund and Romanian Government. For stopping water infiltration in the foundation soil is mandatory to check utility networks and repair them where is necessary. to 0. Over time. 2010. and Răileanu P. Efficient vertical and horizontal systematization can be done by making sidewalks. Geomorphological characteristics of the Bahlui riverbed soils in the metropolitan area of Iasi city. Iliesi A. 3. Romania. Design and building execution on high swelling and shrinking soils.Proceedings of the 18th International Conference on Soil Mechanics and Geotechnical Engineering. 6 REFERENCES Alupoae D. Iaşi. Baron A. . In the case of loess soils that are improved using soil cushions a good vertical and horizontal systematization is required to drain the rainwater or the water from other surface sources and to avoid the appearance of settlements. Ciornei A. NE 001-96. Iaşi. The implementation of this methods and techniques must take into consideration the soil characteristics intercepted on the site. ditches and surface drains. 4 CONCLUSIONS Difficult foundation soils are frequently found on sites located in large urban areas. Iaşi. seen as foundation soils. 2000. How to dominate the macroporous soil sensitive to wetting. Paris 2013 The settlement speed decreases from 0. after 9 days.006 mm/day after 83 days.

Geosynthetic-reinforcement . because of its ability to reproduce same stress levels. Centrifuge test . School of Civil Engineering and Architecture. In order to simulate the actual project accurately and satisfy the boundary effects. boundary effects. impermeability.1 shows the details of test model and its full-scale prototype. In this paper.2 Model scale Due to the inherent symmetry of the embankment about its centerline. Les fibres filamenteux (polypropylène) sont efficaces pour restreindre les déplacements latérales et réduire les tassements verticaux dans le cas du remblais renforcé. The objectives of this paper include: (1) to probe the mechanism of filamentous fibers in improving the stability of the embankment. Now-a-days. Fig. particle scale effects and geometrical scale effects. La présence des fibres dans une structure réticulaire dans le remblai renforcé donne une résistance contre la fissuration.F. It is found that the filamentous fiber (polypropylene) is effective in constraining lateral displacement and reducing vertical settlement for the case of geosyntheticreinforced soil embankments. Numerical analysis 1 INTRODUCTION The concept and design theory of reinforced soil were proposed by the French engineer Henri Vidal from model tests in the 1960s. 2429 . only one half of it was modeled. However.1 Equipment In the present study. The results obtained from the centrifuge tests were compared with those from the numerical analysis.L. and datum are available from researches (Bao Chenggang and Ding Jinhua 2012). and (2) to examine the effectiveness of filamentous fiber reinforcement. In recent years. geosynthetics was commonly used in reinforcing soil owing to its easy-controlled properties of structure type and size. Soil reinforced with continuous filamentous fibers is obviously effective in reducing the vertical deformation of sand under the vertical pressure. 2. the interaction micro-mechanism of interface between soil and filamentous fibers is still unclear (Tang Chaosheng.Centrifugal and numerical analysis of geosynthetic-reinforced soil embankments Etude par centrifugeuse et analyse numérique des remblais renforcés par géotextile Bo L. etc.1 Centrifuge tests—Equipment and procedure 2. Table 1. It should be pointed out that idealized conditions may be created in centrifuge models carefully to avoid problems caused by stress errors. “Cohesion” of filamentous fiber reinforced soil comes from friction between soil and fibers. Jie Yuxin and Guang-Xin Li studied the stability of cohesive soil slope and fiber-reinforced soil slope with different densities through centrifugal model tests. KEYWORDS: Embankment . it is superior in reducing horizontal tension than geogrids(A. la répartition des contraintes dans le remblai renforcé est améliorée de façon significative comparé avec celle du remblai non-renforcé. acid dissolution and durability. The reinforcement materials include metal strips. this technique has applied successfully by reinforcing the embankment using filamentous fibers in embankment projects. Linli J. Sinong L. Jie Yuxin and Li Guangxin 1999). the behavior of geosynthetic-reinforced embankments has been explored using centrifugal and finite element modeling. The main parameters of the centrifuge are indicated in Table 1. Also. RÉSUMÉ : Dans cet article. as well as the constraint force of the fiber network. same deformation and same failure mechanism in an 1/ n scale model as in a full-scale prototype. Yang Xiwu and Ouyang Zhongchun obtained the deformation behavior of embankments which reinforced with various fiber styles. De plus. The main parameters of the centrifuge Characteristic Maximum volume weight Maximum load Value 60g·t 600kg(100g) 300kg(200g) Effective radius 2. centrifuge model tests were performed using the TLJ—60 centrifuge in Chongqing Jiaotong University.. concrete slabs. Shi Bin and Gu Kai 2011.Hyde and M.0m Maximum acceleration 200g Acceleration control accuracy Model box size ±0.5%F·S 600mm×350mm ×500mm 2. 1:90 scale centrifuge model was constructed. The presence of geosynthetic filamentous fibers in reticular structure provides the reinforced soil embankments strength to resist crack. the distribution of stress in the geosynthetic-reinforced soil embankment is significantly ameliorated compared with the unreinforced. bamboo ribs and geosynthetic materials.1. China ABSTRACT: Centrifuge models and numerical analysis of geosynthetic-reinforced and unreinforced soil embankments are presented. Les résultats obtenus à l’aide de la centrifugeuse sont comparés avec ceux des analyses numériques. Chongqing Jiaotong University.1. is widely used in studying geotechnical problems. les résultats de modèles de centrifugeuse et les analyses numérique des remblais renforcés par géotextile et non-renforcés sont présentés.Ismail 1988). Chongqing. strength. The magnitudes of CBR and unconfined compressive strength(UCS) increase with augment of filamentous fibers linearly(Xiong Youyan 1989)., Ningyu Z. 2 CENTRIFUGE TESTS Centrifuge model testing..

362 19mm-0. Deformation of the unreinforced model Figure 4.2 (b) Full-scale prototype (m) Figure 1.2. The marked model 2.167 34.1%Polypropylene-reinforced soil 94. Table 3.Proceedings of the 18th International Conference on Soil Mechanics and Geotechnical Engineering.193 Plasticity index 6. Table 3 gives the triaxial test strength of the embankment soil with the fiber ratio of 1 ‰.4 Deformation measuring An array of pins was installed on the front face of the embankment model as deformation marker.1. the results obtained from unreinforced embankment test are compared with the results obtained from reinforced embankment test.951 2. From the close comparison between unreinfroced and reinforced embankments.3 and Fig. then sieved by 6mm sieve to remove impurities. Two cracks on the top of the unreinforced embankment and (heave) beyond the toe of the unreinforced embankment were observed at the end of the centrifuge tests.2 shows the details of the marked model. 2430 Figure 3. Paris 2013 (a) (a) 1:90 scale centrifuge model (cm) (b) Figure 2.2%Polypropylene-reinforced soil 138. it is evident that fiber reinforcement reduced the displacement of embankment. 2 ‰ and 3 ‰ respectively. soil sample was experienced airing and grinding.15 26. This was used for measuring the model vertical and horizontal displacement from coordinate difference between beginning of test and the end of test through the front perspex window. The settlements under the shoulder of the unreinforced embankment and the slope gradient were considerably greater than those of reinforced embankment.928 20. Fig.4 show the displacement vectorgraph of unreinforced and reinforced embankment respectively. Fig.9 2. The deformation of unreinforced embankment was slightly larger than the deformation of reinforced embankment. Table 2.3%Polypropylene-reinforced soil 228. Brown weathered shale material properties Liquid Plastic Optimm Maximm limit (%) water dry density limit (%) 3 content (%) (g/cm ) 8. Deformation of geosynthetic-reinforced model .005 35.1. and enhanced the embankment obviously. Arrangement of model for centrifuge test and its prototype 2.717 19mm-0.735 Before the centrifuge test.1 Comparison analysis of deformation and displacement In this section. Embankment soil material parameters Embankment soil Cohesion(kPa) Friction angle(degrees) Unreinforced soil 49.3 Parameters of soil and fiber (1)The physical parameters of the soil Table 2 gives the parameters of the brown weathered shale that obtained from compaction test and liquid and plastic limit combined test. (2)The parameters of the fiber Polypropylene fiber with 19mm length was proposed to construct the fiber reinforced soil embankment model.077 19mm-0.356 35. Centrifuge tests—summary of results 2.294 36.

8m from the centerline.005 49. The maximum lateral displacement of reinforced model was 38.2m from the toe of the embankment with 35cm.167 94.2. Two-dimensional plane strain models were constructed with boundary conditions similar to those of centrifuge models. The maximum lateral displacement of unreinforced model was 79. and the maximum settlement was 48. the parameters obtained from triaxial tests. For reinforced case.2cm (located in the distance of 10.7 shows the variation of lateral displacement and vertical displacement of unreinforced embankment from centrifuge tests.442cm (located in the distance of 11. Material parameters specified for the finite element analysis PolypropyleneUnreinforced reinforced Characteristic Foundation embankment embankment (19mm-0.246cm (located in the distance of 11.23 0.1%) Density 2150 2180 2150 (kg/m3) Cohesion 49. Superimposed on the measured variation are the variations computed by numerical modeling analysis. (2) without considering the influence of temperature to embankment. Stress contours of unreinforced and reinforced model 4 Displacement comparison The computed results indicated that the values of deformation and stress as well as its fluctuation range were marginally less for reinforced embankment than for unreinforced embankment.6% of the maximum lateral displacement of unreinforced embankment and the maximum settlement of reinforced embankment is approximately equal to 84. the unreinforced and reinforced embankments are modeled using the Drucker-Prager constitutive model (D-P model).077 35.4m from the centerline).2 Parameters Table 4. the maximum lateral displacement emerged in the distance of 8.3 (a) stress contours of unreinforced model (b) stress contours of reinforced model Figure 6. Computed displacement of unreinforced and reinforced model 3. whereas the maximum lateral displacement of reinforced embankment is approximately equal to 48.27 0. 3. It is safely to conclude that the maximum displacement of both unreinforced and reinforced embankment approximately close to the same point. Fig. The maximum settlement was 48. The comparison between computation analysis and centrifuge tests of the embankment discloses that fibers help to resist the lateral thrust and lateral deformation of the embankment effectively.Technical Committee 211 / Comité technique 211 2. The modeling based on follow assumptions: (1) taking geotextile reinforced soil as homogeneously isotropic material. and without considering the impact of pore pressure.1 Assumptions of computing In the analysis presented in this paper.4m from the toe of the embankment). and the maximum settlement was 51.8% of the maximum settlement of unreinforced embankment.498cm (located in the centerline).077 angle(degrees) Poisson’s 0.717 34. 2431 . which located in the distance of 10. and the maximum settlement was 41.167 (kPa) Friction 34.4m from the toe of the embankment).6cm.27 ratio Depth of 18 18 36 embankment(m) 3.318cm (located in the centerline).5 and RESULTS AND COMPARISIONS Fig.6 present computed displacement and stress contours of the unreinforced and reinforced models respectively. (a) computed displacement of unreinforced model FINITE ELEMENT MODELLING (b) computed displacement of reinforced model Figure 5. (3) consolidation was completed under its gravity. which located in the distance of 8m from the toe of the embankment. This is due to the fact that fibers unified the overall redistribution of stress and reduced asymmetric settlement of embankment. It can be seen from Fig.2 Comparison analysis of settlement The maximum lateral displacement of unreinforced model was 72cm. 3 Fig.7 that there is a close agreement between the observed and computed displacements for centrifuge test and numerical analysis.

8. China Civil Engineering Journal33(5). Yang Xiwu and Ouyang Zhongchun. China Civil Engineering Journal2(5). Pennsylvania.Proceedings of the 18th International Conference on Soil Mechanics and Geotechnical Engineering. The comparison between the computed and observed displacement both in the horizontal direction and in the vertical direction for the reinforced embankment are shown in Fig. Researches and applications of fiber reinforced soils. For the case of reinforced embankments with fibers. Journal of Engineering Geology19(4). The comparisons between the centrifuge tests and computed results indicated the utility of fibers can enhance overall stability of embankment. the fiber reinforcement constrained the lateral displacement 2432 . Tang Chaosheng. Chongqing. 2012. Also. Chinese Journal of Geotechnical Engineering20(4). Jie Yuxin and Li Guangxin. Xiong Youyan. (a) (b) Figure 8. The computed displacement is quite close to the observed values for both lateral displacement and vertical displacement. it was found that the deformation. Proceedings of a SymposiumReinforcement at the ASCE Annual Convention. 1-61. When using geosynthetic fibers to reinforce embankment. Shi Bin and Gu Kai. it also shows two advantages: (1) reinforced embankment can resist cracks due to the network of intertwined fibers. Experimental study on the strengthened sreep slopes. and their variation range was considerably less than those for unreinforced case. Microstructural study on interfacial interactions between fiber reinforcedment. Bao Chenggang and Ding Jinhua. China.H. isotropic material than unreinforced soil. Geosynthetic-reinforced soils. 12-15. 610-614. and(2) the fiber reinforced soil is closer to a homogeneous. the magnitude of stress. Li Guangxin and Chen Lun. Chongqing Highway Science Research Institute. Pittsburgh. M. Soil Engineering and Foundation26(1). REFERENCES (a) (b) Figure 7. 51-55. 1998. Jie Yuxin.1989. 88-91. A study on colculation method of texsol. 1999. The development and future of reinforced earth. 2000. 80-83. measured and computed displacement of unreinforced model Vidal. Measured and computed displacement of reinforced model The behavior of reinforced embankment and unreinforced embankment was successfully investigated using centrifuge modeling and finite element analysis. Study of centrifugal model tests on texsol and cohesive soil slopes. 2011. 1978. Paris 2013 effectively. and the distribution of stress and deformation was harmonious comparing with the unreinforced.

présentent des tassements supplémentaires sous l’effet des charges transmises par les fondations. not only quantitatively. On the experimental polygons. This objective can be achieved by adding bentonite. 40. en maintenant toutefois les valeurs du coefficient de perméabilité le plus bas possible. 1 INTRODUCTION Moisture-sensitive or collapsible soils are unsaturated macroporous cohesive soils that. Collapsible soil spreading in Romania (Bally. KEYWORDS: collapsible soils.. Le but des essais de pénétration dynamique a été d’obtenir des résultats concernant l’amélioration des caractéristiques mécaniques des colonnes et du terrain de fondation. SC Geosond SA Bucharest ABSTRACT: Moisture-sensitive or collapsible soils are materials with high porosity that under the loads transmitted by the foundations present additional settlements once the soil is saturated. compacted soil columns.Antonescu 1971) Difficult foundation soil improvement methods are continuously progressing. Une des méthodes de fondation souvent utilisée sur ce type de sols est la réalisation de colonnes de matériel loessique compacté. A method often used for foundation on these soils is the realization of local loessoid material compacted columns.000 km2) and it is common particularly in the eastern part of the country (Figure 1). This category includes loess deposits and other high silt content soils with uneven porosity. Cette catégorie inclue les dépôts de loess et d’autres sols ayant un contenu élevé de silt avec une porosité irrégulière. A significant number of techniques aimed at improving the mechanical characteristics of difficult foundation soils have 2433 . dynamic penetration test. The aim of the dynamic penetration tests performed in the center and between the columns was to obtain results concerning the improvement of the mechanical characteristics of the columns and the foundation soil. Étude expérimentale menée en laboratoire et in-situ Burlacu C. on a realisé des essais à l'aide d'un pénétromètre dynamique sur des colonnes de sol compacté à une échelle de 1:5. it is forbidden to use granular material in loessoid soils. Technical University of Civil Engineering Bucharest. undergo sudden and irreversible changes of the internal structure. Laboratory and in-situ experimental study Colonnes de sols compactés utilisées pour des fondations sur sols effondrables. Criteria regarding physical characteristics: . A compromise may be reached by using a mixture of granular material and local loessoid soil in columns. the main criteria being the following: A. it must meet at least one criterion regarding the physical characteristics and one criterion regarding the mechanical of saturation: Sr < 0. 1:5 scale compacted soil columns were made using a dynamic penetrometer. suite à la saturation. ceux-ci peuvent toutefois être utilisés pour la réalisation de colonnes dans un mélange avec du sol loessique.. Dans le cadre d’un programme expérimental. RÉSUMÉ : Les sols effondrables sont des matériaux avec une porosité élevée. On peut atteindre cet objectif par l’addition de bentonite. moisture-sensitive soils cover about 19% of the country’s territory (approx. upon saturation with water. Criteria regarding mechanical behaviour: . soil mixtures. reflected by additional settlements with collapsing character and decreases in the values of geotechnical parameters of mechanical behaviour (NP 125: 2010). Cet article présente un programme expérimental de laboratoire qui vise à réaliser un mélange optimal de matériaux lœssiques avec du sable pour améliorer les valeurs des paramètres mécaniques du sol. as a result of both the development of new technologies and the recognition of economic and environmental protection benefits of modern methods. This paper presents the experimental laboratory program aiming to achieve an optimal mixture of local material (loess) and monogranular sand in order to improve the values of the mechanical soil parameters while keeping the permeability coefficient values as low as possible. qui. but also qualitatively. According to the Romanian legislation.ratio of silt fraction: 50 – 80% . Olinic E. Manea S.the index of the additional settlement caused by saturation under a loading of 300 kPa (in oedometric test): im300 ≥ 2%. Bien que la législation roumaine interdise l’utilisation de matériaux sableux dans des sols loessiques. In Romania. In order to characterize a soil as moisture sensitive. 2 IMPROVEMENT METHODS FOR COLLAPSIBLE SOILS Figure 1. Department of Soil Mechanics and Foundations Uţă P.Compacted soil columns for foundations on collapsible soils.8 .porosity in natural state: n > 45% B.

In the first case.physical methods – soil improvement technologies. If. Paris 2013 been developed. it was also mixed with the loess (Olinic 2012). In order to reach uniform results. the variation of the density in dry condition depending on the height of the compacted sample was analyzed and confirmed (Figure 2). the results of the Proctor trial for all the mixtures obtained. the optimal compaction moisture of the mixtures decreases The synthesis of the oedometre compressibility tests depending on the oedometric moduli values indicated that the same values Eoed 200-300 could be obtained for the mixture containing an addition of sand of 20%.mechanical methods – soil reinforcing technologies. In what concerns samples with bentonite. by which structural elements are introduced in the ground in order to increase the mechanical strength – mechanical characteristics improvement methods. a series of mixtures have been proposed: loess with sand 1-2 mm (Cu = 1. Results of Proctor test for mixtures 3 and 4. it has been observed that along with adding up and increasing the As to the values of the permeability coefficient. This trend disappeared once the percentage of sand in the mixture was increased (40%). in order to validate the results. at smaller humidity values and at a better tamping state than in case of the natural loess samples. by which soil structure is mainly improved in what concerns contacts between particles by additives or by reducing porosity in order to increase the tamping state . which was also confirmed by the values obtained following Proctor tests. Sondermann 2003): . the last indication regarding mixture 4 is important because it allows compaction at humidity values belonging to higher humidity domains. based on the compacted samples. Figure 3. As a result of the Proctor test outcome analysis (Figure 3). improving geotechnical parameters of mechanical behaviour and limiting permeability (Burlacu 2012). similar values of oedometric moduli were obtained at a better tamping state that in case of medium loess samples. The samples used for carrying out the mechanical tests were the ones surrounding the optimum compacted sample. Figure 4. To this purpose. in case of mixture 4. the optimal compaction characteristics of the proposed mixtures were determined and then. the same tamping state was obtained for humidity values between 11% and 15%. humidity plays a key role in the real scale compaction process. Dry density teoretical variation depending on the height of the compacted sample. In case of the last mixture. 3 percentage of sand in the mixture (from 20% to 40%). the maximum density in dry condition increases. in case of mixture 3. Mixture 4: 50% loess + mixture from (40% sand (1-2 mm) + 10% bentonite). Methods are divided into two wide categories (Schlosser 1997): . The difference between the last two mixtures consisted in the way they were mixed. This is why a certain sampling order was followed. wopt). in view of eliminating moisture sensitiveness. Mixture 2: 60% loess + 40% sand (1-2 mm). Figure 2.Proceedings of the 18th International Conference on Soil Mechanics and Geotechnical Engineering. all the three materials were simultaneously mixed and then water was added to reach different degrees of humidity in order to perform the normal Proctor test. the measured values were below 10-9 cm/s. Classification of results sought by difficult foundation soil improvement (Kirsch. while in case of the mixtures containing an addition of bentonite.5) and loess with sand and bentonite powder addition in two variants of mixture. but at a reduced tamping state than in case of samples with sand. the compressibility and shearing mechanical characteristics and the possible moisture-sensitivity of the compacted material were determined. various mixtures of loessoid material with different natural mineral materials have been proposed. The obtained mixtures are presented below: Mixture 1: 80% loess + 20% sand (1-2 mm). As a first step. LABORATORY TESTS In the experimental programme. 2434 . tests on this sample were carried out again and similar values were obtained (Figure 4). these have been of the order of 10-5 cm/s for the average loess sample rising up to values of 10-4 cm/s in case of the mixture containing 40% sand.physical characteristics improvement methods. .improving homogeneity. Therefore. Mixture 3: 50% loess + 40% sand (1-2 mm) + 10% bentonite. Given that. The Proctor diagram resulted for mixture 4 indicated that sample 3 could have represented a maximum point. the sand was first mixed with the bentonite and with water and then. At the same time.influencing permeability in order to reduce infiltrated water flow or to speed up consolidation process . after this mixture had dried.reducing compressibility . the Proctor diagram has a maximum point (dmax.increasing density and shearing strength .

It may be observed that. Successive tests regarding the obtained compaction degree indicated that rejection (compaction stopping) was reached after an advance of maximum 7mm/blow. Optimal cone shape On the experimental polygon. Cones made: a) C1 – 30°.85. the results obtained were similar for all the columns. Figure 6a presents the blow number variation per an advance of 10 cm in DPM tests performed in the centre of the columns and Figure 6b presents the same tests carried out at a distance of 2 diameters towards the column. the improvement effect recorded an obvious increase. c) @ 2Dc. average dynamic penetration tests were conducted both between the columns and at different distances towards them. Results of DPM tests carried out in the centre of the columns and at a distance of 2Dc (14cm) towards the columns. columns were executed by using the three types of cones. 2435 . Three types of cones with a diameter of 7 cm were made. b) C2 – 60°. 2 m long columns were executed. d) @ 3Dc.1 Column execution technology Collapsible soils improvement by soil columns is regulated by normative C29 . 1 (300) had the greatest influence on the tamping state of the soil around the column. DPM tests were carried out at a distance of 2Dc=14 cm towards the columns. In case of DPM tests carried out in the centre of the columns. arranged as an equilateral triangle network (Figure 7) with a distance of 3Dc 21 cm between the columns. at a distance of 3Dc near the columns. (Figure 5). Figure 6. c) C3 – hemisphere. Therefore. 4. the tamping of the surrounding ground and the compaction degree of the material in the column body. Figure 5. When the DPM test was carried out in the centre of the column group (Figure 8a). that cone no.5 kg of material having optimal compaction humidity. DPM tests results: a) between the columns. 4. Columns and DPM tests disposal. These tests indicated [as expected given its shape (the smallest angle at the top)]. resulting 1. After finishing the group of columns. The tests indicated that cone 1 shape (30°) was optimal for soil columns execution. for determining the cone with a wider influence radius.2 Figure 7. Column execution steps are: column hole execution. Figure 8. the improvement effect has no longer been perceived (Figure 8d). Then. The experimental polygon met the column execution methodology described in the normative but adapting it to the equipment that has been newly proposed for their execution (LMSR-Hk dynamic penetrometer). filling by fill material portions and fill material compaction until rejection.3 Compacted loess columns Therefore. an optimal shape of the cone that leads to a better compaction of the column body could not be found. The fill material portion was set for a column with a diameter of 7 cm and for a height of the compacted material of 21 cm (3 diameters). b) @ 1Dc. 4.Technical Committee 211 / Comité technique 211 4 IN SITU TESTS In-situ tests first aimed at identifying the effect of the cone shape on: the rate at which the cone advances in the ground.

1971. Germany. Proceedings of the Fourteenth International Confrence on Soil Mechanics and Fountation Engineering. at a scale of 1:5.4 Loess and sand mixture compacted columns 6 Finally. DPM tests results for the column executed from a mixture of loess and sand (N1): a) DPM in the centre of C1 and N1 columns. with better mechanical characteristics and with reduced permeability compared to the one the loess has in its natural state.50. Paris 2013 4. Personal comunication. Ernst & Sohn. unlike the compacted loess column.loess complex that has not been flooded does not improve. Ground improvement. From all the solutions proposed (compacted loess. but one can notice that water sensitivity is significantly reduced and that. Technical University of Civil Engineering Bucharest. For the execution of these columns. 5 REFERENCES CONCLUSIONS Laboratory tests aimed at identifying a mixture of loess and natural mineral materials. Volume 4. Hamburg.ent des sols. Chapter 2. Bucharest. collapsible soils. Moreover. 1 . but this technique leads to some nuclei capable of reducing the negative effect of the accidental flooding of loess. Tehnica Publishing House. cone 1 (30°) was also used as rammer. 2012. Normative for foundation of buildings on moisture –s sensitive. simulated the execution of loess columns and of loess with compacted sand columns. Concerning mechanical characteristics. without significantly exceeding the mechanical behaviour of natural loess that has not been flooded. sand and bentonite) the last one (mixture 4 . compared to the flooded loess. 2436 .1. In-situ tests. Loessoid soils in constructions. Kirsch K. 2012. b) DPM at 2Dc towards C1 and N1 columns Figure 9a indicates that the results of the DPM tests carried out in the centre of the column executed from a mixture of loess and sand are better that those of the column made entirely of loess. the results of the medium dynamic penetration test carried out near the columns at a distance of 2Dc (~14 cm) indicate that the tamping effect is higher that in case of the loess column. Schlosser. the one made of mixture led to the improvement of the material under the column's body. Exposé sur la themè: Améliorqtion et renforce. mixture of loess and sand and mixture of loess. no significant differences seem to exist between the analysed mixtures. Nevertheless. PhD Thesis.Proceedings of the 18th International Conference on Soil Mechanics and Geotechnical Engineering. Geotechnical engineering handbook. Berlin. Volume 2: Procedures. 2445 – 2466. mixed with loess after drying) seems to be the optimal one due to the wide domain in which optimal compaction parameters are reached. Bally R. the mechanical behaviour of the columns . The sand improves the mechanical behaviour of the material in the column body. 2003.sand and bentonite. Romania. on the experimental polygon columns of 60% local material (loess) and 40% sand were executed.J. Germany. the values obtained are significantly better. Both the quality of the material in the column body and the effect on the surrounding ground were verified by typical tests. NP 125:2010. Olinic E. performed with a penetrometer. and Antonescu I. (in Romanian) Burlacu C. it may be noticed that. and Sondermann W. (in Romanian) Figure 9. Contributions to improvement solutions for weak foundation soils. 1997. By executing columns of compacted local material with natural mineral materials.

Fractal and box dimensions are used to estimate the irregular surface. Juzwa 2012b. Les modèles développés seront utilisés pour vérifier les méthodes d’ingénierie et pour dimensionner les colonnes de jet grouting. seldom existing in practice. Wanik L. considering the environment division into three material zones: the soil-cement material of jet grouting columns – the contact layer – the subsoil (Bzówka 2009. rapport eau/ciment. qui définissent la géométrie des colonnes de jet grouting. on présente les découvertes les plus récentes liées aux modélisations numériques de l’interaction entre les colonnes de jet et du sol. L’espace du modèle est divisé en trois zones: colonnes. la pression de coulis injecté. like the injection rod pull out velocity and number of rotations. The authors emphasise especially as precise as possible reflection of real conditions. The Silesian University of Technology. Les analyses numériques sont effectuées par les programmes basés sur la méthodes des éléments finis (Z_Soil). The description of shape of a shaft surface of jet grouting columns is very difficult. 2010). It is one of the most popular methods for subsoil strengthening. interaction between columns and subsoil. soil and the contact layer formed between the columns and the soil massif.. The newest achievements of the numerical explanation of the interaction between jet grouting columns and subsoil are presented in the paper. A single column and a group of columns are the subject of numerical and in situ analysis. 1 JET GROUTIMG COLUMNS INTERACTION WITH SUBSOIL The jet grouting method is frequently used in the engineering practice. The main element of this analysis consists of selection and calibration of computational model of the "group of jet grouting columns – subsoil" interaction. It may be used for nearly all types of soils. sont utilisées pour estimer la surface latérale irrégulière des colonnes. Les colonnes réalisées par cette méthode se caractérisent par la grande capacité portante (coefficient de frottement très élevé sur la surface latérale). To explain the interaction between the jet grouting columns and the strengthened subsoil it is suggested to apply numerical methods and to build models reflecting the operation of a single column and the interaction of jet grouting columns group in transferring the load to deeper soil layers. Ce modèle permet de choisir d’une manière précise des paramètres de formation des colonnes tels que: vitesses . shape and dimensions of jet grouting column. It does not work only for a subsoil built of organic soils. e. Les dimensions de type fractal et de boîte. sol et couche de contact formée entre les colonnes et le massif du sol. Modoni and Bzówka 2012). les fondations déjà existantes et on s’en sert aussi comme les parois verticales et horisontales étanches (imperméables à l’eau). which define the geometry of jet grouting columns. La description de la forme des surfaces latérales de ces colonnes est extrêmement difficile. would ensure safety of a structure designed this way and at the same time would contribute to the works costs cutting. KEYWORDS: jet grouting technique.Selected problems connected with the use of the jet grouting technique Certains problèmes liés à l’application de la technologie d’injection de jet Bzówka J. The model space is divided into three zones: columns. enhancement for existing foundation. A single column is an idealised form. A solution is sought. Because of a physical inhomogeneity and of a complicated geometrical arrangement the finite element method was used to 2437 . Poland ABSTRACT: The paper presents selected problems connected with the use of the jet grouting technique. For the needs of analysis of interactions occurring between jet grouting columns strengthening a weak subsoil and the soil body numerical models were constructed.g. close to a column cylinder shape. both natural and man-made. which would allow optimising design solutions of jet grouting columns. injection pressure and the water/cement ratio. The computational model describes the interaction between a group of jet grouting columns and rotation et d’avancement en descente de la tige de forage. The method consists in a high-pressure injection into the subsoil of an injectant stream (most often being a cement grout). vertical and horizontal waterproof cut-off walls. This solution – because of the speed of performance and very good parameters of subsoil strengthening – is frequently used to strengthen a weak subsoil under high transport embankments or bridge abutments (Bzówka 2009. Dans cet article. alors on a introduit la théorie de fractales pour la décrire. Juzwa A. Cette technique est une de méthodes les plus utilisées pour renforcer le sous-sol. However. The computational model allows for a plastic character of deformation under load and especially for a non-linearity of contact zone. Columns made using this method feature a high bearing capacity (very high friction on the shaft). Computational analyses are conducted using software based on the finite element method (Z_Soil). Le modèle de calcul permet d’avoir des déformations plastiques et en particulier de déformation non-linéaire de la zone de contact. forming – after binding with soil fractions – a petrified soilcement composite of any geometrical form. existing on a site. Le modèle de calcul décrit l’interaction entre un groupe de colonnes de jet grouting et le sol. Gliwice. The created models will be used to verify engineering methods of jet grouting columns dimensioning.. L’apport le plus important de cette analyse réside dans le choix et le calage du modèle de calcul pour l’interaction « groupe de colonnes de jet grouting – sol". RÉSUMÉ : Cet article présente quelques problèmes liés à l’utilisation de la technique d’amélioration des sols : le jet grouting. which cuts and disintegrates the soil body. so the fractal theory is used to describe this shape. This model allows a precise selection of formation parameters. the analysis of its behaviour is a starting point to make models more realistic and built of a group of columns. le nombre de rotation.

0 m long and 0. To perform computer simulations it is necessary to give the following parameters: angle of internal friction Φ. A more precise description of roughness and geometrical parameters of soil particles allows a more detailed determination of such properties as: porosity.Proceedings of the 18th International Conference on Soil Mechanics and Geotechnical Engineering. Boundary conditions were taken in the form of: full fixing of the base of the halfspace cut and partial fixing. Paris 2013 build models and the Z_Soil software was used for computations.5 MPa. Determination of material parameters for a cementsoil material depends on the subsoil ground characteristics. The paper presents an example of fractal dimension and box dimension calculation for an excavated jet grouting column made in a single system (see Fig. an irregular shaft surface was disclosed and also a clear change of column diameter on the boundary of two layers forming the subsoil (see Fig. density and shear strength (Bzówka and Skrzypczyk 2011). Figure 1. To determine them it is necessary to take core samples from the column performed (Fig. arranged at a distance of 2. 2009). a) 2438 . its shape and roughness. a) b) Figure 2. A statistical analysis of result values was carried out and after approximation with the first type regression function the following parameters were taken for calculations: E = 9888 MPa. Core samples for strength tests (Bzówka.0°. Corresponding stresses are shown in Fig. which parameters affect the distribution of internal forces values in the system (Bzówka et al. The grid was concentrated in the area of contact zone.35÷0. 2. Φ = 59. Division into quadrilateral isoparametric elements was assumed. 2012.0 m. size and shape of injection nozzles. ν = 0. c = 1 kPa. Φ = 18. reflecting a real transport embankment 4. ν. An elastic – ideally plastic model of Coulomb – Mohr boundary surface with non-associated law of flow were adopted to describe the mechanical behaviour of the soil environment and the jet grouting columns material.3°. cement type in the grout. ν = 0.0 m high. modulus of elasticity E and Poisson’s ratio ν.8 MPa. The value of angle of dilatancy was introduced from the range of values Ψ = (0. Φ. c = 30 kPa. Values of soil parameters (E. These samples are then tested for uniaxial and triaxial compression. 2 GEOMETRY OF JET GROUTING COLUMNS The shape of columns made by the jet grouting technique. is very diversified and difficult to predict. Juzwa 2012a).5 m. angle of dilatancy Ψ. under which a stiff silty clay was situated. 2012b.8°. Values of parameters for soils building the model subsoil were taken based on in situ tests on a test site. 6÷8). The shaft may have various shapes (Fig.186. An incremental load (uniform for all columns) was applied to such system.3. allowing a vertical shift. speed of injection rod pulling out and rotations and others) (Wanik and Bzówka 2012).3. Fractal theories may be used to describe an irregular surface of jet grouting columns. c = 1772 kPa. for a cohesive soil interbedding: E = 33. the method of columns performance. on side surfaces of the halfspace In the model of a flat system a group of 3 columns was taken. For the needs of this study 10 samples were tested for each case. To determine precisely the geometry of jet grouting columns they are excavated. The described jet grouting column was made in average compacted medium sand. while the subsoil is stratified. 4) depending on the aforementioned factors. The stress maps perfectly show the range of transition zone. Model deformations [m] under influence of the load of embankment: a) h=2. The image of system deformations caused by columns loading is presented for two stages in Fig. for sand: E = 55. the injection system used (single. A 2D model was built cutting from the space around columns an area large enough.8 m in diameter. due to specific nature of this technology. making their measurement and macroscopic visual inspection possible. Their values equal to soil parameters reduced by 1/3. allowing idealisation of boundary conditions. b) h=4. each of them 4. double or triple) and on technological parameters (injection pressure. Results of studies presented in papers (Kawa and Wieczorek 2005. c) were taken for the contact zone based on CPT sounding performed in this area. 1). Wanik and Bzówka 2012) have been used. laid at fixed intervals in layers 0. 2012. ν = 0. Using a fractal and a box dimension it is possible to describe better an irregular shaft surface of a jet grouting column.40)·Φ.0 m high (Z_Soil) (Bzówka et al. After column excavating and cleaning. The following values were taken. Wanik 2012a. 5). 3. It depends inter alia on the type and condition of soils making the subsoil. Juzwa 2012a). obtaining results of significant scatter (Bzówka 2009). cohesion c. Φ = 31.5 m thick.

b) h=4.Technical Committee 211 / Comité technique 211 a) a) b) b) c) d) Figure 3. Juzwa 2012a). Map of vertical stresses of the model under influence of the load of embankment: a) h=2.0 m. 2439 . Wanik). and K. Different shapes of excavated jet grouting columns (photos: J.0 m high (Z_Soil) (Bzówka et al. 2012. Figure 4. Bzówka.

Wanik 2012a). Structure (photo: J. Monograph: Experimental and theoretical tests in Civil Engineering published by the Silesian University of Technology. Monograph published by the Silesian University of Technology. Fractal dimension and box dimension for jet grouting column. 6774 (in Polish). 2005. Fractal dimensions in geotechnics. Juzwa A. z. Method for determining box dimension for column (Kawa and Wieczorek 2005. No. such as: the injection pressure. 4. 2440 REFERENCES Bzówka J. Wanik L. Computational description of interaction between group of jet grouting columns and subsoil. Figure 8. Monograph: Experimental and theoretical tests in Civil Engineering published by the Silesian University of Technology. Subsoil strengthening by using jet grouting technology. 2012b. Fractals application in geotechnics. circumference shape and to assess the shaft structure. 2124 (in Polish). Theoretical models require repetitions and calibration. 2012. the injection rod pulling out and rotation speed. Gliwice (in Polish). Wanik L. and Juzwa A. Zeszyty Naukowe Politechniki Rzeszowskiej. Influence of various factors on geometry of jet grouting columns. 2009. Master thesis. 2010. 445455. Modoni G. The Silesian University of Technology. . Scientific Conference on Natural and Technical Problems of Environmental Engineering – Soil parameters from in situ and laboratory tests. of the 9th International Conference on New Trends in Statics and Dynamics of Buildings. Bratislava. the density of injected cement grout as well as the number and size of injection nozzles. Method for determining fractal dimension for column (Kawa and Wieczorek 2005. Wanik L. t. The shape and dimensions of formed jet grouting columns depend on the type and condition of soils building the subsoil and on technological parameters of columns forming. and Skrzypczyk J. Juzwa A. 133141 (in Polish). of excavated jet grouting column SUMMARY Issues presented in the paper show the scale of problems related to the representation of actual interaction of jet grouting columns with the surrounding subsoil. Selected problems of jet grouting application. Gliwice. Poznań 27-29 September 2010. Paris 2013 3 Figure 5. Bzówka J. Mathematical issues from the field of fractal and box dimension allow creating a clear description of a complicated shape of jet grouting columns shaft. No. Kawa K. 2012. Inżynieria Morska i Geotechnika. 2012a. and Wanik L. Budownictwo i Inżynieria Środowiska. Application of fractals to describe shape of jet grouting columns. To verify geometry of columns made it is necessary to perform excavations and to measure the diameter. Gliwice (in Polish). ASCEJournal of Geotechnical and Geoenvironmental Engineering. and Bzówka J.59 (3/12/IV). 20-21 October 2011. It is especially important to determine the thickness and parameters of the contact zone formed at the contact of column material and the subsoil. 2012b. 22-25 July 2012. No. 5 Figure 6. 9th fib International PhD Symposium in Civil Engineering. Karlsruhe Institute of Technology. Interaction between jet grouting columns and subsoil. 2012a. 432434 (in Polish). Bzówka J. Bzówka J. Bzówka). 4. Wanik 2012a).Proceedings of the 18th International Conference on Soil Mechanics and Geotechnical Engineering. 2012. Proc. 4. making the obtained results realistic. 283. 514519 (in Polish). A large number of factors affecting geometry and hence related columns bearing capacity and the soilcement material strength causes problems in designing. Analysis of foundations reinforced with jet grouting. Inżynieria Morska i Geotechnika. Slovakia. and Wieczorek W. Gliwice. and Bzówka J. 2011. FEM analysis of interaction of jet grouting column with subsoil. 117124 (in Polish). Figure 7. Fractal and box dimensions in description of jet grouting columns geometry. 4 ACKNOWLEDGEMENT The coAuthors: Anna Juzwa and Lidia Wanik received a grant of the DoktoRIS project – a scholarship program for innovative Silesia region cofinanced by the European Union of the European Social Fund. Faculty of Civil Engineering. Germany.

treatments made by rigid inclusions are analyzed and compared with stone columns. les colonnes ballastées présentent un comportement ductile déterminée dans le domaine de l'état limite de service. in order to absorb the largest load of embankment as possible. Il a été observé que les risques de colonnes rigides dans les ELS peut être retardés à moins que on installe quelques éléments de drainage. Kellerterra S. instead of direct soil replacement or preloading with or without vertical drains. a considerable mobilization of negative skin friction and punching effects governs their behavior in the Ultimate Limit State. reinforced piles with concrete cap were applied. La rigidité de la colonne détermine la conception et les risques associés. arching effect 1 INTRODUCTION Column Supported Embankments (CSE) represent an innovative solution for transport infrastructure over soft soils. further risk assessment has to be done. In 2441 Soil with intermediate Stiffness Floating Columns Firm Soil Figure 1.L. It is pointed out. The improvement introduced by such columns mainly consists of the load transfer to the stiffer layers in the same way as piles. Offenbach. 2 2. may be decisive in the design of CSE composed by low-heights embankments. thus. Particularly. which represents a non-ductile mechanism of failure. the columns made by the addition of bonding agents. Hence. les inclusions rigides présentent des risques plus élevés. Stiffness of column-type elements determines the design and risks involved. risk. which take important part of the foundation load. mortar or concrete into the ground. column stiffness also affects consolidation process and the system behavior against cyclic or dynamic loading. Briefly. do not accelerate consolidation. stiffness. On the other side. Whereas stone columns present a ductile behavior determined in the domain of Serviceability Limit State (SLS).. Keller Holding GmbH. On a remarqué aussi que les risques associés aux inclusions rigides soumises aux chargements cycliques peuvent être décisives pour remblais de faible hauteur. Recently. En particulier. that possible damages on CSE systems may extend settlement stabilization due to the consolidation process. University of Cantabria.Column Supported Embankments for Transportation Infrastructures: Influence of Column Stiffness. une mobilisation considérable du frottement négatif et la portance résultante gouvernent leur comportement dans l'état limite ultime. stone columns. Au contraire. Germany ABSTRACT: Ground improvement methods based on column-type elements are analyzed regarding the influence of the column properties on serviceability and safety of the Column Supported Embankments (CSE). Santander. et on présente la comparaison avec des colonnes ballastées. Initially.1 order to optimize the solution. it could be stated that rigid inclusions present higher risks. the use of CSE is increasing. and consequently growing interest in developing reliable and unified criteria for their design and construction is observed. ce qui représente un mécanisme non-ductile de rupture. ground improvement methods have been increasingly used in the last years. It is also noted that risks related to rigid columns in the SLS under cyclic loading. whenever possible.. RÉSUMÉ : On analyse les méthodes d'amélioration des sols avec des colonnes pour la fondation des remblais sur sols mous. Vukotić G. Elements of Column Supported Embankment Systems . Dans le cas des inclusions rigides. Risks and reliability related to CSE could be largely analyzed considering the influence of column stiffness in Ultimate and Serviceability Limit States. Furthermore. but only the difference between the required and existing bearing capacity without improvement (Wehr et al. rigid inclusion. on analyse les inclusions rigides selon les recommandations du récent projet national français ASIRI. geosynthetic. embankment. very often decisive for safety and serviceability. Ground improvement methods should intent not to take the entire action by the supporting elements. These two types of columns accelerate the consolidation process and do not need any embedment to transfer the loads to stiffer soil layers. Rigid inclusions are analyzed according to the recent French national project ASIRI. des effets de consolidation et du chargement cyclique Carvajal E. thereby they can be considered as authentic ground improvements. 2012). However. to ensure their correct application the largest embedment is frequently desired. Madrid. Ainsi. due to the possibility of application of a wide range of ground improvement techniques. Consolidation Effects and Cyclic Loading Remblais sur sols renforcés avec de colonnes ballastées pour les infrastructures de transport: Influence de la rigidité des colonnes. Load Transfer Platform (LTP) COLUMNS SUPPORTED EMBANKMENT SYSTEMS HC Embankment Plane with S = 0 Geosynthetics Pile cap End Bearing Columns Type of columns Soft Soil Typical elements of CSE systems are shown in Figure 1. de plus en plus lorsque leur diamètre est plus petit que 30 cm. In the case of these elements. and make the most of soil confinement to ensure its own capacity. if no drainage elements are adopted. Spain Sagaseta C. Spain Wehr W. the use of low-height embankments based on column-type elements tends to be preferred. This is applicable to stone and sand columns. increasingly when their diameters are smaller than 30 cm. in order to reduce execution time and general earthworks. KEYWORDS: Load Transfer Platform.

As stated by several authors. where W is the weight of embankment and Q is the force due to surcharge on the surface.6 times the clear distances between columns (s . Gangakhedar (2004) performed a numerical analysis of the influence of Young’s modulus of the columns. the method proposed by Combarieu (1974. 1988). deals not only with the load transfer into LTP but also along the entire length of rigid columns. and the critical Height HC. and that differential settlements tends to be much higher with the increase of column modulis if no geosynthetic reinforcement is considered. The efficacy or efficiency E. 2008).a). (Figure 2d).2 Load Transfer Platform The design and operation of CSE is largely influenced by the load transmission mechanism toward the columns. see Figure 2a. so far there is not any analytical method (commonly used) that takes into account the variation of column stiffness. Figure 3 shows that differential settlements increase with increasing column modulus. with predominantly round crosssections of 25 cm to 80 cm diameter. or composed by layers treated with hydraulic binder. 3 3. and accordingly numerical modelling usually have to be performed to analyze the influence of column stiffness. Consequently almost all load is acting on the columns heads. of about 80 to 120 MPa. Chevalier et al. Rigid inclusions may be arranged in a regular grid. Otherwise. In the latter case. According mentioned approaches HC varies from 0. Results indicate that confined modulus ratios beyond 40 to 50 do no suppose considerable increments on improvement factor . Influence of column modulus on the differential settlements within Load Transfer Platform (Gangakhedar 2004). Kirsch (2004) analyzed the influence of the ratio between confined modulus of columns and soil on the improvement factor ratio of settlements with and without improvement). E and HC depend on many factors such as column rigidity. (2008). due to horizontal stresses sometimes have to be distributed in wall or panel form in order to overcome slope and internal instability. It is well known that stone columns have a load-carrying mechanism by lateral bulging. although. EBGEO 2010.Proceedings of the 18th International Conference on Soil Mechanics and Geotechnical Engineering.7 to 1. 1988). LTP behavior is essentially determined by two parameters. Mechanism of load transfer in the CSE: (a) approaches of arching-effect shape. 1º Figure 2c shows the mechanism of load transfer proposed in the ASIRI. or modulus ratio are larger than 40 to 50. on the differential settlements at the base of geosynthetic reinforced embankment. defined as the ratio between load on the column head QP and the total load on the surrounding soil within a unit cell (W + Q). whereas rigid inclusions transmit the load by skin friction and punching effect on their tip and head. which indicates the height of embankment where differential settlements in between column head and middle of the grid are negligible. (c) load transfer mechanism proposed by Combarieu (1974. considering a void between rigid elements. It can be noted that such mechanism is quite similar to those exhibited by the combined pile-raft foundations (CPRF). Figure 3. (d) influence of confined modulus on improvement factor (Kirsch 2004). spacing between columns. Paris 2013 (b) (b) (a) (c) (d) Figure 2. If columns rigidity exceeds this limits. and below this neutral plane the load in the columns is transferred through positive skin friction and tip resistance. are denominated Rigid Inclusion according to the French national research project ASIRI (Améliorations de Sols par Inclusions Rigides). LTPs are generally composed by a layer of compacted granular material that in many cases has to be reinforced by geosynthetics. where differential settlements between soil and columns produce negative skin friction in the upper part of the column. and governed by mobilization of negative skin friction. According to these methods only a minor part or even any soil reaction is considered. Therefore. Most theoretical methods focus on the requirements of the geosynthetic within LTPs for piled embankments. 2. approximately.1 INFLUENCE OF THE COLUMN CHARACTERISTICS Columns stiffness Unfortunately. Such approaches could be classified according to the shear stress form-distribution that governs the mechanism of arch load-transfer and differential settlements within the LTP (Han and Colling 2005). The geosynthetic takes the load that remains in the middle of columns and delivers it to the column heads by means of membrane effect. Furthermore. the cost-operating inefficiency of columns may be stated when column modulus are higher than 120 MPa. Several guidelines or recommendations documents deal with these methods (BS8006 2010. ASIRI project's recommendations are based on various physical and numerical modelling (Jenck 2005. Although it can be noted that there exists a greater increase of differential settlements when modulis are higher than those usually obtained for stone columns. Figure 3 depicts that such 2442 . even the most relevant numerical modelling that can be found in the literature has no focus on the risks and suitability aspects related to the column stiffness. the skin friction is equal to zero. (b) resultsof laboratory test performed by Chen et al. and soft soil stiffness (Zaeske and Kempfert 2001. However. Nordic Handbook 2005). These kinds of columns. shear strength of LTP layers. Similarly. the usual amount of differential settlement obtained in the column head implies a behavior controlled by its ultimate limit state (ULS). and adopted in the ASIRI Recommendations. through a Load Transfer Platform (LTP) laid out at the base of embankment. CSE system requires an increase on the capacity of geosynthetic-reinforcement and the additional improvement is negligible. at certain depth where settlements are the same in soil and columns. Okay 2010).

due to internal failure of geosyntheticreinforcement. the consolidation would occur in the long term. and additionally provides greater confinement to the columns.g. (Castro and Sagaseta 2009) 4 GENERAL ASPECTS OF SAFETY VERIFICATION There is a range of recommendations that attempt to unify design of LTPs composed by geosynthetic-reinforcement layers. Wehr et al. regarding to columns-type elements. but without any capacity and structural connections. Such results suppose an improvement of the whole column-soil system. In this case. the design is usually focused to guarantee the ULSs. rigid columns with diameter larger than 30 cm. According to what has been stated here about the higher level of risk exhibited by the rigid inclusions with small diameter. Taking into account the ASIRI recommendations. flexible elements like stone columns tend to reduce the punching effects at the base of embankment. 2443 effective stress of soil tends to increase. very similar to piles. Regarding to the external bearing capacity (GEO) for rigid inclusions. Figure 4a shows an example of this complex mechanism reported by Alonso et al. according to the permeability of the natural soil.Technical Committee 211 / Comité technique 211 Figure 4. the behavior of such system takes place in the domain of serviceability limit state (SLS). after short period of consolidation. as well as the horizontal stresses. In the case of stone columns. rigid inclusions are used to ensure the global stability. Moreover. due to column compressibility and its drainage characteristics. 1984). whereas. the ultimate limit state is reached after large deformation and at the end of consolidation. Therefore.Buckling effects have to be checked when soft soil has pressuremeter modulus smaller than 3 MPa. EBGEO 2010. the punching failure in the head and toe of columns occurs immediately after the application of embankment load. the most important safety aspects of such elements will be commented. it would involve the evolution of neutral plane over the time. Figure 5. Furthermore. sand columns) are in category A. as settlements may reach levels corresponding tolarge percent of column diameter. Thus. However. taking as a reference the standards DIN 1054 and Eurocode 7. . are in category B. basically used in piled embankments (BS8006 2010. are in category C. the most important checks against the permanent loads will be punching at their heads and tips. that these recommendations deal with systems where almost entire load is transferred to bearing elements heads. showing that in the very beginning entire load is carried by the soil. and rigid inclusions with diameters less than 30 cm and non-ductile behavior. being quite sensitive to the variation of the soil parameters also. Time development of soil and column stresses. then rigid inclusions are used as settlement reducers. as a consequence of possible LTPs deteriorations. Castro and Sagaseta (2009) analyzed the evolution of stress concentration on the stone columns.1 Large-height embankment The ASIRI recommendations define two different situations: Domain 1: if the ULSs are not guaranteed without improvement. 4.2 Consolidation process The addition of cement agents disables the drainage capacity of rigid columns. it could be distinguished that when the CSE system comprises embankments with more than 3 to 5 m height. similarly to the French Eurocode 7 application for piles. Consequently. the risk should be assessed due to possible reduction or loss of the load concentration on columns (or efficiency factor) along the lifetime of the CSEs. deformation in the head of rigid inclusions may suppose the failure state.2. and associated risk increases with smaller diameters of rigid inclusion. 3. (c) influence of height and friction angle of embankment on Efficacy factor (Jenck 2005). hence negative skin friction is practically negligible. which represent a high risk. Nordic Handbook 2005). However. (2012) proposed three categories of increasing risks. an important negative skin friction is generated in the part of columns above the neutral plane. dominated by the increase of negative friction. Domain 2: if the ULSs are analyzed for the situation without improvement. However. which presents an average risk. it has to be emphasized. As it was mentioned in section 2. whereby settlements stabilization is obtained only due to a high load concentration on the columns. e. (a) Estimation of evolution of negative skin friction with degree of consolidation (Alonso et al. (1984). bending moments and shear stresses due to slope failures. and bearing capacity of rigid inclusions for both ULSs and SLSs have to be checked. This situation could occur if certain loss of arching effect happens. during the consolidation of pore pressures produced by the remaining part of embankment load that act on the soil. In this case the system gives a ductile behavior. the rapid settlements stabilization is expected due to their drainage capability. vibro compaction. and the final load concentration on the columns is obtained after consolidation (Figure 5). and only SLSs have to be proceeded. On the other side. the design of columntype elements is redirected to typical pile standards. flexible columns with small risks (stone columns. in order to assess the reliability of ground improvement methods according to their ductility and sensitivity to the variation of soil and materials parameters. (b) chart for geosynthetic design based of allowable differential settlement (Lawson 2000).

Num. 2004. Application à des cas de chargements statiques et dynamiques.745. 2009. So far it is not fully analyzed the behavior of CSE against the cyclic loading of traffic. 4. . 2005. it can be seen that when LTP is composed by materials with friction angle less than 20 degree the efficiency factor is drastically reduced. 2000. and no shear stress is allowed for unreinforced columns smaller than 30 cm. Influence of column deformation. which could cause severe damages to the rigid inclusions and pavement serviceability in the long term. 44. International Symposium – Ground improvement. 2001. 3. and Chen R. ASIRI National Project. Stockholm Okay U. 2010. Cao W. 2011. Negative skin friction on piles: a simplified analysis and prediction procedure. And Sonderman W. pp 341-357. United Kindong. Figure 6c shows an example of pavement deformation due to a combination of the effects mentioned. the geometry of the CSE systems has to be set to avoid excessive deformation in the surface of the embankments. Application à l’édification des remblais sur sols médiocres. 2004. Braunschweig. Australia.1984. 2012. especially when diameters of rigid inclusions are smaller than 30 cm. Lüking J. Code of practice for strengthened/ reinforced soils and other fills. Proceedings GeoEng 2000. 2008). Comparison of safety concepts for soil reinforcement methods using concrete columns. 2005. Bohn C. 2008. Heft 75.Proceedings of the 18th International Conference on Soil Mechanics and Geotechnical Engineering. University of Florida. Modélisation physique et numérique. and Villard P. Jenck O. INSA Lyon and Université Claude Bernard. No. Institut un Versuchsanstalt für Geotechnik. 3949-3953 Heitz C. P. and Geom. Kirsch F. Heitz et al. M. Wehr J. Lawson C. 1988. doi:10. (2012) have compared the safety checks outlined in the ASIRI recommendations with other guidelines for similar foundation systems usually used in Germany (CSV.G. Brussels. Chevalier B. for Domain 1 the rigid inclusions have to be reinforced. if tension can develop.S. 2008. 26. 33(7): 851-877. 5 CONCLUSIONS The influence of columns stiffness commonly used on the Column Supported Embankment (CSE) systems has to be rigorously investigated in order to establish the implications on the safety and serviceability issues. Wirkungsweise von unbewehrten und unbewehrten mineralischen Tragschichten über pfahlartigen Gründungselementen. Recommendation for design and analysis of earth structures using geosynthetic reinforcement. Heft 10. Meth. Combe G. An experimental investigation of soil arching within basal reinforced and unreinforced piled embankments. Combarieu O. Le renforcement des sols compressibles par inclusions rigides verticales. Serviceability limits for low-height reinforced piled embankment. Finally.1002/nag. and Kempfert H. Dissertation am Institut fur Grundbau un Bodenmechanik. and Collin J. and practically negligible when  = 0. 2012. Castro J. Geosynthetic reinforced and pile supported embankments under static and cyclic loading. (a) Factor of soil arching reduction (Heitz et al. Katzenbach et al. Wehr W. in order to allow an adequate traffic operation. ASCE. Geosynthetic reinforced piled-supported embankments. Also. 2008. EBGEO. Gangakhedar R.S. Ernst & Sohn. and Sagaseta C. CRPF). The facts that indicate the higher risks of rigid inclusions compared with flexible ground 2444 improvement methods like stone columns are exposed. 2005. they proposed a soil arching reduction factor. INSA Lyon. pp. J. Regarding to the structural bearing capacity (STR). for both static and cyclic loading. Rapport 3-08-4-01. a minimum compressive strength of 7 MPa has to be adopted. Master thesis. 2010.G. and according to typical thresholds adopted in transport projects related to differential settlements. according to the partial safety factor approach. British Standard Institution. NGG. has to be more strict for rigid inclusion comparing with stone columns. Nordic Handbook – Reinforcedment soil and fills. Etude expérimentale el numérique des transferts de charge dans un massif renforcé par inclusions rigides. 164-174. Topolnicki M. whereas for Domain 2 only an adequate tensile strength of concrete could be adopted. Universität Gh Kassel. London. Edinburg. 6 REFERENCES Alonso E. Anal. k. Melbourne. Figure 6a shows this factor depending on the ratio of fill height and column spacing h/s. Figure 4c shows the analysis of Jenck (2005) related to the influence of the height of the embankment and the strength of unreinforced LTPs in terms of friction angle. and Kempfert H. R. Results indicate that efficiency factor E increase with height of embankments until a maximum value similar to the critical height HC. in order to ensure the arching load transfer in the long term behavior of the CSEs. Int. Amélioration des sols par inclusions rigides verticals.P. PhD in the scope of ASIRI.2 Low-height embankment In the case of embankments with heights less than 3 meters. Moreover. the design is usually aimed to guarantee the SLSs. according to the Domain 2.G. Geomech. Consolidation around stone columns. Figure 6b illustrates that cyclic loading of traffic can generate the rotation of principal stresses in the subgrade layers. the frequency f and amplitude of the cyclic load c. Based on laboratory model tests under cyclic loading. Design Risks of ground improvement methods including rigid inclusions. They reported that ASIRI has lower values of safety factors than those the compared guidelines indicate. the requirements of LTPs in terms of strength and thickness. and Ledesma A. Geosynthetic Supported System over Pile Foundations”. 130-142. British Standard 8006. Josa A. G. Revue française de géotechnique No. Modélisation discrète: étude du report de charge. Berlin. Geotechnique 34. for the design of the height and geosyntheticreinforcement of LTP layers considering the columns as hard points. Technische Universität Darmstadt. Proceedings EuroGeo 4. On the other hand. For this objective Lawson (2000) proposed the chart depicted in Figure 4b. Han J. Basically. (b) stress conditions in the subgrade due to moving load on the pavement surface. construction and control of rigid inclusion ground improvements. Experimentelle un numerische Untersuchungen zum Tragverhalten von Rüttelspopfsäulen. Nordic Geotechnical Society. Paris 2013 (a) (b) (c) Figure 6. P. 2012. pp 57-79. especially for low-height embankments. Chen Y. Zaesk D. Geotex. (2008) have demonstrated that the arching mechanism to transfer load of LTP can only be formed in a very limited extent if geosynthetic reinforcement is not placed. Thèse de Doctorat. Besides. Katzenbach R. (c) pavement deformation due to hard-point effects associated with the presence of rigid inclusions. The differential settlements also depend on the LTP strength.For rigid inclusion application negative influence of the traffic loading has to be considered during construction and operation stages. Recommendations for the design.

2010) and there are very few analytical solutions available in the literature (Raithel and Kempfert 2000. The overall 2445 . Santander. because the increase of lateral confinement reduces the settlement. 2008. Parametric studies of the settlement reduction and stress concentration show the efficiency of encasing the columns. To increase the lateral confinement of the columns. ce qui est principalement régie par la rigidité de l’enveloppe géosynthètique par rapport à celle du sol. 2 2. N=rl/rc=1/√ar.e. and therefore. Gniel and Bouazza 2009). This paper analyses the main features of that closed-form solution. ground improvement. Stone columns may not be appropriate in very soft soils that do not provide enough lateral confinement to the columns. Sagaseta C. which is mainly ruled by the encasement stiffness compared to that of the soil. analytical solution. Finalement. the column is assumed to be fully penetrating in the soft soil and the applied load is considered as rigid. Yoo 2010. Cet article présente une solution analytique pour étudier l'amélioration des sols mous. Les résultats analytiques présentent une bonne concordance avec les analyses numériques. Lorsque le sol mou ne fournit pas assez de soutien latéral. Miranda M. Un comportement élasto-plastique est également pris pour le géosynthètique au moyen d'une résistance à la traction limite. Khabbazian et al. Castro and Karstunen 2010) is not usually considered in their design. by means of encased stone columns. Une colonne ne reprenant les efforts que par la pointe et le sol environnant sont modélisés en axisymétrie sous une charge constant. and consequently. but sometimes is also defined in terms of the relation between diameters or radii. Finally. and consequently their vertical capacity. stiffness and permeability than the natural soft soil. other geosynthetics. the influence of the key parameters for routine design and a comparison with numerical analyses. such as tanks or embankments. That solution is an extension of another previous analytical solution developed for non-encased stone columns (Castro and Sagaseta 2009). An elasto-plastic behaviour is also considered for the encasement by means of a limit tensile strength.e. showing its limitations and range of applicability. reduces total and differential settlements. are one of the most common improvement techniques for foundation of embankments or structures on soft soils. la longueur de l’enveloppe géotextile est analysée en utilisant la solution basée sur une cellule élémentaire constituée d’une colonne et d’un volume élémentaire de sol.g. Al. accelerates soil consolidation and reduces the liquefaction potential. University of Cantabria. geogrids do not act as a filter and do not avoid contamination of the column with fines. The solution is developed for a horizontal slice at a depth z of the unit cell. either by the vibro-replacement or vibrodisplacement methods. is generally expressed by the area replacement ratio. such as geogrids. Therefore. Cañizal J.. numerical analyses. This paper presents a closed-form solution to study soft soil improvement. the encasement length is analysed using the closed-form solution. Ac. The development of encased stone columns as a ground improvement technique has come with an increasing number of studies in the last decade. However. The inclusion of gravel. KEYWORDS: soft soils. A high tensile stiffness of the encasement is recommended as it will be shown in this paper. That recently motivated the authors to develop a new closed-form solution to study the deformation and consolidation around encased stone columns (Castro and Sagaseta 2011). encasing the columns with geotextiles has proved to be a successful solution in recent years. the columns are encased with a geosynthetic. The authors' closed-form solution (Castro and Sagaseta 2011) is limited to distributed uniform loads because it is based on a “unit cell” model. The area of soft soil. but also under distributed loads. 2011). When the soft soil does not provide enough lateral support. both reduction of settlement and consolidation time. shear stresses between slices at different depths are not considered (Figure 1). It is generally accepted that those are soils with undrained shear strengths below 5-15 kPa (Wehr 2006). les colonnes sont entourées avec un géosynthètique. which has a higher strength. An end-bearing column and its surrounding soil. 1 INTRODUCTION Stone columns... uniform settlement. i. la réduction des tassements ainsi que le temps de consolidation. Pulko et al. i. most of the research is done using numerical methods (e. 2004. au moyen des colonnes entourées en géotextile. Murugesan and Rajagopal 2006. are also used to encase the column (Sharma et al. Le comportement du sol est supposé élastique mais les déformations plastiques sont considérées dans la colonne. that is improved by each column. Da Costa A. RÉSUMÉ: Les colonnes ballastées sont une technique d'amélioration de sol pour les remblais en sols mous. Furthermore. 2010). Alteration of the natural soft soil caused by stone column installation (Guetif et al.1 CLOSED-FORM SOLUTION Model The vertical capacity of the columns is a fundamental issue when the applied load is concentrated on the columns. The analytical results are in good agreement with numerical analyses. encased stone columns. Lo et al. Spain ABSTRACT: Stone columns are a common improvement technique for foundations of embankments in soft soils. Smith and Filz 2007.. Malarvizhi and Ilamparuthi 2007. improves the bearing capacity and the stability of embankments and natural slopes. ar=Ac/Al. Soil is assumed as elastic but plastic strains are considered in the column. column encasement is very useful in those cases (Murugesan and Rajagopal 2010. only one column and its surrounding soil are studied in axial symmetry.Foundations of embankments using encased stone columns Fondations de remblais avec des colonnes ballastées entourées de géotextile Castro J. However. Des études paramétriques de la réduction du tassement et de concentration de contraintes montrent l'efficacité de l'enveloppe géosynthètique des colonnes. is modelled in axial symmetry under a rigid and constant load.

Tg  J g pa Axis at any depth. a rigid plate was set on top   rc Tg rc   rs (1) 2446 Numerical model . The most evident example is disregarding the elastic strains in the column once it has reached its active state. such as geotextiles. especially if the columns are coated with a geotextile.6 (Brinkgreve 2007). it does not have any influence in vertical direction. which is a simple way of getting a reasonably accurate solution.g. depending on the soil permeability and the loading pace. the radial equilibrium between soil and column at their interface depends on the encasement properties (stiffness and radius) and its radial expansion.5 Drained solution The studied closed-form solution models the consolidation process. 3 PARAMETRIC STUDY AND NUMERICAL ANALYSES Figure 2.i. the solution uses the average value of the excess pore pressure along the radius. 3. the real behaviour is between drained condition and an undrained loading followed by consolidation.. Analytical model. but it is quite straightforward to generalize it for multiple loading steps (Castro and Sagaseta 2008). Combining these two equations. 2011). The details of this kind of approach can be found in Castro and Sagaseta (2009).4 Figure 1. the same boundary conditions and material properties of the analytical solution were chosen for the numerical models. 2011). Barron 1948) and a modified coefficient of consolidation that accounts for the influence of column and encasement. Therefore. A sensible design should cause yielding of the column but not of the encasement. For comparison purposes.3 Encasement The encasement is modelled as a cylindrical shell of negligible thickness around the column. Tg. Jg.1 The encasement is compressed in vertical direction. Nonetheless. However. and external pressure. 2. taking the initial stresses as the final ones of the previous load step. Three different possible phases are identified: (a) soil. Horizontal slice  zc sr rc Tg Formulation The detailed formulation of the solution can be found in Castro and Sagaseta (2009. column and encasement in the elastic range. Tg. consolidation around stone columns. However. This assumption gives acceptable results for non-encased columns or when the consolidation process is modelled but not if drained conditions are considered for encased columns (Castro and Sagaseta 2011). such as neglecting the shear stresses and using an average pore water pressure along the radius. may be nearly as fast as the loading pace. 2. During column installation. Tg.max. and a maximum tensile strength. Therefore. The solution considers just one instantaneous load step. Its equilibrium and compatibility conditions (Figure 2) are those of a thin tube under internal. Encasement behaviour is supposed to be linear elastic-perfectly plastic and characterized by a tensile stiffness. σrc. Coupled numerical analyses of the unit cell were performed using the finite element code Plaxis v8.. which means that for these cases drained condition is a more reasonable assumption.Proceedings of the 18th International Conference on Soil Mechanics and Geotechnical Engineering. 2. which is doubtful for conventional stone columns but is reasonable if the columns are coated with a geotextile. Numerical simulations are included in the parametric study to evaluate the accuracy of the closed-form solution and the influence of its simplifying assumptions. (b) column yielding and (c) encasement yielding. consolidation around encased stone columns is studied using any conventional solution for radial consolidation (e. As a simplifying assumption. it is valid for different types of coating. in that last case it is necessary to account for those elastic strains in the column (Pulko et al. sr Tg rs rc rc J g sr rc2   rs (3) Those simple equations (Eq. u . both cases yield very similar final values as can be shown numerically. Fortunately. Paris 2013 behaviour of the whole unit cell is obtained by means of integration of the solution at the different depths. Soil rc (2) where sr is the radial displacement of the interface. the last phase of the solution may not be considered and it is just necessary to check that the tensile stress of the encasement does not exceed its strength. The column (drain) is considered to be fully permeable. analytical solutions use simplifying assumptions that have different consequences in each situation. Hence. Therefore. modelling the real loading steps is only necessary to study the consolidation process but not for the final values as it gives the same results. the encasement is pre-stressed to an initial tensile stress. Equilibrium and compatibility conditions of the encasement. geogrids. and as it can only take tension. 2 and 3) show how the encasement influence depends on its stiffness and radius. Multiple instantaneous load steps may be considered. z  zs  rs  rc Column   rc u Encasement rl 2. σrs.2 Consolidation The analysis of consolidation around encased stone columns as a fully coupled problem is difficult to deal with. In this way. In any case. The encasement tensile stress obtained with the analytical solution is the increment from that value. which will occur after column yielding in a real situation.

3.1 0.62 c=10º FE c=10º 4 p  =0.6 pa/(z')=10 FE 2 0 0. Gniel and Bouazza 2009.3 c s ar=0.2 Settlement reduction factor.7 0.5 0. pa/(L's).5 1. In Figures 4.8 200 c=40º 300 L=10 m K0s=0. and hence. However. zc/zs 6 c=40º Column yielding K0s=0.  3.11 e Ec/Es=40 Es=1 MPa ar=0. Closed-form solution Closed-form solution Jg/(rcEs)=0 Jg/(rcEs)=2 0. Tr 0.4 FE Closed-form solution Jg/(rcEs)=0 Jg/(rcEs)=0.3 K =0.5 m 's='c c=s=0.15 0.4 c=40º 's='c pa/(L's)=1 K0s=0.0 1. Stress concentration The ratio between the vertical stress on the column and on the soil is usually called the stress concentration factor (SCF=σzc/σzc) and gives an idea of the part of the applied load that the soil transfers to the column.70 1.05 Time factor. and approaches a plastic one. A future improvement of the analytical solution including those elastic strains is currently being developed. the numerical results validate the accuracy of the analytical solution. 0 3 'c='s=10 kN/m Ec/Es=40 Es=1 MPa pa=100 kPa  = =0. from an elastic value.75 Jg/(rcEs)=0 0. as it happens for the stone column solution (Castro and Sagaseta 2009).3 p  =0.6 0s ar=0.Technical Committee 211 / Comité technique 211 of the unit cell.30 Area replacement ratio.6 c=10º FE 400 500 0. Settlement reduction. Settlement reduction The settlement reduction decreases with the applied load.  e. Tr Figure 6.  10 Settlement reduction factor.2 0.01 0. ar Figure 3.001 0.3 0. their averaged values are used to calculate the SCF. Khabbazian et al. Some authors (e. which provide lateral support to the column.10 0. yet columns of smaller diameters are better confined. Influence of the applied load.8 0 0. the settlement reduction introduced by the encasement is nearly the same for different area replacement ratios (Figure 5).2 1 Jg/(rcEs)=5 Jg/(rcEs)=2 Jg/(rcEs)=0.11 100 Settlement. and therefore. the agreement for low degrees of consolidation (<30%) is not very good due to inherent assumptions of Barron’s solution. The vertical stresses on the soil and on the column may vary with the radius.1 1 Time factor.  p. pa. A good agreement is found between the analytical and the numerical results. 5 and 6. A higher encasement stiffness provides a better lateral confinement to the column. which means that column encasement is equally useful for different area replacement ratios.233-0.3 rc=0.g. at the same rate as plastic strains develop in the column (Figure 4). the only assumption that has a slightly noticeable effect in the results is neglecting the elastic strains in the column during its plastic deformation.25 0. Influence of the encasement stiffness for different area replacement ratios.6 Ec/Es=40 c=s=0. the soil was modelled as elastic and the encasement and the column as elastic-perfectly plastic. limiting it to the upper part where 2447 . The applied load is normalized by the initial vertical stress because column yielding depends on that factor.20 0.53 0. 2010. Time-settlement curve.0001 c=40º 0.75 Jg/(rcEs)=2 0.25 Ec/Es=40 0.01 0. pa/(L's) Figure 4. Stress concentration on the column with time.3  =0.0001 Closed-form solution Jg/(rcEs)=0 Jg/(rcEs)=0. Hence.6 p  =0. Figure 3 shows its variation with time. but the agreement gets slightly worse as the tensile stiffness of the encasement increases.235 0 0. Figure 5. On the other hand.5 Normalised applied load.6 c=10º 0. sz [mm] 3.001 0.0 c=s=0. 8 SCF. Murugesan and Rajagopal 2006) have proposed a partial encasement of the columns. the column supports a higher load.75 Jg/(rcEs)=2 0.4 Encasement length The effectiveness of encasing the columns in reducing the settlement is directly related to the tensile stress of the encasement. Settlement reduction.

Numerical simulations of stone column installation. pp. a preliminary study of the encasement length is presented using the authors' closed-form solution. Zhang R. Bouassida. 3. Calculation models for dam foundations with geotextile coated sand columns. In: Proceedings of the International Symposium on vibratory pile driving and deep soil vibratory compaction. Therefore. Geotextiles and Geomembranes 27: 167– 175. Geosynthetics International 14: 13–22. Analysis of Rigid Rafts supported by Granular Piles. pp. Journal of Geotechnical and Geoenvironmental Engineering 136: 129-139. is modelled in axial symmetry under a rigid and constant load. 2007. 2008. Computers and Geotechnics 34(2): 104-111. Therefore. 2009. Comparative study on the behaviour of encased stone column and conventional stone column. Improvement of soft soils using geogrid encased stone columns. and Rajagopal K. Parametric studies of the settlement reduction and stress concentration show the efficiency of encasing the columns. International Journal for Numerical and Analytical Methods in Geomechanics 33: 851-877. Wehr J. Paris. i. International Journal for Numerical and Analytical Methods in Geomechanics 5: 379-403. including those elastic strains is an improvement of the presented solution under development. recently developed by the authors (Castro and Sagaseta 2011). If the column is encased. 2004. In: Proceedings of the 16th International Conference on Soil Mechanics and Geotechnical Engineering. 2009. Canadian Geotechnical Journal 41: 187–192. but there is not a critical length of the encasement that should specifically be used. and Filz G. 2010. 2448 . and Karstunen M.L. Paris 2013 the initial lateral stresses are lower.Proceedings of the 18th International Conference on Soil Mechanics and Geotechnical Engineering. Axisymmetric numerical modeling of a unit cell in geosynthetic-reinforced. Numerical study of the effect of geosynthetic encasement on the behaviour of granular columns. 1948. Therefore. Barron R. 6 REFERENCES Balaam N. Smith M. of the 2nd International Workshop on Geotechnics of Soft Soils. 2D. 2007. Finally. as expected. and Ilamparuthi K. 2006. Pulko B. Murugesan S.3 K =0.. only a unit cell. 4 CONCLUSIONS The main features of a closed-form solution. Influence of column deformation. Glasgow. and Mak J. Lo S. M. GeoEngg—2000. the analysis focuses on the length of the column that should be encased. 2011. In: Proceedings of the International Conference on Geotechnical & Geological Engineering. version 8. Simple and accurate prediction of settlements of stone column reinforced soil. The undrained cohesion of the soil as criterion for the column installation with a depth vibrator. 333-338. Brinkgreve R. Here. Transactions ASCE 113: 718–742. Geotextiles and Geomembranes 29. Raithel M.G. 2006. Castro J. Castro J. Khabbazian M. Geosynthetic-encased stone columns: Numerical evaluation. and Nagendra. Japan. 2000. Ground improvement methods with special emphasis on column-type techniques. Rotterdam: Balkema. 268276. and Meehan C.. Proc. and Booker J.11 Depth factor. Kaliakin V. Then.R.: BIA2009-13602). Influence of stone column deformation on surrounding soil consolidation. 1401-1404. encasing the columns is more effective in their upper part but that varies linearly with depth and there is not a critical length of the encasement that should specifically be used.M. Gniel J. 2005. Geosynthetics International 17: 132–143. encasing stone columns is recommended in very soft soils and the encasement should be stiff enough. The results of the closed-form solution agree well with numerical analyses. Geotextiles and Geomembranes 24: 349–358. those strains are lower but follow a similar pattern. 2007. by means of encased stone columns are presented. an end-bearing column and its surrounding soil. pp. z 's / pa 1 c=40º c=10º 2 Jg/(rcEs)=0 Jg/(rcEs)=2 3 4 5 Elastic column (high depths) 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 Vertical strain. The closed-form solution provides the vertical strain of the column at different depths.. Plaxis finite element code for soil and rock analysis. both reduction of settlement and consolidation time. Studies on the Behavior of Single and Group of Geosynthetic Encased Stone Columns. Osaka. SCMEP. vol. Besides. and Bouazza A. In M.-G.B. Leoni (ed.R. and Rajagopal K. 2003. Vertical strain at different depths. TRANSVIB 2006. Sharma S.A. Improved soft clay characteristics due to stone column installation. and Sagaseta C.R. The only assumption of the solution that has a slightly noticeable effect in the results is neglecting the elastic strains in the column during its plastic deformation. Column encasement is equally useful for common area replacement ratios but columns of smaller diameters are better confined. Canadian Geotechnical Journal 47(10): 11271138. for the Spanish Ministry of Science and Innovation (Ref. Guetif. considering the influence of the method of installation". which is mainly ruled by the encasement stiffness compared to that of the soil. J.J. and Debats. Consolidation around stone columns. Castro J. 2007. G. Leiden: Balkema. Compressive load response of granular piles reinforced with geogrids.). Murugesan S.6 0s ar=0. Karstunen and M. Netherlands. Therefore. Geosynthetic-encased stone columns in soft clay: A numerical study. and Kempfert H. 2010. Noordwijkerhout. The analytical solution pretends to be a simple and useful tool for design. and Majes B. column-supported embankments. 5 ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS The work presented is part of a research project on "An integrated calculation procedure for stone columns. Kempfert H.N. 0 Ec/Es=40 's='c c=s=0. and Sagaseta C. and Sagaseta C. Figure 7 shows that those strains are higher at shallow depths and linearly decrease with depth. z (%) Figure 7.P. 2010. Malarvizhi S. 101-112. Geotextiles and Geomembranes 28: 292–302. Castro J. Deformation and consolidation around encased stone columns. Phanikumar B.e. as initial horizontal stresses increase.R. to study soft soil improvement. 2010. the settlement reduction decreases with the applied load. 1981. Z.N. In: Proceedings of the International Workshop on Geotechnics of Soft Soils-Theory and Practice. Melbourne.. a preliminary analysis of the encasement length shows that is more efficient to encase the columns in the upper part. Soils and Foundations 47: 873–885. Consolidation of fine-grained soils by drain wells.

This paper presents a newly developed consolidation theory applicable to soils subjected to a combination of vacuum pressure and surcharge loading. and so the final state involves the steady flow of pore water toward the boundary at which the vacuum pressure is applied. But for a deposit with two-way drainage. with the latter designed to simulate the consolidation of a deposit improved by PVDs. when a vacuum pressure is applied water is drained out of the soil layer only at the boundary where that vacuum pressure is applied. Chai et al. Laboratory consolidation tests using combinations of vacuum pressure and surcharge load were conductedunder oedometer conditions with vertical or radial drainage. 2010. For a soil deposit without any improvement in consolidation performance that might result from the installation of prefabricated vertical drains (PVDs). embankment. This theory is applicable to the 2449 case of a uniform soil deposit with or without PVD improvement. t )   pvac (2) cv u H . Predictions obtained using this theory are compared with the results of laboratory tests conducted under oedometer conditions. Hirata et al.g. Pour le cas d’une couche de sol sans amélioration par DVP. Indraratna et al. (e. 2006). the governing equation and the boundary conditions for the generation and dissipation of excess pore water pressure in a saturated soil layer under a combination of vacuum pressure and surcharge load are as follows:  2u u  z 2 t (1) u (0. The University of Newcastle. Vacuum consolidation has different characteristics compared with consolidation induced by direct application of a surcharge load (Chai et al. for a deposit with one-way drainage constrained to deform under one-dimensional (1D) conditions. Chai and Carter (2011) recently derived a consolidation theory for soils subjected to vacuum pressure. It has been demonstrated that the theory is valid and can be used for designing preloading projects that involve the combination of a vacuum pressure and a surcharge load. des conditions aux limites drainantes par un côté et par deux côtés sont considérées. vacuum pressure. such as increasing the preloading pressure and reducing lateral displacements of the deposit.. Australia ABSTRACT: Atheory describing the consolidation of a uniform clayey deposit with and without prefabricated vertical drain (PVD) improvement under the combination of a vacuum pressure and a surcharge load has been developed and expressed as closed-form equations. Considering these complicating factors. at the bottom boundary the excess pore water pressure is fixed at zero and effectively no vacuum pressure can be applied at this location. However. laboratory test.Consolidation theory for combined vacuum pressure and surcharge loading Théorie de la consolidation sous l’action combinée du vide et d’un pré-chargement Chai J. Its use in engineering applications has increased in recent years (e. Kelly and Wong 2009.-C. P. 2 CONSOLIDATION THEORY 2. soft clay 1 INTRODUCTION Preloading a soft clayey deposit with the combination of a vacuum pressure and a surcharge load (embankment fill) has several advantages. La surpression interstitielle mesurée est comparée avec les valeurs prévues par la théorie présentée dans le présent article. for cases that involve both vertical and radial drainage conditions. the final state is a uniform vacuum pressure distribution throughout the deposit and consequently zero flow rate. etc. However. KEYWORDS:consolidation. The measured excess pore water pressures are compared with values predicted by the theory presented in the paper.. Saga University.g. 2011). t   0 for t  0 (one-way drainage) z u H . both one-way and two-way drainage boundary conditions are considered. 2009). Des essais de consolidation au laboratoire sous des conditions oedométriques ont été réalisés sous vide et pré-chargement avec des drains verticaux ou radiaux. and therefore there is a need to develop a reliable theory for such cases. It has been shown that the theory is valid and can be used for designingpreloading projects that involve a combination of vacuum pressure and surcharge loading. their theory cannot be applied directly for cases that involve a combination of vacuum pressure and surcharge loading.1Uniform layer without PVDs Under the same assumptions as those made in Terzaghi’s 1D consolidation theory (Terzaghi 1943). For the case of a soil layer without PVD improvement. This applies for both cases of one-way and two-way drainage conditions. RÉSUMÉ : Une théorie décrivant la consolidation d’un dépôt argileux uniforme avec et sans amélioration par drains verticaux préfabriqués (DVP) sous l’action combinée du vide et d’un pré-chargement a été développée avec un système fermé d’équations. Japan Carter J. t   0 for t  0 (two-way drainage) (3) (3a) . Il a été démontré que la théorie est valable et peut être utilisée pour définir des projets de préchargement qui impliquent l’utilisation combinée du vide et d’un pré-chargement.

z . 0 z z (11) u r . pvac = the magnitude of the applied vacuum pressure at z = 0. z. Y(z) = 1. t  0 r (10) u r . as shown in Fig. 1. and H is the thickness of the deposit. The average degree of consolidation is given by: (t ) 1  U 8 2   n 1 c t   2 n 1  1 H e 2 2n  1 vs 2 2 2 (8) 2.2Two-way drainage In this case the excess pore water pressure distribution in the soil is given by:  pvac  ps  sin n z   z  2    n  u ( z . t)) is the time-dependent component of the excess pore water pressure. and re = radius of the unit cell.2 Uniform layer with PVD improvement The theory for a PVD-improved soil deposit is derived here for the case of one-way drainage conditions using a unit cell model. z. the solution to the governing equation must consist of two parts. z = depth from the ground surface. (2). t )  pvac 1      e  c t p H  n 1     s  n sin n ( H  z )   2 n v (7) where n  n  H . Unit cell model and boundary conditions u re . and the v1(z. With the presence of a vacuum pressure. (2) The pore water flow into the PVD from a horizontally cut soil slice is equal to the change of vertical flow rate in the PVD. 0 z z (12) u '  rw . The solutions for u and u' can be expressed as: u (r . l . t   2    k s  re    k s 2 2   n  12lz  z  k  w    fo  r ( rw  r  rs )(16) .1. t) and its expression is given in the last set of parentheses of Eq. l .0. u(z. t  u ' r . cv = the coefficient of consolidation of the soil. z.0.0.1One-way drainage For this case the excess pore water pressure distribution is given by: 4  u  pvac  ( pvac  ps )      n 1 1  sinan z e a c t  (5) 2n  1  2 n v wherean = (2n-1)π/(2H). the final state is not a condition with zero excess pore pressure in the deposit. (5). Paris 2013 wherez = the spatial coordinate. With the boundary condition defined by Eq. it can be shown that the expressions for v(r. 1). t ) for (rs<rre) (14) u ' (r. The governing equation for consolidation is as follows:   u  1  u  u  ch  2     t  r  r  r  2 (9) wherer = the radial distance and ch = the coefficient of consolidation in the horizontal direction. z. 2. With these conditions and using the same assumptions as those adopted in obtaining Hansbo’s (1981) solution. z.Proceedings of the 18th International Conference on Soil Mechanics and Geotechnical Engineering. t  0. t) = v2(z. z . (1) The total inflow of pore water through the boundary of a cylinder with a radius of r has to be equal to the change in volume of the hollow cylinder with outer radius of re and inner radius of r. The term -pvacY(z) is the final steady state excess pore water pressure distribution and (pvac v1(z. t = time. t) are as follows:  2 r r 2  rw2  re ln r  2  kh w   exp  8Th v' r . t )  pvacY ( z )  pvac v1 ( z. u = the excess pore water pressure. respectively (Fig. t )   pvac  ( pvac  ps )v(r . t)+ psv2(z. t) can be expressed in the following form:  u ( z. At the interface between the smear zone and the undisturbed zone. t ) (4) whereps = the magnitude of the applied surcharge load. t  0. In this case. t )  ps v2 ( z.t)) (Chai and Carter 2011). t    pvac (13) whereu and u' = the excess pore water pressures in the undisturbed zone and the smear zone. t )   pvac  ( pvac  ps )v' (r . rw = equivalent radius of a PVD. Therefore. The boundary conditions are: 2450 Figure 1. The average degree of consolidation is given by: U 1  8 2   n 1 c t   2 n 1  1 4H e 2 2n  1 v 2 2 2 (6) 2. t  u ' r . the radial flow rate from the undisturbed zone is equal to the flow rate into the smear zone. z. namely the steady state solution (Y(z)) and the transient solution (v(z.1. The additional conditions for getting explicit expressions for v and v' are the following water flow continuity conditions. t ) for (rw<rrs) (15) wherers = radius of the smear zone. t) and v′(r.

1Test details Figures 2(a) and (b) show the set-up of the tests. During testing. 2451 Figure 3. Comparison of the measured and the predicted excess pore water pressures at the bottom of the sample (ub) is shown .2 mm was adopted. the expression forμ is as follows (Hansbo 1981):   ln(n / s )  (k h / k s ) ln(s )  3 2l 2  k h  4 3rw2 k w (a) Vertical drainage test (18) The average degree of consolidation (Uh) of the unit cell is (Hansbo 1981):  U h 1  exp 8Th /   (19) 3 COMPARISON OF TEST RESULTS AND PREDICTIONS Laboratory consolidation tests involving the combination of a vacuum pressure and a surcharge load have been conducted under oedometer conditions with both verticaland radial drainage (the latter to simulate the effects of PVD drainage). under 80 kPa vacuum pressure and 80 kPa surcharge load. s = rs/rw. indicates that the soil sample was first consolidated under σ'v0 (simulating the initial effective stress of the soil sample at a specified depth in the deposit) and then the consolidation test was conducted by applying additional incremental consolidation pressures (vacuum pressure and surcharge load). Adopting an average well resistance and with some approximation. in the predictions an average sample thickness of 17. the centre drainage porous stone tube has an outer diameter of 8 mm. In the case of the V-test. the excess pore water pressure at the bottom of the sample (V-test) or the middle height of the consolidation ring (R-test). kw = the hydraulic conductivity of the drain (PVD). The soil samples were re-consolidated from Ariakeclay slurries under a surcharge pressure of 20 kPa.2 mm). and Th = cv·t/(4re2). (b) Radial drainage test Figure 2.2. Some of available soil properties as well as the test conditions are listed in Table 1. Parameter μ represents the effects of PVD spacing. Since the thickness of the sample is also the vertical drainage path and ks = the hydraulic conductivities in the horizontal direction of the undisturbed zone and the smear zone respectively. Sketch of the set-up of the tests 3.2Comparison of measured and predicted pore pressures 3. smear zone and well resistance.Technical Committee 211 / Comité technique 211   re2 ln s  2 2 r 2 ln r  r  rs  kh  2 2  e  r r  2 rs ks   s w    8Th  1   for vr. Here only one test from each serieshas been chosen to compare with the values predicted by the theory presented above. the additional compression was about 3. Further. the test with one-way drainage conditions has been selected. V-tests and R-tests. the thickness of the sample was 18. Comparison of predicted and measured ub values 3. with vertical (V-test) and radial (R-test) drainage conditions. For the R-test. because for two-way drainage conditions no pore water pressures were measured with the device used. and the horizontal earth pressure at the middle height of the consolidation ring can be measured. Two series of tests. In this table. the vertical effective stress. The two series of tests were conducted at different times and different soil samples were used.1V-test After initial consolidation under σ'v0 = 40 kPa.respectively. z. l = the drainage length of a PVD.2 mm. t   2  2  exp  re         kh n2 12lz  z 2    kw  ( rs  r  re )(17) where: n = re/rw. were conducted. the settlement. which is inserted into a predrilled hole at the center of a sample with a filter paper placed between the soil sample and the tube.7 mm (or compression of about 1. and the measured excess pore pressures have been compared with the predicted values. σ'v0.

Proceedings of the 18th International Conference on Soil Mechanics and Geotechnical Engineering, Paris 2013

Table 1. Some soil properties and test conditions




cv or ch (m2/min)


e 0




Ariake clay-1
Ariake clay-2
*: Initial vertical effective stress in the sample; #: The value was obtained by fitting the measured consolidation rate; : After pre-consolidation under
20 kPa pressure.

in Fig. 3. Except for the fact that the measured initial value of
ubof about 72 kPa is slightly lower than the 80 kPa applied
surcharge load, the prediction almost matches the measured data.
The slightly lower initial ub value may indicate that the
specimen was not 100% saturated.
Although two-way drainage test was not conducted, using
the same soil parameters as for one-way drainage test, and
assuming the thickness of the soil sample is 20 mm, the
predicted excess pore water pressure (u) distribution within the
sample at different elapsed times are given in Fig. 4 to
demonstrate the capacity of the proposed theory.

Depth, D (mm)

pvac = 80 kPa
ps = 80 kPa

water pressure at the periphery of the sample starts to reduce.
Comparison of the excess pore water pressures at the periphery
of the sample (ure) is given in Fig. 5. For this case, during the
consolidation period the measured excess pore water pressure
initially decreased but then increased for a brief period before
finally exhibiting further dissipation.
Furthermore, the
measured final excess pore water pressure did not reach the
applied vacuum pressure of 80 kPa. Nevertheless, the trends of
both the measured and the predicted dissipation curves are
From the above comparisons, it can be seen that the theory
provides reasonable predictions of the measured soil behaviour
and so it should be able to be used reliably for designing
preloading projects that adopt a combination of vacuum
pressure and surcharge load to consolidate the soil deposit.




1 min

Excess pore pressure, u (kPa)


Figure 4. Predicted u variation in soil sample under two-way drainage
boundary condition

A consolidation theory, expressed in closed-form equations, for
soil consolidation under the combination of a vacuum pressure
and a surcharge load has been developed for a uniform clayey
deposit with and without prefabricated vertical drain (PVD)
improvement. For cases without PVD improvement, both oneway and two-way drainage boundary conditions have been
Laboratory consolidation tests were conducted, adopting a
combination of vacuum pressure and surcharge loading under
oedometer conditions with both vertical and radial drainage.
The excess pore water pressures measured in these test were
compared with values predicted by the suggested theory. It has
been demonstrated that the theory is valid and can be used for
designing preloading projects that adopt a combination of
vacuum pressure and surcharge load to pre-consolidate soft soil

Figure5.Comparison of predicted and measured ure

3.2.2 R-test
The geometric parameters required to calculate the predictions
for this case are: re = 30 mm; rw = 4 mm; and l = 20 mm. The
assumed radius of the smear zone, rs = 7 mm; the hydraulic
conductivity ratio, kh/ks = 5; kh = 10-9 m/s; and kw = 10-4 m/s. In
the case of radial drainage, with Eqs. (16) and (17) the initial
condition of a uniform excess pore water pressure (u0)
distribution in a unit cell is not satisfied (which is a particular
limitation of this theory). These equations only ensure that the
average initial value of u0 is the same as the applied value. The
predicted initial value at the periphery of the sample (unit cell)
is higher than the applied value. The predicted values are
compared with the measured data from the time at which the
predicted value at the periphery was equal to the applied initial
value. In the physical test at the corresponding time, the pore


Chai, J. C., Carter, J. P. and Hayashi, S. 2006. Vacuum consolidation
and its combination with embankment loading.Canadian
Geotechnical Journal 43(10), 985-996.
Chai, J.-C., Matsunaga, K., Sakai, A. and Hayashi, S. 2009. Comparison
of vacuum consolidation with surcharge load induced consolidation
of a two-layer system. Géotechnique 59(7), 637-642.
Chai, J.-C. and Carter, J. P. 2011. Deformation analysis in soft ground
improvement. Springer, p. 247.
Hansbo S. 1981. Consolidation of fine-grained soils by prefabricated
drains. Proceedings of 10th International Conference on Soil
Mechanics and Foundation Engineering, Stockholm 3, 677-682.
Hirata, M., Kitoh, M., Yamada, K., Iizuka, A. and Arai, K.
2010.Deformation behavior and counter measures of expressway
embankment on super-soft ground.Journal of Japan Society of Civil
Engineers 66(2), 356-369 (in Japanese).
Indraratna, B., Rujikiatkamjorn, C., Ameratunga, J. and Boyle, P. 2011.
Performance and Prediction of Vacuum Combined Surcharge
Consolidation at Port of Brisbane.Journal of Geotechnical and
Geoenvironmental Engineering ASCE137(5), 550-554.
Kelly, R. B., Wong, P. K. 2009. An embankment constructed using
vacuum consolidation. Australian Geomechanics 44(2), 55-64.
Terzaghi K. 1943. Theoretical soil mechanics. New York, John Wiley
and Sons.

Displacement rigid inclusions
Inclusions rigides refoulées
Cirión A., Paulín J.

Soletanche-Bachy-CIMESA, Mexico

Racinais J.

Menard, France

Glandy M.

Soletanche-Bachy-Pieux, France

ABSTRACT: In soils with poor mechanical properties and in areas where the generation of excavation debris is an issue, given the
restrictions regarding its disposal, the solutions of massive soil improvement with displacement rigid inclusions solve both needs. In
this paper we describe the basis of the constructive procedure of displacement rigid inclusions. We explain the concept of
improvement with this kind of inclusions; we itemize the bases of their design, and describe their construction sequence, highlighting
the controls during the execution to ensure quality.
RÉSUMÉ: Dans les sols ayant des propriétés mécaniques faibles comme dans les zones où l’élimination des matériaux produits des
travaux représente un problème, les Inclusions Rigides avec refoulement de sol donnent des solutions à ces deux situations. L’article
explique le concept des solutions d’amélioration des sols en utilisant la technique des Inclusions Rigides, donne les bases du
dimensionnement, et décrit la séquence de construction des inclusions Rigides en insistant sur les contrôles utilisés pour assurer la
qualité finale.

KEYWORDS: soft soil, rigid inclusion, displacement of soil, excavation debris.



When studying what type of foundation is best suited to
withstand the shock that a new building (structure) will impose
on the soil, it is necessary to check not only the limit conditions
for failure, but also the limit conditions of service, including
total and differential settlements.
Being successful in the choice and design of the type of
foundation to be built largely depends on the control of two
variables: load and settlement. Nevertheless, there are additional
parameters that also play an important role in the decision
process, such as the cost of the foundation with respect to the
total cost of the project, construction time and —increasingly—
the impact on the environment.
The foundations based on rigid inclusions (system structure
massive soils improvement) have experienced a boom in recent
years, especially in works on large areas subjected to uniform
vertical loads. While this is not a new concept (wooden
inclusions were used since prehispanic times in Mexico —see
Auvinet, G., 2006—), there is now specialized equipment
capable of building concrete rigid inclusions following special
procedures that not only achieve higher production results, but
also greater depths and better loadbearing capacities. They also
respect strict quality controls. This gives us the possibility to
propose foundations based on the installation of grids of rigid
inclusions made of poor concrete that meet specific technical
requirements regarding load bearing capacities and the
reduction of settlements. They are also attractive: economically
and for their constructive feasibility, as well as for their reduced
construction times and the quality of their execution.
Displacement inclusions in particular have the great
advantage of not generating construction debris, which benefits
the environment and reduces or eliminates the cost of its
removal. In soils with a large frictional component, the ratio of
voids surrounding the inclusion is reduced by the incorporation
of the concrete so that the relative compactness of the material

increases, as well as the perimeter friction of the inclusionground. The construction process of the displacement rigid
inclusion guarantees quality control in the execution, so the
concrete is placed continually and safe from contamination.


The goal is to install a set of inclusions in soils with low bearing
capacity and/or highly compressibility to create a layer of
compound soil-inclusions material that has better mechanical
The improvement or reinforcement of soils with rigid
inclusions is commonly used to ensure bearing capacity and/or
reduce settlements in the following types of work:

Superficial footings (isolated or continuous),
Embankments, landfills,
Work or storage yards.

The solution is characterized by the fact that the traditional
mechanical link between the pile and the structure in deep or
mixed foundations does not exist. A distribution layer, also
called a Load Transfer Platform (LTP), is usually placed
between the inclusions and the structure to be supported, and
this is what marks the difference between piles and inclusions.
The distribution layer spreads the acting loads on the slab or
other covering surface towards the underlying soil-inclusions
setup. The system described is configured as shown in Figure 1.
If there are concentrated vertical loads from one column,
isolated or continuous footings can be used to directly transmit
the loads to the soil-inclusions setup.


Proceedings of the 18th International Conference on Soil Mechanics and Geotechnical Engineering, Paris 2013


Transfer layer
Compressible soils
Rigid inclusions


Hard layer


Rigid inclusions

Trasfer layer


Figure 1. Inclusion under a load uniformly distributed on the surface.
Side and top views.


The equipment used for the construction of displacement rigid
inclusions kind must circulate over a flat working platform,
drained and stable, generally constructed of granular material.
The inclusions are built from this platform.
The drilling equipment consists of a crane supported on
caterpillars with a cab for the operator and a mast that supports
a cylindrical auger of a defined length. The auger is hollow and
has a special geometry —see Figures 4a, 4b—, capable of
displacing soil laterally when drilling. This is the most
important feature of displacement rigid inclusions because the
surrounding soil becomes laterally compressed. Lateral friction
increases in the case of mainly granular soils or soils with a
large content of sand.
At the bottom part of the tip there is a hinged lid that remains
closed during the drilling phase to prevent the entry of material
into the inner tube and which opens to allow the exit of the
concrete to form the inclusions.
Besides the necessary drilling equipment there has to be a
concrete pump which feeds the upper side of the drilling tool
through flexible hoses.

In this case the LTP may not be required and a significant
portion of the load from the superstructure will be supported by
the grid of inclusions and the remainder will be supported by
the soil surrounding the inclusions —see Figure 2—.

Compressible soils
Rigid inclusions



Hard layer

Figure 2. Model setup of inclusions under an acting strut load on a
footing. Side view.

Figure 4a. Diagram of the typical point of the hollow auger for
displacement rigid inclusions.

In the same way that the inclusion-soil system supports
vertical loads —uniformly distributed or concentrated— from
buildings, this application can be extended to the case of
embankments and landfills in which the system will receive the
weight of the material that forms the embankments or landfills.
A particular case occurs when the embankment or landfill is
significantly high and the soil reinforced with inclusions
participates in its stabilization —see Figure 3—.

Failure surface

Figure 4b. Point of the hollow auger for displacement rigid inclusions
developed for Soletanche-Bachy, RefSol system.

Hard layer
Rigid inclusions

Figure 3. Inclusions that help stabilize an embankment or landfill
constructed on the surface.

The inclusions will generally be subjected to the action of
vertical forces caused by discharges from the building or due to
the weight of the embankment or landfill. However, in cases
where the inclusions participate in the stabilization of
embankments or landfills, or when they are subjected to the
action of seismic forces, the generation of lateral forces will
also have to be taken into account in the design.
Several approaches and ways of analyzing and designing
inclusions have been developed. Some of them have been
recently brought together in the ASIRI (Amélioration des Sols
par Inclusions Rigides—see ASIRI National Project, 2012—).

With the topographic location of the inclusion to be built, the
process begins by placing the mast of the crane upright and
lowering the auger into the ground. A rotor torque and a
descending vertical force are applied to the auger to cut,
penetrate and displace the soil laterally. This action is
performed continuously until the drill reaches the specified
depth —see Figure 5A—.
At this point, the concrete is pumped from the tank of the
pump through a flexible hose to the upper part of the hollow
auger to fill it completely and to generate sufficient pressure on
the concrete.


Technical Committee 211 / Comité technique 211




Figure 5. Execution sequence of a displacement rigid inclusion.

Then the auger is lifted a few centimeters from the soil at the
bottom of the perforation, which causes the lid at the lower end
of the auger to open. The concrete, subject to pressure, pours
into the bottom of the hole, filling it. While still pouring
concrete and controlling the pressure, at this point the operator
lifts the auger continuously by means of a rotor torque and a
vertical pulling force —see Figure 5B—. This process continues
until the auger is fully above ground —see Figure 5C—. The
concrete is poured continuously from the bottom of the
perforation until it reaches the level defined as the head of
inclusion, which can be between the working platform level and
a few dozen centimeters below it.
Throughout the process of building an inclusion (Figures 5A,
5B and 5C) real time and continuous monitoring of the
parameters that intervene in its execution are done with
electronic devices located in the cab of the crane. They detect
the signals sent by various sensors installed at strategic points of
the construction equipment. Through this monitoring, the
operator has control of the different construction parameters and
can ensure the quality of the construction of the inclusion at all
times and along its entire height. Among the parameters
controlled are: the drilling depth, the pressure and the volume of
the concrete, the upward and downward speeds, rotation and the
auger's torque.
The equipment is also able to store the record of the controls
for each inclusion, to be processed later on a personal computer.
Continuous records are obtained along the depth(see Figure 6).

The procedure described is a clean process that leaves
practically no perforation debris on the work platform. There
are also no vibrations or damage to the surface layers, which
makes working in areas adjacent to sensitive structures possible.
Additionally, the method is capable of achieving high industrial
production compared with traditional methods of pile
For quality control, it is also necessary to carry out strength
tests on samples of the concrete used. There will be as many
tests as are needed or as required by local regulations. The
common values of resistance to compressive strength of the
concrete used for the construction of displacement rigid
inclusion range from 10 to 15 MPa at 28 days, with modules of
elasticity usually set between 5,000 and 10,000 MPa, although
higher resistance and rigidity levels can be used according to the
needs of each project.
The commercial diameters of displacement rigid inclusion
construction range between 250 and 500 mm and can reach
depths of up to 30 m.
To guarantee the quality of the implementation and the
design criteria, this construction procedure has been certified by
the international bureau of control and certification Bureau


Soil improvement and reinforcement with displacement rigid
inclusions kind solves a great number of foundations in which
not only increasing bearing capacity, reducing settlements or
ensuring slope stability play an important role, but where also
cost and execution times are factors to be considered.
Given the type of auger used in the construction these
inclusions are defined as displacement inclusions where the
surrounding soil is displaced and laterally compressed at the
moment of drilling, which increases the compactness of soils
whose frictional component is significant.
During construction of displacement rigid inclusion there is
real-time monitoring of parameters such as drilling depth,
pressure and volume of the poured concrete, advancement speed
and auger rotation, downward force of the rotor torque of the
auger, which ensures a high quality control of the construction.
Due to the advantages provided by the design of soil
improvement systems with rigid inclusions, plus the
geotechnical and environmental benefits of displacement rigid
inclusions, numerous projects worldwide are being approached
with this technique.


Auvinet, G. (2006). “Rigid inclusions in Mexico City soft soils: history
and perspectives”, International Symposium “Rigid inclusions in
difficult soft soil conditions”, Instituto de Ingeniería, UNAM, Cd.
de México.
Combarieu, O. (1988). “Amélioration des sols par inclusions rigides
verticales – Application à l’édification des remblais sur sols
médiocres”. Revue Française de Géotechnique N° 44, 5779.
ASIRI National Project (2012). “Recommendations for the design,
construction and control of rigid inclusion ground improvements”.
Bureau Veritas. “Cahiers des charges CMC”.
Bureau Veritas. “Cahiers des charges Refsol”.
Figure 6. Record of monitoring in continuous real time: (A) Inclusion
profile (mm), (B) Perforation energy (bar), (C) Perforation speed (m/h),
(D) Rotation torque (t.m), (E) Rotation speed / Bearing force.

The start and stop of the concrete pump is wirelessly
controlled by the crane operator from the cab. The speed at
which the auger advances, the rotor torque, the rotation speed
and down force or extracting force of the auger is controlled
manually through the hydraulic system of the crane.



which has a major influence on the mechanical behaviour of the improved material. qui est indépendant du contenu de liant et état (poudre ou coulis). Pour minimiser le nombre d’essais pendant le processus de l'optimisation. Most of these previous investigations mainly focus on the influence of the water content and binder content. Horpibulsuk et al 2004. The method is successfully applied to a wide range of soils.J. ils produisent interactions physique-chimique lesquels sont responsables pour l'effet de la stabilisation.. This technique has given good results when applied to soft soils. Venda Oliveira & L. physico-chemical interactions take place and are responsible for the stabilization effect. which has a major influence on the mechanical behaviour of the improved material. soft soils). as stated in the european standard (EN 14679:2005). Although the model is 2457 . rapidly growing and wide spreading around the world due to its technical and economical benefits when compared with other ground improvement techniques. These soils are usually characterized by low strength and high compressibility. Portugal Department of Civil Engineering – University of Coimbra.uc.S.uc.uc. Venda Oliveira P. This model intents to minimize the number of laboratory tests needed to specify the quantity of cement and water to be admixed with the soft soil.J. comme énoncé dans la norme européenne (EN 14679:2005). physico-chemical interactions take place and are responsible for the stabilization effect. The fundamental mechanical properties of cement based admixed soft soils have been experimentally investigated by many researchers (Correia 2011. strength prediction. may be used specially for the improvement of soft soils with high water content or organic soils (Kitazume and Terashi 2002. Applying the generalised relationship of the & llemos@dec. Åhnberg 2006. the use of Portland cement has permanently been outpacing the use of quicklime. La stabilisation chimique de sols peut être appliquée avec coulis (méthode mouillée) ou poudre (méthode sec) liants. cet article présent une méthode simple de prédire la résistance à la compression simple. this paper presents a simple method to predict the unconfined compressive strength. fly Proceedings of the 18 International Conference on Soil Mechanics and Geotechnical Engineering. Appliquant la version généralisée du méthode. Portugal aalberto@dec.J.A. as well as on the ratio between them. Lemos Correia A. infrastructure requirements and land occupation policies have demanded construction on soils with poor geotechnical properties (in particular.A. additives such as granulated blast furnace slag. where the natural soil is mechanically mixed in situ with binders (usually called Mass Stabilization. pjvo@dec. montrant sa versatilité (Correia. 2011). which is independent of the binder content and state (powder or slurry). Over the last few it is possible to predict the unconfined compressive strength for any binder content and state from one single unconfined compression test. qui a une influence majeure sur le comportement mécanique du matériel améliorée.L. Horpibulsuk 2001. Miura et al 2001. ABSTRACT: The chemical stabilization of soils is a ground improvement technique consisting on the mechanical mixing of the in situ natural soil with binders. Kitazume and Terashi 2002). 2011). KEYWORDS: chemical stabilization. Edil and Staab 2005). Department of Civil Engineering – University of Coimbra. showing its versatility (Correia. However. When the stabilizing binders are mixed with the soil. Uddin et al 1997. This paper presents a new simple model which aims to predict the laboratory strength (expressed by the unconfined compression test) for various combinations of water content and cement content. demanding from geotechnical engineers new and challenging solutions to overcome these undesirable engineering characteristics.. gypsum and silica dust. The chemical stabilization of soils can be applied with either slurries (wet method) or powder (dry method) binders. 1 INTRODUCTION. Lorenzo and Bergado 2006 and 2004. not only because Portland cement is readily available at reasonable cost but also because cement is more effective than quicklime (Horpibulsuk et al 2011. as stated in the european standard (EN 14679:2005). This stabilizing effect is dependent on a range of parameters which should be analysed through a long and extensive laboratory and field trial test program. Horpibulsuk et al (2003 and 2011) and Lorenzo and Bergado (2006) have introduced phenomenological models for predicting laboratory strength development in cement based stabilized soft soils. becoming a prominent subject nowadays. Lemos L.S. Kamruzzaman 2002. Paris 2013 Prediction of the unconfined compressive strength in soft soil chemically stabilized Prediction of the unconfined compressive strength in soft soil chemically stabilized Prévision Prévision de de la la résistance résistance à à la la compression compression non non confinée confinée dans dans sols sols mous mous chimiquement chimiquement stabilisées stabilisés A. One of the ground improvement techniques that have been used with success in practice is the chemical stabilization. Correia. RÉSUMÉ : La stabilisation chimique de sols est une technique de l'amélioration des sols qui consiste en le mélange mécanique dans situ du sol naturel avec liants. This stabilizing effect is dependent on a range of parameters which should be analysed through a laboratory and field trial test program. Later on. Deep Mixing when applied in depth). Åhnberg 2006. HernandezMartinez 2006. Locat et al 1996). Cet effet stabilisateur est dépendant d’une gamme de paramètres qui devraient être analysés à travers d’un long et étendu programme d’essais en laboratoire et sur terrain. The chemical stabilization of soils can be applied with either slurries (wet method) or powder (dry method) binders. soft soils. At first the chemical stabilization of soils used the quicklime as the hardening agent. In order to minimize the number of tests during the optimization process. among others. unconfined compression test.J. Lorenzo and Bergado 2004. Quand les liants stabilisateurs sont mélangés avec le sol. Le méthode est appliquée avec succès à une grande gamme de sols. c'est possible prédire la résistance à la compression simple pour tout contenu de liant et état basé d'une seule essais à la compression simple. P. When the stabilizing binders are mixed with the soil. Based on some of these parameters.

Proceedings of the 18th International Conference on Soil Mechanics and Geotechnical Engineering.74 SiO2 (%) 62 Al2O3 (%) 16 Fe2O3 (%) 4. 1800 IL = 1. namely. its versatility is demonstrated for a wide range of soils.70 Al2O3 (%) 5. promoting the particles’ spacing with obvious reflects on the fabric of the stabilized soil and on its strength.49 900 600 300 0 10 15 aw (%) 20 25 30 Figure 1.1 Clay fraction (%) 8-12 Silt fraction (%) 71 Sand fraction (%) 17-21 Density. CEM I 42.02 38.23 Fe2O3 (%) 2. designated CEM I 42. as expected.75 363.49) and binder contents (from 9 to 27. Composition and specific surface of the binders.6 Natural void ratio.5 the laboratory procedure presented in EuroSoilStab (2001) with the modifications proposed by Correia (2011). high natural water content.35 9 209 12 644 15 1143 18 1618 21 1831 24 1936 27 1995 1. During the curing time.35 1500 IL = 1. step 3). several samples were prepare for various water contents (equivalent to a liquidity index IL of 1. used in the study. enat (-) 2.59 0.96 9 118 15 694 21 1266 27 1383 2. which allows the strength prediction based.49 9 90 15 552 21 965 27 1032 2100 Table 2. 2458 .1 EXPERIMENTAL TESTS Materials Table 1 presents the geotechnical and chemical properties of the soft soil deposit of “Baixo Mondego” (located near Coimbra city. Table 3. Unconfined compressive strength results of the chemical stabilization of the soft soil of “Baixo Mondego”. Paris 2013 th Proceedings of the 18 International Conference on Soil Mechanics and Geotechnical Engineering. Chemical stabilization of the soft soil of “Baixo Mondego” In order to evaluate the influence of the water content and binder content on the chemical stabilization of the soft soil of “Baixo Mondego”. here simply designated as SLAG. high void ratio. wP (%) 43 Undrained shear strength. Figure 2 presents these results which are well fitted by a linear logarithmical regression. were thoroughly mixed to obtain a uniform binder. Unconfined compressive strength results of the chemical stabilization of the soft soil of “Baixo Mondego”. low unit weight. aw (ratio of the dry weight of binder used in the mixture to the dry weight of the soil). 80 Natural water content.02 SiO2 (%) 19. These two binders.5 R (EN 197-1 2000). Tabel 3 and Figure 1 summarizes the main results of the chemical stabilization of the soft soil of “Baixo Mondego”.2 SLAG 37. The laboratorial procedure to produce stabilized samples followed From Figure 1 it can be seen that the curves for different liquidity index exhibit a similar shape (are homothetic). more binder is admixed with the soil allowing the construction of a stronger skeleton matrix.96 1200 IL = 2. at lower limit. 2010). the soil is predominantly clayey-silt with a high organic matter content. IL aw qu max (-) (%) (kPa) 1. which has a strong influence on some characteristics of the soil. cu (kPa) < 25 CaO (%) 0. the samples were submitted to the unconfined compression test in order to evaluate its strength (qu max).8 MgO (%) 1. The composition and the specific surface of the binders are presented in Table 2. OM (%) 9.35. sat (kN/m3) 14. on a single unconfined compression test. wnat (%) Unit weight. high plasticity.0 qu max (kPa) The binders used in the present study to produce stabilized “Baixo Mondego” soft soil samples were a Type I Portland cement. As the binder content increases. low undrained shear strength and high compressibility although this fact is not consistent with the grain size distribution. Table 1.5 2. This is a simple way to predict the unconfined compressive strength at 28 days of curing time for the cement based stabilized softy soil in study. After this period. 1. Principal properties of the soft soil of “Baixo Mondego”. 2 2. In general.74 11. (Coelho 2000. S (m2/kg) 321. wL (%) 71 Plastic limit.85 6. The binder added to the soil was defined by the parameter binder content. Thus the unconfined compressive strength (qu max) can be normalised by the liquidity index (IL) multiplying both parameters (qIL = qu max × IL). G (-) 2. particularly due to the low clay content.1 pH (-) 3. A generalized strength equation is presented. Paris 2013 developed for a particular soft soil.38 Specific surface. and a blast furnace granulated slag. all samples were subjected to a vertical pressure of 24 kPa and stayed submerged in a water tank at a controlled temperature (20±2ºC).3 Liquid limit.99 MgO (%) 2. on a dry weight proportion of 75/25 as proposed by Correia (2011). As it is a linear regression it only requires two test data made for different binder contents. Portugal). fixed as 28 days. The results show that. the unconfined compressive strength increases with the binder content and with the decreasing of the water content (or liquidity index). As the water content increases the void ratio also increases.55 Organic matter content. Venda Oliveira et al.5R CaO (%) 63.96 and 2.

0 10 2063 20 4189 30 5894 Kangawa clay 1.ln(aw) -5928.4854.81.0 10 748 20 2436 30 3952 2459 qIL (kPa) Figure 2. the qIL data of a particular soft soil was normalized by the unconfined compressive strength defined for a liquidity index of 1.83 27.95) 2 qIL = 34 41. Kawasaki et al 1981).5 10 434 15 1286 20 2343 2.90 ( R = 0. it will be applied to other soft soils as presented in the next section. each cement based stabilized soft soil has its own fitting parameters (see the equations for qIL in Figures 2 and 3).5932. fitted relatively well by a linear logarithmical regression (R2 = 0.ln(aw) .91) 2 qIL = 4649.ln(aw) .96) 2 q IL = 2864.0 10 887 20 1889 30 2159 Osaka clay 1. Normalized unconfined compressive strength results of the chemical stabilization of the soft soil of “Baixo Mondego”.ln(aw) .Technical Committee 211 / Comité technique 211 th Proceedings of the 18 International Conference on Soil Mechanics and Geotechnical Engineering. In order to find a generalized strength equation. All data are presented in Figure 4. this last value was evaluated from the fitting curves presented in Figures 2 and 3.88 (R = 0. 10 15 aw (%) 20 25 30 35 2 qIL = 3550. being valid for the prediction of the unconfined compressive strength at 28 days of curing time of cement based stabilized soft soils.90. Thus the method here proposed is versatile as it is valid for other soft soils.94). different for each soil.35 (R = 0. aw qu max Soft soil IL (-) (%) (kPa) Ariake clay 1.98) 10 15 aw (%) 20 25 30 5 8000 Kangawa clay 7000 Hiroshima clay Aichi clay Osaka clay 6000 3 DATA FROM OTHER CEMENT BASED STABILIZED SOFT SOILS Table 4 presents the main results of 7 other cement based stabilized soft soils whose geotechnical properties are described in Horpibulsuk (2001) and Kawasaki et al (1981).12.0 10 1085 20 4941 30 6072 Chiba clay 1. The number of unconfined compression tests required can be reduced to one if it is applied the generalized equation and the binder content chosen is 18%. which is helpful for the laboratory optimization process of the chemical stabilization. For each soft soil. Table 4. Figure 3 presents the results of the unconfined compressive strength normalized by the liquidity index.93) 5000 4000 3000 2000 1000 0 5 10 15 aw (%) 20 25 30 35 Figure 3.ln(aw) -7217. 4 GENERALIZING THE PROPOSED METHOD As it was observed in Figures 2 and 3.97) 4000 3000 2000 1000 1000 0 500 0 2 qIL = 3855. from which it can be concluded that each cement based stabilized soft soil has its normalization (fitting curve). independent of the soft soil.ln(aw) -2327.ln(aw) . the method proposed in this paper seems to be independent of the soft soil type.0 15 839 20 1736 Tokyo clay 1.9450. Normalized unconfined compressive strength for other cement based stabilized soft soils.43. Paris 2013 8000 Ariake clay 7000 Tokyo clay Chiba clay 3000 6000 2500 5000 2000 qIL (kPa) qIL = qu max x IL (kPa) In order to validate this simple method.63.20 (R = 0. qIL = 2337.94) 2 qIL = 1294.0 10 595 20 1707 30 1976 Hiroshima clay 1.64 (R = 0. .0 10 833 15 1798 1.59. Thus. Unconfined compressive strength results of cement based chemical stabilization of other 7 soft soils (Horpibulsuk 2001.76 2 1500 (R = 0. However.59.97) 2 qIL = 1188.ln(aw) -1802.40 (R = 0.61.0 10 1068 20 3120 30 5047 Aichi clay 1. qIL=1 (aw=18%). the method proposed can be applied satisfactory to a wide range of soft soils.30 (R = 0.0 and for a constant binder content (it was considered the value 18% for all soft soils). where it can be seen that the values are in a narrow linear band.

IPQ. the number of unconfined compression tests required can be reduced to one if it is applied the generalized equation and the binder content chosen is 18%. Design guide soft soil stabilization. Saga. Horpibulsuk S. No. and Bergado D. No. PhD Dissertation. CEN. Edil T. Vol. ASCE. Edited by Coastal Development Institute of Technology. 1.F. Development of design and construction methods to stabilise soft organic soils. specifications and conformity criteria for common cements. English version.T. 1996. Hernandez-Martinez F. and Staab D. Engineering behavior of cement-treated Bangkok soft clay.0 qIL / [qIL=1 (aW = 18%)] 2. p. p.5 0.5 qIL/[qIL=1(aw=18%)] = -2. p. Deep mixing method using cement hardening agent. Locat J..T. Dissertation. Paris 2013 th Proceedings of the 18 International Conference on Soil Mechanics and Geotechnical Engineering. Assessment of strength development in blended cement admixed Bangkok clay.. Vol.S. 41. PhD Thesis. 5.A. Engineering behavior of Cement stabilized clays at high water content. Horpibulsuk S. Strength of stabilised soils – a laboratory study on clays and organic soils stabilised with different types of binder. and Leroueil S. 52.. Vol.0 1. Applicability of deep mixing technique to the soft soils of Baixo Mondego. 721-724.. 4. Vol. Behavior of an atypical embankment on soft soil: field observations and numerical simulation. EC Project No. p.New approach. Final Report. Southeast Asian Geotechnical Society. this new method seems to be independent of the soft soil. PhD Thesis. Venda Oliveira P. p.T. Vol. 10421050. 2010. Fundamental characteristics of cement-admixed clay in deep mixing.B. Practitioner’s guide for deep-mixed stabilization of organic soils and peat. Niina A. and then was sucessfully applied to a wide range of cement based stabilized soft soils. The deep mixing method – principle.L. Thus. whatever be the water content and binder content. and Honjyo Y. No. 25. . Balkema. 2011.0 10 aw (%) 20 30 40 Figure 4. National University of Singapore. Generalized strength equation for the unconfined compressive strength of cement based stabilized soft soils.A.M. Canadian Geotechnical Journal. ASCE.A. p.J.94) 1. Miura N.Part 1: Composition. 130.0 0. Ground improvement of organic soils using wet deep soil mixing. Journal of Geotechnical and Geoenvironmental Engineering. Portuguese edition from April of 2001. 7 REFERENCES Åhnberg H. Horpibulsuk S. and Nagaraj T. which allows the definition of a generalize relationship (presented in Figure 4). Journal of Geotechnical and Geoenvironmental Engineering. Paris 2013 3. No. MSc Dissertation. Trembley H. and Bergado D. Vol. Construction and Building Materials. University of Coimbra. Sweden. p. 33-45.. 161-174. and Suddeepong A. 2005.. Mechanical and hydraulic behaviour of a soft inorganic clay treated with lime. Géotechnique. Journal of Materials in Civil Engineering..L. Miura N.A. 136. 5 CONCLUSION The paper presents a new simple method to predict the unconfined compressive strength at 28 days of curing time of cement based stabilized soft soils.D. p. 654 – 669. 53. Assessment of strength development in cement-admixed high water content clays with Abrams' law as a basis.Proceedings of the 18th International Conference on Soil Mechanics and Geotechnical Engineering. Kamruzzaman A. 2003. Vol.S. 35-47.A. 89-119. Fundamental parameters of cement-admixed clay. Lemos L. Vol. p. 439 – 444. The method was initially developed for the soft soil of “Baixo Mondego” chemically stabilized. 2004.J. BE 96-3177.12.. 35 p. Eurosoilstab 2001. Project Number NDM302. Vol. 2006. p. Soils and Foundations. 2006. Lorenzo G. CT97-0351. At limit. Geotechnical characterization of soft soils. 6 ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS The authors would like to express their thanks to CIMPOR for supplying the binders used in the work and to the institutions that supported the research financially: University of Coimbra. University of Coimbra (in portuguese). University of Lund. Cement . design and construction. ASCE. Industrial & Materials 2460 Technologies Programme (BriteEuRam III). 2002. 2.ln(aw) 2 (R = 0.P. 2006.. 130. Miura N. Horpibulsuk S. Physico-chemical and engineering behavior of cement treated Singapore marine clay. CIEC and FCT (PTDC/ECM/101875/2008). No. and Bergado D. 60. 10. The method proposed in this paper is helpful for the laboratory optimization process of the chemical stabilization at the pre-design stage. 2000.H. No. Correia A.T.A. Journal of Geotechnical and Geoenvironmental Engineering..S. 18. No. 2002. PhD Thesis. Balasubramaniam A. 1. 33. Geotechnical Engineering Journal.. Saitoh S. Horpibulsuk S. The National Deep Mixing Research Program.S. Department of Civil Engineering.L. 1997.5 Baixo Mondego clayey-silt Ariake clay Tokyo clay Chiba clay Kangawa clay Aichi clay Osaka clay Hiroshima clay 2.26 + 1. p. European Commission.G. 2004. Ph. Analysis and assessment of engineering behavior of cement stabilized clays. and Bergado D. 10. Kawasaki T. 2001. April of 2005. and Nagaraj T.. Uddin K. p. Vol 3. 2011. Japan. 4. 1521-1531. EN 197-1 2000. and Terashi M. ASCE. Undrained shear behavior of cement admixed clay at high water content. 94. Execution of special geotechnical works – deep mixing. Runglawan R. University of Cambridge. Portugal (in Portuguese). Japan. No. Proceedings of the 10th International Conference on Soil Mechanics and Foundation Engineering. Study of the experimental site of Quinta do Foja. 2001. Coelho P. EN 14679 2005. and Coelho P. 1981. Lorenzo G. 1096–1105. Kitazume M. 28. United Kingdom. Saga University. p.

performed on a 400 mm diameter and 5m high soil-mixing column. These results allow to reproduce the failure mode observed during the column excavation.Modélisation numérique du comportement d’une colonne de soil-mixing et confrontation à un essai de chargement en vraie grandeur Numerical modeling of a soil-mixing column behavior and comparison with a full-size load test Cuira F. ABSTRACT: This article shows the results of a numerical modelling study aiming at simulating an axial load test on a soil-cement column. Le Tableau 1 récapitule les caractéristiques géo-mécaniques issues des essais réalisés. Quatre modèles ont été bâtis dans le cadre de ce travail : trois modèles en éléments finis. Rueil-Malmaison. Le contexte géotechnique est caractérisé par des remblais en surface suivis d’une couche de limon sableux reposant sur un sable graveleux. Paris. à la différence des pieux « rigides ». Paris. Ces résultats permettent notamment de reproduire le mode de rupture observé lors de l’excavation de la colonne. TERRASOL. KEYWORDS: Numerical modelling. France Mosser J. by emphasizing the need of an accurate modelling of the non-linear soil-cement material which has a significant influence on the general behaviour. Le sol initialement présent sur le chantier est alors valorisé comme un matériau de construction. Pellet F.5 3. la SNCF et Terrasol collaborent au sein du projet de recherche RUFEX (Renforcement et réUtilisation des plateformes et Fondation Existantes) avec l’IFSTTAR. réalisé sur une colonne de soil – mixing de 400 mm de diamètre et 5 m de hauteur. que dans celui du renforcement des fondations existantes (empreinte des forages sur les structures limitée au diamètre de l’outil fermé). unlike with “rigid” piles. Paris. France Grzyb A. load test. Soil-mixing. Limon sableux Sable graveleux 0. 2461 . INSA. Cet article présente les résultats d’un travail de modélisation numérique d’un essai de chargement monotone conduit jusqu’à la rupture sur une colonne de soil mixing réalisée sur un chantier de validation du projet RUFEX. C’est donc dans le but de développer ces solutions que Soletanche Bachy.. The results from the four models were compared with those from a full-size monotonic load test. France Guimond-Barrett A. soil reinforcement.. Caractéristiques géotechniques des sols du site. ce qui limite au maximum l’impact des travaux sur les existants. Aucune nappe phréatique n’a été rencontrée lors des reconnaissances. Le malaxage du sol avec le liant hydraulique (ciment de type CEM III) a été effectué in situ par voie humide. Lyon. et un modèle semi-analytique simplifié. Four models were built as part of this study: three finite element models and one simplified semi-analytical model. ESSAI DE CHARGEMENT EN VRAI GRANDEUR Un essai de chargement sur une colonne de soil-mixing de 400 mm de diamètre et 5 m de hauteur a été réalisé sur le site expérimental du projet Rufex situé sur la commune de Vernouillet (78). Ce procédé offre des perspectives aussi bien dans le domaine de la maintenance des plateformes ferroviaires (possibilité de renforcer les structures ferroviaires sans avoir à déposer les voies). La quantité de ciment injectée dans la colonne sous forme de coulis était d’environ 230 kg / m3. Cette souplesse et le caractère économe en déchets et en matériaux permettent au procédé Springsol de répondre aux nouvelles exigences environnementales et économiques des projets. pour réaliser des colonnes de sol-ciment de diamètre variable. 1 2 INTRODUCTION La technique du soil mixing permet d’améliorer les caractéristiques d’un sol meuble par mélange mécanique in situ avec un liant hydraulique.-F. Le Kouby A. SOLETANCHE BACHY. SNCF I&R. réalisée par soil-mixing en voie humide.5 Pression limite nette pl* (MPa) 1 2.5 Module pressiométrique Em (MPa) 10 20 Cohésion c’ (kPa) 2 0 Angle de frottement (°) 27 37 Nature Profondeur du toit (m) La colonne testée a été forée avec l’outil Springsol®. et mettent en évidence la nécessité de modéliser correctement le comportement non linéaire du matériau sol-ciment qui influe significativement sur le comportement global. IFSTTAR. avec le double intérêt de diminuer les déchets (sols excavés) et de réduire la consommation de matériaux et d’énergie. France RÉSUMÉ : Cet article présente les résultats d’un travail de modélisation numérique visant à simuler un essai de chargement axial sur une colonne de sol-ciment. mise en œuvre dans un sol limoneux à sablo-graveleux. installed in silty to sandy-gravelly soils. Le procédé Springsol® utilise un outil ouvrant. carried out using the wet soil-mixing method. Les résultats des quatre modèles sont confrontés à ceux obtenus par un essai de chargement monotone en vraie grandeur. l’INSA de Lyon et l’Ecole des Ponts ParisTech. Tableau 1. France Costa d’Aguiar S.

Ces modèles sont construits selon la coupe schématique suivante (Figure 3) et sur la base des paramètres donnés dans les Tableaux 1 et 2. Des éléments d’interface ont été introduits entre la structure de la colonne et les éléments de sol. Zone de limon traité fissurée et fracturée vers 1 m de profondeur Figure 2. Une zone de transition faite d’un mélange de limon et de sable traité a été observée entre 2.Proceedings of the 18th International Conference on Soil Mechanics and Geotechnical Engineering. Le modèle de comportement choisi est un modèle linéaire élastique parfaitement plastique avec un critère de rupture de Mohr Coulomb (noté MC par la suite) pour les différents matériaux (sol et colonne). Des fragments de la colonne ont été prélevés. La loi de l’interface est celle d’Aguiar et al (2011) dont la formulation est basée sur les mêmes hypothèses de comportement que le modèle dit de Hujeux (1985) qui se révèle très adapté au comportement non linéaire des sols.5 m) constituée de limon traité et une partie inférieure composée de sable traité.2.5 et 3.5 . Pour le présent calcul. Coupe de calcul retenue 3.5 2.1 Modèle 1 (logiciel GEFDyn) Ce modèle est bâti à l’aide du logiciel éléments finis GEFDyn. Tableau 2. la colonne de limon traité apparaît particulièrement fissurée et fracturée (Figure 2). Limon traité (1) Transition (2) Sable traité (3) 0. Charge en tête Q (KN) 0 100 200 300 3 MODÉLISATION DE L’ESSAI DE CHARGEMENT : MODÈLES ÉLÉMENTS FINIS Le résultat de l’essai de chargement est utilisé comme référence pour l’évaluation de quatre modèles numériques dont trois basés sur un traitement complet en éléments finis. Ce constat est conforté par le fait que la portance de la colonne (estimée à partir des résultats des essais pressiométriques) était a priori supérieure à sa résistance interne (estimée à partir des résultats des essais sur les éprouvettes carottées).9 Module local E50 (MPa) 1280 Rc 1280 Rc 1280 Rc Angle de frottement (°) 42 42 42 Cohésion (kPa) 700 1700 2800 Nature Profondeur (m) Résistance Rc (MPa) Vers 1 m de profondeur. La richesse de ce type de modèle réside dans la possibilité. ce qui fait suggérer que la rupture s’est produite au sein du matériau constitutif de la colonne.5. L’angle de frottement à l’interface a été choisi égal à celui du sol environnant. noyé dans un milieu continu de 20 m de profondeur. Q 400 Tassement s (mm) 0 10 0.5 m 3 Limons sableux 40 50 Transition Figure 1. l’excavation de la colonne testée a permis de distinguer une partie supérieure (de 0 à 2.0 3.5 m. les paramètres de l’interface sont choisis de manière à représenter une surface de charge de Mohr Coulomb avec un comportement élastique parfaitement plastique.5 – 3. Courbe de chargement sur colonne de soil-mixing.0 m 2 1. en fonction des paramètres de la surface de charge et du type d’écrouissage. Résultats des essais en laboratoire sur les éprouvettes provenant de la colonne excavée. carottés en laboratoire.7 7.6 11. lorsque le tassement de la tête de la colonne a dépassé 40 mm (1/10ième du diamètre).5 . Le chargement a été arrêté pour une charge maximale de 400 kN. Cela est justifié par le mode de réalisation de la colonne (malaxage local) qui produit une interface rugueuse mobilisant ainsi un mécanisme de rupture mettant en jeu la résistance intrinsèque du sol (Figure 4). Figure 4. de modéliser des comportements qui peuvent aller du simple « élastique parfaitement plastique » à un comportement élasto-plastique à écrouissage déviatorique et volumique.5 m Remblai 20 30 2. Après 180 jours.5 3.0 m 1 1. La courbe de chargement obtenue est présentée sur la Figure 1. Etat de la surface d’un tronçon de colonne excavée 2462 . Paris 2013 L’essai de chargement a été réalisé 90 jours après l’installation de la colonne. et soumis à des essais mécaniques pour déterminer la résistance et le module de déformation du matériau constitutif de la colonne (Tableau 2). Sable graveleux Φ = 400 mm Figure 3. Excavation de la colonne après l’essai de chargement. avec des paliers de chargement de 50 kN maintenus pendant 30 min. Il s’agit d’un modèle tridimensionnel où la colonne est modélisée par des éléments volumiques à 8 nœuds formant un quart de cylindre de 400 mm de diamètre et 5 m de long.

0 m ‐1. Pour les autres matériaux (colonne et limons sableux). Ce modèle permet de prendre en compte l’effet d’écrouissage du sol. Développement d’un mécanisme de rupture localisé dans la colonne (modèle 3) Figure 6. ce paramètre est pris égal à m = 0 (pas de variation du module sécant avec l’état de contraintes).10. Pour la définition de la loi DPC dans les sables graveleux. les données géotechniques ont été complétées par les valeurs du module de déformation sécant E50h/2 à mi-épaisseur dans chaque couche : E50h/2 = 25 MPa pour les limons sableux et E50h/2 = 100 MPa pour les sables graveleux. 15 20 Modèle 1 (GEFDyn . le palier de rupture obtenu correspond au développement d’une zone de plastification « conique » dans la partie supérieure de la colonne vers 1 m de profondeur (Figure 8). on choisit une loi de contraintes-déformations de type « HSM » (Hardening Soil Model . cette loi est combinée avec un critère de rupture de type Mohr Coulomb. Des éléments d’interface ont été par ailleurs introduits sur toute la frontière de la colonne avec une loi de contraintesdéformations et un critère de rupture identiques à ceux des sols environnants. Les modèles 2 et 3 mettent en évidence un palier de rupture net situé entre 350 et 400 kN.DPC / MC) Modèle 3 (PLAXIS . il a été retenu une loi linéaire élastique parfaitement plastique avec critère de rupture de Mohr Coulomb (MC). au palier obtenu par l’essai de chargement sur site. ainsi que l’effet de compaction en pointe sous la colonne. Dans le présent exercice.5 m ‐1. et une zone de transition (Figure 5). La Figure 7 présente la courbe de chargement simulée à l’aide des trois modèles présentés cidessus.Technical Committee 211 / Comité technique 211 Modèle 2 (logiciel ABAQUS) 3. Les éléments utilisés sont des éléments triangulaires à 15 nœuds et 30 degrés de liberté. Enfin.HSM) 25 Essai 30 Figure 7. Loi de Drucker-Prager modifiée avec cap (DPC) Les paramètres β et d s’expriment en fonction de l’angle de frottement interne φ et la cohésion c à l’aide de la relation (1) : 6 sin  3  sin  et d  18c cos 3  sin  0 Les autres paramètres sont choisis soit par calage. Cette variabilité est contrôlée par un paramètre « puissance » noté m.Figure 6) qui est une loi hyperbolique tenant compte de l’écrouissage en cisaillement et en compression. Enfin.5 m Figure 8. le paramètre pb qui délimite la surface d’écrouissage. un cap elliptique. Mise en œuvre et résultats 3. Ce modèle permet par ailleurs de tenir compte de la variation du module de déformation sécant E50 (à 50% de la contrainte de rupture) avec l’état de contraintes. 0 50 100 150 200 250 300 350 400 5 10 Tassement en tête (mm) tan   Pour les trois modélisations réalisées. α = 0. Pour la colonne.MC) Modèle 2 (ABAQUS . ‐0. Pour le sol et la colonne. qu’on prend usuellement égal à m = 0. les paramètres suivants ont été considérés : R = 0. ce modèle (DPC) a été considéré pour caractériser le comportement des sables graveleux.4 Figure 5.2 Le modèle 2 est bâti sous le logiciel ABAQUS. à 10% près. doit en toute rigueur être calé sur le résultat d’un essai de consolidation isotrope. Ce constat est corroboré par les observations faites sur site lors de l’excavation de la colonne. Il s’agit d’un modèle axisymétrique qui intègre une loi de comportement avancée de type « Drucker-Prager » modifiée avec cap (DPC). Modèle 3 (logiciel PLAXIS) 3. des éléments d’interface ont été introduits avec une loi MC. l’historique de contraintes. ce qui correspond. Principe de la loi HSM sous PLAXIS 2463 . Une très bonne concordance est observée entre la modélisation et les mesures jusqu’à 300 kN (75% de la charge de rupture mesurée).01 et pb fonction de la déformation volumique plastique selon la loi d’écrouissage des sables d’Ottawa (Helwany 2000). En particulier.3 Charge en tête (kN) (1) e Le 3 modèle est un modèle axisymétrique bâti sous le logiciel PLAXIS. La surface de charge est composée de trois parties : une limite de rupture en cisaillement de type Drucker-Prager. soit d’une manière forfaitaire sur la base d’éléments bibliographiques. Simulation de la courbe de chargement par modélisation numérique en éléments finis Dans les modèles 2 et 3.5 pour le sol en place (le module sécant est proportionnel à la racine de la contrainte appliquée).

7 REFERENCES BIBLIOGRAPHIQUES D’Aguiar. REMERCIEMENTS Les auteurs tiennent à remercier la DGCIS (Direction Générale de la Compétitivité et des Services) et les Conseils Généraux de la Région Ile de France et 93 qui cofinancent cette recherche. à la différence d’une loi linéaire élastique. Frottement latéral Résultats 4. Lors du présent exercice. cette loi s’est révélée apte à retranscrire le comportement observé. Modaressi-Farahmand-Razavi.3 MODÉLE SEMI-ANALYTIQUE SIMPLIFIE Contrainte en pointe La Figure 11 présente les résultats obtenus (courbe de chargement). J. 278–302. Frank. INC pp. A la différence des pieux « classiques » pour lesquels le contraste de rigidité pieu/sol est tel que l’essentiel des tassements est obtenu en pointe.5 Rc E50   1  2 E50 Rc ε 4. R. Les paramètres de pente des lois de Frank et Zhao (Figure 9) s’obtiennent par corrélation avec le module pressiométrique EM : Kt = 0. Celui-ci est obtenu par plastification en tête de la colonne (contrainte appliquée proche de la résistance à la compression simple Rc). aussi bien sur le comportement avant rupture que sur le mode de rupture. Bull. Liaison Labo. avec K0 = 0. et se révèlent très efficaces dans les exercices de calage par rapport à un essai de chargement en vraie grandeur. (1982). à la différence des pieux « rigides ». Rc) qui Figurent dans le Tableau 2. et Ch. deux hypothèses enveloppes sont examinées : la première est celle d’un contact béton/sol pour laquelle la valeur de qs s’obtient par corrélation avec la pression limite pl* . Enfin. Presses ENPC. Ces éléments ont justifié le recours à une loi de contrainte-déformation non linéaire pour la colonne : il a été retenu une loi de forme hyperbolique (Figure 10) construite à l’aide de deux paramètres : le module sécant E50 et la résistance à la compression simple Rc.8 EM / B. 61-67 Hujeux.5 et σv’ la contrainte verticale effective initiale à l’interface de la colonne. dos Santos. A. Lopez-Caballero (2011). Elastoplastic constitutive modeling of soil-structure interfaces under monotonic and cyclic loading. V. Deux cas ont été étudiés : cas d’un comportement linéaire élastique de la colonne (E = E50). Ils mettent en évidence la nécessité de modéliser correctement le comportement non linéaire du matériau solciment qui influe significativement sur le comportement global. tant par les modèles numériques que par le modèle semi-analytique. Les résultats obtenus. WILEY & SONS.8 EM / B et Kp = 4. J. S.1 Principe du modèle On utilise à présent un modèle semi-analytique simplifié basé sur la méthode dite « t-z » : la colonne est assimilée à une poutre verticale travaillant en compression axiale. C. Ensuite. Les résultats obtenus confirment la pertinence d’une loi de comportement non linéaire pour le matériau constitutif de la colonne. R. and F. Courbe de chargement – Modélisation analytique simplifiée 5 CONCLUSION Les enseignements tirés de l’essai de chargement en vraie grandeur ont permis d’orienter le choix des paramètres d’entrée des différents outils numériques développés dans le cadre du projet RUFEX. permettent de bien reproduire le comportement observé lors de l’essai. pp. la deuxième hypothèse est celle d’un contact sol/sol pour laquelle la valeur de qs est celle du cisaillement limite de Mohr Coulomb : qs = tan(φ’). pour le choix du frottement latéral limite qs. Pour chaque cas. 2000 Applied Soil Mechanics with ABAQUS Applications. le résultat du modèle semi-analytique se révèle très concordant avec celui de l’essai de chargement jusqu’au palier de rupture. S.K0. Paris 2013 4 4. & Zhao. Ces lois sont couramment utilisées en France pour estimer le tassement d’un élément de fondation profonde.. tandis que le frottement latéral τ et la contrainte en pointe q suivent une loi de mobilisation de Frank et Zhao (1982). J. qui relie la contrainte appliquée σ au taux de déformation axiale de la colonne ε. 6 Figure 10. Computers and Geotechnics 38(-). Une loi de comportement pour le chargement cyclique des sols en génie parasismique. 2464 Essai 25 30 1 E = f(σ) et qs = f(σv’) 35 2 E = f(σ) et qs = f(pl*) 40 3 E = E50 et qs = f(σv’) 45 4 E = E50 et qs = f(pl*) 1 3 50 Figure 11. et cas d’un comportement non linéaire (E = f(σ)) selon la loi décrite dans la Figure 10. 119 :17-24. la contrainte limite en pointe qp est prise égale à 4 MPa. . la particularité d’une colonne de soil-mixing réside dans un contraste de rigidité colonne/sol plus faible et une sensibilité notable de la raideur globale en tête vis-à-vis du comportement local. (1985). Lois de mobilisation de type Frank et Zhao σ Asymptote = Rc Rc  0. 430447. Loi de contrainte-déformation retenue pour la colonne 2 20 Tassement (mm) Les courbes de mobilisation ci-dessus sont combinées avec la loi de comportement de la colonne. A. P. Helwany S. et sont donc fonctions du déplacement vertical de la colonne w. deux situations sont examinées : frottement de type sol/sol (qs = f(σv’)) et frottement de type béton/sol (qs = f(pl*)). Avec ces hypothèses. Davidovici.2 Mise en œuvre La loi de contrainte-déformation de la Figure 10 est construite à partir des paramètres (E50.Proceedings of the 18th International Conference on Soil Mechanics and Geotechnical Engineering. où B désigne le diamètre de la colonne. C. Charge en tête (kN) 0 0 50 100 150 200 250 300 350 400 450 500 4 5 10 15 Figure 9.σv’. Estimation par les paramètres pressiométriques de l’enfoncement sous charge axiale des pieux forés dans les sols fins. Chaque loi est caractérisée à l’aide de deux paramètres : un paramètre de pente (Kt ou Kp) et une contrainte unitaire limite (qs ou qp). et montrent que le choix d’un frottement de type « sol/sol » est plus représentatif du comportement réel observé.

the deformation (E). based on cement. a continuous SMW is realized. the arching effect (UCS) and the structural resistance (UCS) of the element. the DSM strength depends not only on the soil type. By overlapping the different soil mix elements. réalisés sur des échantillons carottés in situ. Belgian Building Research Institute. For the semi-probabilistic design approach presented in Eurocode 7. The results of national and European research programs have also been published in multiple interesting reports (such as Eurosoilstab 2002). DSM material from 38 Belgian construction sites. the ground is mechanically mixed in place. DSM has been known as a ground improvement (GI) technique. a “characteristic value” of the UCS has to be defined as part of the design of DSM structures. par lesquels sont déterminés la résistance à la compression simple (UCS) et le module d’élasticité (E) du matériau. etc. mechanical characteristics of DSM material were investigated. Huybrechts N. peat and gyttja (result of the digestion of the peat by bacteria). KEYWORDS: Deep soil mix wall. des échantillons de soil mix de 38 sites de construction ont été testés pour différents types de sol et différents systèmes. but also on the DSM technique. More recently. les caractéristiques mécaniques du matériau soil mix ont été investiguées. des déformations (E). DSM can be classified as ground improvement with grouting type of Deep Soil Mix Structures: considerations on the UCS characteristic value Dimensionnement des structures en soil mix : considérations sur la valeur caractéristique UCS Denies N. has been tested. RÉSUMÉ : Depuis plusieurs décennies. with various soil conditions and for different execution processes. In the DSM process. Le présent article discute de la définition de cette valeur caractéristique. DSM is increasingly being used for structural applications such as soil mix walls (SMW) for the retaining of soil and water in the case of excavations. Most of these research projects focused on the global stabilization of soft cohesive soils such as clay.. Aucune directive n’est actuellement disponible pour l’exécution et le dimensionnement de telles applications. Ces deux grandeurs permettent une approche du dimensionnement tenant compte de la rigidité flexionnelle (EI). La qualité du matériau soil mix est généralement contrôlée à l’aide d’essais. the amount and the type of binder. Standardized guidelines for the execution and the design of this kind of applications are not currently available. the TSM and the CSM systems in several Belgian soils as reported in Denies et al. Belgium B. silt. Numerous reviews and recent progresses of the DSM technique are referred in Denies and Van Lysebetten (2012). De manière à développer de telles directives. structural design. The present paper discusses the definition of this value. while a binder. Belgium Maertens J. The design approach for the DSM material is very different since the existing soil is used as an essential component of the final product. Belgium Vervoort A. A good insight has been acquired with regard to mechanical characteristics that can be obtained with the CVR C-mix®. Van Lysebetten G. the deep soil mix (DSM) technique has been used for ground improvement works. Lameire Lameire B. il est important de définir la valeur caractéristique de la résistance du soil mix (UCS) à prendre en compte dans le dimensionnement. this technique has been increasingly used for structural applications. la technique du soil mix est utilisée comme procédé d’amélioration du sol. For the purpose of developing such guidelines. numerous tests on in situ DSM material have been performed. Elements such as piles or diaphragm walls only comprise standardized components and their characteristic strength can be defined by the strength class of concrete. KU Leuven. Both values allow an approach of the design which takes into account the bending characteristics (EI). the DSM cylindrical columns or the rectangular panels are placed next to each other. Since several decennia. Steel profiles are inserted into the DSM fresh material to resist the shear forces and bending moments. Mais ces dernières années. elle est de plus en plus utilisée pour des applications structurelles. Dans le cadre d’un programme de recherche financé par l’IWT. (2012). The main structural difference between SMW and the more traditional secant pile walls is the constitutive DSM material which consists of a soil – cement mixture instead of concrete. Within the framework of the BBRI “Soil Mix” project initiated in 2009 in collaboration with the KU Leuven and the Belgian Association of Foundation Contractors (ABEF). For SMW applications. while the European standard for the execution of deep mixing “Execution of special geotechnical works – Deep Mixing” (EN 14679) was published in 2005. Within the framework of a Flemish regional research program (IWT 080736). Jan Maertens bvba & KU Leuven. Belgian Association of Foundation Contractors ABEF.. Belgium De Cock F. But in recent years. 2012a and b) have been published for the purpose of helping contractors to improve the quality control (QC) of their finished 2465 . According to the classification of GI methods adopted by the ISSMGE TC 211. ucs characteristic value 1 INTRODUCTION The Deep Soil Mix (DSM) process was introduced in the 70’s in Japan and in the Scandinavian countries. de l’effet de voûte (UCS) et de la résistance structurelle (UCS) de l’élément. Belgium ABSTRACT: Since several decades. Internationally QA/QC activities are commonly related to tests on core samples for the determination of the Unconfined Compressive Strength (UCS) and the modulus of elasticity (E) of the material. BBRI. in a secant way. is injected. Au vue de l’approche semi-probabiliste de l’Eurocode 7. Geotechnical Expert Office Geo. Moreover. l’agence gouvernementale flamande pour l’innovation. BBRI information sheets (BBRI.

Possibly. In practice. at least 20 samples are necessary). Nevertheless. 12 MPa  (2) where fm. after Denies et al. Moreover. b) Zoom on the part below 50%: presentation of the construction for the evaluation of the 5% lower limit value. α f m. a) Distribution of the UCS values of 41 cores of DSM material from a site in Gent (Belgium) and the corresponding theoretical Gaussian curve.6 from the same site and the corresponding Gaussian curve. Neither in the Eurocode 7 nor in the European standards for grouting (EN 12715). the arching effect (UCS) and the structural resistance (UCS) of the element.1 f c. This approach seems rather simple but any other method probably results in a large uncertainty. The following paragraphs discuss the definition of this value.Proceedings of the 18th International Conference on Soil Mechanics and Geotechnical Engineering. 1b). Paris 2013 product. Quality Assurance (QA) and Quality Control (QC) activities are commonly related to tests on core samples for the determination of the Unconfined Compressive Strength (UCS) and the modulus of elasticity (E) of the material.75 for fc. Figure 2 presents the cumulative frequency curve for the UCS values of the dataset illustrated in Fig.k: α equals 0. the deformation (E). August 2012) used in Germany. This method is described in more detail by Topolnicki and Pandrea (2012).mittel the arithmetic mean UCS value from a series of at least 4 samples. (2012) for a lognormal distribution (see Fig.k  min  f m. The mathematically correct solution would be to apply the best fitting standard distribution function. (1) where q uf is the mean UCS value and α a factor representing a certain confidence and safety level (α < 1). it is thus essential to define the UCS characteristic value that can be taken into account in the design of DSM structures. a factor β has to be added to the values to obtain an optimal fit with a normal distribution after transformation. The vertical line indicates the 5% lower limit value. 35 30 25 UCS (MPa) The first methodology consists in the calculation of the characteristic strength as the X% lower limit on the basis of a statistical distribution function.k ≤ 4 MPa and 0.min is the minimum UCS value and fm. However. as illustrated in Denies et al. this often results into negative and thus useless characteristic UCS values. enough data points have to be available (for an accurate determination of the 5% lower limit without extrapolation. Both values allowing an approach of the design taking into account the bending characteristics (EI).min . 5 10 50 90 Cumulative percentage 99 5 4 3 2 1 0 b.2 Figure 1. (2012). but guidance rules for the design of SMW are still lacking in particular for the determination of a “characteristic value” representative of the strength of the soil mix material. the UCS characteristic value is defined as the minimum value of three parameters: 15 10 On the basis of an average value with safety factor A second approach to determine the UCS characteristic value is the use of the average value of the dataset in combination with a safety factor: 20 UCS (MPa) 2. The second methodology to determine the X% lower limit is based on the cumulative frequency curve of the original experimental dataset and thus independent of any theoretical distribution function. α is determined in function of fc. The X% lower limit can then be calculated on the basis of this theoretical distribution function. the wrong assumption is often made that the datasets of UCS values of soil mix material are normally distributed (see Fig.mittel . jet-grouting (EN 12716) or deep-mixing (EN 14679). Note that to apply this method.k = 12 MPa (linear interpolation is required for intermediate values). this way of working is probably too complex to apply in practical situations.k   quf 5 0 1 a. 1a). In the formalized design approach (DIN 4093. 1 5 10 Cumulative percentage 50 Figure 2. 1.6 for fc. 2 DETERMINATION OF THE UCS CHARACTERISTIC VALUE OF DSM MATERIAL On the basis of an X% lower limit value 2. The characteristic UCS value is then erroneously calculated as the X% lower quantile of the normal distribution with parameters corresponding to the dataset. for example a lognormal distribution in case the distribution is skewed and/or does not contain subpopulations. f c . 2466 . Cumulative frequency curve of all UCS values of the dataset from the site in Gent: a) Full curve. b) Distribution of the logarithm of the UCS values increased with β = 0. in practice. For engineering purposes and as part of the semiprobabilistic design approach presented in Eurocode 7. specifications are given for the internal strength of the material.

the maximum allowed compressive stress is 0.50) Equivalent global safety factor For =0. a soil inclusion of 20 mm in a test sample of 100 mm diameter significantly influences the test result.d  f m .k (DIN4093)) as a function of the number of tested samples. Ratio of the characteristic values (fc. This possibility to reject test samples results from the reflexion that a soil inclusion of 20 mm or less does not influence the behaviour of a soil mix structure. a value for the X% has to be defined. As illustrated in Fig.18 4. Indeed. The ratio of the two characteristic values is presented as a function of the number of tested samples for each considered dataset. Table 1 presents cumulated safety factors on material strength (fm.5). Considering the safety factor of 5 and the reduction factor of 0. 3.75 2. on condition that no more than 15% of the test samples from one particular site would be rejected.3 for accidents). results are given for two different X% lower quantiles: X = 5% and 10%. For With 3D analysis Cumulated safety factor Permanent actions (γG=1. no 3D stress analysis). Figure 3 compares the UCS characteristic value computed with the help of the cumulative frequency curve (CC method) or with respect to the DIN approach. the design value was computed as follows: f c . (2012) and Van Lysebetten et al.94 2.mittel) and equivalent global safety factors in permanent design situation according to DIN 4093 – August 2012 (γm = 1.20 3. is a representative characteristic value for the strength of the soil mix material.85 f c . skewed populations and in the presence of subpopulations. 3 For comparison. The design strength for calculations with the concept of partial safety factors is then computed as follows: f c . For the purpose of studying this question.e. A more detailed analysis is necessary to determine if a 5% lower limit. as often stated in Eurocode 7. one major issue is the representativeness of the core samples with regard to the in situ executed DSM material.85 x (0. additional creep tests have to be conducted with a load of fc.30 5. 2467 . Cumulated safety factors on material strength (fm. Based on this numerical analysis.mittel 5 (4) for samples with UCS values expected larger than 5 MPa and tested according to the DIN 1048 standard for concrete material.35) Equivalent global safety factor Variable actions (γQ=1. relative position and percentage of soil inclusions.k (CC) and fc.d. soil) is being mixed. Denies et al.41 3. as a natural material (i.50) Equivalent global safety factor Without 3D analysis Cumulated safety factor Permanent actions (γG=1. if independent and separate design calculations are performed for compressive and shear stresses (i.Q)/(α x 0. Second.7 or 1)) computed with the new DIN 4093 for permanent design situations. the design strength is computed without the 0.54 6.14.2 x fc. they confirm that DSM samples with soft soil inclusions larger than 1/6 have a considerable influence on the deduction of the engineering values.k (3) m where 0.7 x fc. Ganne et al. On the other hand. For this second approach based on an average value with safety factor.5 for permanent and temporary load cases and 1.mittel) and equivalent global safety factors (γm x γG.04 Figure 3.d  q u 3 (5) for samples with UCS values expected smaller than 5 MPa and tested according to the DIN 18 136 for soil material. INFLUENCE OF THE UNMIXED SOIL INCLUSIONS There is mainly the question of the influence of unmixed soft soil inclusions on the mechanical behaviour of the DSM material.35) Equivalent global safety factor Variable actions (γQ=1. In Fig. the definition of the most suitable mean (arithmetic mean. it is to be expected that the entire wall is not perfectly mixed and homogeneous: inclusions of unmixed soft soil are present. As reported in Topolnicki and Pandrea (2012).k/2 as described in the annex B of the DIN 4093. the previous version of the DIN 4093 resulted in a global safety factor of 7. in the previous version of the DIN 4093 (September 1987). for the first category of approaches (based on the lower limit value).53 4.85 is a factor to consider permanent situations and γm is the material safety factor as defined in Eurocode 7 (1. Indeed. Actually.d and the maximum allowed shear stress is 0. (2012) have remarked that first. (2010) seems to be justified. Of course. median. For temporary situations. the “rule of 1/6” as proposed by Ganne et al.) should depend on the type of the distribution of the dataset.e. the UCS characteristic value is always greater when computed with the help of the cumulative frequency curve (all the values are larger than 1). problems may arise with limited number of samples. etc.85 coefficient.36 5. 4. (2013).Technical Committee 211 / Comité technique 211 If the characteristic value fc. As a result.67 4. number. For comparison with the previous version of the DIN 4093 (published in September 1987). An increase in the number of test samples has no effect on the safety factors.k is smaller than 4 MPa. or with the help of: f c . The following parameters are being considered: size. 2D numerical simulations were performed at KU Leuven with the aim to quantify the effect of soil inclusions on the DSM strength and stiffness. this condition is only suitable if one assumes that there is no soil inclusion larger than 1/6 of the width of the in situ DSM structure. 3. As observed in Fig.d  0. The results of this study are presented in Vervoort et al.97 3. Minimum 20 samples are necessary in order to conduct the statistical analysis on the cumulative frequency curve. (2010) have proposed to reject all test samples with soil inclusions > 1/6 of the sample diameter.6 =0.7 related to the 3D character of the loading. q'u is the UCS value computed according to the DIN 18136.35 3. Table 1.

III. 2012).. while SMWs were previously used only for temporary excavation support.. 31 May-1 June 2012. 2002.the scale effect (with regard to the full-scale factor of 0. pp. The curing and creep phenomena are currently investigated within the framework of the BBRI ‘Soil Mix’ project. June 07-10. A. N. Denies and N. and Pandrea. Recent research. 4 INFLUENCE OF THE SCALE EFFECT Apart from traditional core samples (with a diameter around 10 cm). International Symposium of ISSMGE . 2010). Huybrechts (eds. 2012.). . F. pp. advances & execution aspects of ground improvement works. International Conference on Installation Effects in Geotechnical Engineering. Belgium.5. N. 2012). A. (2013). General Report – Session 4 – SOIL MIXING 2 – DEEP MIXING. Denies. - Figure 4. 99-115. Belgium. Design Guide Soft Soil Stabilisation. BBRI. F. N. 2010. advances & execution aspects of ground improvement works.TC211.TC211. Paris 2013 the determination of the X% lower quantile for DSM material (in case of statistical calculation). The results of all the tests performed in KU Leuven are presented in Fig. J. pp. Brussels. a Belgian design methodology for the DSM structures is currently developed. Indeed. the calculation of the UCS characteristic value should consider: . permanent retaining and bearing applications with soil mix are increasingly applied in Belgium. A.6. Recent research.bbri. Japan. Recent research. Scale effect: relationship between the results of UCS tests on typical cylindrical core samples (10 cm diameter) and on large rectangular blocks tested in KU Leuven (after Vervoort et al. J. Huybrechts. 5 CONCLUSIONS Based on the results of the BBRI ‘Soil Mix’ project. large scale UCS tests were conducted on rectangular blocks with approximately a square section. BBRI information sheet 56. De Cock. Belgium. Lameire... CDIT. N. Van Lysebetten G.bbri. III. pp. it is suggested to consider the value of the UCS at 28 days as the value of reference for the strength of the DSM material. March 24 – 27. F. a linear relationship is observed between the test results obtained from the typical core samples and the large rectangular blocks. P. Rotterdam.. 2009-2013). deep mixing or grouting.the possibility of 3D analysis.. G. advances & execution aspects of ground improvement works. Van Lysebetten. Denies. Edited by CDIT. the UCS of the full-scale blocks is about 70% of the average UCS of the typical core samples. Soil Mix walls as retaining structures – mechanical characterization. 2013. Ganne. Brussels. G. De Cock. De Cock. and Maertens. Denies. Numerical modeling of fracturing in soil mix material. Vervoort A. M. Belgium.. 2012.the presence of the unmixed soft soil inclusions potentially considering the rule of 1/6 (Ganne et al. .. N. Vervoort. www.. 309-316.. N. EC project BE 96-3177. Denies.. H is the ratio between the height of the soil inclusion and the sample diameter. The Netherlands.TC211. For the evolution of the UCS value with 31 May-1 June 2012. 127-135. Vol. Brussels. and Maertens. Brussels.the number of tested core samples. International Symposium of ISSMGE . On the one hand to determine the UCS characteristic value of the DSM material and on the other hand to design the SMW as a retaining wall according to the requirements of the Eurocode 7. 87-124. pp. J. July 2012 (in Dutch and French). 5. Maertens. G.. It is to note that similar conclusion was observed for DSM columns in Japan (CDIT 2002). International conference on geotechnical challenges in megacities. Vol. Details of the model are available in Van Lysebetten et al. A.. 5 for various soil conditions and different execution systems: the CSM and the TSM. advances & execution aspects of ground improvement works. . N. Design of ground improvement – Jet grouting. Parois de type “Soil mix” de type 2 : parois faites de panneaux. DIN 4093:2012-08. Vol. Results of 2D numerical simulations performed with the help of the Universal Distinct Element Code UDEC of Itasca®. 2012. N. A. July 2012 (in Dutch and French). Soil mix walls as retaining structures – critical analysis of the material design parameters. 2002. Recent research. Huybrechts.7).and the time effects (with the help of creep test or based on experience with similar technique and soil conditions). 31 May-1 June 2012. Huybrechts. with a width corresponding to the width of the in situ SMW (about half a meter) and with a height approximately twice the width (Vervoort et al. 2468 6 ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS This research is financially supported by the Agency for Innovation by Science and Technology of the Flemish Region IWT (BBRI ‘Soil Mix’ project. Although there is a scatter in the test results.. Mechanical characterization of large scale soil mix samples and the analysis of the influence of soil inclusions. Design of in-situ soil mixing. Coastal Development Institute of Technology. De Cock. III. B. Design and Construction. Balkema Publishers/Lisse/Abingdon/Exton (PA)/Tokyo. J. BBRI information sheet 56.. N. Infofiche. Influence of the dimensions of the soil inclusions on the UCS of soil mix material. 31 May-1 June 2012. Topolnicki. www. 2012a. B. Eurosoilstab. Russia. According to the results presented in this paper. Moscow. .TC211.Proceedings of the 18th International Conference on Soil Mechanics and Geotechnical Engineering.. Vol. Van Lysebetten. .be.. International Symposium of ISSMGE . The Deep Mixing Method – Principle.. Tavallali. I.the possibility to use a statistical approach (based on the cumulative curve) or an approach such as in the DIN. Lameire. 2012b. Figure 5. 7 REFERENCES BBRI.. Huybrechts. Vervoort. August 2012 (in German). As observed in Fig. Parois de type “Soil mix” de type 1 : parois faites de colonnes. 2012. Infofiche. Maertens. B. and Lameire B. International Symposium of ISSMGE . . F. Development of design and construction methods to stabilise soft organic soils. P. 991-998. 2010. and Lameire. and Van Lysebetten.

lake and swamp sediments. comme mesure d’amélioration du sous-sol. les forces axiales développées dans le géogrille et la relation contraintedéformation dans le sous-sol sous chargements statique et dynamique. so. Le sol de fondation est composé de sols de mauvaise qualité et faible capacité portante. Republic of Macedonia ABSTRACT: Adora residential building is a 6-storey structure. fine silty sands. République de Macédoine). Republic Of Macedonia Méthode d’amélioration du sous-sol sous le bâtiment Adora – Ohrid. Un projet d’amélioration des sols a donc été préparé.. The foundation soil consists of soil materials which have a poor strength properties and low bearing capacity.0 – 80. KEYWORDS:soil imporovement. Bogoevski B. geogrid. Skopje. sandy clays. but most appropriated was the one which involves geosyntetic reinforcement as subsoil improvement measure.0 m with GWT = 5.0 – 7. The sediments are well sorted. République de Macédoine Dimitrievski L. geotextile 1 2 INTRODUCTION Adora residential building is foreseen to be built on a site which hasvery poor geomechanical properties or in other words the geotechnical conditions on the site are very unfavorable.e.0 m en dessous de la surface de sol.0 – 60. Les modèles logiciels développés dans Plaxis 2D montrent clairement l’efficacité des mesures appliquées pour l’amélioration des sols. different types of clay and clayey-silty sediments. so that they have heterogenic particle size distribution and heterogenic mineralogy composition.0 – 5. bâti à coté du lac d’Ohrid (Ohrid. Several preliminary solutions were considered.0 m bellow the ground surface. In such casesalways major problems are low bearing capacity of the subsoil and large differential settlements. Moreover. Plusieurs solutions préliminaires ont été considérées. on the site there are layers of loose uniform sand. The thickness of these sediments varies between 50. In order to adopt a solution for soil improvement and to check the liquefaction potential of the soil. they belong to the group of low permeability sediments with interparticle porosity. In other words they present materials with poor physical and mechanical properties that have different strength and deformability parameters. La nappe phréatique (NP) du site est située 1. La profondeur des fondations du bâtiment est d’environ 1. as it was mentioned before. sand. fully saturated with water. sandy clays and soft lake/swamp clays with low to medium plasticity. A closed type of springs with free level is present in the sediments. 3 Figure 1. and with permeability k = nx10-4 – nx10-5 m/s.e.5 m (foundation construction – foundation slab).0 m. Republic of Macedonia Ilievski D. a project on soil improvement was prepared. there are present sediments from the Quaternary period (Pleistocene epoch). Skopje. mais la plus appropriée est celle qui implique le renforcement par géosynthétiques. i. Having in mind these two facts a liquefaction becomes also a serious danger for the structure. Faculty of Civil Engineering. well placed and sorted with heterogenic particle size distribution. the soils found on the site are with 2469 . as well as occasional presence of peat. The software models developed in Plaxis 2D clearly showed the effectiveness on the applied measures for soil improvement. i. Dimitrievski D. these sediments belong to the group of weathered rocks. la construction du bâtiment. Strasheski A. From engineering geological point of view.. performance of the building. The city of Ohrid is located in active seismic area which is classified in the 9th seismic zone according to MCS. The foundation depth of the building is approximately 1.0 m.. The ground water table (GWT) on the location is on 1. silt. On such geotechnical conditions a big settlements are expected. detailed analyses were conducted.0 l/sec. low compacted. represented with gravel.comprehensive analyses were conducted.0 m with discharge of Q = 1. with smooth surfaces. RÉSUMÉ : le bâtiment de résidence Adora est-une construction de 6 étages. In order to evaluate the settlements. at depth to 20.Excavation pit on a site GEOLOGICAL SITE PROPERTIES GEOMECHANICAL SITE PROPERTIES The site for construction of the new building is located approximately 200 m from the shore of Ohrid Lake. Also there is a closed type of springs under pressure (artesian springs) at depth from 20. axial forces developed in the geogrids and stress-strain condition in the subsoil during static and dynamic loads. Therefore. Avec ces conditions géotechniques des tassements du sol sont attendus.Method of improvement of the subsoil under Adora facility – Ohrid. built nearby Ohrid Lake (Ohrid. Republic of Macedonia).5 m (construction de fondation – dalle de fondation). GEING Krebs und Kiefer International and others ltd. they are fine to medium gravels and sands. According to the hydrogeological properties. According to the geological formations on the site. Des analyses détaillées ont été menées afin d’évaluer les tassements du sol.

Adora building – cross section 4 CONSTRUCTION DETAILS The Adorabuildingis built on the sitewhich is very close to the Ohrid Lake.5 m ≥ 3 mm 0.0 18.9 m Figure 2. Cross section of the foundation structure 5 THE SOLUTION As it was mentioned before. total of 3.0 10. extensive geotechnical field investigations were conducted. Geomechanical properties Fill Material CL/SFc SFc g (kN/m3) 22. By the separation. Moreover. it is obvious that ground improvement is necessary under the foundation of the new construction. without being destroyed. Because of the foundation level of -1. In addition. listed in the Table 2.0 / 4 13 Soil f (0) Mv (kPa) SPT substructure) is 69. On the other hand. the improvement of the subsoil was done by means of soil replacement and usage of geosynthetic materials.0x22.0 15. The overlap oftwo adjacent panels is 60 cm. clear view of the ground profile was obtained. it is meant that the geotextile will prevent mixing of the different soils. approximately 1.0 80000.5 m.9 m thick and on the extension parts it is 0. and it completely wraps the fill material up. The excavation pit was done by constructing2:1 slopes. it was concluded that the site is composed of different layers of sedimentary soils. geotextile was used to ensure separation of the fill material from the subsoil.0x41. 2. Properties of the geotextile Raw material PP multicolored/PET Method of production Mechanically bonded ≥ 300 gr/m2 Weight Considering all these facts.10 mm (±0. It is supposed that this second layer continues up to depth for which loading stresses have impact on the settlements.0 m from the ground surface. from gravels and sands to silts and clays. In addition.0 m greater than the contours of the foundation slab.0 m from the surface.4 18. The geotextile was placed all over the bottom of the excavation pit as well as on the excavation slopes. complete preservation of the properties of the later placed fill materials will be ensured. With such extensive scope of field investigations.5 m from the ground surface and the depth of soil replacement of 2. With foreseen depth of the boreholes.0 5000.5 m thick. because of the nearby Ohrid Lake. The superstructure of the building has 5 floors and the substructure has 1 floor (see Figure 2).0 20.Proceedings of the 18th International Conference on Soil Mechanics and Geotechnical Engineering. so the serviceability of the construction is also an important issue. Table 2.0 m.5 kN/m Strain strength at ultimate tensile ≥ 1300 N (-300 N) Opening size O90 Water permeability normal to the plane 5. Thickness under 2 kPa load Ultimate tensile strength Longitudinal ≥ 4.5 m deep foundation pit was excavated. Hence the loading stresses can be spread in the fill material by angle of max 45°.0 m. While the next deeper layer is clayey sand with higher compaction than the previous layer. The foundation slab under the superstructure is 0. and they are present up to 10. The substructure is extended out of the superstructure and it is actually a parking lot. and the total size of the building (including the extensions of the Longitudinal 120% (±40%) Transversal 80% (±40%) CBR puncture resistance Fondation slab 0. 2470 .02 mm) index 85 x 10-3 m/s (-15 x 10-3 m/s) Geotextile At the bottom of the excavation pit.1 Fondation slab 0. Paris 2013 sediment nature. The size of the superstructure in plan view is 52. Figure 3. so with this. The surface layers are low plasticity clays and clayey sands. the level of ground water table is very high. layers are grouped into two extinguishing layers. present soil materials are loose and they have very poor strength properties. soil samples were taken for laboratory testing. Table 1. Used geotextile with the properties given in the Table 2 has the ability to withstand burst and puncture. On this site there is vast variety of soil materials. In order to get precise geotechnical profile of the ground. no bedrock was detected.0 35.0 10000. According to the conducted field and laboratory tests. Used geotextile has the physical and mechanical properties. the problem with the settlements is inevitable. but it will enable complete water permeability. which are highly compressive and they are present up to approximately 2. and has enough tensile strength to serve a separation function. dry conditions for execution of the construction works in the excavation pit were ensured by dewatering the excavation by extraction wells.0 10.The contact pressure transferred on the subsoil varies in range between 100 kPa (on cross-sectionsin the middle of the building) and 20 kPa (on cross-sections in the extensions).0 m from the surface. On the other hand the excavation pit had greater dimensions in plan view.0 kN/m Transversal ≥ 7. Because of the high heterogeneity of the ground profile.5 c(kN/m2) 0. Based on the performed field investigation works.

After completion of the earth works ground improvement measures were completely finished. On the extended parts of the building where the contact pressure has maximummean value up to P=20 kPa.5% 20 x 20 mm On top of the second geogrid two lifts of fill material are done with thickness of 30 cm. So in case of earthquake. The fill material is crushed stone base aggregate. After installation of this geogrid the fill material is placed and compacted in 30 cm thick lifts. The properties of the first layer of geogrid are shown in the Table 3. this geogrid will ensure reaching of the requested modulus of compressibility of the upperlayers of fill material. This geogrid has an ultimate tensile strength of 20 kN/m in both directions. Table 5. also a geogrids is installed. The properties of the second layer of geogrid are shown in the Table 4.2 Geogrids and fill material For increasing the bearing capacity of the subsoil under the foundation slab.Technical Committee 211 / Comité technique 211 5. This layer of drainage fill material is foreseen to reduce the possibility of liquefaction. Furthermore.0 m. the building up of the pore water pressure will be reduced by draining the water from the subsoil layers into the drainage layer placed with the subsoil replacement works. geogrids are inserted as reinforcement. which is gradually increasing from the Longitudinal ≥ 20 kN/m Transversal ≥ 20 kN/m Tensile strength at 2% strain Longitudinal ≥ 8 kN/m Transversal ≥ 8 kN/m Tensile strength at 5% strain Longitudinal ≥ 18 kN/m Transversal ≥ 18 kN/m Strain strength 2471 at Mesh size nominal tensile Longitudinal < 7% Transversal < 7% 40 x 40 mm . Cross section of the soil improvement measures On other hand this first layer provides initial stiffness of the low lifts of the fill material. another geogrid was placed but this time with higher strength properties. This material has particlessize from 16 to 32 mm. So the works for hydro insulation and constructing the structure commenced. bottom of the excavation pit up to the foundation slab.5% Mesh size Geotextile Geogrid 40/40 Figure 4. The overlap oftwo adjacent panels is 50 cm and anchoring length of 3. total of 60 cm. The required modulus of compressibility on top of these two layers of fill material should be at least 100 MPa and minimum 98% compaction after Proctor.The geogrids installed on this position give the geotextile anadditional tensile strength. Table 4. The first layer of the geogrids was installed under the middle section of the building where the contact pressure has maximummean value up to P=100 kPa. Over this drainage fill material. For reinforcement three layers of geogrids with different properties are placed in the fill material at different elevations. Table 3. The use of this geogrid is to reinforce the fill material as well as to ensure additional stiffness. The final layer of the fill material at the extended parts of the building should reach at least 80 kPa and minimum 98% compaction after Proctor. Properties of the geogrid 80/30 (second layer of geogrids) Raw material Geogrid 20/20 PET Coating Polymer Weight ~ 350 gr/m2 Ultimate tensile strength Longitudinal ≥ 80 kN/m Transversal ≥ 30 kN/m Geogrid 80/30 Ultimate tensile strength at 3% strain Longitudinal ≥ 22 kN/m Ultimate tensile strength at 5% strain Longitudinal ≥ 40 kN/m Strain strength at nominal tensile Transversal < 8. Properties of the geogrid 40/40 (first layer of geogrids) Raw material Longitudinal ≥ 32 kN/m PP Transversal ≥ 32 kN/m Coating Polymer Longitudinal < 7% Weight ~ 190 gr/m2 Transversal < 7% Ultimate tensile strength 40 x 40 mm Over this geogrid a layer of drainage fill material was placed with thickness of 50 cm. as well as bursting and puncturing resistance. The overlap of two adjacent panels is 60 cm and the anchoring length is 1.0 m. Properties of the geogrid 40/40 (first layer of geogrids) Raw material PP Coating Polymer Weight ~ 330 gr/m2 Ultimate tensile strength Longitudinal ≥ 40 kN/m Transversal ≥ 40 kN/m Tensile strength at 2% strain Longitudinal ≥ 16 kN/m Transversal ≥ 16 kN/m Tensile strength at 5% strain Strain strength at Mesh size nominal tensile Longitudinal < 8.

& Vermeer P. Geosynthetics. the elevation of the fixed points was Prentence-Hall.2011. Most of the analyses were carried out in Plaxis 2D geosyntetics geosyntetics is most economical method such geotechnical conditions. obvious that improvement of ofthe subsoil usingmodels Robert after finishing of theDesigning whole with construction. Geomechanical report for construction of residential necessary due load to thecase presence of the saturated. Regardless theshort economic this first method has a major advantage which period aspect of installation. the measures for improvement of the subsoil. in range ofuniform Dr=15-40%.1acm. Plaxis model of the Adora building Thegeosyntetics maximum istotal fullysettlements justified.Koerner. Axis forces in geogrid 80/30 (first layer of geogrids) Figure 5. The maximum total settlements of the subsoil after the construction of the hotel are estimated at 30 cm. Regardless the economic aspect this method has a construction. theThe middle geogrid 35.03.0initially measured after placing them (during the fundaments Park 2.5 years this in is the second biggerThe project improvement geosyntetics Ohrid area. axial is 19. apart.1 cm. R. These analysesdue involve net analyses. The geosyntetics is most economical method in such geotechnical 6 GEOTECHNICAL ANALYSES Geing-KuK.1 differential settlements during the seismic were conductedaxial with forces and without applied under thecm. Plaxis Finite Element Codefirst. very similar. and Rock Analyses. These analyses involve flow theGeing-KuK. In the last 2. residential building in Ohrid. 2011. 2011.0 residential Park 2. for monitoring of theinsettlements the The Hotelfirst. Geosynthetics. For example. analyses Additional carried outininanalyses order to were estimate liquefaction potential of forces thewere subsoil. building Figure 5.Koerner. case was soilgeosyntetics improvementin under the new 6 GEOTECHNICAL ANALYSES very similar. Plaxis model of the AdoraEngineering.5 8years ago.86 kN/mWhen in the middle geogrid 10. Axis forces in geogrid 80/30 (first layer of geogrids) 8In both REFFERENCES cases cost-benefit analyses conducted during the Brinkgreve. The initial major advantage which is a very of shortthe period of installation.17 and in lowest geogrid the Robert M. R.Hotel The first.1analyses cm. case was the soileconomic improvement under new has Hotela conditions.5 years this is the second bigger project ofusing soil designing showed thatFinite soilElement improvement andBrinkgreve.17 kN/m and in the lowest geogrid the axial force is 19.of soil Figure Shear distribution 6 GEOTECHNICAL ANALYSES improvement using the Ohrid area. after finishing of is thea very whole construction. detailed analyses were These involve flow2Dconstructing).Project on improvement the foundation soil under settlements it canOhrid.a The two datafrom buildings are approximately On 2.P.07.07. first. constructing).1997. be concluded Kuk. analyses ofelement soil-structure after finishing the whole construction. hydrostatic and dynamic load. Plaxis Finite Element Code for Soil liquefaction potential theAdora subsoil.The The estimated designing process showed that soil improvement using differential settlements during analyses were 0.and analyses. When the model is subjected to dynamic loads (seismic activity) the axial force in the middle geogrid 35. Those points using initiallythe Table 1. Designing with Geosynthetics. interaction due to afterbuildings netsoftware analyses. liquefaction potential of the subsoil.86 kN/m in the middle geogrid building in Ohrid.points Geomechanical report for construction of residential The Plaxis model was subjected to several load cases which involves geostatic.5 years ago.17 and in the lowest geogrid the The geogrid maximum totalkN/m settlements ofactivity) the subsoil after the in 8 REFFERENCES the middle 35. wereOnmeasured after them (during the fundaments later in the of constructing the structure and apart. that edition. Regardless aspect this the method building inyears Ohrid. last &process Vermeer P. Fourth edition. and the last one on 23. Figure 6. CONCLUSION detailed analyses conducted. Prentence-Hall. andofthe one on 23. sand inisthe Geing-KuK. for monitoring thelast settlements of thethe Hotel developed according to the adopted soil properties shown in the both cases cost-benefit analyses conducted during process showed soil improvement Park 8In survey points werethat positioned. and elevation the last oneofon the 23. The analyses are conducted with and without applied geosyntetics under the 7 CONCLUSION construction. initial M. it was obvious that improvement of the subsoil using buildin Geing-KuK the resi Robert M. SkopjeGeing Kuk.2012. The ground model was Figure 6.14 kN/m in thethelowest When the model subsoil which hasthe aloads relative density in the range of Dr=15-40%. Thewell ground wasof the settlements. 2011. points similar. Rock Analyses. SkopjeGeing Kuk. it geostatics was that improvement of thethe subsoil using subjected to dynamic axial the forcemodel in 10. the analyses wereanalyses carried out in Plaxis software suitusingfinite element method.Koerner. These analyses were necessary due to the presence of saturated. report Geing-KuK.Project on improvement of the foundation soil under construction.and also the exact geometry of the structure was applied designing designing process showedmethod that (during using is most economical insoil suchimprovement geotechnical were measured after placing them the fundaments to the model. The estimated differential settlements during the seismic analyses were 0. differential settlements during the seismic analyses were 0.2012. Plaxis model of of the building and example. Thesesand analyses were Geing-KuK.5 a basis obtain monitoring of the2.and also the exact geometry of the structure was applied building in Ohrid.Proceedings of the 18th International Conference on Soil Mechanics and Geotechnical Paris 2013 Figure 6. dynamicuniform load. involves geostatic. conditions. 1998. R.07.12 kN/m. of the Adora building Figure 7. SkopjeGeing of Kuk.03. uniform sand in the subsoil which has a relative density in the range of Dr=15-40%. Inc. of Inc.1997. Thearemaximum developed ingeosyntetics theanalyses geogrids for0.and also the exact geometry of the soil structure was applied Park survey were positioned.07. 1998. order adopt for improvement thewas subsoil. hydrostatic and dynamic load. The ground model was developed according to the adopted soil properties shown in the 6 GEOTECHNICAL ANALYSES For example. analyses of soil-structure interaction due to Robert M. Additional analyses were carried out in order to estimate a liquefaction potential of the subsoil. 1998. construction ofgeogrid the hotel are estimated cm.12 Prentence-Hall. case was soil improvement under the initially new Hotel developed according to the adopted properties shown in theParkvery Table 1. geosyntetics is most economical method in such geotechnical The load maximum forces developed in geogrid theboth geogrids geostatics case areaxial 13. Comparing thesubsoil resultshas of aanalyses of both models The results showed that the liquefaction potential.1997. Comparing the results of analyses of both models CONCLUSION it7 was obvious that improvement of the subsoil using geosyntetics is fully justified. necessary to presence ofthe saturated. 2011. In undertaken both cases on cost-benefit analyses conducted during For example. 2011.03. analyses were of soil-structure interaction to flowbuildings Figure Axis dynamic forcesanalyses in geogrid 80/30 (first layer of geogrids) buildings settlements are it can be theconcluded that the total of bothbuildings below initially estimated net 5. Comparing results of applied analysesgeosyntetics of both models are conducted withthe and without under the Geing-KuK. Rock Analyses. the total 8buildings REFFERENCES net analyses.2011.86 kN/m in of theanalyses middle and for conditions. 1998. In the last 2.14 kN/m in the lowest geogrids. Geing-KuK. Most ofconducted. results showed that kN/m the subsoil hasthe a liquefaction potential. of the subsoil after the undertaken on 11.0 km In analyses order to were adopt conducted. The analyses necessary due to thehydrostatic presence ofandsaturated.2011.Project on improvement of the foundation soil under building in Ohrid. the residential building in Ohrid. for monitoring of Those the settlements of the Hotel 8 survey points were positioned. laterwhole initthecan time constructing the structure finishing of the construction. hydrostatic and dynamic load. Comparing the results analyses of both it wasconstruction. the residentialDesigning building inwith SkopjeGeingFourth settlements of Inc. Thesubjected results showed that subsoil has a activity) liquefaction to dynamic (seismic the potential. 2011. measurement of the elevation fixed points was 8 undertaken REFFERENCES on 11.apart. Those points2. The analyses Park 8 survey were positioned. Shear stresses distribution The Plaxis model was subjected to several cases which liquefaction potential of the subsoil. & Vermeer settlements. Figure 6.Project on improvement of the foundation soil under 10. On a basis of a obtain datafrom monitoring of the detailed analyses were conducted.2012. hydrostatic and dynamic load. The Plaxis according model wastosubjected to several load cases which For for monitoring of the settlements of the Hotel developed the adopted soil properties shown in the Geing-KuK. These The maximum axial developed the geogrids for a liquefaction potential of subsoil. The that first initialtotaland settlements beof concluded the suitusingfinite method. Most of the analyses were carried out in Plaxis 2D 2011. Park detailed These analyses involve flow On a basis obtain datafromthat monitoring settlements it of cana be concluded the totalof the 7 apart. Plaxis Finite Element Code for Soil analyses Additional were carried out in order to estimate axial force is 19. Those points initially Table 1. Figureforce 6.and also themeasures exact geometry of theout structure to the Most ofthe the analyses were carried inofPlaxis 2Dappliedwere In model. Plaxis Code for Soil In the 2.Koerner.14 kN/mobvious in load the case lowest geogrids. Designing with Geosynthetics. involves geostatic. TheFourth first edition. The maximum axial forces developed in the geogrids for 7 geostatics CONCLUSION load case are 13. sand in the are conducted witha relative and without applied under the 2472 subsoil which has density in thegeosyntetics range of Dr=15-40%. SkopjeGeing Kuk. geostatic load as well as analyses of the Robert M. SkopjeGeing Kuk. Inc. & Vermeer P. The estimated first of the ofelevation the fixed points was initial settlements of bothbuildings areof below the initially geostatic and dynamic load as well as analyses of the measurement measurement of the fixed points was on 11. subsoil which hasdue a relative densitygeogrids. axial force in the residential building in Ohrid.points The two buildings are approximately km Table to 1. uniform in theand geostatics are 13. Theseload analyses were involves geostatic.2011. The ground model was undertaken 11. edition. theusing last stresses 2.5 years this is the second bigger project of soil geostatic and dynamic load as as model analyses liquefaction potential of the subsoil. SkopjeGeing Kuk.86 kN/m in the middle geogrid and 10. interaction geostatic load of as soil-structure well as analyses of thedue tosettlements settlements of bothbuildings are below the initially estimated settlements.2012. In order to adopt the measures for improvement of the subsoil. subjected to dynamic loads (seismic the axial force the middle 35. and the last one on 23. a basis of time a placing obtain datafrom monitoring of the to the model.12 kN/m. Comparing the results of models are 13. The two buildings are km major advantage which is a very short period of installation.1997. Figure 5. model is and major advantage which is a very short period of installation. construction.K Prenten . later in the time of constructing the structure and software suitusingfinite element method. 2011.theWhen is geosyntetics is fully justified.0 km Hotel In order to adopt the measures for improvement of the subsoil. yearsof ago. total settlements of subsoil construction ofmaximum themodel hotel was are estimated at cm. The two buildings are approximately 2.17 kN/m andatin30the geogrid the axial force is 19.the The estimated TheThe Plaxis subjected to 30 several load cases after whichthe In both cases cost-benefit analyses conducted during the construction of the hotelthe areseismic estimated at 30 cm.03. bothbuildings are below the initiallyFourth estimated Prentence-Hall. Geomechanical forapproximately construction of 2. improvement using geosyntetics the Ohrid of area.5 years this is the second bigger project of soil In 7. R. Axis forces in geogrid 80/30 (first layer of geogrids) The Plaxis model was subjected to several load cases which involves geostatic.14 kN/m inloads the (seismic lowest activity) geogrids. Plaxis modelkN/m. SkopjeGeing Kuk. settlements. very similar.12 kN/m.lowest The estimated Brinkgreve. The analyses are to conducted with and without applied geosyntetics under the were measured after placing them (during the fundaments the model. liquefaction potential of the subsoil.5 ago. Geomechanical report for construction of residential and Rock Analyses. Shear stresses distribution analyses Additional were carried out in order to estimate a Figure 7. Plaxis and modeldynamic of the Adora building Brinkgreve. The results showed that the subsoil has a liquefaction potential. it wasis fully obvious that improvement of the subsoil using measurement geosyntetics justified. case was soil improvement under the new Park 2. Regardless aspect thisinmethod has aand constructing). for Soil improvement using geosyntetics in the Ohrid area. later inthetheeconomic time of constructing the structure software suitusingfinite element method. constructing).

illustrera les résultats d’analyses numériques aux différences finies. since mid-nineties the use of geoencased granular columns (GEC) as foundations of earth structures on soft and very soft soils has been progressively increased. This is thus the final objective of this paper. pas encore été mise en place. une approche rationnelle de conception basée sur le déplacement n'a. earth reinforced structures. les colonnes en matériaux granulaires renforcée par géotextiles (GEC) sont devenues une solution très utilisée par rapport aux colonnes ballastées standard. Une cellule élémentaire d'un remblai idéal de sol renforcé placé sur un sol mou sera prise en compte et l'effet des principaux paramètres géométriques et mécaniques et la réponse du système au cours des différentes étapes de la construction seront discutés. jusqu'à présent. en partant d'une analyse critique des normes actuellement disponibles. Although GEC are often used to reduce settlements induced by the construction of large embankments on soft soils. Politecnico di Milano ABSTRACT: As is largely testified by the scientific literature. several layers of geotextile are also inserted during the construction. will illustrate the results of a series of finite difference numerical analyses. The GEC foundation system is composed of an array of granular columns of length L and diameter D. The unit cell of an ideal reinforced soil embankment placed on a soft soil stratum will be accounted for and the effect of the main geometrical/mechanical parameters. GECs have both mechanical and hydraulic functions: they work not only as reinforcement inclusions. its mechanical response should be modeled by properly taking into account the hydromechanical coupling (for the sake ofbrevity.. Cela est donc l'objectif final de cette étude. in the last decade geoencased columns have become a quite common alternative solution to standard stone columns. As it is well documented in the literature (see e. and by means of numerical and experimental researches (Murugesan and Rajagopal 2006. sketch of an earth embankment on GECs. unable of capturing the actual mechanical complexity of the system in particular. Cela est essentiellement dû à la possibilité d'employer des renforts pour améliorer la réponse mécanique des inclusions sans réduire leur efficacité de drainage. RÉSUMÉ : Comme il est largement connu dans la littérature de ces vingt dernières années. capable of preventing the global collapse of the foundation and reducing differential settlements within the structure. that. displacement based design. by starting from a critical review of the standards presently available. but they work additionally as vertical drains. qui. thus reducing the consolidation time of the soft soil. since this latter is very often characterized by a very low permeability and high deformability. this aspect will however be disregarded in the following). di Prisco and Galli 2011). up to now a rational displacement based design approach has not yet been introduced. Kempfert 2003. geotextiles. At the base of the embankment. 1 INTRODUCTION. Bien que les GEC soient souvent utilisées pour réduire les tassements induits par la construction de remblais importants sur sols mous. common design standards are still based on too simplified approaches. numerical analyses.g. and some numerical analyses. where the response of the system is analyzed by varying the spacing among columns and of the stiffness of the encasing geotextile). placed at a regular spacing S below an embankment of height H (Figure 1). GECs are axially deformable inclusions.g. Figure 1. Then an engineering displacement based approach will be briefly introduced. This is essentially due to the possibility of employing reinforcements to better the mechanical response of the inclusions without reducing their drainage efficiency. The fundamentals of the mechanical behavior of the system is therefore quite well understood. Conversely to traditional deep foundation systems (like reinforced concrete piles or jet-grouted columns which can be considered axially rigid with respect to the surrounding soil). In the present paper the attention will be initially focused on a critical review of the most common design standards. Nevertheless. 2473 . The columns are encased by a geotextile with the double aim of reinforcing the column and filtering to prevent the clogging of the column itself. KEYWORDS: geoencased granular columns. the interaction between embankment and columns (this point will be tackled in further details in the following section by critically reviewing the most used design standards). with the particular aim of studying the distribution of differential settlement at the top of the embankment. Moreover. 2005). Prisco di C. whose axial deformability is strictly coupled with the stiffness of the surrounding soil. will be presented. Raithel et al.Geoencased columns: toward a displacement based design Colonnes renforcée par géotextiles: vers une conception basée sur le déplacement Galli A. The effectiveness of this foundation system has been clearly proved both on real scale data (see e. which are generally neglected by the design approaches. as well as the response of the system during the construction stages. is discussed. to redistribute vertical stresses.

makes impossible the superficial differential settlements to be estimated. the presence of the encasing geomembrane induces a stiffening effect of the foundation system. shallow or light embankments) leads to unrealistic results. the average vertical stress acting at the column’s top (in the following this quantity will be called i) is determined only as a function of the geometry (H. for the sake of generality.9. 1990). as a function of the ratio between height H and difference S-D. Values of the mechanical properties of the materials considered in the analyses. are presented. For the sake of brevity. According to BS8006. the effect of the embankment height H and of the material friction angle ’ is investigated for increasing values of the relative spacing S/D.e. D). no changes in volume are possible for the column).6m). in this paragraph a parametrical analyses on the values of the settlement is presented. and by taking into account several diameters D of the column (the authors are aware of the fact that some values of D and S/D considered are unrealistic. This result could in general lead to an overestimation of the arch effect and thus to an unsafe design of the georeinforcement layers at the base of the embankment. The estimation of the average vertical stress e acting on the soft soil is instead obtained by means of empirical expressions. From an engineering point of view.1.4 As it is evident from Figure 3a (where.9). 2003). 2. however. The following hypotheses are assumed: (i) the granular soil in the column is at critical state (i.e. independently of the embankment height H. for further details. and only slightly dependent on H. nevertheless they have been chosen in order to test even the asymptotic trend of the design approaches).2 Settlements and tensile force in the encasing membrane With reference to the values of the mechanical parameters listed in Table 1 (taken from an example of application proposed by EBGEO). Both of them assume the column to be rigid and. The second one. for 2474 .Proceedings of the 18th International Conference on Soil Mechanics and Geotechnical Engineering. see BS8006 and EBGEO (Chapter 6. In particular. a) b) Figure 2. S. the vertical stress redistribution does not depend on the mechanical properties of the embankment. This takes into account the geometry (H. as well as some results concerning the evaluation of the settlement and of the tensile force in the encasing geo-membrane computed according to EBGEO. It can be easily demonstrated that e and i (if computed according to BS8006) do not even satisfy the total equilibrium along the vertical direction with respect to the weight of the embankment. as was suggested by the approach proposed by Martson (1913) for buried pipes (see also Jones et al. Table 1. (ii) no relative settlement are considered between the column and the soil. 2. In particular. the GEC and the soft soil). According to EBGEO. and the value of e tends to the weight H of the embankment. 2.e.1 Parametrical analyses In this section parametrical analyses on the values of e obtained by employing BS8006.5m and (b) H=10m. according to the adopted hypotheses. at a reference pressure of 100kPa Poisson coefficient (-) Embankment Column 20 19 Soft soil 15 - 35 - 15 10 - - 750 - - 0. Unit weight (kN/m3) Friction Angle (°) Cohesion (kPa) Young modulus (kPa). a rather complex analytical procedure. The corresponding values of i computed according to BS8006 (not reported here for the sake of brevity) are independent of S/D. thus reducing the expected value of the total settlement (which is considered. No estimation of the vertical stress i at the top of the column is provided. As far as the evaluation of settlements is concerned. based on the work proposed by Zaeske (2001).1. to be uniform and coincident with the settlement s at the top of the embankment). and imposes the equilibrium of one central slice of a vault shell of the arch that it is supposed to develop within the embankment. The values of the column length L and of the relative spacing S/D are here considered to be constant and equal to 10 m and 2. is employed to describe the arch effect. S. the vertical stress redistribution at the base of the embankment is the main parameter governing (i) the design of the reinforcement layers (see Figure 1) and (ii) the evaluation of the differential settlements. the analytical expressions have not been reported here. however. These two hypotheses introduce very strong simplifications that can lead to unphysical results. Evaluation of the stress e according to BS8006: (a) H=2. respectively (with D=80 cm and S=1..1 Stress on the soft soil at the base of the embankment Figure 2 shows the values of e computed according to BS8006. The arch effect tends to vanish for increasing values of S/D. for increasing values of the embankment weight H and by taking into account several values of stiffness J of the encasing geomembrane. and highlights that unphysical results of e<0 are obtained for low values of the relative spacing S/D. estimate the vertical stress distribution at the base of the embankment to be independent of the mechanical interaction with the foundation (i. and that the values of the tensile force in the geosynthetic layers at the base of the embankment computed according to BS8006 are not continuous with increasing H (Moraci and Gioffrè 2010). on the contrary. for low values of H (i. in particular. the value of s has been normalized with respect to L). Paris 2013 2 REVIEW OF DESIGN STANDARDS The two most common design standards available for the design of earth embankment on GECs are the British Standard BS 8006 (1995) and the German Standard EBGEO (Chapter 6. D) and the friction angle of the granular material constituting the embankment. The numerical procedure. the procedure prescribed by EBGEO follows the work proposed by Ghionna and Jamiolkowski (1981) and consists in subdividing the length L of the column in slices (each one of them is then assimilated to an axisymmetric triaxial soil sample). depending on the full or partial formation of the arch effect.

to a single column together with the surrounding soft soil). The values of vertical stress both in the column and in the soil then can be assumed to depend exclusively on the axial stiffness of the column (KGEC) and on the vertical compressibility of the soft soil (represented in Figure 4a by a global stiffness KS). and (iii) differential settlements are expected even at the embankment top. and no shear stresses develop at GECsoil interface. Consequently: (i) vertical stresses are redistributed at the base of the embankment between the internal zone of the cell (above the column. Depending on the formation of the arch effect. Under this hypothesis. Tg<0) in the encasing geomembrane. the foundation system can be assumed to be composed by two coupled springs. thus inducing a compression (i. EBGEO: evaluation of (a) settlements and (b) tensile force in the encasing geomembrane. The pattern of superficial differential settlement s=s(r) could then be formally described by a transfer function. might develop (Figure 5a-b). Failure within the embankment: (a) punching mechanism and (b) domed mechanism due to arch effect. This meaningless result is obtained even for a nil value of the stiffness J of the encasing geomembrane. and the simplifying hypothesis of rigid column has been 2475 . Real embankments. 3 A DISPLACEMENT BASED DESIGN APPROACH In order to overcome the above cited limitations. with no (or very limited) superficial differential settlements. whose average stiffness depends (i) on the geometry of the system (S. This is evident when the tensile force Tg in the encasing geomembrane along depth z of the column is considered (Figure 3b.Technical Committee 211 / Comité technique 211 which negative settlements (i. 4 NUMERICAL ANALYSES ON SETTLEMENT PROFILE In order to investigate the settlement distribution s(r) at the top of the embankment for increasing values of H. where the case of a shallow embankment is analyzed): at the base of the column the vertical stress is not sufficient to induce an active state of stress. ranging from a discontinuous function (in case of punching). and different values of settlement are expected for the top of the column (uc) and for the soil (us) at the base of the embankment. the vertical stress at the base of the embankment is thus uniformly distributed (in Figure 4a γ stands for the unit weight of the granular material constituting the embankment). the mechanical behavior of the embankment can be described by means of a generalized constitutive relationship between the average stresses at the base of the embankment and the differential settlements (assumed to be uniform) between the column and the soil: i e  f us uc  . (ii) shear stresses are (2) The constitutive relationship f can be in general assumed to be described by means of a non-linear curve. a) b) Figure 4. Mechanical response of the foundation system in case of (a) rigid and (b) deformable embankment. with reference to a single axisymmetric cell (i. either a “punching” failure mechanism. or a “dome” failure mechanism. however.e. Its limit value corresponds instead to the activation of a failure mechanism within the embankment. As was theoretically outlined by Galli and di Prisco (2011). a) (1) where the values of i and e must satisfy the equilibrium with respect to the weight of the embankment on the unit cell i  D2 e  S2  D2  H  S2 . a) b) Figure 5. are characterized by a deformable base (Figure 4b). characterized by an average stress e) due to the so called arch effect. one representing the GEC and the second representing the surrounding soft soil. (ii) on the mechanical properties of the granular material constituting the embankment and (iii) on the geo-reinforcements at the base of the embankment. From a modeling point of view. some preliminary finite difference numerical analyses have been performed by means of the commercial code FLAC. to a smooth function (in case of formation of the arch effect). This essentially derives from the assumption concerning the soil within the column which is imposed to be at the critical state along the entire column (similar results have been observed even for other values of L and S/D. An axisymmetric geometry has been chosen in order to model the cell. characterized by an average stress i) and the external one (a circular crown above the soil. b) Figure 3. uplift) are obtained.e.e. and the only possibility for the column to satisfy the hypothesis of critical state is to reduce its radius. D. a consistent and physically based design would require a fully displacement based approach. The two springs work in parallel if and only if the base of the embankment can be considered to be rigid and no differential settlements to arise (Figure 4a). no differential settlement are observed at the top of the embankment. but they have not been reported here for the sake of brevity). H). activated at GEC-soil interface. by assuming an engineering approach based on generalized variables.

Geotextile reinforced piled embankments. 6 ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS The Authors want to acknowledge TENCATE and ITASCA Italy for financially supporting the research. pp 155-160. vol. Int. the Young modulus equal to 3 MPa and the Poisson coefficient equal to 0. Raithel M. 3/10. and the settlement distribution s(r) has been normalized at each stage for the current value of H. Schade C. Kempfert H. Empfehlung 6. Mechanical behaviour of geo-encased sand columns: small scale experimental tests and numerical modeling. Normalized superficial settlements for S/D=4: (a) loose and (b) dense material. Zur Wirkungsweise von unbewehrten und bewehrten mineralischen Tragschichten über pfahlartigen Gründungselementen. X Ciclo di conferenze dedicate ai problemi di meccanica dei terreni e ingegneria delle fondazioni: Metodi di miglioramento dei terreni. Moraci N. Code of practice for strengthened/reinforced soils and other fills. 2006. Colonne di ghiaia (in Italian).. Marston A. For the soft soil.507. and Anderson A. Bulletin 31. UK pp.F. the length L of the column is 10 m and its diameter D is 80 cm. Iowa. 231 – 246. for the sake of simplicity the unit weight  is assumed to be equal to 20 kN/m3.State of the Art. Ghionna V.e. For the embankment. showed on the contrary that the top settlement profile is remarkably affected by both the geometry and the mechanical properties of the embankment. and Leusink E.. Normalized superficial settlements for S/D=2: (a) loose and (b) dense material. in particular.176. XXIV Convegno Nazionale di Geotecnica.J. Consistently with the parametrical analyses previously discussed. 67-100.O. London. Iowa Engineering Experiment Station. Schriftenreihe Geotechnik.N. 2003. It appears clearly that the settlement profile ranges from a well localized punching failure mechanism to a smooth distribution of settlements for increasing H (witnessing the progressive mobilization of the arch effect). Geotextiles and Geomembranes. Workshop on Geotechnics of Soft Soils-Theory and Practice. n. British Standards Institution. whilst an increase in ’ and  tends to smoothen the settlement profile. The theory of load on pipes ditches and tests of cement and clay drain tile and sewer pipes. pp. 1990. These latter. 24. and proved that in some cases these approaches lead to unrealistic results. 5 CONCLUSIONS The paper critically discussed some results obtained according to the usual Design Standards. 349-358. 1995. and Jamiolkowski M. 251–263 EBGEO. Geomechanics and Geoengineering: An International Journal 6(4). and some preliminary numerical analyses have been shown.1-63. Kirchner A. Geotextiles Geomembranes and Related Products. Iowa State College. EBGEO. 2011. disregard the estimation of relative settlements at the top of the embankment. Rivista Italiana di Geotecnica.. the mechanical behavior of both the materials constituting the embankment and the soft soil has been modeled by assuming an elastic perfectly plastic relationship with a nonassociated Mohr-Coulomb failure condition. 1981. A consistent. and Galli A.SCMEP.G. 7 a) b) Figure 6. The codes. Vol. with dilatancy =10°). Rotterdam. 2003. failure. Jones C. 2001..9 für die Empfehlungen für Bewehrungen aus Geokunststoffen. Den Hoedt (ed. 2005.P. Un modello concettuale per la progettazione di colonne granulari georinforzate a fondazione di rilevati artificiali (in Italian). and di Prisco C.J. Proceedings ASCE Geo-Frontiers 2005. and Gioffrè D. two different types of material have been considered: a loose sand (=20°.R. Bewehrte Erdkörper auf punktoder linienförmigen Traggliedern. In both cases. DGGT (German Geotechnical Society). 2011. Murugesan. La progettazione di rilevati su terreni compressibili rinforzati con geosintetici (in Italian). S. with no dilatancy) and a compacted sand (=40°. The values of the mechanical parameters are listed in Table 1. displacement based conceptual framework for describing the behavior of the system has been formulated. moreover. Geosynthetic encased stone columns: Numerical Evaluation. .25. Atti dell’Istituto di Scienza delle Costruzioni. Universität Kassel. Lawson C. K. Ames. Paris 2013 assumed.Proceedings of the 18th International Conference on Soil Mechanics and Geotechnical Engineering. 2010.) © 1990 Balkema. Kapitel 6. which is actually one of the most important parameters describing the efficiency of the foundation. di Prisco C. The influence of relative spacing S/D and of the mechanical properties of the embankment (in terms of both ’ and ) is opposite: an increase in S/D tends to localize the 2476 REFERENCES British Standard BS 8006. Two ratios S/D have been considered. 1913. Ground improvement methods with special emphasis on column-type techniques. ISBN 90 6191 119 2. Foundation of Constructions on Very Soft Soils with Geotextile Encased Columns . Figures 6 and 7 describe the evolution of s(r) at the top of the embankment during the construction stages. and Rajagopal. a) b) Figure 7. Politecnico di Torino.9 (2003). no hydro-mechanical coupling has been modeled). Galli A. for the sake of simplicity a dry condition has been assumed (i. No friction has been considered at soil-column interface. Ayres D. Heft 10. Zaeske D.

The building construction was started in April. The settlements of the column foundations with the loads exceeding the design ones already in the process of construction were 6…10cm. According to monitoring results (table 1). 2008 till August. The building site applies to the third category of stability about karst deformations and is divided into sections according to extent of their risk in accordance with Russian Codes. Les résultats sont présentés des pronostiques prévisionnelles des sols de fondation des souches renforcées à la base des essais des papillons d’injection de forage et de la mesure des déformations du sol de fondation. In axes 1…15’ the bearing structures were completely constructed and at the rest part of the area foundations. tough and soft loams occur underlain with water saturated medium coarse sand and gravel at the depth of 8…10 m. Maximum predicted ground water level is 2 m under the foundation base. etc.5 years. all these changes provoked 30…70% increase of the foundation loads and the further foundation strengthening. then restarted in June. The column spacing was increased (8x16m to 16x16m or 12x16m) and foundation loads to the moment of construction stoppage 1. Severe engineering-geological conditions of site demanded foundation settlement observation and expert investigation of construction. In 2007…2008 the foundations and the most part of the bearing structures have been constructed. Gotman N.and strip foundations on the bed. At this site. columns and floors of the ground floor were built. At the significant area the number of stories and floor loads have been increased.2…1. the following foundations were designed: post.2. The experience of a foundation strengthening with jet grouted piles is described based on results of the base deformations monitoring. pile vertical load test 1 INTRODUCTION Design prediction of the strengthened foundation base deformation by field tests data was executed for the new shopping centre located in Ufa (Russia). the building was 1. 2477 . settlements. After construction restarting. KEYWORDS: foundation strengthening. BashNIIstroy. Taking into account that the significant part of the structures was constructed and more than half of the base loads have already been transferred. 1.Design prediction of the strengthened foundation base deformation by field tests data La prèvision de calcul des déformations de la base des fondements reportès à partir des recherches prises en nature Gotman A. the building part was changed (by investor’s demand).1) with the probable design diameter of karst hole 7 m. L’expérience est décrite du renforcement des souches par des papillons d’injection de forage sur la base des résultats du monitoring des déformations des sols de fondation. RÉSUMÉ : Dans cet article on présente la solution d’un problème géotechnique pratique compliqué du renforcement des souches d’un bâtiment en carcasse construit sur les sols de fondation dangereux à cause du karst. Since May. the following was taken into attention. cutting. areas are located that are classified according to their karst risk as potentially not dangerous and potentially dangerous (fig. During construction time. 3 TECHNICAL EVALUATION OF THE STRUCTURAL CONCEPT ON FOUNDATION STRENGTHENING When design working out and the way of the foundations strengthening selecting. Due to site severe engineering-geological conditions characterized with lack of homogeneity and karst risk. it was stated that to the moment of strengthening design development (August 2009). the settlements on the whole were stabilized. when selecting the method of the foundation strengthening the minimum digging out and dismantling (drilling. The main design principles of the foundations under strengthening are given. The 500x250m shopping center was designed as a skeleton one-storey building with column spacing 16x8 m. The results of the deformation design prediction based on jet grouted piles test and the base deformation measuring are presented. 2 ENGINEERING-GEOLOGICAL CONDITIONS Under the foundation base stiff clays. The settlements data were used to evaluate the coefficients of subgrade reaction of strip.5 times increased the design ones. Russia ABSTRACT: The paper presents the solution of the complicated practical geotechnical problem of the skeleton structure foundation strengthening. The strengthening was done due to change of the spatial arrangement of a building and essential load increase. table 2). 2009 the construction at site has been not performed. piled foundations with the in-situ raft (pile groups). To the moment of the strengthening design development. Method of strengthening with jet grouted piles was selected with loads transfer from the building through the connection of the reinforced concrete column with the in-situ raft rested on piles. 2009 and finished in 2010. As a result.) of the existing foundation should have been provided. Ufa. (table 3). other changes of building frame design have taken place.. 2007. the settlements of the rest foundations were 3…4 cm. en raison du changement lors de la construction de la conception de plan et de volume du bâtiment et de l’accroissement signifiant de charge. 2.and post foundations bases that demanded strengthening (fig. strip foundations on the bed and piled foundations with the strip in-situ raft reinforced considering a karst hole formation.

5 0 2.0 3.Proceedings of the 18th International Conference on Soil Mechanics and Geotechnical Engineering.7 21.8 0 0.1 1.1 0. 09.9 9. mm 7 88 50 27 118 225 217 63 116 31 М7 0 0 1.3 0 0 92.2 11.7 0. 2.2 2. 16.7 0 0 0. 20.9 0 9.1 5. 05.7 – strip М31 50 0 0 0 1. 07.0 6. strengthening constructions and settlement marks Fig.8 8. nt for the 11.1 – post М14 0 0 2. Monitoring results of foundations settlements 2478 . 04.5 7.3 10.1) Table 1 Dates of measurement (days) and settlements (mm) from the moment of last measuring Settleme 24.6 5.2 21.2 0 0 20.5 0 2. 16.7 5. previous 2007 period. 05. 02.3 0 0 83. 16.7 JGP post Fig.2 0 0 52.5 17.8 2.1 0 0 16.4 14.9 2. 11.4 – strip М29 0 0 6. mm 09. 04.2 13. 06.0 1.7 0 0.8 2. 20.1 – strip М27 1 0 5.4 8. 958 days ning type 2010 of observati 23 on. Paris 2013 Mark number (fig. 01. 02.5 1.9 0 0 9. Combined plan of foundations.1. 15.7 – strip М26 1 0 0 1. 10. 2008 2008 2008 2008 2009 2009 2010 2010 2010 Settleme nt for Strengthe Foundation 07.0 3.

010 S2(3.003 0. Pile strengthening is carried out along the whole length of the strips.1) Fig.5 64 4700 М14 strip 9.e. Figure 3 presents diagrams of pile tests.002 0.e. kH/m3 М7 post 13. b– loadsettlement of test piles Table 3 425 mm diameter and 10…11 m length jet grouted piles were deepened into gravel soil to the depth of 1 m and more. Strengthening of pile group foundations with increased loads was carried out by means of jet grouted piling around the raft and including them into pile group behavior through the reinforced concrete slab fixed with the column and the raft (with the anchors HILTI).013 S.008 0.Technical Committee 211 / Comité technique 211 Table 2 Settlement Base pressure Mark before before Foundat number ion type construction construction (fig.2) (test Nо.88 m length (pile No.0 114 4500 М31 post 60. Strengthening of post foundations of a building in axes 15’ – 1. 10.3. Analysis of the column joint and strengthening construction was done for the total design load.3) (test Nо. I. To evaluate the pile design load. Jet grouted piling use is based on insufficient reinforcing with in situ reinforced concrete strip under the columns. III.2) 0.005 S1(3. That’s why only insignificant part of the extra load is transferred to the foundation base. 1).001 500 600 N1 700 800 900 Р. Diagrams of field investigations a – base pressure-settlement of post. the main design requirement is continuation of foundations loading only after completion of all works on strengthening considering the terms of strength increase of in-situ concrete of structures. Due to special features of constructions of the foundations under strengthening and different extent of works completion on above foundations structures construction.0 144 2400 S=f(P) 0 100 200 300 400 0. as otherwise the different stiffness of the strip base will lead to its deterioration. Strengthening of strip foundations without piles by means of geometrical dimensions increase with use of technology “HILTI”. kH/m2 Coefficient of subgrade reaction. the load of which is more than twice increased compared to design one.5).5 114 4400 М29 strip 25. so the foundation in combination with the strengthening construction and piles behaves as combined piled foundation. i. The piling was realized with the unit SBU 100 GA50.4 114 20000 М27 strip 25.004 0. 10. 3) (table 3) have been carried out. analyses of loads transferred to the foundation after its strengthening were carried out i.The engineering-geological characteristics of soils are presented in table 3. were determined 2479 .5 length (pile No.011 0. Such strengthening construction partially loads the existing foundation including it into work. The limit resistances while testing reached 980 kH. With such method of strengthening jet grouted piles start to work in a pile group together with the driven piles. While the building post foundations strengthening in axes 1’…15’.009 0.3 114 12200 М26 strip 5. Pile vertical load tests have been carried out according to standard method.007 S1 (1) 0. when construction restarting considering the loads after the building starting (fig.1) restart. 2) and 11. Strengthening of foundations without piles in axes 1 – 29 was carried out by means of insignificant part of load transfer to the foundation.m (test Nо. Irrespective of strengthening type. as the construction of the reinforced concrete raft strengthening is not absolutely stiff.006 0. the pile vertical load test of trial piles with the diameter 425 mm.and strip foundations. mm restart. Considering different structural concepts of the foundations and the building. 4 THE MAIN DESIGN PRINCIPLES Analysis of foundation strengthening has been carried out considering the deformability of the foundation base and jet grouted piles. Deformability indices of the foundation base and jet grouted piles quantitatively evaluated with the coefficients of subgrade reaction of the foundation base under strengthening and pile stiffness respectively. The jet grouted piles together with the foundation accept the ultimate design load. Practically all extra load is taken into account to be transferred to jet grouted piles. analysis have been carried out according to these features and four types of the foundations strengthening have been suggested (see figures 1 and 4).6 m length (pile No.kН N2 0. II.2) 0. the following design assumptions were taken.012 S2 (1) 0. IV. the load is not transferred to post foundation.

The complicated practical geotechnical problem of strengthening of the skeleton building foundations under construction. Such conformity of predicted and measured deformations confirms the efficiency of the base strengthening and high accuracy of the analysis methods based on in-place tests. m 1 2 3 10. Four types of foundations strengthening has been developed with the use of jet grouted piles taking into attention loads increase compared to design. fig. piled foundations in kind of pile groups of driven piles without karst protection and pile group foundations combined with karst protected reinforced concrete strips on piles. fig. When piled foundations strengthening with jet grouted piles. .5. mm Stiffness ratio of pile (JGP) base. strengthened with the jet grouted piles after the construction restart. kN/m 13 11 10. 4.50 Pile (JGP) length in soil. acting (already imposed) loads and foundations settlements at the moment of their strengthening. when the construction of the shopping center is completed. respectively.Proceedings of the 18th International Conference on Soil Mechanics and Geotechnical Engineering. The results of the strengthened foundations settlements measurement after the building implementation showed the good precision with analysis data. but the building is not put into operation. Design diagram of foundation strengthening (strengthening types 1 and 4) 5 CONCLUSION 1.58 11.6 10. analyses have been carried out for the total design load. This proves the correctness of the taken structural and design schemes. Paris 2013 Fig.5 and 5 mm.8 and 12 mm. At present.3a) and stiffness coefficient of jet grouted piles – by tests data (table 4. The authors of the paper made predictions of the foundation settlement in axes 1’ 15’. respectively.1) was determined by results of settlements monitoring (table 2.4 Types of foundation strengthening with jet grouted piles (technical decision) by results of pile test at site and monitoring of post foundations settlement (tables 2. While analysis of the number of jet grouted piles. the total load was taken to be transferred to those piles. 3.and jet grouted piles. 3b). the necessity of which was provoked by change of space-planning decision in the process of construction is solved. structural concepts of foundations and the extent of karst risk of the base. so the coefficient of subgrade reaction of the foundation base under strengthening was taken to be equal 0. Analysis of strengthening constructions and base deformations was carried out according to data of jet grouted piles vertical load test and settlements measurements of the foundations under strengthening. The design scheme is presented in fig. Pile stiffness was determined by data of pile vertical load test of the driven. The coefficient of subgrade reaction in the post foundation base (settlement marks M7 and M31 in fig. strip foundations on the bed designed for 7 m diameter karst hole. Within one 500x250 m building. 4). Table 4 Test number (table 3) Pile (JGP) length.5. 2. By results of analysis of the base deformation of the most loaded post foundations strengthened with the jet grouted piles. the measured base deformations of these foundations are 10. the settlements after the construction restart with regard for the total load were 13. The deformations are calculated with regard for the different deformability of the post foundation base and a pile.88 11. four types of foundations have been designed: post foundations on the bed without karst protection. m 10 10.35 50000 60000 60000 К N 2  N1 S 2  S1 2480 Fig.10 Pile settlement according to test. P-S due to foundations load increments.

Laboratory mixing tests are essential to QC/QA processes and performed to obtain the mechanical and physical properties of stabilized soil samples. A partir des résultats. Un vaste programme d'essais en laboratoire a été réalisé en analysant plus de trente mélanges différents de ciments et sols à partir de huit sols naturels de Rome et Tokyo. High workability refers to liquid type mixtures (easier to place and handle). “Sapienza” University of Rome ABSTRACT: An international collaborative research has been undertaken to establish common understanding of the key issues involved in Quality Control/Quality Assurance (QC/QA) of Deep Mixing technique and propose international standards on design. Marzano I. 2012. 2003) even if such parameter could be well related to consistency when considering mixtures made up of cohesive soils. Thirty soil-binder mixtures with different workability were prepared using five different molding techniques.. laboratory procedures. The definition of a parameter representative of the mixture’s workability and an univocal method for the evaluation of the mixture’s workability are currently not available (Koehler and Fowler. 2 MATERIALS AND METHODS The experimental work consisted in a laboratory investigation on the effect of different molding techniques on the unconfined compressive strength. This influence is strictly correlated to the workability of the soil-binder mixture defined as the property of the mixture of being easily mixed in the bowl and placed in the mold. workability. and on Kawasaki clay stabilised with Portland cement. Larsson 2005.Standardization of the molding procedures for stabilized soil specimens as used for QC/QA in Deep Mixing application Normalisation des procédures pour la production d’éprouvettes de sols stabilisés utilisées dans les processus de QC/QA pour des applications de « Deep Mixing » Grisolia M. therefore the results for the same soil-binder mixture could be very different and not usefully compared. UCS (measured according to the JIS A 1216:2009) and wet density. execution and execution control. γ (defined as the specimen’s weight divided by the volume of the mold) of cement stabilised soil specimens under various mixing conditions. The tests were performed on: Kawasaki Clay (KC). CDIT 2002). as found in Rome. L'applicabilité des différentes techniques de réalisation a été étudiée selon l'usinabilité du mélange. water to cement ratio and binder amount. Filz et al.. RÉSUMÉ: Une étude internationale a été entreprise dans le but de définir des orientations communes pour les procédures QC/QA liés aux travaux effectués par « Deep Mixing » et proposer des normes internationales relatives à la conception. This method has the advantage to provide the possibility of measuring the workability for each mixable mixture. varying initial water content of the soils. Unconfined compression tests have been carried out systematically on over 800 specimens. (Bruce et al. The laboratory test results provide crucial information for the estimation of the mix design and insitu properties to utilize in the geotechnical design. l'exécution et le contrôle des opérations. Terashi and Kitazume 2011.1 Materials Eight types of natural soils stabilised with Portland cement added in wet or dry form were used. Leder E. The aim of the study is to investigate the influence of the laboratory procedures on the mechanical properties of stabilised soil specimens and develop an innovative method to select the appropriate molding technique. A large laboratory testing program was carried out on seven types of heterogeneous natural soils. 2012). independently on the type of the materials used. KEYWORDS: Deep mixing. while low workability to sticky and stiff type ones. Silty 2481 . The applicability of different molding techniques in function of the workability of the mixture has been investigated and from the results it was possible to define an “applicability index” and therefore the range of applicability for each technique in function of the mixture’s workability. Furthermore. operational abaci. A new method for the evaluation of the mixture’s workability was introduced and applied in the study. Workability represents diverse characteristics of fresh mixture that are difficult to measure quantitatively.. the molding technique that provides densest specimens with highest strength and results repetitiveness in order to obtain very useful reference values to set specification limits to be achieved in field applications (ratio between laboratory and field target strength is reported for instance by JGS 0821-2000 and EuroSoilStab 2002). 1 INTRODUCTION The Deep Mixing Method is a widely spread in situ ground improvement technique using different kind of binders to enhance mechanical and physical properties of soils (Terashi 1997. the study develops a procedure to select.P. Le but de cette étude est d'étudier l'effet des procédures de laboratoire pour la réalisation des éprouvettes de sols stabilisés et de développer une méthode innovante pour sélectionner à chaque fois la technique de réalisation appropriée. through an “applicability index” function of the initial mixture workability. It is based on the measure of the torque required to turn an impeller in soilbinder mixture through a commercial device which is applied directly on the mixer. 2000. manmade Silty Deposit (SD). 2012). 2009.. Marzano et al. Cinq techniques de réalisation ont été utilisées pour la confection d’éprouvettes testées avec des essais de compression simple. 2. because a soil-binder mixture is a complex material with a wide range of particle sizes and time-dependent properties. In fact molding techniques have a great influence on the mechanical and physical properties of the stabilized soil specimens (Grisolia et al. Marzano et al. At the moment many laboratories produce and test soil-binder specimens without a standard procedure. il a été possible de définir un index d’applicabilité et donc un champ d'application de chaque technique en fonction de l’usinabilité du mélange. Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering (DICEA).

28 5. Unconfined compression tests were conducted on triplicate samples for each case (mixture type and molding technique) analyzed. and for the test it was decided to set the number or revolution to 10. For each soil. 49 mm in diameter. which is related to “densest specimens with the highest strength” and “results repetitiveness”.0 mm/min.C..20 Afterwards the stabilized soil was placed into plastic molds in three layers and compacted using several molding techniques (Figure 1): _ No Compaction (namely N. different mixtures were produced.C. varying the initial water content and keeping constant the cement content. EuroSoilStab.C. For the same mixture a well made specimen has low cavities/bubbles/voids amount and therefore higher wet density () if compared to a bad made one.Proceedings of the 18th International Conference on Soil Mechanics and Geotechnical Engineering.16 5.C. According to the proposed method the workability was expressed as a torque (Mt) applied to mix certain amount of soilbinder mixture (Vm) with set impeller shape (Sh) and rotational speed (Rs).. ac (defined as the weight of the introduced dry cement divided by the dry weight of the soil to be stabilized). N is defined as the mean of the normalized unconfined compressive strength (UCSN) and the normalized unit weight (N) as reported in the Eq.. After curing times of 28 days.C.50): Each layer was statically compressed for 10 seconds by using a heavy rod. so that the maximum grain size of the soil sample would be less than 1/5th of the inner diameter of the mold. To reduce the effect of the time of rest between the hydration of binder and completion of molding on the specimens properties.2 Laboratory procedures and testing methods A Hobart type mixer apparatus was adopted. 3 RESULTS The applicability of a molding technique was evaluated by the “Applicability index”. Paris 2013 clayey Sand (SS).37 0.00 61.00 120.40 29.08 4.88 3. e) S. 2000.55 4.): It simply consisted in placing the stabilized soil into the mold with a spoon.C.76 11. For each completed revolution it was possible to measure the Torque.25.C. Torque. The UCSN and N values for a given molding technique 2482 . 2002. Pliocene Clay (PC). Soil type GravelSandSiltClay KC 0-1442-44 SD 18-2434-24 SS 22-4020-18 SG 33-4014-13 PC 00-0064-36 BP 08-4938-05 RP 11-5824-07 AT 02-4739-12 Water content.34 1. Sh0 = “K” shape. into one.5 Workability parameter.): It consisted in tamping each layer with a 8mm diameter steel rod for 30 times and eventually pushing down the material attached to the rod. _Dynamic Compaction (namely D. These techniques are those currently used in most of the laboratory all over the world (JGS 0821. (namely RO.5mm sieve.60 1. wn Cementitious grout (%) 72 66 60 60 60 54 54 49 49 20 30 40 35 40 45 6 8 10 50 60 70 25 30 35 20 26 32 44 48 53 w/c = 0 ac = 5% ac = 20% ac = 30% ac = 20% ac = 30% ac = 20% ac = 30% ac = 10% w/c = 1 ac = 10% w/c = 0.): For each layer.51 10. _Static Compaction (namely S. Mt (Nm) 5.00 13. Figure 1. Using a commercial device applied directly on the kitchen mixer apparatus. it was measured the torque required to turn the impeller in a soil-binder mixture just before the molding phase. all the stabilized soil was molded in less than 45 minutes from binder hydration. Furthermore it was indeed observed that the specimens produced by different molding techniques could have similar wet density but very different unconfined compressive strength (UCS) values. Fall height was set at 10 cm.5 kg) using a special apparatus. Since the kitchen mixer has a planetary motion.  and UCS. 2.00 40.25 and S. Rs0 = 10rpm.81 2. For that reason the N-parameter was introduced to condense the indications given by both parameters. Soil properties and Testing conditions. Each soil was sieved through a 9. 1. the test was undertaken continuously on the whole mixture therefore giving more reliable outputs.21 8.34 6.32 8. 25 or 50 kPa pressure were applied. _ Rodding. to obtain more accurate measures. the mold was tapped against the floor 50 times.08 8. In the study were assumed the following parameters: Vm0 = 3dm3. After placing the natural soil in the mixer. namely (TA. Red Pozzolana (RP) and Argillified Tuff (AT).47 17.C.23 9. f) D.00 75. Table 1.): Each layer was compacted by a falling weight (1. Sand and Gravel (SG).00 96. number of blows at 5.60 0. Kitazume et al.76 2.22 0. (2009). according to Kitazume et al. The grout made of Portland cement (PC) and water or the PC in dry form was then added to the soil and mixed for ten minutes according to JGS 0821 (2000). Specimens with 5 cm diameter and 10 cm height were employed. d) S.97 2. the water content was adjusted to the desired value by adding water. 2009). Before adding the binder the soil was homogenised by mixing.50. c) RO. Molding techniques used: a) N. To prevent water evaporation from the specimen each mold was covered with the sealant and stored in special curing tanks at 95% relative humidity. b) TA.11 3. _ Tapping. Black Pozzolana (BP). The properties of the soil-binder mixtures analyzed are shown in Table 1. the specimens were removed from the molds and then subjected to unconfined compression tests at a rate of 1.

0 mixture's workability . It can be clearly seen that also for the E parameter all the obtained values are below the set limit.4 0.6 0.0 0. Similar graphs to the ones shown in Figures 3 and 4 were also obtained for the other molding techniques used in the study. 2. mixtures workability graph obtained for all the analyzed soil-binder mixtures molded by the Rodding technique. KC BP SD RP 1. KC BP BP SG 1.82 was then obtained. Applicability index of No Compaction technique.0 Applicability index. 0.Torque.2 0. To set a criteria to select the applicable techniques. SD AT SS KC SG SD PC SS (3) According to the Eq. In the range Mt = 3÷6Nm it is not possible to obtain univocal indication from the data.2 0. therefore this technique have been considered marginally applicable in this workability interval. The normalizations are necessary to allow direct comparison between two parameters with different unit of measurements. The Figure 3 shows an example of the IA vs. some literature works were taken into account.0 12. IA RODDING 6 12.0 mixture's workability .9 N parameter limit = 0. torque values obtained for all the analyzed soil-binder mixtures molded by the Rodding technique. 6. Therefore even for the E parameter the acceptable limit was set equal to 10% of E. the limit values given for the two different parameters N and E were introduced in the Eq. Unconfined compression tests was conducted on triplicate samples for each case analyzed.8 0.10 0. Torque Mt(Nm) 28 days Figure 2. torque values are shown in Figure 2 as example. The results obtained also from other techniques show that the IA is strictly dependent on the workability of the mixture among other factors. To obtain a target value for the choice of the applicable techniques. Mt (Nm) NO COMPACTION 28 days Figure 4.0 0 6.Technical Committee 211 / Comité technique 211 and mixture were calculated by dividing the UCS and  by the maximum values (UCSmax and max) obtained from all the employed molding techniques.2 0.0 Applicability index. Applicability index of Rodding technique.0 0.0 Figure 3. 3 and to the N and E parameters definitions. IA KC RP In order to take into account the different aspects of a well made specimen.0 0. (1) The Figure 2 shows as example the N parameters vs.0 28 days Despite the N-parameter is a good indicator of the applicability of a molding technique. From the results it is possible to see a very good trend of the IA despite the fact that data were obtained from mixtures based on different types of soil (cohesive and granular types). The figure show that Rodding is applicable for all the measured mixtures workability since IA values are all above the set target limit. It clearly appears that this technique is applicable for Mt < 3Nm and not applicable for Mt > 6Nm. expressed by the N and E parameter. 3 was introduced.7 SD RP SS AT SG limit PC 1. with different grout dosage and water contents.6 0. an index of applicability IA defined in Eq. 18.6 0. According to the Eq.Torque. 3. From these graphs it was possible to determine for each molding technique the ranges of workability in which they are 2483 .3 E parameter limit = 0.4 0. In order to define a criteria for the choice of the applicable techniques. also the IA values range between 0 and 1.9N considering a variation of 10 % from the maximum N value.0 The results obtained from the specimens molded by the Rodding technique in terms of E vs. Repeatability means that the results related to the specimens produced by a specific molding technique should have a low “scatter” or relative error.1 0. The results related to the No Compaction technique are shown in Figure 4. A target value of IA = 0. to take into account that the applicability should be also related to the “repeatability” of the tests results the E-parameter was introduced.5 0. it was set the acceptable limit of 0. From the figure clearly appears that for all the measured mixtures workability the N values are above the set limit as an expression of the high quality of the specimens realized by Rodding. (2012) also reported an error of 5 – 15% for laboratory mixed specimens tested with unconfined compression tests. 1 the N parameter values range between 0 and 1.90 N. For the accuracy or repeatability of the experiments. According to its definition also this parameter ranges between 0 and 1. Richards and Reddy (2010) claimed that a standard deviation of 10 % was not unheard of in geotechnical testing. E parameter 0. E is defined as the mean of the relative error on the UCS and  values as reported from Eq. expression once again of the high repeatability of the tests results obtained from the specimens molded by the Rodding technique. Mt (Nm) (2) SS AT SG limit PC 0.8 0. 0.4 0.0 18. Applicability of Rodding technique considering the N and E parameters.8 0. Al-Tabbaa et al.0 RODDING 12 18 mixture workability. therefore it was possible to evaluate the relative error on the unconfined compressive strength and wet density values for the different mixtures types and molding techniques.

it would be possible to select for every kind of mixable soil-binder mixture the molding technique that gives high quality specimens in a very quick and easy way only by measuring the workability of the material. Masaki Kitazume for his help and suggestions throughout the study. other curves can be drawn in the same graph. M. Rodding 0 The results obtained represent a useful data set for the correct selection of the molding technique for different kind of soils and mixing conditions headed for the international standardisation... Conf.Recent Advances and Best practice..Proceedings of the 18th International Conference on Soil Mechanics and Geotechnical Engineering. K.. Conf. Sweden.A. EC project BE96-3177.. 100 mixture's workability. International Symposium on Deep Mixing & Admixture Stabilization. Deep Mixing: QA/QC and Verification Methods. calibration curve experimental data example curve 100 water content. State of Practice Report – Execution..P. marginally applicable and not applicable. 2002. Proc. 2011. IS-GI Brussels 2012. Grouting Sol Improvement. of the Institution of Civil Engineers – Ground Improvement 164 (3). The results are summarized in the operational abacus of Figure 5.E.. 1997.F. Terashi. CDIT. p. 33(1): 1-13. Lisse. S. Conference on Soil Mechanics and Foundation Engineering. Ranges of applicability of the different molding techniques. 3rd International Conference on New Developments in Soil Mechanics and Geotechnical Engineering. Summary of Concrete Workability Test Methods. 14th International. Critchlow. 2012. 2010. This study represents a significant step forward towards the definition of highly required guidelines for the molding procedures of stabilised soil specimens as used in QC/QA processes for Deep Mixing applications. Grisolia M. Geosystems Including Reinforcement. Deep mixing method Brief state of the art. monitoring and quality control. Leder E. Al-Tabbaa A. Leder E. and Kitazume. Japanese Geotechnical Society. 11-22. Larsson. Exton (PA).A. M. 123. Development of design and construction methods to stabilise soft organic soils. True triaxial piping test apparatus for evaluation of piping potential in earth structures.. . Intnl. Grisolia M.. International Center for Aggregates Research The University of Texas at Austin. North Cyprus. on Deep Mixing & Admixture Stabilization. By mean of the abaci of Figures 5 and 6. Coastal Development Institute of Technology 2002. To allow the standardisation and the use of the method a “calibration curve” was elaborated by drawing the torque versus the water content (w) of an easily available kind of soil such as kaolin clay using the set of mixer related parameter Vm0. D. Liska. Navin. Terashi.W. Design Guide Soft Soil Stabilization. torque Mt [Nm] Figure 6. Grisolia M. Kitazume M. Marzano I. 4 ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS The authors wish to thank Prof. Belgium. Okinawa. Helsinki. 161-177. A. Sh. IS-GI Brussels 2012. Design of Deep Mixing for Support of Leeves and Floodwalls.. Soil Mix Technology for Integrated Remediation and Ground Improvement: Field Trials. A. Nishimura. The Soil Stabilization Group of the Port and Airport Research Institute (JP) is also acknowledged for the helps during the tests and for providing part of the data. Morikawa Y.. Balkema Publishers.. Intnl. M.principle. Marzano I. S. 2005. A. Symp. Research Report. and Fowler. Abingdon. Kitazume. liquid Low workability. International Collaborative Study Task 1: Investigation into Practice of Laboratory Mix Tests as Means of QC/QA for Deep Mixing Method.. consistent Figure 5. US. Laboratory study on the applicability of molding procedures for the preparation of cement stabilised specimens... Practice for Making and Curing Stabilised Soil Specimens Without Compaction (Translated version). Belgium JGS 0821-00 2000. 2009. Templeton. Tokyo Terashi.. Applicable Marginally Applicable Not Applicable 3 6 Molding technique No Compaction 65 75 Tapping 5 Static Compaction 25kPa 10 15 Static Compaction 50kPa 30 Dynamic Compaction 40 6 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 120 90 . Influence of sample preparation on the strength of cement-stabilised clays. 2003. 2012. w [%] 90 80 70 60 50 40 Vm0. QA/QC for deep-mixed ground: current practice and future research needs. M. M. 4th Intnl Conf. Tokyo. Filz. McGall. ISBN 975-8359-28-2. Nicosia. Sh and Rs). Geotechnical Testing Journal. Koehler. 2009. Japan. Near East University... Calibration curve.. Stockholm. Ground Improvement Geosystems. M. The Deep Mixing Method . Sh0 and Rs0 (Figure 6). LA. K. Japan. Paris 2013 applicable. Laboratory study on the molding techniques for QC/QA process of a Deep Mixing work. C. on Deep Mixing . 4th Intnl. Ohishi. 2000.. Okinawa.P. S. R. M. 2484 REFERENCES Al-Tabbaa. pp. Marzano I. The results provide very useful operational abaci to select the molding technique that produces high quality specimens in function of the soil-binder mixture’s workability. Di Millio.E. 94p. Reddy. Torque Mt (Nm) High workability. M. Richards. T. Bruce. as shown in Figure 6. Finland. Rs0 30 Vm.. Geotechnical Test Procedure and Commentary. R.P. G. 2012..P. By using different set of parameters (Vm. function of the mixer type and torque evaluation procedure. design and construction.. 2012. EuroSoilStab.. Marriott New Orleans. K. CONCLUSIONS The results of the large laboratory study performed on eight types of natural soils confirm that the mixture’s “workability” has a great influence on the mechanical and physical properties of the stabilised soil specimens.. Rs 20 10 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 110 120 workability.. Danisi C. on Grouting and Deep Mixing. A. Sh0 . D. Bruce. Therefore for each molding technique the range of applicability (expressed by torque values) corresponding to the used set of parameter can be graphically obtained from the calibration curve. Adams. E.

wick drains were installed with a spacing of 1. respectivement. Faculty of Civil Engineering. Hai Hai N.. 1.7and 22 m surcharge. The testsCPTU indicate good agreement between analysis of 18 total stresses. total stress analysis. sur de unsolest sable du solamélioré au àport à environ 90 souple kmau sud-estde Ho Chi Minh-Ville.Le schéma d'amélioration a été imposé. +5. d'environ 18au lieu de 12 à 16comme accordentre les mesureset quele decoefficient NKT.D.K.ofconsisting of wick drains installed at a spacing of 1.piles 400 mm diameter. 10 15 20 Sleeve Friction. KEYWORDS: soil improvement. consists of anofabout improvement was deposit 5et 6 mm.7 soil thick surcharge. effective stress analysis. effective stress analysis. N. l'élimination de la surcharge. Cone Resistance.800 kg/m3 (from wn = 22 %). Le profil RÉSUMÉ de un chargementstatiquea étédeThi réalisé des contraintestotale et effectivedela capacité de pieuflottantdans sol est constitué un d'un dépôt de 15 23 deThiVai m d’épaisseur d'argile compressible normalement consolidé. qt (MPa) 0 2 4 6 8 10 0 DEPT H (m) INTRODUCTION DEPT H (m) 1 Friction Ratio. montrentun bon la pression interstitielle CPTUl'analyse ajustée la descontraintes contrainte cône totales.100 kg/m3 (from wn = 24 %) and 1.7md'épaisseur diamètre ont étéeninstallés à desAprès profondeurs de 16 à22 m et les essais de chargement statique ont été l'argileau sableet à lamm miseà supplément. respectively. highly compressible clay on a thick layer of dense to compact sand. water content. composé de drains verticaux installés à une de1. 2 SOIL PROFILE The soil profile is indicated in Figures 1 and 2. consistency limits. details of the results from the tests on 16 and 22 m piles. Vietnam Long Long P. total stress analysis. composé Après de drains verticauxinstallésà une distance màentravers préfabriqué de 400 de4.100 KN at maximum 5 and 6 mm. static loading test. déposé surdistance un sabledenseet travers l'argile au sable et à la mise àdes 4. and the distribution of the undrained shear strength in the clay from a field vane.7 sols m d'épaisseur en supplément.5 m through the clay to the sand and a temporary surcharge was added raising the surface to Elev. 2485 . +7. Vietnam Vietnamese Society of Soil Mechanics and Geotechnical Engineering. between CPTU pore pressure adjusted cone stress and vane shear stress is about 18 instead of 12 through 16 as used for the Project. 22 m and of thethe static loading performed reaching capacities after piles movements driven aboutof14about and 23 days. The surcharge was removed after 80 % to 90 % of the consolidation settlements had developed and the expected future ground settlement shall not exceed 200 mm over a period of 20 years. to respectively. Vietnamese Society of Soil Mechanics and Geotechnical Engineering. P.0 m. between porea pressure adjusted cone stressmeasurements and vane shearand stress is about instead of 12and through 16 as used for the Project. interstitielleCPTUajustéelacontraintecône et la contrainte de cisaillement est d'environ 18au lieu de 12à 16comme utilisés pourle projet. entrela pression utilisés pour le projet. fs (KPa) 0 20 40 60 80 100 0 0 0 5 5 5 10 15 20 Pore Pressure (KPa) 0 250 500 750 1.Analysis Analysis of of Floating Floating Pile Pile Capacity Capacity in in Improved Improved Ground Ground for for Thi Thi Vai Vai Port. respectively. and discusses the merits of each method. to placing depths of m improvement wasAfter imposed. compressible clay deposited on dense to to compact Schemetoof4. Tuong Tuong et la contrainte cisaillementdeest corrélation.600 kg/m3 throughout the clay (from wn = 61 %). NKT. normally consolidated. le coefficient deLestests corrélation. removal of the surcharge. and correlation coefficient. Figure 1 shows the results of a typical CPTU sounding pushed at the site before driving test piles.déposé Leprofil dense et compact. This paper presents the methods used for analysis of the pile capacity based on total and effective stress approaches. The thick After removal the surcharge. NKT.5 m à constituéd'un dépôtde 15 à 23m d’épaisseurd'argile souplecompressiblenormalement consolidé. Vietnam. respectivement. which included secondary compression. deux pilescarréesen béton préfabriqué réalisés pour de atteindre les capacités de pieux ce que des 16 pieux en place 14et 23 jours. entre 22mmesuréeest d’environ mouvementsmaximum d'environ totales. After removal of surcharge. The The testsofindicate a good between measurements and KN analysis of total movements stresses. +4.. profilesand.D. normally consolidated. Vietnam ABSTRACT: A static loading programme was performed to respond to total and effective stress analysis of floating pile capacity in 90 km southeast of Ho City. depths of 16 and capacity 16 and 22 mtests pilewere measured are about 450 the andpile 1. fR(%) 1 2 3 4 5 10 15 20 U0 25 25 25 25 Figure 1. atteindreles ce quedes pieux sontmis en placeenviron 14et 23jours. RÉSUMÉ : Un programme de chargement statique a été réalisé pour répondre à l'analyse des contraintes totale et effective de la capacité du: Unprogramme pieu flottant dans sol amélioré au port Vaipourrépondre à environ 90 àl'analyse km au sud-est de Ho Chi Minh-Ville.M. and the static loading testsofwere performedtwo reaching pile capacities driven about 14were and driven 23 days. The density of the sand above and below the clay is estimated to 2. respectively..5 m through the clay the sandsand. squarethe precast concrete after piles. soil profile consists an about improved ground at Thi Vai Port approximately ABSTRACT: A static loading programme was performed to respond to Chi totalMinh and effective stress The analysis of floating pile of capacity in 15 to 23 ground m thickatdeposit soft. two square precast concrete mm diameter. The soil profile consists of deltaic sediments of about 15 to 23 m of soft. compressible clay deposited on denseThe to soil compact Scheme soil improved Thi VaiofPort approximately 90 km southeast of Ho Chi Minh City. respectivement. The field vane demonstrates the clay to be very soft above 10 m depth and soft below. Vietnam Analyse de de la la capacité capacité de de Pile pile flottant flottantedans dansun unterrain sol amélioré port Thi Vai.V. Vietnam Vietnam Analyse Thi Vaidu Amélioration deVietnam Port. KEYWORDS: soil improvement. which requires raising the ground elevation by about 2 m to Elev. Vietnam. Vietnam. and placing m 15 to 23 m thick soft. Nhon Nhon P. Diagram of CPTU sounding pushed before construction start Figure 2 presents distribution of the grain size. NKT. static loading test. capacity the 16 and 22 magreement pile measured are about 450 and 1. La capacitéde la pile16 et Les tests montrent un bon 450et accord1100KNaux entre les mesures et l'analyse des contraintes querespectivement. the correlation coefficient. P.K. respectively.0 m to avoid flooding. The highest water level is at Elev. Vietnam. Thu Dau Mot University.000 10 U2 15 20 0 DEPT H (m) 5 DEPT H (m) The Thi Vai Container Port is built on an improved ground over a 470 m by 600 m area along the Thi Vai River approximately 90 km southeast of Ho Chi Minh City. Le schéma d'amélioration des sols a été imposé. two 400 mm square precast piles driven into 16 and 22 m depth to serve for test and design of building foundations.6 m.0 m of fill height.100 at maximum of the about 5 and 6 mm. consisting of wick drains installed at a spacing ofpiles. Vietnam Faculty of Civil Engineering. normally consolidated. Thu Dau Mot University. La de 400 mm diamètreont été installés àdesaprès profondeursde à22sont metmis lesessais de environ chargement statiqueont été réaliséspour capacité de capacitésde la pile16 et pieuxaprès 22 m mesurée est d’environ 450et 1100 kN aux mouvements maximum d'environ 5et 6 mm.5 m400 through the clay towere the driven sand and to16 4.. deux pilesde1. Port. an additional 2. To reduce settlement after construction. l'éliminationde la surcharge.V.5 carrées béton compact. Total saturated density is about 1. N.

6 m. the 22 and 16 m test pile was driven on September 6. 2011. 13. 10 August 29.5 m and -10. 5. through September 23. Pore water pressure versus fill stress . Elevation of top sensor 0.9 m. Figure 5 shows the settlement distribution with depth as measured at extensometer station. Paris 2013 900 1. to serve for test and design of building foundation. Removal of surcharge at the 22 and 16 m pile was completed on August 22.95 m. Day 0 is March 12. Fill stress versus settlement + 5.200 900 1. As shown in Figure 6.0 22 mTest Pile Driving SS8 1. borehole. grain size distribution.0 2. The settlement distribution is almost linear from the fill surface to zero at 15 m depth.6. 15 and 60 days after removal of surcharge. Figure 4 also indicates location of field soil tests and test piles.5 1.9. 20 25 Figure 5. and Standpipe Figure 4 shows the settlements measured at SS8 plate near the tested piles. 200 400 600 800 1.5 m and 15.2 m 100 -1. 2009 — June 30. respectively.0 0 SETTLEMENT (m) 1.5 5 June 30. 2012 100 SS8 50 0 0 300 0 300 600 600 (day) TIME 0. The dark blue curves show readings spaced about two months apart. 2009 and the total settlement measured after completed removal of surcharge was about 2.200 0. Water content and Atterberg Limits. 2011 DEPTH (m) Figure 3 shows the location of SS8 settlement benchmark was installed on the original ground surface before the placing of the fill. the pore water pressures seem to be equal to the hydrostatic pressures after removing the surcharge. Piezometer. 2009.3. 2486 200 Temporary stockpile 150 SS8 100 50 0 0 250 PORE WATER PRESSURE (KPa) Figure 3. Settlement distribution with elevations was measured by means of extensometer gages placed at elevations of +5 m. -10. -1.2 m from August 29.June 24.0 15 15 wn 25 40 SETLLEMENT (m) 0 + 5. 2011. CPTU. 2009 .000 August 29.0 0. next to the SS8 at 4. The four settlements anchors were referenced to the presumed zero for the fifth anchor point placed at 20 m depth.0 m 0 FILL STRESS (KPa) Proceedings of the 18th International Conference on Soil Mechanics and Geotechnical Engineering. Distribution of settlement versus depth BHs Test Piles Settlement Plates CPTU and VST Extensometer.5 2. and field instrumentation FILL STRESS (KPa) Figure 6 shows the pore pressures measured at Elev. and 20 m depths below the original ground surface from August 29 through June 30.WATER CONTENT (%) 20 40 60 80 GRAIN SIZE DISTRIBUTION 100 0 20 80 100 FIELD VANE STRENGTH SU (KPa) 0 20 40 60 80 100 0 CLAY SAND SILT 5 5 5 wP 15 20 wn wL SILT SAND 10 10 DEPTH (m) 10 DEPTH (m) CLAY DEPTH (m) 60 0 + 4.15 m.0 m. and field vane strength 3 200 Temporary stockpile 150 March 12. The Piezometer had to be removed before driving the test piles. Pore pressure measurement was performed by piezometer tips installed at depths of 6.5 3. 2011 and September 9. 2011. 2011 and November 8. 2011 before the test pile driven.5 m 50 0 200 400 600 TIME (Day) 800 1. 2011 15 Zero Reading was taken on August 29.5 16 mTest Pile Driving 2.0 2. Total settlement of top sensor was about 1. -1. 2011 200 150 -10. respectively. 2011.5 1.000 Figure 6. 8. VST. The extensometer station had to be removed on June 30. Locations of test piles. 2009 .2 m. 2009.0 m GWL wn 20 20 SILT 25 CLAY SAND GRAVEL 25 Figure 2.September 23.0 SOIL IMPROVEMENT AND MEASUREMENTS Figure 4.3 m and -17 m in the clay.

000 P I L E 2 2 m 20 Eq.000 4. as the undrained shear strength of the soil increased: rs = αSu The Nkt values in Figure 7 determined correlation between cone stresses and field vane strengths are used to determine the Su of CPTU test and calculate the unit shaft resistance according to Eq. σ’v0 (stress history) and proposed a reduction coefficient incorporated into the API 1987 edition (excluding the effects of the pile length) as: (3a) (3b) The effects of the pile slenderness (ratio of the embedment pile length.000 5 (2) qt & σv0 500 (6) 2487 (7) Where. (4) (5) Kolk and van der Velde (1996) suggested an updated version incorporated directly length effects and the unit shaft resistance was determined in Eq. The accumulated shaft resistances versus depth Nkt 20 rs = 0. 6 P I L E 1 6 m 2. rs = fs(ΔU/1250+0. and β = Ktanδ is BjerrumBurland coefficient. qE. α. (1981). K is the lateral earth-pressure coefficient. and mixed ground conditions. qt. rs.25 for (Su/σ’v0) > 1 10 25 σv0 20 DEPTH (m) Where.5(Su/σ’v0)-0.Technical Committee 211 / Comité technique 211 4 ANALYSIS OF PILE CAPACITY 4. (4) and (5). B) also were considered by Murff (1980). The data used to derive the correlation were obtained from both bored and driven pile foundations in clays.000 6.5(Su/σ’v0)-0. For fill layer above clay surface. fs. rs. the unit shaft and toe resistance is obtained from: rs = CsqE (8) Where. (2) to determine Nkt as shown in Figure 7. The unit shaft resistance proposed from two alternative combinations of undrained shear strength and effective stress was refined in the API 1993 edition as shown in Eq.768) for ΔU<300 kPa rs = fs(ΔU/200-0.50 (σ’v0)0. U2. the analysis is made the same as above total stress analysis. Burland (1973) developed a simple equation written as: Su rs = Ktanδσ’v0 = β σ’v0 Figure 7. Nkt is known as an empirical cone factor and σv0 is the total overburden stress.3 1. The records of undrained shear strength from the field vane test are substituted to Eq. (1) SHAFT RESISTANCE (KN) 0 For field CPTU tests. which correlates the shaft resistance. The results are plotted in Figure 8 versus the accumulated unit shaft resistance for the full dissipation of excess pore pressures. In the Eslami and Fellenius CPTU method. which is scaled up or down depending on the magnitude of the measured excess porewater pressures during penetration. the unit pile shaft resistance. the cone stress is transferred to an apparent “effective” cone stress. Kraft et al. For method of Takesue et al.5) for 300<ΔU<1.000 1. 1 and Eqs. For 5 m thick fill sand layer above the clay layer surface.1 Sand Clay Eq. 5 Sandy silt and silt Effective stress approach (β Method) The effective stress approach for evaluating the pile capacity. δ is the constant volume friction angle.7 (σ’v0)0. Semple and Rigden(1984).5(Su)0. (1985) proposed a method to indirectly estimate the Su versus corrected cone resistance (qt) as: Su = (qt – σv0)/Nkt 0 0 0 8 8 12 qt 16 DEPTH (m) 4 DEPTH (m) 4 12 Su (kPa) & Nkt 30 60 90 1. Two direct CPTU methods typical of effective stress approach are method of Eslami and Fellenius (1997) and Takesue et al. ΔU (ΔU = U2 – U0). L. Lunne et al. by subtracting the measured pore pressure.50 for (Su/σ’v0) ≤ 1 α = 0. .1 Total stress approach (α Method) The so-called alpha method is a most common method to calculate shaft resistance in total stress approach.5(Su)0. Su. from the measured total cone stress. to the undrained shear strength of the clay.250 kPa (9a) (9b) The results of the effective stress analysis are presented in Figure 9.500 Figure 8.3 and indicates the bearing capacity of this layer is about 97 KN. Randolph and Murphy (1985). Cs is the side correlation coefficient determined from the soil profile chart which uses both cone stress and sleeve friction. (6): rs = 0. 4 .55(Su)0.75 (σ’v0)0. 4 Eq. Randolph and Murphy (1985) considered ratio of the undrained strength to the effective overburden stress.2 β = 0. (1998).50 rs = 0. (kPa) 2.3(40B/L)0. to the pile width. (1998). via an adhesion reduction coefficient.6. Correlation between cone stress and field vane strength To improve total stress approach. is estimated from the measured sleeve friction. the effective stress analysis is applied with a coefficient β of 0. 1 Eq.25 15 30 16 α = 0. sands.

Matsumoto. Performance of two approaches are evaluated basing on ratio of the estimated capacities. T. API RP2A. Lunne. American Petroleum Institute.H. Evaluation on performance of the total and effective Pile 16 m (Qp/Qm) SUMMARY AND CONCLUSION 2488 . Semple R. In: Proceedings of the 28th annual offshore technology conference.203 0. The 22 and 16 m were tested on September 29. Houston.  For effective stress approach. 2011 and November 22. 1985.884 0.280 1. Pile capacity in a softening soil..000 β = 0. pp 59–79. Can Geotech J 34:886–904.000 P I L E 1 6 m The total and effective stress analysis on two tested piles driven in improved ground of Thi Vai Port is performed and summarized as:  For total stress approach. Songyu L. T. Karlsrud K.  For two approaches. 9 10 Clay Eq.624 0. the plunging failures of the test piles are found when the pile toe is in soft clay as in the subject case and the pile toe resistance can be disregarded when evaluating the analysis methods. pp 371–378. Pile-head load-movement curves of two static loading tests performed on 22 and 16 m pile. respectively. 1 Eq. Proceedings XI ICSMFE. Kolk H. San Francisco. between CPTU pore pressure adjusted cone stress and vane shear stress is about 18. Guangyin D. Table 1. Qm. Takesue.S. 1998. Paris 2013 5 SHAFT RESISTANCE (KN) 0 500 0 1. Assessment of direct CPT and CPTU methods in predicting the ultimate bearing capacity of single piles. approach for predicting the pile capacity. 17th edn.M. 1985. 1984.  Correlation coefficient. Washington. Normally. Haugen T. K.F. van der Velde E.423 0. pp 337–346. In: Proceedings of the on analysis and design of deep foundations. Int J Numer Anal Methods Geomech 4:185–189.. The load-movement curves of the two tested piles in Figure 12 indicate the ultimate loads of the plunging failures at 1. Randolph M. to the measured capacities. the total stress approach is the better agreement.100 KN 900 Pile 16 m 600 459 KN 300 0 0 5 10 15 20 25 MOVEMENT (mm) 30 Figure 10.2 6 Pile test results and evaluation of approaches The static loading tests for the 22 and 16 m Pile were performed after piles driven about 23 and 14 days. Effective stress analysis and set-up for shaft capacity of piles in clay. designing. Murphy B. and Tjelta. Washington. 2009. GSP180:384-406. Norwegian Geotechnical Institute Research Report. H. T.. American Petroleum Institute.. 2011. 6 Effective stress approach Eq.H.100 and 459 KN. Pile capacity by direct CPT and CPTu methods applied to 102 case histories. H.3 1. NKT. API (1993) Recommended practice for planning. Correlation between ultimate pile skin friction and CPT data. P I L E 2 2 m Sandy silt and silt 20 25 30 Figure 9. and constructing fixed offshore platforms.P. Geotechnical Site Characterization (2): 1177-1182.688 REFERENCES API (1987) Recommended practice for planning. 8 Eq.915 0. Qp. 1981. Rotterdam: Balkema. Fellenius B.. Rigden W.422 1.967 1. 1997.J. the analysis indicates the alpha method with a reduction coefficient incorporated into the API 1987 edition gave the best agreement. 1980. Liyun T. designing and constructing fixed offshore platforms—working stress design. Cai G. Table 1 shows the performance evaluation of two approaches for the measured pile capacities..I. the analysis shows the Eslami and Fellenius method (1997) is approximately the same as the measurements. Murff D. API RP2A.500 Sand DEPTH (m) 5 Eq.. Eng Geol 104:211–222. 20th edn. Shaft capacity of driven piles in clay.200 1. Sasao. Total stress approach Eq..949 1.. Engineering use of Piezocone data in North Sea Clays.. ASCE Geotechnical Special Publication.416 1. Christoffersen. 1.. 1996. Eslami A. San Francisco.Proceedings of the 18th International Conference on Soil Mechanics and Geotechnical Engineering. The accumulated shaft resistances versus depth 1. 5 Eq. Cyclic loading of piles and pile anchors. 4 Eq. A reliable method to determine the friction capacity of piles driven into clays. In: Proceedings of the 17th annual offshore conference.. 8 15 2.500 Pile 22 m LOAD (KN) 1.J. Houston. 9 Pile 22 m (Qp/Qm) 0. 2008. respectively.048 1. Shaft capacity of driven pipe piles in clay. Fellenius B. field model tests at Haga.

1. 2010. Portland cement is widely used in ground improvement applications. Unfortunately. Arizona State University. the microbes that produce the urease enzyme cannot readily penetrate the pores of soils smaller than medium to fine sand. including bioplugging (permeability reduction accompanying induced mineral precipitation) and generation of a toxic waste product (ammonium salt) (Harkes et al. cementation. Portland cement production is extremely energy intensive and a major source of emissions of carbon dioxide (CO2). mass stabilization of soil using ureolytic MICP remains problematic. One example of a common building material that poses significant sustainability concerns is Portland cement. energy intensive task. MICP has been explored recently as an alternative to Portland cement for ground improvement. 2011. Tempe. Reductions in the use of 2489 . Harkes et al. Due to these limitations. van Paassen et al. Bioplugging not only limits the distribution of precipitation agents within the soil but also makes flushing of the waste product from the soil a difficult. as well as of sulfur and nitrogen oxides. and the availability of 100% of the carbon in the substrate for conversion to CaCO3. which then serves as a catalyst for the precipitation reaction. The laboratory column tests employed both Ottawa 20-30 silica sand and finer-grained F-60 silica sand. compared to MICP processes. Les échantillons ont été préparés de différentes manières et ont atteint des degrés de cimentation variés et des productions de carbonate différentes. 2008). School of Sustainable Engineering and the Built Environment. limiting the minimum grains size of soils amenable to ureolytic MICP to clean fine sands or coarser graded soils. Les avantages d’utiliser de l’uréase obtenue de plantes plutôt que de l’uréase produite microbilogiquement pour produire la cimentation carbonatée sont la petite taille de l’enzyme qui permet la pénétration dans les sols fins et rend le processus moins sujet au colmatage biologique et la disponibilité à 100% du carbone présent dans le substratum pour conversion en CaCO3. Chou et al. 2010. Kavazanjian Jr. The MICP mechanism most often discussed in the literature and most advanced in terms of field application is hydrolysis of urea (ureolytic hydrolysis). Established materials and methods often need to be either replaced or supplemented by innovative materials and environmentally-friendly practices to address sustainability considerations.Carbonate Cementation via Plant Derived Urease Cimentation carbonatée par l’utilisation d’uréase issue de plantes Hamdan N.2 Sustainability of Ground Improvement Practices Finding effective solutions to ground improvement challenges is becoming increasingly complex due to sustainability considerations. which permits penetration into finer grained soils and makes the process less sensitive to bioplugging. urease.. The small size (on the order of 12 nm) of the urease enzyme suggests that CaCO3 precipitation by enzymatic ureolytic hydrolysis will be less susceptible to bio-plugging and will be able to penetrate finer grained soils. KEYWORDS: carbonate. These tests confirm the feasibility of using plant-derived urease to induce carbonate cementation in sand and provide valuable insight into the factors that must be considered in developing practical applications for ureolytic carbonate precipitation using plant-derived urease enzyme. soil improvement 1. The use of plant-derived urease (enzymatic ureolytic hydrolysis) to induce CaCO3 precipitation eliminates the need for microbes in the CaCO3 precipitation process. The use of microbially induced carbonate precipitation (MICP) to cement cohesionless soils has recently received substantial attention from geotechnical researchers (Burbank et al. van Paassen et al. De plus ces essais ont permis de d’identifier les facteurs à considérer pour développer des applications pratiques pour l’utilisation de la précipitation carbonatée « uréolytique » en utilisant l’uréase issue de plantes. 2012.. Besides eliminating the need to nurture urease-producing microbes. The laboratory column specimens were prepared in a variety of manners and showed varying degrees of cementation and carbonate yield. 2010). AZ 85287-5306. Des essais en colonnes ont été réalisés sur deux sables de silice dits Ottawa 20-30 et F-60 (plus fin). perhaps into the silt-sized particle range. 2010. O’Donnell S. Triaxial tests performed on cemented specimens showed significant strength increases over non-cemented specimens. Applications of ureolytic MICP on clean sands in laboratory column tests and limited field tests have encountered significant practical difficulties. Furthermore. Les résultats des essais de compression triaxiale sur des échantillons cimentés et des échantillons non-cimentés indiquent que les premiers sont beaucoup plus résistants. INTRODUCTION 1.1 Background The potential for using plant-derived urease enzyme to cement sands by inducing calcium carbonate (CaCO3) precipitation has been demonstrated through a series of laboratory column tests on two different gradations of silica sand. Benefits of the use of plant-derived urease over the use of microbially-generated urease to induce carbonate cementation include the small size of the enzyme. MICP via ureolytic hydrolysis relies on microbes to generate urease enzyme. PH: (480) 965-3997 ABSTRACT: The use of plant-derived urease enzyme to induce calcium carbonate (CaCO3) cementation has been demonstrated through laboratory column tests. E. calcite. Dejong et al. RÉSUMÉ : La cimentation de sable par du carbonate de calcium (CaCO3) produit par l’enzyme uréase obtenue à partir de plantes a été réalisée en laboratoire. enzymatic ureolytic hydrolysis offers several other advantages over ureolytic MICP. Ces essais confirment que l’uréase obtenue à partir de plantes peut être utilisée pour induire une cimentation carbonatée dans les sables.

After 2 applications. Three acrylic tubes and two columns for triaxial testing were filled with 20-30 Ottawa silica sand (mean grain size 0. Karatas et al. This limited lifespan is potentially advantageous in some engineering applications as the enzyme can naturally degrade thereby eliminating long term impacts to the ecosystem.g. under-seepage of levees. 2010. Approximately 100 mL of a pH=7. Whiffin et al.Proceedings of the 18th International Conference on Soil Mechanics and Geotechnical Engineering.8” x 6” (71 mm x 152 mm) split molds (for creating specimens for triaxial testing). and the pine family (Das et al. METHODS 2. van Paassen et al. readily occurs apart from the host microorganism and. It is well-established that urease can occur as both an intraand extra-cellular enzyme (Ciurli et al. Sigma-Aldrich). e. while tube #1 was separated into six layers (for better resolution).8 solution containing 383 mM urea (reagent grade. Alfa Aesar) was used for the first application in each acrylic tube.3 Ureolytic MICP MICP attempts to create a cemented soil mass by precipitating calcium carbonate from the pore fluid such to form cementation bonds at the interparticle contacts (van Paassen et al. 2.e. tube #2: sand was added in same manner as tube #1 and then received 2 applications (≈ 150 ml total) of the same cementation solution mixed with 1. Ureolytic MICP by stimulation of indigenous bacteria has also been reported in the literature (Burbank et al. 2010. 2011. DeJong et al. while variable. washing. can persist for long periods of time without degradation or loss of function (Pettit et al. Tubes #2 and #3 were separated in 3 layers. Whiffin et al.6 mm. 2010. Paris 2013 Portland cement through either direct substitution or complementary use of MICP could contribute considerably towards reduction in CO2 emissions. loosely covered. The next application followed immediately after drainage was complete. The triaxial columns were filled with sand in the same manner as tube 1 and then received 2 applications (each application ≈ 250 ml) of cementation solution with 1. Extraction of urease enzyme from most urease containing plants has been shown to be very simple (Srivastava et al. weighing. higher order plants. urease added as a free enzyme) has a limited lifespan and its activity and function decrease with time (Marzadori et al.4g/L enzyme. 2490 coefficient of uniformity 1. 2006. Marzadori et al. By contrast. melons and squash. coefficient of uniformity 1. van Paassen et al. In each application of cementation fluid. and seismic settlement and liquefaction (Dejong et al. When drainage was complete. the needle became plugged and an additional needle was inserted through the base. After drainage was complete. The cementation fluid was allowed to stand. van Paassen et al. tube #3: the lower-third of tube was filled with sand and dry enzyme (≈ 3g). 1996. and reweighing to determine carbonate mineral content. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) imaging was performed on intact cemented chunks of material with an Agilent 8500 Low-Voltage SEM (LV-SEM). the bearing capacity of shallow foundations. 1. drying. and some invertebrates. Occasionally. The triaxial columns were allowed to stand for at least a week after the second cementation fluid application and then drained. by a calcium-laden cementation fluid. the cementation fluid was poured into the top of the acrylic tube with the bottom closed off. (2008) have identified several mechanisms for MICP. tubes #2 and #3 were allowed to air dry for several days and then analyzed. all samples were triple washed with de-ionized water. Several of the cemented specimens were analyzed for mineral identification using X-Ray Diffraction (XRD). The small size of a solubilized urease enzyme affords it a distinct advantage over carbonate cementation methods that employ ureolytic microbes in cases that require penetration into very small pore spaces as nearly all known bacteria are greater than 300 nm in diameter. 2001) and the enzyme is readily available from laboratory suppliers. Ureolytic MICP has typically been accomplished using a technique best described as biogrouting (Harkes et al. Pettit et al. exogenously added urease (i. the needle was removed and the puncture was plugged with a dab of silicone. 272 mM CaCl2-2H2O (laboratory grade. 2010. The enzyme is approximately 12 nm in dimension (Blakely & Zerner 1984). Harkes et al.2 Ottawa F-60 Sand A triaxial column was prepared using Ottawa F-60 silica sand (mean grain size 0. were formulated within a reasonably similar range as a matter of convenience. A LV-SEM is a field emission scanning electron microscope capable of imaging insulating materials.4g/L enzyme (total solution volume ≈ 300 ml). with the majority in the range of 500-5000 nm. 2007). The last 2 applications of cementation fluid were allowed to slowly drain through the needle in the base immediately after application rather than sit for 24 hours (drainage rate ≈10-25ml/hour). Samples were ground in an agate mortar and pestle and powdered onto a standard glass slide for analysis. 1976). After draining the specimens from the acrylic tubes and after the completion of the triaxial tests. erosion and scour. Several families of common plants are very rich in urease. 1998. including some varieties of beans. The cementation fluid composition was based upon stochiometry and experience with microbial urease cementation. 2010).4g/L enzyme. in the acrylic tube for at least 24 hours and then drained out the bottom of the cylinder. (2008). digesting with warm 1M HCl. or ureolysis (Chou et al. Experimentation with tube #1 was continued for several more days as three more batches of cementation fluid were applied.74) to . Free soil urease (i. finally. (2007).6 solution containing 416 mM urea and 289 mM CaCl2-2H2O. 2010. 1998). Solution concentrations. Drainage was accomplished by puncturing the base of the cylinder with a 20-gauge needle. Subsequent applications employed approximately 50 mL of a pH=7. 2006). Kavazanjian and Karatas 2008.275 mm. upon absorptive association with soil particles. including slope stability. 2002). urease not bound to any living organism).e. 2012). 1976). Research suggests that cementation using MICP can address a number of important geotechnical problems in granular soils. In each application. DeJong et al. and the tube then received 2 applications (≈ 150 ml) of the cementation fluid with no enzyme added.1 Ottawa 20-30 Sand Laboratory column tests were conducted using plant derived urease to induce CaCO3 precipitation in Ottawa 20-30 sand These tests were carried out in 6”x 2” (152 mm x 51 mm) acrylic tubes and membrane-lined 2. the fluid was added until it rose to approximately ½-inch (12-mm) above the soil line. the remainder of the tube contained dry pluviated sand without enzyme.4 Agricultural Urease Urease is a widely occurring hexameric protein found in many microorganisms. 2010). 2.1) and treated as follows: tube #1: the sand was dry pluviated via funnel at ≈3” (76 mm) drop height and then received 5 applications of a cementation solution containing urea and calcium chloride mixed with 1. DeJong et al. The MICP mechanism that has garnered the most attention and is most advanced in terms of development is ureolytic hydrolysis. such as organic and biological substances without the need for a metal coating and without causing radiation damage to samples. Each layer from the specimens in the acrylic tubes and the entire mass of the triaxial specimens were acid washed to determine CaCO3 content by oven drying for 48 hours. 1. generally derived from dead and decaying microorganisms and possibly from plant sources. the triaxial columns were moved to a triaxial testing device. tunneling. wherein bacteria and nutrients are mixed in a tank ex-situ and then injected into the soil followed by a fixation fluid to foster microbial attachment to soil particles and.

35 ≈ 4.64 0.76% 0.31 0. d.57 3. However. LV-SEM images a. Quartz & calcite standards (middle & bottom plot. presented in Figure 2.) The deepest layer of tube 3 contained many pieces of weakly cemented sand that effervesced strongly upon digestion. b. 3.8 without any enzyme. 3. The cementation fluid for the first of the two applications contained approximately 2.0 g/L enzyme.67 2.8 2. At the conclusion of the experiment. In the top layer of tube 3. Sigma-Aldrich). there was a weight change of 1. as the enzyme was physically confined to the lower-third layer in tube 2491 Figure 2.2 Triaxial Columns The three triaxial sand columns (2 Ottawa 20-30 sand columns and 1 Ottawa F-60 sand column) were tested in drained triaxial compression prior to acid digestion. The middle layer of tube 3 contained a few pieces of cemented sand that effervesced moderately upon digestion. Total Weight of Amt.40 2.) Indention of quartz surface (blue arrows) and nucleation of calcite crystals (red arrows). LV-SEM images. The specimen was prepared in the same manner as described for the triaxial columns for the Ottawa 2030 sand. Change via CaCO3 CaCO3 Digestion (g) (g) 11% 3.07 0.7.63 2. 400 mM urea (reagent grade.) Calcite crystal growing on quartz surface.35 The theoretical maximum CaCO3 content is the stoichiometric maximum balanced on initial concentrations.23%).75 0.49% 0. with some highly cemented zones and other zones with little to no cementation. The results . this layer did not show any indication of carbonate upon acid digestion. where no urease was mixed with the sand. Internally the cementation was variable. The primary experimental differences between the tests are (1) the number of applications of cementation fluid and (2) the manner in which the urease was delivered.7% following acid washing.57 1.7% 1. c. Tube 3 had little to no precipitation in the top layer (i.65% 0.74 2. carbonate precipitation was nearly undetectable. respectively). show silica (quartz) sand particles cemented with calcium carbonate and various morphological features associated with the cementation process on the silica surface.69 0. The results from the acid washing are presented in Table 1. RESULTS XRD analysis.0% 1. 3. BDH) at pH=7.Technical Committee 211 / Comité technique 211 investigate enzymatic ureolytic CaCO3 precipitation in a finer grained material.58%).8% 1. 3 during sample preparation. possibly due to uneven distribution of the layers during preparation or splitting of the specimen or to upward migration of urease from the bottom layer. All three columns were able to stand upright after removal of the split mold. The results indicate that there is greater carbonate precipitation with increasing number of applications.63 3. The fluid for the second application contained 1 M urea-CaCl2-2H2O solution at pH=7. A B Theor. confirms that calcite is the mineral phase present in the cemented soil chunks. Max CaCO3 (g) ≈14. as expected. presented in Figure 1. A fairly large (compared to column diameter) piece of strongly cemented sand (not breakable without tools) formed in the deepest layer of tube 1. Tube 1 yielded mostly small.63 Figure 1. where 3 g of dry enzyme was mixed with the soil. precipitation was visible along the entire length of tubes 1 and 2. There was no visual evidence of precipitation and practically no measurable change in weight of this layer after acidification (weight change = 0.23% 0. the triaxial specimen was washed and subject to acid digestion in the same manner as the Ottawa 20-30 triaxial specimens.) Cementing calcite crystals at inter-particle contact.) Well-grown and cementing calcite crystals. 1 2 3 Layer Tube # Table 1. when less than 75 ml was typically required to fill the tubes to ≈ ½ inch (12 mm) above soil line. Most of this column appeared un-cemented and exhibited unusually viscous behavior when wet.1% 1. XRD results from cemented sand sample (top plot). 300 mM CaCl2-2H2O (laboratory grade.73 11.7% 2. In the bottom layer of tube 3. the amount of solution the tube would accept was notably reduced in subsequent applications.1 Acrylic Tubes Approximately 100 ml of cementation solution was delivered per application for the first application in each acrylic tube.5 C D ≈ 4.3% 1. Tube 2 had many small chunks of weakly cemented sand with strong effervescence upon digestion. loose chunks of sand with strong effervescence upon digestion. The middle layer of this specimen had a minor change in weight (0.58% 0. After the test.e. Results from Experiment Set 1 using 20-30 Ottawa silica sand 1 2 3 4 5 6 1 2 3 1 2 3 Summary of Results Amt. The data show more precipitation in (or on) the top layer of tubes 1 and 2 but not in tube 3.

C.W.. Microbiological Improvement of the Physical Properties of Soils. 1381–1392. 1485-1490. Biotechnology and Applied Biochemistry 34.T. Ecological Engineering 36 (2).J. Phytochemistry 61 (5). Krogmeier. 55-62. K. van Paassen. PhD. and Kayastha.W. B.. van Paassen. 30 (12). Proc. 1179–1189. M. Ciurli S. Lewis.T.. Herzog. 2008. C.. The carbonate cement content for one of the 20-30 silica sand columns was 2. R. Conf. Geotechnical Tests of Sands Following Bio-Induced Calcite Precipitation Catalysed by Indigenous Bacteria ASCE JGGE 132. K. In situ soil reinforcement by microbial denitrification. and Srivastava. REFERENCES Baumert.. Ghose. ○ Uncemented (Dr = 60%) 1. Kavazanjian. V. 2001. p-q plot failure envelopes for 20-30 silica sand: ■Cemented (Dr = 60%). M.. 112–117.M. Microbiological Improvement of the Physical Properties of Soil. J. J. Tempe. Jack Bean Urease: The First Nickel Enzyme. 6th International Conference on Case Histories in Geotech. 2010. B.M. and Sustainable Engineering Arizona State University..M... Freedman R.. J. 2492 . S.. Eng. B. Dissertation. 1984.. and Gessa C. 1721–1728... W. Seagren. I. The carbonate cement content for the finer grained F-60 Ottawa sand was 1. N. AZ.K. Smith A.B. Triaxial test results on cemented columns showed substantial strength increase over non-cemented columns at the same relative density.. CONCLUSION Sand column tests at Arizona State University have shown that agriculturally-derived urease can be used to induce calcium carbonate precipitation in sand. J. A. van der Linden.. L. 2008.M. S... M. Department of Civil. 1976.0000781. Whiffin. R. R.. 8189–8191.. & Biochem.K. C. Sand columns were developed using Ottawa 20-30 and F-60 sand and three different preparation methods: dry pluviation followed by percolation of a calcium-urease-urea cementation solution. 2005. 2010. JGGE 137. 513-521. Weaver. R.. Navigating the Numbers Greenhouse Gas Data & International Climate Policy World Resources Institute Blakely. 2010. 1998. Ecological Engineering 197-210. G. 4.. Environmental.. Soil urease: activity. Phytotoxicity of foliar-applied urea. Srivastava. van Paassen. Karatas.C. J.M. 1st Int. and kinetic properties. pluviation into a calcium-urease-urea cementation solution.A.M. and Nelson. 479-484. The quality of cementation.A.. XRD and SEM testing confirmed that calcium carbonate (specifically calcite) was the cementing agent. DeJong. Purification and characterization of urease from dehusked pigeonpea (Cajanus cajan L. Fritzges. M.C. M. on Bio-Geo-Civil Engineering.. B. and Harkes. and Ciurli. Paris 2013 of the triaxial compression tests performed on the 20-30 Ottawa sand are presented in Figure 3 and the results for the F-60 Ottawa sand are presented in Figure 4. 2002.. Sci. and Crawford. and van Loosdrecht..1061/(ASCE)GT..L. Harkes. van der Star.. C. Benini S. A. V.6% CaCO3 Figure 4.L.C.) seeds. Gessa. Pershing... 1-7. Williams.A. M. 28. van Paassen. McCarty. Marzadori C.. Natl.. M. Arlington. Cementation was observed in all of the columns. 2006.1943-5606. Characterization of gelatinimmobilized pigeon pea urease and preparation of a new urea biosensor. D. D. Staal. Miletti. M.. Deiana S. L. M. Burbank. Williams. stability. DeJong. L.. Quantifying Biomediated Ground Improvement by Ureolysis: Large-Scale Biogrout Experiment. E.H. 124-133. varied depending on the sampling location within the column.. M. Chou. Fixation and distribution of bacterial activity in sand to induce carbonate precipitation for ground reinforcement. Martinez. P. A..Proceedings of the 18th International Conference on Soil Mechanics and Geotechnical Engineering. T. and Burns R. 1989. p-q plot failure envelopes for F-60 silica sand: ■Cemented (Dr = 35%).S. ○ Uncemented (Dr = 37%). C. M. Netherlands. The carbonate content of the other 20-30 Ottawa sand column could not be quantified due to unintended sample loss.. Acad. G. P. and van Loosdrecht. & Biochem. and Zerner. C.0% CaCO3 CaCO3 not quantified Figure 3. A. P. T.. and Bremner. Marzadori. and van Loosdrecht.. Bio-mediated soil improvement.. L. Daza. and Karatas. I. 2008.0% CaCO3 (by weight). S. Immobilization of jack bean urease on hydroxyapatite: urease immobilization in alkaline soils.. T. B.. USA 86. and mixing the sand with urease prior to pluviation with a calcium-urea solution. Mortensen. 8. Microbially Induced Cementation to Control Sand Response to Undrained Shear.. T.A. 2011. J. Sorokin. Aydilek. Microbial Carbonate Precipitation a Soil Improvement Technique. VA August 11-16.Y.6% CaCO3 (by weight). Biocalcification of Sand through Ureolysis. Das. ASCE JGGE 136. 5.. Soil Biol.. 2. and Lai. 1996. 263–292. 2007.... ASCE JGGE 132.P. June 23-25. 811-817. Acid digestion showed that increased applications yielded correspondingly greater carbonate precipitation. 2012. M. Kayastha. Booster. Whiffin. L. E. The results show substantial strength increase for all 3 sand columns tested. & Biochem. and Nusslein. Geomicrobiology 24.. Urease from the soil bacterium Bacillus pasteurii: Immobilization on Ca-polygalacturonate. as determined by the effort needed to break apart cemented chunks of sand.R. Journal of Molecular Catalysis 23. DOI: 10. Soil Biol. Pettit N. Soil Biol..A.. R.J.

these parameters are reinforced length. figure 1. in this study the parameters affecting the behavior of reinforced stone columns have been investigated.. clay and sand). Une des techniques couramment utilisée permettant l'augmentation de la capacité portante des sols et des fondations est l'utilisation des colonnes de pierre. physical properties of the soils are listed in table 1. 2. compansating the scarcity of studding around reinforced stone columns (malarvizhi and ilamparuthi2007.after that the cylinder was placed at its position and the surrounding was filled slowly with soil. stone column run in the middle of the tank. KeYWords: stone column. having mentioned these variables. firstly. cet article présente les résultats d'une étude expérimentale sur l'amélioration de la capacité portante des colonnes de pierre renforcées par des méthodes géosynthétiques. the phyical model. de plus. castro and sagaseta2011) however. Gniel and Bouazza2009. Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering. this lead researchers and practioners to use geosentitics to increase confinement of column. argile et sable) ainsi que la longueur de l'armature de renforcement. however. plus le comportement des colonnes de pierres est amélioré. 2007. 2. is described. rÉsUmÉ: ces dernières décennies. 1 2. stone column aggregate size and length of reinforcement. including stone columns as a method of strengthening the loose soil are used. a clay soil as cohesive soil and a sandy soil as granular soil. stone columns behavior has been studied experimentally. Test apparatus a cylindrical tank (height=1. l'influence de trois variables ont été étudiées.1 introdUction. 2 laBoratorY settinGs since the focus of this research was on the laboratory results.the next layerswere compacted with 10 strokes from 10cm distance to provide loose soil.Experimental investigation on bearing capacity of geosynthetic encapsulated stone columns Étude expérimentale sur la capacité portante des colonnes de pierre géosynthétiques encapsulées Hataf N. in this study the influences of three variables have been investigated. one of the major weaknesses in use of stonecolumns in loose soils is lack of confinement. reinforcing half height of stone columns is the optimal encapsulating length. toprepare the stone column an open ended hollow cylindrical pipe with a diameter of a little more than the diameter of the stone column was used. cependant.0m) filled with soil was used as the soilenvironment. Shiraz. due to the lack of bearing resistance in these soils. this paper presents the results of an experimental study on the improvement of the bearing capacity of stone columns reinforced by geosynthetics.the static loading system consists of a loading arm and weights were used(razavi and hataf. including: surrounding soil types (i. Guetif et al.e. column material and surrounding soil type. 2003) to determine the bearing capacity of a circular foundations resting on stone column. les ingénieurs civils ont développé différentes techniques pour l'amélioration de la capacité portante du sol mou ainsi que celles des fondations. l'utilisation de renforts géosynthétiques permet de compenser pour la faible pression de confinement. one of the major weaknesses in use of stone columns in loose soils is lack of confinement. notamment: le type de sol environnant (i. a method for increasing the bearing capacity of foundation soil is the use of stone columns. geosynthetic. reinforcement. dans cette étude. Using geosynthetic reinforcement to compensate low confinement pressure in these soils. les résultats démontrent que l'emploi de la colonne en pierre avec encapsulation géosynthétique est plus efficace dans un sol consistant comparé aux sols granulaires. the results also showed that. Iran aBstract: civil engineers have developed different soil improvement techniques in recent decades to improve the bearing capacity of soft soils loaded by foundations and reduce soil settlement.2 Soil tested to test and evaluate the behavior of reinforced stone columns in loose soil. 2493 . this has made the use of areas with soft soils inevitable. finalement.the value of land has increased signifacntly. les résultats de ces expériences ont révélé que plus la rugosité de l'agrégat augmente. theoretically and numerically by many researchers (Bergado and teerawattanasuk2008. Shiraz University.=1. in recent years with increasing in population density in specific locations. is a solution to this problem. the results of the experiments revealed that the coarser the aggregate the better behavior is expected for the stone column.0 m and dia.3 Specimens preparation to prepare the soil and column. Nabipour N. two soil types were used. bearing capacity. first two 10 cm soil layers has been poured in the tank and compacted using 20 strokes caused by dropping a 50 n weight attached to a wooden handle from a distance of 40 cm as the substrate layer. Gniel and Bouazza2010).e. les résultats indiquent que la longueur d'encapsulation optimale est atteinte en renforçant la hauteur médiane des colonnes de pierre. l'une des grandes faiblesses de l'utilisation de colonnes de pierre dans les sols mous est le manque de confinement. different methods of soil improvement techniques. the results showed that encapsulating stone column with geosynthetic is more effective in cohesive soil compared to granular soil.

physical properties of the soils tested. however the improvement ratein cohesive soils is more noticeable.0 16. a commercially available geogrid was used for reinforcement. it is enough to reinforce only half length of the column to achieve desired bearing improvement. the most important variable in this study was to experimentally and practically examine the optimal lengthof 2494 3-b medium aggregate material . in this figures f-ri.laboratory setting for model testing. this can be related to the fact that the confining pressure in the bottom of the column is higher than that in the upper parts of the column due to higher overburden pressure. it reduces the side contact pressure between the soil and stone column. the radial strain reduces and as the result. stone columns with no reinforcement. F Fmax(no) 3-a fine aggregate material r1 F Fmax(no) figure 2. the reinforcement however is more effective in cohesive soil than in granular soil. further numerical studies (not presented here) showed that the effect of viscosity is reduced with the increase in cohesion of soil which in turn caused increase in the confining pressure of surrounding soil. half-length reinforcement and full-length reinforcement were prepared for testing.after filling each layer the cylinder pulled out about 10 cm and aggregates were poured in and compacted with 40cm length rod. table 1.0 35. parameter Clay Sand friction angle 26.a small amount of inflation on the side layers are observed which results in increase in lateral soil friction and so the stresses spreads over a larger surface of the soil and it results the deflection not to increase below the column but spread in larger area homogeneously.0 - then until reaching up to the surface level the stone column filled with stone aggregates in 10 cm layers.0 liquid limit(%) 44.5 - plasticity index (%) 20. this in turn causes just vertical distribution of the stresses to the layer below the column and not distributing of stresses to the surrounding soil. as it can be seen from these figures it is obvious that reinforcement improve the bearing capacity of stone columns in both cohesive and granular soils.0 0. therefore this results in decrease in stone column material to spread out within the surrounding soil. half-length and non-reinforced. different aggregates used as stone columns materials.Proceedings of the 18th International Conference on Soil Mechanics and Geotechnical Engineering. respectively. 3 test resUlts test results as load settlement curves for stone columns embedded in cohesive and granular soils are illustrated in figures 3 an 4. h-ri and no-ri stand for full-length. in the half-length reinforced column by increasing in stresses. test results indicated that in both types of surrounding soils and for all sizes of column aggregate materials. this obviously causes more vertical deflections in the below layers of soil and less in the upper layers.0 Unit weight(Kn/m3) 15. r3 r2 reinforcementfor optimal strength.0 cohesion (Kn/m2) 5. half-length and no reinforced column. loads were normalized to maximum load obtained for unreinforced column in each case and settlements were normalized to radius of stone column. these are shown in figure 2. By increasing the confining pressure in the upper parts of the column by installing reinforcement. Paris 2013 figure 1. this was achieved by changing the length of reinforcement compared to the column length as full-length. three types of aggregates were used to fill the stone columns.

respectively. 2495 . the results of tests on the same stone column conditions but with different size of stone column materials are illustrated in figure 5 and 6 for cohesive and granular surrounding soils. F Fmax(no) 5-a non-reinforced stone column F Fmax(no) 4-a fine aggregate material F Fmax(no) 5-b half-length reinforced column F Fmax(no) 4-b medium aggregate material F Fmax(no) 5-c full-length reinforced column figure 5. test results for different stone columns materials embedded in cohesive soil. there was an increase in bearing resistance of the column with increasing grain size dimension of column material. F Fmax(no) 3-c coarse aggregate material figure 3. test results for stone columns embedded in cohesive soil.Technical Committee 211 / Comité technique 211 F Fmax(no) as it was mentioned earlier one of the variables in this study was the size of the column aggregate can be seen that keeping all conditions constant. 3-c coarse aggregate material figure 4.test results for stone columns embedded in granular soil. however the improvement due to the use of geosynthetic reinforcement was the same for all column material sizes.

the 2496 . for soil improvement. model test and finite element analysis of ring footings on loose sand.. n. and ilamparuthi. s. especially in clay. Computers and Geotechnics 38. 1-11. J.354–362. 27(B1). Iranian J. this leads to use reinforcement to compensate low confinement pressure in these soils. J.Soils and Foundations... Bouassida. J. consolidation and deformation around stone columns: numerical evaluation of analytical solution. K. although the increase in grain size should not be more than two percent of stone column diameter. these columns increase the bearing capacity of the soil significantly. and razavi. a. is the optimal encapsulating length. improvement of soft soils using geogrid encased stone columns. Computers and Geotechnics 34. 39–55. castro. on the other hand. 2011. this technique is more economical and needs to be studied further. 4 references conclUsion one of the recent methods for increasing the bearing capacity of foundation soil is the use of vertical stone columns.t. c. sagaseta. and teerawattanasuk. J. 167–175 . an experimental study has been performed. 2d and 3d numerical simulations of reinforced embankments on soft ground. however. Because of the lack of experimental studies on the behavior of reinforced stone columns. significantly.. test results for different stone columns materials embedded in granular soil. c.. comparative study on the behaviour of encased stone column and conventional stone column. 6-a non-reinforced stone column F Fmax(no) 6-b half-length reinforced column F Fmax(no) 6-c full-length reinforced column figure 6. m. 26. and Bouazza. Paris 2013 behavior of stone column encapsulated by geosynthetic in its entire length was compared to partially encapsulated stone column behavior. which are usually vibrocompacted into the soil. Z. Geotextiles and Geomembranes. a. Geotextiles and Geomembranes27. d. one of the major weaknesses in use of stone columns in loose soils is lack of confinement. 2010. debats. m. F Fmax(no) 5 Bergado. Computers and Geotechnics. it was shown that the use of stone columns improves the soil bearing capacity. 47 (5). and Bouazza. n. 28. r. Guetif. of Science & Technology. 2009. the results of the experiments revealed that the coarser the aggregate the better behavior is expected for the stone column. hataf. 2007. a. m. 2008. Gniel. 2007.improved soft clay characteristics due to stone column installation. Gniel. transaction B. the results showed that encapsulating stone column with geosynthetic is more effective in cohesive soils compared to granular soils. reinforcing half height of stone columns in both types of soils. compared to the surrounding soils.Proceedings of the 18th International Conference on Soil Mechanics and Geotechnical Engineering. this finding is significant regarding the economical and efficiency of use of stone columns as a soil improvement technique.. 2003. compared to concrete or steel piles inclusion. stone columns consist of a stiffer material or aggregates. three types of stone column materials were used with different aggregate dimensions. the results showed that. 108–118 . 873–885. construction of geogrid encased stone columns: a new proposal based on laboratory testing. malarvizhi.104–111.

the vane tests show that the undrained shear strength of the reclaimed dredged mud and 2497 . the effectiveness of the vacuum preloading assisted by pVds has been illustrated by chu et al. ARC Centre of Excellence in Geotechnical Science and Engineering. the mud was capped off with a 2-3m layer of dredged sand. Une comparaison entre la consolidation sous vide associée au remblaiement et le pré chargement classique montre clairement les avantages en faveur de la consolidation sous vide.5-4. extended consolidation time due to stage construction can be minimized (indraratna et al. les données enregistrées sur le site illustrent le comportement du remblai durant la consolidation. new berths on fisherman islands at the mouth of the Brisbane river will be constructed in the outer area (235ha) close to the existing port facilities via land reclamation.. University of Wollongong. a pleistocene deposit containing highly over-consolidated clay underlies the softer holocene clay layer. once the soil has increased its stiffness and shear strength due to consolidation. Coffey Geotechnics. whilst serving as a drainage layer. a vacuum assisted surcharge load in conjunction with prefabricated vertical drains was choosen to reduce the required consolidation time. à proximité des terminaux existants. 2011). associe a des drains préfabriqués. followed by the holocene clay layer with different in thickness from 6m to 25m. after placing the dredged fill.0m. it is estimated that the consolidation time could be more than 50 years with overall settlements of 2. which acted as a working platform for pVd installation machine. Australia aBstract: due to a projected increase in trade activities at the port of Brisbane. vacuum. Un chargement sous vide contrôle. With demand in commercial activities. soil improvement. 4006. Without surcharge preloading. (2005). field vane shear tests and oedometer tests were carried out to assess the relevant consolidation and stability design parameters. field data is presented to show how the embankment performed during construction. an analytical solution for radial consolidation incorporating both time-dependent surcharge loading and vacuum pressure is employed to calculate the settlements and associated excess pore pressures of the soft holocene clay deposits. the upper holocene sand beneath the reclaimed dredged mud was about 2m thick. dissipation tests. site investigation techniques including cone penetration/piezocone tests. also. the embankment construction rate can be increased and the number of construction stages can be reduced (Yan and chu 2003). the features of the combined vacuum and surcharge fill system and the construction of the embankment are described in this paper. a new outer area (235ha) is being reclaimed for major expansion to maximise the available land. de nouveaux postes de quais dans les iles fisherman a l’embouchure de la rivière de Brisbane sur une superficie de 235 ha gagnée sur la mer. the analytical solutions for radial consolidation considering both time dependent surcharge loading and vacuum pressure are proposed to predict the settlement and associated excess pore pressure. therefore. (2000) and chai et al. Geng X. a trial area (s3a) shown in fig. 1 was partitioned into Wd1-Wd5 (non-vacuum areas) and Vc1Vc2 (Vacuum areas). rÉsUmÉ : l’augmentation des activités de commerce au port de Brisbane nécessite la construction. Australia Ameratunga J. and to provide the maximum number of berths suitable for container handling for servicing regional importers and exporters. in this area. l’article décrit les caractéristiques de la technique de consolidation sous vide associe au chargement par remblaiement et la construction du remblai. in this paper. the soil profile mainly consists of compressible clay deposits over 30m in thickness with very low undrained shear strength (<15 kpa at shallow depth).. excess pore pressures and lateral displacements. the performance between the vacuum and non-vacuum areas has been compared based on the measured settlements. NSW Australia. the post-construction settlement will be significantly less. KeYWords: consolidation. boreholes. a été appliqué pour réduire le temps de consolidation. a comparison of the performance of the vacuum combined surcharge loading system with a standard surcharge fill emphasizes the obvious advantages of vacuum consolidation. the influences of drain spacing. Une solution de consolidation horizontale tenant compte du chargement et de la pression sous vide est présentée en vue de prédire le tassement et l’excès de la surpression interstitielle du dépôt d’argile molle de l’holocène. vertical drains. the surcharge fill height can be reduced by several metres. 47 Doggett Street. QLD. Newstead. in this technique. 1998). 2005). drain types and type of soil improvement are discussed based on the observed degree of consolidation. vacuum pressure can propagate to a greater depth of the subsoil via pVd length. 2 General description of emBanKment characteristics and site conditions at the port of Brisbane. if a vacuum pressure (at least 70 kpa) is applied and sustained (rujikiatkamjorn et al. thereby eliminating any risk of differential settlement of the overlying infrastructure (shang et al. there is no comprehensively reported case history where both the conventional surcharge preloading and vacuum technique have been applied in the same area with distinct variation of drain types and spacing. vacuum consolidation with prefabricated vertical drains (pVds) was suggested to accelerate the consolidation process and to minimise lateral deformation adjacent to the moreton Bay marine park (indraratna et al. the water contents of the soil layers were similar to or exceed their liquid limits. the strength of dredged mud had a much lower strength depending on the placement time and the thickness of capping material. to the authors’ knowledge.Performance and Prediction of Vacuum Consolidation Behavior at Port of Brisbane Avantages et prédictions de comportement due a la consolidation sous vide au port de Brisbane Indraratna B. Centre for Geomechanics and Railway Engineering. 1 introdUction the port of Brisbane is one of the australia’s largest commercial ports located at the entrance of the Brisbane river at fisherman islands. Wollongong City. 2008). Rujikiatkamjorn C. to evaluate the performance of the vacuum consolidation system with the non-vacuum system (pVd and surcharge load).

3.8 4 2 0 100 table 1. whereas the lowest settlement was in the Wd5a area in which the clay layer was relatively thin (8-12m). the total surcharge height was 90 kpa. 50m MS28-VC1 169m 210m 8 Embankment Height (m) Surface settlement plates Piezometers Inclinometers figure 1. in the outer area (Vc1 and Vc2) close to the marine park. in the vacuum area. 3 indicates that the lateral movements are effectively controlled to minimise the disturbance in the adjacent moreton Bay marine park. the lateral displacements clearly lessen in the holocene sand due to its greater stiffness.3 7-7.5 surcharge 1. settlement plates. fig. VWP4-WD4 MS17-1 155m 3 WD4 MS16-1 VC2 VC2-1 84.3-4. a unit cell theory was introduced by Barron (1948) and richart (1957) for surcharge preloading alone.1 4.2 surcharge 1. and no air leaks were observed during vacuum application that ensured the intact seal provided by the membrane.2m in conjunction with a high density polyethylene (hdp) membrane. the surcharge embankment heights varied from 3. the highest settlement was measured in the Wd4 area having the greatest clay thickness (19-26m). indraratna et al. lekha et al. to monitor the ground behaviour. (b) maximum residual settlement less than 250 mm over 20 years after treatment.g. while cv/ch is about 2 for the holocene clay layer.1 5. surcharge+ vacuum surcharge+ vacuum the inevitable variation in drain lengths was attributed to the non-uniform clay thickness. site layout for s3a with instrumentation plan the surcharge preloading system was adopted for the inner areas (Wd1-Wd5) while.2 3.5m 41m WD5B MS22-1 WD1 VWP2-WD1 WD5B 70m MS15-1 WD2 MS19VWP5 WD3 MS18-1 MS27WD3 VWP1-WD2 70m MS20-VWP5 VC1 VC1-2 interpretation of field resUlts the embankment performances including settlements and excess pore pressures together with the staged construction of the embankments are depicted in fig.0m.3 surcharge 1. and the circular drains had an internal diameter of 34mm. pVd characteristics and improvement scheme drain spacing (a) 6 200 300 400 100 200 300 4 00 100 200 300 Time (days) 400 0. magnetic extensometers. the measured suction varied from 60 kpa to 75 kpa.3 6. comprehensive instruments were installed e. 2. the technique of vacuum combined preloading was selected to control lateral displacement in order to minimise disturbance of the nearby marine habitats. the authors have deliberately omitted the commercial brand names of all pVds used. vibrating wire piezometers.2 surcharge 1. 70m WD5A 35m 84. a vacuum pressure of 70kpa was applied after 40 days. the unit cell theory has been employed to predict the settlement and excess pore pressure.5m across the site as shown in the table 1. both circular and band shape drains were established in a square pattern at a spacing in the range of 1.2 2. only circular drains were employed at a spacing of 1. stringent design criteria were adopted for the design and construction of emabankment over the soft holocene deposits: (a) service load of 15-25 kpa. the coefficient of consolidation in vertical direction is similar to that in horizontal direction (ch) for the remoulded dredged mud layer. the length of pVds changed from 6m to 27.5 2 200 (b) WD3 WD5A WD5B VC1 VC2 (c) 100 0 -100 figure 2. horizontal perforated 2498 4 settlement and eXcess pore pressUre predictions in order to analyse the radial consolidation caused by vertical drains. it would be observed that the trends are very comparable where the settlement occured more quickly at the early stage of consolidation.1 5. Based on the design criteria. whereas for Vc1 area the reduced surcharge pressure of 40 kpa was complemented with a vacuum pressure of 65 kpa. Vertical displacement (m) Excess pore pressure (kPa) drain type Wd1 Wd2 Wd3 Wd4 Wd5a Wd5B Vc1 Vc2 circular drains circular drains Band drain type -a Band drains type -a Band drains type -B Band drains type -B circular drains circular drains fill height (m) treatment scheme 1.0m to 9. (2012) proposed analytical solutions under time-dependent . the compression index changed from 0.1 surcharge 1. (b) settlements and (c) excess pore pressures the measured lateral displacement normalized to total change in applied stress (vacuum plus surcharge load) for two inclinometer locations is shown in fig.5m pipes and the pumps that represent the vacuum system.0.1 to 1. Paris 2013 the holocene clays were from 5 to 60 kpa. for Wd3 area. (1998) further extended the radial consolidation by including time-dependent surcharge loading. table 1 presents the pVd characteristics and treatment types applied to each section.5 1 1. due to the isotropic consolidation by vacuum pressure. in the non-vacuum areas.2 3.3m.6 surcharge 1. the amount of final settlement depends on the clay thickness and embankment height. the horizontally pipes offered the desired uniform distribution of suction beneath the membrane. and inclinometers.Proceedings of the 18th International Conference on Soil Mechanics and Geotechnical Engineering.2 1. (2005) introduced the unit cell analysis for vacuum preloading under instantaneous loading while Geng et al.1-1. embankment responses (a) staged construction. Wick drains (Band drain typea and Band drain type-B) had dimensions of 100mm x 4mm.

this confirms that.2 holocene clay ch (m2/yr) 1 kh/ks 1 s=ds/dw 1 5 1 1 2 2 3 1. a staged embankment construction had to be adopted to avoid any undrained failure in the remoulded dredged layer. this is because in non-vacuum areas. the ratios of kh/ks and ds/dw were 2 and 3. during embankment construction. the surcharge fill is increased at a prescribed rate to reach the desired height.   t  t vac (4) 2499  2k kh 3 lns     h l 2  4 3q w  ks (5) n  de dw (6) s  ds dw (7) where. the embankment load is assumed to be a ramp loading: i. indraratna et al. the vacuum is applied at t=tvac. 4a). ks= horizontal soil permeability in the smear zone and qw = drain discharge capacity. in order to calculate excess pore pressures and associated settlements.e. especially during the stages of embankment construction. for the upper and lower holocene clay. 2011) the excess pore pressure due to radial consolidation considering smear effect under time-dependent surcharge can be expressed by (indraratna et al. Cc = compression index. in vacuum areas. 1-8. ds= the diameter of the smear zone. the settlement () can now be determined by the following equation: (8)  '  HCc   -6 -8  n  s   ln   1  e0  log   'i  where. (a) time-dependent surcharge loading. 2011):  uL   8ch t 1  exp 2  8ch t0   d e d e2     1   for   8ch t  t0    8ch t0   exp   uL 1  exp  2  d e2 8ch t0   d e   d e2  0  t  t0    1   for t  t0 (1) (2) recently. and (c) boundary conditions with vacuum distribution (after indraratna et al. in this section. equations (1)-(8) are employed using parameters in table 2. t  t vac   8ch t  tvac  u vac  p0 exp   d e2     p0 .. where the total applied load (vacuum and surcharge =120-130kpa) and clay thickness (20-23m) are comparable. at a given time.18 clay lower 4 0. de = the diameter of soil cylinder dewatered by a drain.Technical Committee 211 / Comité technique 211 surcharge preloading. respectively. the embankment load (t) increases linearly with time up to a maximum value (within time t0 and is constant thereafter (fig. a suction pressure of 65 kpa was employed. for normally consolidated clay. at the beginning of each subsequent stage. and H = compressible soil thickness. (2005) proposed that the excess pore pressure dissipation due to vacuum pressure alone could be determined from: (3) u vac  0. in accordance with the laboratory obsevrvation decribed by indraratna and redana (1998). dw = the equivalent diameter of the drain. comparison of lateral displacements at the embankment toe in vacuum and non-vacuum area after 400 days (indraratna et al. settlement and associated excess pore pressure predictions were calculated at the embankment centreline using eqs. the time-dependent loading due to the filling would be more realistic than an instantaneous loading. the vacuum combined preloading would speed up consolidation compared to a surcharge preloading alone. 10 8 Platform 6 Platform 4 2 Dredged mud 0 Holocene sand HS -2 Upper Holocene Clay UHC -4 Depth (m) Dredged mud LHC -10 -12 -14 -16 Lower Holocene Clay -18 -20 -22 -24 Section/Plate No. the initial in-situ effective stress was calculated based on the final degree of consolidation of the previous stage. soil properties for each layer Soil Cc/(1+e0) layer Soil type 1 dredged mud 0. whereas that in the non-vacuum area was less than 85%.  = settlement at a given time. (b) unit cell including smear zone. the comparisons between prediction and field observation show that the settlement and associated pore water pressure can be predicted very well.01 sand Upper holocene 3 0.9 2 3 . the excess pore pressure at a given time t can calculated based on the equations (2) to (7). table 2. overall. the degree of consolidation was more than 90% after 13 months.235 Upper holocene 2 0. it is noted that. 2011) (a) (b) (c) figure 4. figures 5 and 6 present the predicted settlement and associated excess pore pressure with the measured data in areas Wd1 and Vc1. therefore. 4c). for the completely remoulded dredged mud that was reclaimed from the seabed and the Upper holocene sand the ratio kh/ks was assumed to be unity. VC1/MS28 WD3/MS27 -26 -28 -30 0 1 2 Lateral displacement/Total change in applied stress (mm/kPa) figure 3. the embankment load was applied according to a staged construction (unit weight of 20 kn/m3). in vacuum areas. figure 4b shows the unit cell adopted for analytical solutions with boundary conditions (fig.

.4 200 300 Time (days) 400 500 (b) Field Prediction 0. ameratunga. International Journal of Geomechanics.W.. the dredged materials from the seabed were placed in the reclaimed area. Ground deformation induced by vacuum consolidation. s.. Balasubramaniam of Griffith University. 2003. s.2 80 0 100 200 300 Time (days) 400 500 (c) Field Prediction 40 0 -40 0 100 200 300 Time (days) 400 500 figure 6.Proceedings of the 18th International Conference on Soil Mechanics and Geotechnical Engineering. 2011) 5 Writers acknowledge the support of the port of Brisbane corporation.3m for 3 different drain types.4 0. 5(2). Paris 2013 analysed and discussed. laboratory determination of smear zone due to vertical drain installation. i. J. 2008. B.W. and rujikiatkamjorn. J. (b) surface settlements at the embankment centreline and (c) excess pore pressures at 14. a. and hayashi. and chu. B. 114-124. analytical solutions for a single vertical drain with vacuum and timedependent surcharge preloading in membrane and membraneless systems. 2742. from a stability point of view. Vacuum preloading consolidation of reclaimed land: a case study. 2005. richart.. B. the overall lateral movement is decreased due to the isotropic consolidation induced by vacuum pressure. indraratna. and Balasubramaniam. Geotech. 7(4): 165-172. Wd1 area: (a) stages of loading. X. Ground Improvement.6 0 100 80 200 300 Time (days) 400 500 6 (c) 60 40 20 0 Field Prediction 0 100 200 300 Time (days) 400 500 figure 5. indraratna. W.. 12(1).e. 7 4 conclUsions a system of vertical drains with vacuum preloading is an effective method for speeding up soil consolidation. the vacuum application induces an inward lateral movement. 125(1): 96-99. c. and redana. a. s. Eng. Yan. vacuum pressure reduces the ratio of lateral displacement to surcharge fill height at any given time. rujikiatkamjorn c. of Geotechnical & Geoenvironmental Engineering. . Z. the influence of drain wells on the consolidation of fine-grained soils. rujikiatkamjorn. asce.8 1. a review of the theories for sand drains. Y. 1957. the unit cell theory considering time-dependent surcharge load and vacuum application was employed to predict the settlement and associated excess pore pressure. the degree of consolidation in the vacuum areas was much higher than the non-vacuum areas for the same total stress. J. Geotechnique. 1998. Vc1 area: (a) stages of loading. 83(3): 1-38.. and chu. B. indraratna. r.. the assistance of prof. 8(2): 144-156.. 50(6): 625-632.. asce. 1948. Canadian Geotechnical Journal. h. s. soil improvement for a road using a vacuum preloading method. soil improvement by the vacuum preloading method for an oil storage station. 1009-1018. Journal of the Soil Mechanics and Foundations Division. International Journal of Geomechanics. Embankment Height (m) 5 (a) 4 3 2 1 00 0 100 Settlement (m) 0. U s eng. daniel Berthier of austress menard. 1998. shang.s.. most of the contents reported in this paper are also described in greater detail in a number of and asce Journal of Geotechnical and Geoenvironmental engineering..p. 35: 740-749. prof harry poulos. sathananthan.2m deep Embankment Height (m) (a) 3 2 1 Vacuum application of 70 kPa Settlement (m) 00 Excess pore pressure (kPa) 0 100 200 300 Time (days) 400 500 (b) Field Prediction 0. When the vacuum pressure combined with surcharge fill is employed. office. B. chu.1m deep (indraratna et al.8 1. and Boyle. analytical and numerical modelling of soft soil stabilized by pVd incorporating vacuum preloading. asce.c. providence. Journal of Geotechnical and Geoenvironmental Engineering. after 1 year. which provided a good agreement with the field measurements. cynthia de Bok. chai. and the vertical drain spacing varied from 1-1.. 2005. f. coffey Geotechnics and austress menard. diss. indraratna. asce. J.. c. tang. J. indraratna. 2000. 137 (11). J. i. 2011 performance and prediction of Vacuum combined surcharge consolidation at port of Brisbane. (b) surface settlements at the embankment centreline and (c) excess pore pressures at 9. rujikiatkamjorn. a total of 8 areas were selected to examine the performance of vacuum consolidation. and Yang. a. J. c. the research funding from the australia research council is acknowledged.. Yan. J. (2012).2 Excess pore pressure (kPa) 1. and miao. 2d and 3d numerical modeling of combined surcharge and vacuum preloading with vertical drains. the performance of 2 treatment schemes at the port of Brisbane was 2500 acKnoWledGements references Barron.. 131(12):1552-1561. p. International Journal of Geomechanics. m.Q. Geng. carter. whereas the conventional surcharge fill creates outward movement. J. tine Birkemose and chamari Bamunawita of coffey Geotechnics is appreciated.

S. Bangladesh University of Engineering and Technology. this was underlain by a 10 m thick loose to medium dense silt/fine sand (sm) layer below which a loose clayey silt layer existed beyond 30 m depth. l'efficacité des théories existantes de tassement de consolidation en vertu de drainage vertical et radial a été démontré. 0. effectiveness of the adopted measure and the achieved improvement of the engineering properties.J. l’indice des vides et l'indice de compression des zones d'argile molle varient dans les plages de 12 à 16 kpa. from the limited data. segments marked 1a. les tassements de consolidation réels ont été de 600 mm sur une période d'environ 30 jours avec pVd et pré-chargement.M. KeYWords: clay. située sur la rive droite de la rivière Karnaphuli à sa confluence avec le golfe du Bengale. improvement measures have been completed on a part of the project area.2 ~ 0. the settlement under preloading with pVd has been monitored using settlement plates. about half of the land. respectively. there was little possibility of homogeneity of the upper soil layer in the area. field and laboratory tests have also been conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of the adopted measures in terms of change of soil properties. pVd 1 introdUction chittagong sea port. prefabricated Vertical drain (pVd) with pre-loading was adopted as the ground improvement measure for the site. road and railway tracks. village dwellings etc. the design considerations and a comparison of cost of several alternative improvement methods. 3 and 4) had been used as jetty yard for more than 50 years and housed storage sheds for general cargo. the unconfined compressive strength.8 ~ 1.8~1. Yasin -Bangladesh Une étude de casof Engineering and Technology. play ground.M. Yasin S. Bangladesh aBstract: construction of a container terminal covering an area of of 153. Because of earlier diverse use of the land.. rÉsUmÉ : . it is considered that the area will be paved with interlocking block (ilB) except the rmG (rail mounted Gantry) and rtG (rubber tyred Gantry) tracks which will be pile founded. that has so far been available.A Case Study Amélioration d'unS.2. l'utilisation obligatoire de ces terres requiert l'amélioration du sous-sol. cela a été superposée à une épaisseur de 10 m limon / sable fin (sm) lâche à dense. 2 site location and topoGraphY the site for the container yard is in a tidal plain at a narrow strip between chittagong hilly uplands and the Bay of Bengal. actual consolidation settlements were up to 600 mm over a period of about 30 days with pVd and preload. this paper presents the geotechnical characteristics of the sub-soil in the area. underlain by a 10 m thick loose to medium dense silt/fine sand layer below which a loose clayey silt layer existed to more than 30 m depth. decide on the necessity of improvement and determine relevant design parameters for the envisaged improvement methodology. the other half (western part. une couche en dessous de laquelle une couche limon argileux lâche existait au-delà de 30 m de profondeur. rtG tracks) and yard. Ground improvement. la résistance à la compression. 3a and 4a) contained a city road. chittagong port authority (cpa) is implementing a project for construction of backup facilities at new mooring behind berths 4 and 5. pre-loading. consisted of a 4 to 6 m thick soft to medium stiff clay layer. la construction d'un terminal à conteneurs d'une superficie de 153. electrical substation etc. improvement of the upper soft clay layer was considered essential to eliminate the possibility of differential settlement within the yard as well as between pile founded structures (i. passage for truck and trailer movement. has been demonstrated.e.S. l'efficacité de la mesure adoptée et de l'amélioration obtenue des propriétés mécaniques. a comprehensive geotechnical investigation was carried out at the site to assess the sub-soil condition. the project area is about 153. jetty and rmG. figure 1 shows the site map with grid lines.2 and 0. situated on the right bank of the Karnaphuli river at its confluence with the Bay of Bengal. in this regard.3. the effectiveness of the available theories of consolidation settlement under vertical and radial drainage. Improvement a Clay Deposit using Prefabricated Vertical Drains and Pre-loading Une étude de cas . Dhaka. the largest sea port of Bangladesh is situated on the right bank of the Karnaphuli river at its confluence with the Bay of Bengal. ponds. 2. 2501 . the soil profile in the project area. 0. that once handled mostly bulk cargo is gradually shifting its operational mode to handle increasing volume of container traffic. 2a. Bangladesh University Islam M. Dhaka.000 m2 which is planned to accommodate stacking yard for containers. void ratio and compression index of the soft clay zones varied in the ranges of 12~16 kpa. the port. respectivement. the sub-soil at the site consisted of a 4 to 6 m thick clay layer with random zones of soft to stiff clay (cl). le sous-sol sur le site se composait d'une couche de 4 à 6 m d'épaisseur d'argile avec des zones aléatoires d'argile molle à raide (cl). la comparaison du temps nécessaire et le coût des options alternatives. comparison of required time and cost of alternative options. on the basis of design requirements and geotechnical characteristics.Improvement of a Clay Deposit using Prefabricated Vertical Drains and Pre-loading.000 m2 est en cours en ville portuaire de chittagong au Bangladesh.3 et 0. different parts of this western side had different elevations with 1~3 m ditches. from an study of several alternatives. in the design of the ground improvement measures. comparison of some engineering properties before and after preloading has also been made.000 m2 is underway at chittagong sea port in Bangladesh.2~0. A Case Study Amélioration d'unofmassif d'argile à l'aide de drains verticaux préfabriqués et de pré-chargement. open land. the site is locally known as ‘nct’ (new-mooring container terminal). a residential area of cpa containing one/two storey building. cet article présente la conception. the eastern side (segments marked 1. to keep conformity with the earlier constructed adjacent yard.J. dans la conception de l'amélioration des sols. the targeted use of the land required improvement of the sub-soil. tracks for Gantry crane.. massif d'argile à l'aide de drains verticaux préfabriqués et de pré-chargement Islam M. this paper presents the design considerations. Geologically it is a recent alluvium formed by the material carried by the river Karnaphuli and its tributaries from the upper tertiary hills.

in the second layer (fine sand/silt). m in general. 50 0 8 SPT N-value (uncorrected) 16 24 32 -8 Fine sand/silt 8~10 m -12 -16 Claye silt 16m~ -20 Distance in meter Grid points -24 C-0 BL D-6 BL F-5 BL H-7 BL I-1 BL L-8 BL B-9 BL 0 3 4A 11 12 13 -32 Fine content. field spt-n values ranged between 5 and 44. pond. PL. approximately 100 mm in diameter. e 0 80 0.4 0.8 1. kPa 100 BL 200 AL 300 0 Com p.). spt-n values greater than 10 in the top layer are for locations where pockets of sand/silt exist. strength and deformation properties of the upper clay deposit with rl (Bl=Before loading.4 LL/AL PL/AL PI/AL 0 0. field spt-n values (not corrected for overburden) ranged between 2 to 10. which was probably a fill during past use of the land. twelve boreholes were of 30. road. A ‘clayey silt’ layer is encountered below the fine sand/silt layer which extend beyond the maximum depth of investigation (i. houses etc. thus. which is 'clayey -2 -3 -4 -5 -6 figure 3 Variation of index. up to a depth of 30 m the subsoil at the site is idealized to have three distinct layers (top silty clay layer. standard penetration tests (spt). in the bottom layer.. Undisturbed samples were retrieved from cohesive layers by pushing conventional 76 mm external diameter thin-walled shelby tubes. Reduced Level. the borehole that are referred here are marked by grid points as shown in figure 1. the boreholes.1 0.2 0. about 30 m from surface).6 AL -2 -3 -4 -5 19 -6 figure 1 site map showing grids and loading blocks. m Jetty deck 2 3A 9 10 -28 KarnafUli riVer 2A 1 1 2 3 4 7 8 48 Silty clay 4~6 m -4 100 5 6 40 0 N M 1A L K J I H G F E D C 0 silt'. C c 0. al=after loading).Proceedings of the 18th International Conference on Soil Mechanics and Geotechnical Engineering.5 m depth and the rest were of 15. Index. the sub-soil at the site is found to consist of a layer of ‘soft to medium stiff silty clay’ extending from the ground surface to about 4 to 6 m depth. BUet report. in the top silty clay layer. the field spt-n values ranged between 5 and 27 except in one borehole where a 'sandy silt' layer existed. 2009) and some of the results are presented in figure 3. the borehole locations were carefully decided to make them distributed over the entire area as well as to cover zones of different land use (i. were made at 1. in a small number of boreholes medium dense sand was encountered near the ground surface instead of the clay layer. PI 24 0 0 15 16 17 18 20 40 60 LL/BL PL/BL PI/BL -1 14 N D-8 BL E-4 BL H-9 BL I-5 BL J-7 BL L-6 BL figure 2 General ground profile and variation of spt with depth. this layer is underlain by a 10 m thick ‘loose to medium dense fine sand/silt’ layer. % 0 4 8 16 LL. 10 20 MC. Paris 2013 sUB-soil characterisctics a total of 67 exploratory boreholes were drilled in the area to gather information about sub-soil type and characteristics. were drilled using water flush aided by chiselling.2 BL 1.5 m interval.5 0 BL AL -1 Reduced Level. extensive laboratory tests have been conducted on samples of top silty clay layer (Brtc.e. m 3 Void ratio.3 0. the layer may be 2502 . disturbed samples were also collected from the spt spoon (conventional split spoon) from cohesive and cohesionless soil layers at different depths for visual-manual identification of the layers as well as for laboratory testing.0 m depth below the existing ground level. intermediate fine sand/silt layer and bottom clayey silt layer). % 30 40 0 BL AL 50 0 qu .e. Reduced Level. figure 2 presents the field spt-n values at different depths for the explored borehole locations and the stratigraphy.

Both time and cost depends to some extent on the number of equipments mobilized and source of material.5 kn/m2.e.1942) as U=1-(1Uv)(1-Ur) where Uv and Ur are the average degree of consolidation respectively for vertical and radial drainage. therefore. homogeneous. e0= initial void ratio. pi =20~30. mainly because of reduced time in pVd driving compared to sand drain installation. 4 desiGn of GroUnd improVement method it was decided by cpa. since.2.(i) preloading (ii) sand drain with surcharge (iii) pVd with surcharge and (iv) dynamic Working surface for pVd installation compacted backfilling. hence. the time was determined using terzaghi's one dimensional consolidation theory with double drainage and constant initial pore pressure distribution using the equations (das. for all the calculations horizontal permeability is taken as 2503 . equipments etc. cc and layer thickness. though dynamic temping/compaction appeared to be very prospective in terms of time and cost. of local contractors were to be considered in the design of the yard.5] where 0=intensity of stress applied on the surface. pl=20~30.2 m2/year and at some location as low as 0. the extent of improvement and design of pavement system at the site is targeted to keep maintenance option with minimal disruption. the layer also has some organic content is about 1. removal and 2(b  t )  where. an area adjacent to the north boundary of the site was earlier developed for similar purpose.0 and 1.06s. the load on the rtG tracks from the gantry is estimated to be 77. according to Unified soil classification system (Uscs). in these estimations. ground improvement was to be completed for the entire project site within one year. considering the capacity of local contractors minimal engagement of equipments and dredge sand from the Karnaphuli river were considered. p= 52 kn/m2). the dry unit weight varied in the range of 13~15 kn/m3 and the range of void ratio was 0. b is the width and t is the thickness of pVd. interlocking block pavement was decided for this yard too.h. from e~log(p) curves. h=thickness of the compressible layer. the estimated settlement for different borehole locations varied from about 140 mm to 570 mm. tv  it was intended to apply a surcharge with pVd such that a maximum of 25 mm of total settlement remains to occur in future under the working loads expecting a differential settlement of not more than 12 mm. the necessity and extent of the ground improvement measures are judged with an objective to reduce the differential settlement and maintenance operations considering the maximum load from stacking of containers on the entire area (i. p'0 = effective past maximum overburden pressure. p=increase in stress at depth z from the centre of the loaded area. estimated time to achieve this consolidation (Uav≈ 99%) varied from about 50 days to more than 700 days for different borehole locations. the values of the coefficient of consolidation in the vertical direction. isotropic. where dynamic temping was used for ground improvement and interlocking block pavement was made. that appeared to be feasible for local contractors.80~1. considering smear effect s was chosen between 1. estimation of required time to achieve this level of consolidation was made considering both vertical and radial drainage (carillo. the effective diameter of soil column around the pVd was taken as de=1. finally. most of the samples of the upper clay layer was found to be normally consolidated. also this method was considered advantageous over other methods in bringing the clay layer to a state where differential settlement potential will be reduced as it will automatically take care of soft zones and bring the soft and stiff zones to closer soil properties in terms of deformation and strength. these are. cvt 2 π and m  2m  1 e  m t v . nmc=20~35%.0%. five alternatives. it posed the risk of damaging the adjacent yard and structures. cv were mostly within 3.20. the variation of these properties can be seen from figure 3. suitable deep/shallow foundations will be considered so that they do not undergo relative settlement with respect to jetty top. on the Uscs chart. r = radius of the loaded area. 5m of soil pVd 2 dw  temping and (v) soft pocket identification. table 1 presents the comparison of cost and completion time for different methods. for rtG and rmG tracks and other facilities. this expression for p is obtained by integration of Boussinesque's equation that gives the stress at a point within a semi-infinite. weightless. this variation is due to difference in e0. the data points lie just above a-line. capacity. to keep similarity with the earlier part. for which there will be no future settlement. will lead to high cost and time for completion and thus may not be practical. 1983): m  2 U av  1   m 0 m Ur  1 e h2 ( 8T r ) m where Tr  2 C vr t d e2 k n n 3 S m 2 ln     2  h 2 S 4 ks n S 4n   de ds and S  n dw dw 200 mm 300 mm 150 mm 2 2  n2  S 2   n2    ln S    the equivalent diameter of pVd was calculated following hansbo (1979) as 5m figure 4 details of the ground improvement work. that the project will be carried out by local contractors. the average degree of consolidation for radial drainage was calculated using the following as surcharge. the total consolidation settlement under the working loads (52 kpa) without improvement was calculated using sc=e. experience. the presence of very soft to medium stiff silty clay at various locations within the site indicated strong possibility of substantial total and differential settlement unless effective measures for improvement of sub-soil are undertaken before the construction of pavement for the container Yard. furthermore. '=effective unit weight of soil. particularly the surcharge (max. effective measures for improvement of sub-soil before the construction of pavement were considered essential in order to avoid/minimize future problems. it should be understood that a solution.Technical Committee 211 / Comité technique 211 characterized as having ll=50~60. the soil in this layer is mostly plastic-silty clay of low plasticity (cl).1 to 25. though a few samples were found to be clay of high plasticity (ch). therefore. elastic halfspace for a point load on the surface (Bowels.1988). 5 m of soil considered). were assessed. though pVd is an imported material. pVd with surcharge was adopted as the ground improvement measures. by a foreign contractor.4~4. s=pVd spacing in triangular pattern. p is calculated as p = 0[1-{1+(r/z)2}-1. the area was divided into four blocks and time for improvement for each block was 3 months.79 m2/year. e=cc/(1+e0)log(p+p'0)/p'0 and p'0 ='h where.

3 mm thick placed 1m c/c in triangular pattern. mm 600 figure 6 comparison of (a) unconfined compressive strength and (b) observed and estimated settlement . Paris 2013 the pVd used were of 100 mm width. at about 4~5m. BUet report (2009) sub-soil investigation and ground improvement measures for construction of backup facilities behind berth 4 & 5 at new mooring container terminal (nct). other properties .e.. compares the field spt-n values at several spots before and after preloading. the unconfined compressive strength of the upper clay layer before and after preloading can be seen on figure 6(a) for different locations and depths. after preloading exploratory boreholes were made at selected locations with field spt and laboratory tests were conducted on collected undisturbed samples. math. chittagong. monitoring and control compacted backfilling changed. 6 conclUsions the following conclusions can be made based on the design and field monitoring of the ground improvement work: 1) due to the application of the surcharge with pVd the consolidation settlement could be achieved within the stipulated time. conclusive comments regarding the variation may be made when data from the remaining project work become available. which may be due to clogging or disturbance of the clay during drain installation. the authors would like to express their sincere thanks to cpa and contractor's personnel involved in the project.drain: Water discharge capacity 9010-6 m3/s. Ground engineering.m. .16-25.25 highly dependent on field improvement. mcGraw-hill Book company. (1988) foundation analysis and design. mcGraw hill hansbo. a few data points lie below the 45 degree line.24 surcharge Good control of field operation Vibration may damage adjacent facilities dynamic high noise pollution 11 2. the magnitude of increase is not same.Journ. Burst strength 800 kn/m2. and 6010-6 m3/s respectively at 10 and 350 kpa (i=0. elongation at break 50%. method time cost comments (month) (million Usd) reliable Better assessment of improvement preloading 36 1. kPa (After loading) the same as the vertical permeability.29 with surcharge time pVd with reliable 14 3. SPT N-value (uncorrected) 0 8 16 24 32 40 48 0 E-4 BL D-8 BL F-5 BL L-6 BL I-8 BL D-8 AL F-5 AL L-6 AL I-8 AL -2 -4 Reduced level. predicted and observed settlement matched reasonably. n. BUet. however.5. qu. 5 assessment of GroUnd improVement monitoring of settlement has been made using settlement plates placed at 25 m grid as shown in figure 1. s. (1942) simple two. -10 -12 -14 400 Observed settlement. core: tensile strength 700 n. J. which is the boundary between the clay and sand/silt layer the spt-n values have not 2504 references Bowels.(21). (1983) advanced soil mechanics. difficult removal and 12 7.pp. the field spt-n values are found to increase significantly in the 'fine sand/silt' layer up to about 12 m.(12). on the other hand for another location the observed settlement is one-fifth of the estimated value.Proceedings of the 18th International Conference on Soil Mechanics and Geotechnical Engineering. international edn. details of the ground improvement work is shown in figure 4. das. Grab tensile strength 400 n. 3) the available theories of 1-d consolidation and combined vertical and radial consolidation used in the design of ground improvement for the project site using pVd and preload appeared to have been fairly applicable. it can be observed that in the upper silty clay layer the spt-n values has become twice or more up to about 3m depth.pp.04 compaction assessment of improvement needs lot of field tests relatively less reliable soft pocket assessment of improvement is identification. kPa (Before loading) 350 400 0 100 200 300 400 500 Estimated settlement.and three.5). the reason for these discrepancies may be the variation of non-plastic silt content in the layer. carillo. B.96 long time required for improvement relatively less reliable sand drain installation of drains takes long 20 3. filter jacket: apparent opening size (aos) 90 m. mm table 1 comparison of estimated cost and completion time for different ground improvement methods.1-5. cpa.dimensional cases in the theory of consolidation of soils. 7 -8 acKnoWledGements this research work was carried out in connection with the consultancy services provided to cpa through Brtc. Variation of spt-n value before and after loading. which may be due to presence of localized sand lenses. m -6 J-2 BL D-6 BL J-7 BL K-8 BL I-8 BL D-6 AL J-7 AL K-8 AL Afte r loading Data points 600 350 500 300 250 200 150 100 400 300 200 100 (a) 50 (b) 0 0 0 50 100 150 200 250 300 qu.(1979) consolidation of clay by band-shaped prefabricated drains. in general the unconfined compression strength has increased at most of the spots. permeability 210-4 m/s. 4th edn. out of the six locations (for which estimates were made) four appear to match reasonably well. that apparently shows to have reduction in strength but quite unlikely.J. in figure 6(b) the recorded settlements are plotted against the estimated settlement for some of the grid points.. Brtc. from the calculations it appeared that for 5 m surcharge and pVd the target settlement would occur within 10 to 50 days in different locations. puncture resistance 130 n. figure 5. 8 Be fore loading Data points -16 figure 5. and phy. 2) Both the spt-n value and unconfined compressive strength were found to increase satisfactorily due to application of preload with pVd. for one location the observed settlement is about five times the estimated value.

initialement pour résoudre des problématiques liées au comportement des sols compressibles. de type refend ou écran continu (susceptible à la fois de jouer un rôle porteur et d'assurer une fonction soutènement moyennant l'incorporation d'armatures métalliques). qu'il s'agisse de métal. des outils de type tarière simple ou tarières multiples avec inversion des sens de rotation entre forage descendant et malaxage / compactage en remontant sont aussi utilisés. durant la dernière décennie. la déstructuration des terrains et l’incorporation du liant s’effectue par des moyens mécaniques. ni dans la catégorie des inclusions rigides. liquéfaction. par des considérations fonctionnelles et par divers exemples d’application. elles peuvent également avoir pour objectif d’améliorer la résistance aux efforts horizontaux. Paris. est au contraire indépendante de l'étreinte exercée par le sol et pour lesquelles la résistance en compression simple est par conséquent le paramètre déterminant pour le dimensionnement. la mise en œuvre de cette technique a longtemps fait appel à l’utilisation d’outillages simples ou multiples.. plus récemment. an even better technique to build those inclusions with a reduced environment impact consists in treating in situ soil by adding cement. aBstract: conventional soil reinforcement techniques as rigid inclusions mainly report vertical loadings to the substratum layer with an induced settlement. 1 introdUction le soil mixing profond est une technique développée dans les années 1970 en europe du nord et au Japon. rÉsUmÉ : les techniques traditionnelles d’amélioration des sols par inclusions visent le plus souvent à renforcer l’aptitude du massif à reprendre les charges verticales auxquelles il est soumis. à la réduction des poussées sur des ouvrages de soutènement. this article presents different soil mixing projects and explains how strong inertia trenches are relevant. des réseaux d'inclusions isolées (pour l'exécution desquelles des outillages de type tarière peuvent être suffisants) ou des traitements dans la masse (utilisation d'outillages de type multitarière ou haveuse pour réaliser des "pavés" de sol traité). soil mixing. seismic. Bouassida approach. que le soil mixing trouve sa véritable originalité et ses développements les plus prometteurs. soil mixing caissons. dont la résistance en compression est nulle en l'absence d'étreinte latérale de la part du sol avoisinant). Rueil-Malmaison. en utilisant un outil dont la géométrie et le mouvement dans le terrain définissent les dimensions des éléments de sol traité. mais c'est dans la réalisation d'éléments linéaires de grande inertie. the appropriate design answer to those issues is to create strong inertia inclusions based on a trench geometry with either a parallel or a crossed frame arrangement. Benhamou L. inertie. … la réalisation d’inclusions à forte inertie. la communication proposée met en évidence le rôle fondamental joué par l’inertie des inclusions. est une réponse particulièrement bien adaptée à ces problématiques d’amélioration des sols.Importance et applications des inclusions de grande inertie Importance and practical examples of inertial soil improvement Jeanty J. dans le cadre de problématiques liées aux séismes (traitements anti-liquéfaction). poussée des terres. tassement. moyennant des déformations acceptables par les ouvrages. au poinçonnement du sol sous de fortes surcharges (effets de bord). cette technique consiste à améliorer les caractéristiques d’un sol en le mélangeant en place avec un liant hydraulique. dont la résistance en compression. Soletanche-Bachy. they can reduce active pressure on retaining walls. inclusions rigides. de béton ou de mortier. Bureau Veritas. France. ces procédés ont permis de repousser les limites du soil mixing en élargissant la méthode au traitement d’une plus large gamme de sols et présentant des atouts en termes de caractéristiques et d’homogénéité. Berthelot P. KeYWords : soil reinforcement . de nouveaux procédés de soil mixing avec des outils à axe horizontal ont fait leur apparition : haveuses et trancheuses. non seulement par les aspects géométriques précédemment évoqués. les propriétés du soil mixing sont bel et bien celles d'un sol amélioré. cela ne permet de le classer ni dans la catégorie des inclusions souples (colonnes ballastées. à l'extrême. munis de pales latérales de géométries très variées. sol-ciment. Mathieu F. après une présentation de ces méthodes. mais encore par ses propriétés mécaniques. soutènement. et plus généralement aux sollicitations à dominante déviatorique. voire de réseaux orthogonaux. liquefaction. sous forme de tranchées parallèles ou de réseaux de tranchées. Une manière élégante de construire ces inclusions sans perturber les structures existantes consiste à traiter le sol en place en y incorporant un liant hydraulique. they can also improve soil resistance regarding lateral forces as those related to earthquakes (liquefaction hazard). last but not least. settlement. slope stability. permettant de confiner le sol en place. active pressure. retaining wall. rigid inclusions. Généralement apparenté aux réseaux d'inclusions plutôt qu'aux traitements dans la masse. France. par application des techniques de soil mixing les plus récentes.M. il s'en distingue pourtant de façon fondamentale. le soil mixing se distingue depuis l'origine des autres procédés d'améliorations des sols en ce sens qu’il permet de réaliser. même s'il ne s'agit généralement pas d'un 2505 . des colonnes réalisées par jet-grouting peuvent aussi être apparentées au solmixing. crosswalls. or slope stability for embankments on soft soil foundation. mots-clÉs: amélioration de sols.. au contraire. soil mixing trench. à la stabilité générale (remblais sur sols compressibles). sol-mixing. rotatifs à axe vertical. tranchées de sol-mixing.

module de déformation). sont utilisés pour déstructurer et mélanger le sol en place.d'une résistance intrinsèque indépendante de l'étreinte (terme de cohésion) .3 à 0. la chaine est guidée par une lame travaillant dans un plan vertical dans le sol. perméabilité.5 à 5 0 ey (Gpa) 3 à 200 0. remplacé en phase remontée par un mélange eau-ciment (appelé aussi coulis de ciment). cohésion. le fluide injecté peut être de différents types : il peut s’agir d’un fluide facilitant le forage. ses propriétés sont également intermédiaires entre celles généralement attribuées aux inclusions rigides et souples ce qui conduit naturellement à le ranger dans la catégorie inédite des "inclusions semi-rigides". combinée à l’incorporation d’un fluide. l’épaisseur de l’inclusion est de l’ordre de 0.2 à 3 0. 2506 . permettant de mesurer et de corriger en temps réel la position de l’outil lors de la construction d’une inclusion. le type et la quantité de liant utilisée permettent d’atteindre une large gamme de caractéristiques (résistance. permettant ainsi de réaliser des ouvrages de soutènement provisoire ou à caractère permanent. pour les outillages les plus perfectionnés. dont le critère de rupture n'est autre que le critère de coulomb. le tableau qui suit résume les ordres de grandeurs usuels de la résistance à la compression fc et du module de déformation ey. épaisseurs 500 à 1000 mm). les volumes injectés ainsi que les énergies de malaxage sont contrôlés et ajustés en temps réel grâce à un système informatique embarqué dans la cabine de la machine. la phase de remontée étant alors utilisée pour parfaire le mélange. Paris 2013 traitement uniforme de l'ensemble du massif de fondation. tous les paramètres opératoires sont enregistrés afin d’être restitués sous forme de rapports.2 Mélange par trancheuse les machines de type trancheuse mettent en œuvre une chaine avec outils de coupe et de malaxage. soit au dessous dans le sens remontée.5 m pour une profondeur maximale d’environ 10 mètres. renforcement inclusion rigide inclusion semi-rigide inclusion souple fc (mpa) 5 à 500 0. enfin. le liant hydraulique peut être injecté sous la forme d’un coulis ou incorporé au mélange sous forme pulvérulente. divers types d’armatures peuvent être mis en place dans le matériau encore frais. elles peuvent être utilisées unitairement (on parle alors de barrettes) ou disposées de manière contigües afin de constituer des parois continues (figure 1). principe de construction d’une tranchée. certains outillages plus perfectionnés sont munis d’un dispositif de mesure inclinométrique. dérivé de la technologie utilisées sur des machines de type haveuse ou hydrofraise.1 Mélange par haveuse le procédé met en œuvre un outillage appelé « cutter soil mixing » (csm). figure 1 : principe de construction de parois avec le procédé csm. permettant le pilotage de la machine. auquel cas une adjonction d’eau est généralement réalisée afin de faciliter l’action des outils. l’ensemble de l’outillage présente une certaine similitude visuelle avec une tronçonneuse.d'une augmentation de résistance avec la profondeur en fonction de l'étreinte latérale du sol (terme de frottement). et toutes les couches de sol sont uniformément mélangées. l’action de cette lame.08 1. en fonction de la nature des sols en place. qui lui permet de bénéficier à la fois : . Une buse d’injection située entre ces moteurs permet l’incorporation d’un fluide. les inclusions construites avec cet outillage jusqu’à des profondeurs de quelques dizaines de mètres. permet de construire des tranchées de sol traité en place (figure 2). sont de section rectangulaire (longueur courante 2. il est également possible d’injecter directement un coulis pendant le forage. le procédé par trancheuse s’accompagne d’un dispositif de contrôle-qualité embarqué.Proceedings of the 18th International Conference on Soil Mechanics and Geotechnical Engineering. figure 2. suivant les cas. de manière analogue au procédé par havage. en termes de déformations. le mélange ainsi réalisé est ensuite déplacé soit au dessus des tambours dans le sens descente . deux tambours spécialement conçus pour cette application et entrainés en rotation par des moteurs hydrauliques de fort couple. 1. le respect des paramètres de traitement ainsi que les enregistrements nécessaires pour l’émission de rapports.80 m . les tranchées construites de cette manière sont continues.04 à 0. .

pour lequel s'ajoutait. . 3 3. aucune justification particulière n'est demandée dans les zones soumises à de fortes contraintes déviatoires mobilisant de façon significative la résistance au cisaillement du sol (périphérie des zones de stockage par exemple). diagramme de grand glissement.domaine 1 : reprise de charges surfaciques. des éléments isolés sont bien moins efficaces en terme d’inertie globale. là où le risque de rupture du massif de sol est insignifiant dans la mesure où le champ de contraintes est généralement de type plutôt oedométrique. pp eXemples d’application Renforcement de sol derrière un soutènement la mise en place de tranchées de soil-mixing de grande inertie à l’arrière d’un écran de soutènement permet la réduction des poussées du terrain sur l’écran lui-même. à l'instar des poutres sur appuis élastiques de la résistance des matériaux. il a été montré (réf.1 figure 4. et où seul l'effet inertiel permettait donc de réduire la poussée de façon significative (cf chapitre 3. la justification des réseaux d'inclusions repose en général sur des justifications de portance effectuées en partie courante de la surface chargée. 2507 . figure 3. principaux efforts dans le plan d’un refend. le double réseau d'écrans orthogonaux permettant avant tout de réaliser un traitement isotrope dont l'efficacité est ainsi rendue indépendante de la direction des ondes sismiques. ce qui rendait nécessaire la mise en œuvre d'un réseau autostable (cf chapitre 3. en ignorant le fait que leur élancement induit en général un mode de déformation en flexion largement prépondérant par rapport au mode de déformation par cisaillement.domaine 4 : traitement anti-liquéfaction des sols sous sollicitation sismiques. à la problématique du traitement de terrains fortement liquéfiables sur une grande hauteur. Une optimisation de la reprise des efforts de poussée conduit à installer des éléments d’inertie maximale (concentration des efforts pour des déplacements limités). coupe type sncf st roch (06). permettant un traitement plus réparti qu'avec des inclusions rigides (ce qui permet de limiter fortement l'effet de "point dur" qui conditionne sinon le ferraillage du dallage ou du radier susjacent et l'épaisseur du matelas de répartition). le second avec deux directions de sollicitation d’égales probabilités. seed) que certaines méthodes de justification des réseaux d'inclusions disjointes reposaient à tort sur un effet de transfert sur ces dernières des contraintes de cisaillement induites par le séisme. ces méthodes reliaient en effet l'efficacité des inclusions à leur module de cisaillement. celle de l'écoulement post-liquéfaction induit par le pendage significatif du substratum. tandis que les inclusions de forte inertie ajoutent à cet effet celui d'une diminution "directe" des contraintes de poussée par mobilisation du frottement sur les refends autostables.Technical Committee 211 / Comité technique 211 2 domaines d’application les tranchées de sol traité en place peuvent être parallèles à une seule direction ou constituer une trame selon deux directions en général perpendiculaires. ce qui conduit là encore à privilégier les réseaux d'inclusions de forte inertie.domaine 2 : renforcement du sol dans les zones où le champ de contraintes est à dominante déviatorique. filz G. le premier cas correspond à une problématique avec une direction privilégiée de sollicitation. ainsi que des modèles de calcul numérique en déformation plane pour le calcul du tassement (ce qui ne serait pas acceptable pour un réseau d'inclusions isolées).domaine 3 : réduction des poussées exercées sur les écrans de soutènement. Un exemple particulièrement représentatif est donné par le chantier de l'extension de la préfecture de fort-de-france. Un exemple d'application significatif est celui du rempiètement du quai poste 7 du transmanche (calais). & al. Un exemple d'application récent est donné par le chantier de saint-roch (06). une combinaison judicieuse d'inclusions isolées en partie centrale et de refends sous la partie latérale a pu être préconisée et mise en œuvre par différents auteurs (réf. Kitazume m. utilisant par exemple les coefficients de capacité portante de Bouassida (Bouassida. alors. 2002) (qui permettent de traiter le cas d'une semelle de fondation sur sol renforcé par une tranchée). .1). G H Ntan ’ figure 5. a noter que le caractère "2d" du procédé permet en outre de procéder à des calculs plus rigoureux que les approches traditionnelles.2). c'est donc bien l'inertie et non la rigidité qui constitue le facteur clé dans l'efficacité de ce type de traitement. .). différents domaines d’application selon le type de renforcement recherché méritent d’être distingués. le plus souvent. . pour lequel le premier mode de comportement s'avérait inefficace en raison d'un contraste de rigidités verticales insuffisant entre le sol en place et les inclusions. le traitement de type "quadrillage" est souvent qualifié à tort de "confinement". consistant à renforcer le sol sous un remblai sncf par un réseau de tranchées longitudinales. Un exemple de ce type est donné par les zones latérales des remblais de forte hauteur reposant sur des sols compressibles. et corrélativement susceptibles de mobiliser les inclusions en flexion. stabilité. alors que c'est bien l'effet "inertiel" qui est recherché. les inclusions isolées agissent par limitation du tassement derrière le soutènement et allègement des contraintes verticales dans le massif de sol par transfert partiel sur les inclusions.

r B seed & al. la stabilité du massif renforcé par les éperons de soil mixing est vérifiée vis-à-vis du non-basculement. a homogenization approach for evaluating the longitudinal shear stiffness of reinforced soils: column vs.2 mpa).5 m entre axes. Bouassida mounir et Belgacem Jellali. Gueguin m and al. 2012. and Bessho n.2 Traitement anti-liquéfaction les dégâts engendrés par le dernier séisme significatif de novembre 2007 en martinique ont nécessité la reconstruction de la préfecture de fort de france (bâtiments type r+4). le phénomène d'écoulement post-liquéfaction a provoqué de nombreux dégâts lors du séisme de Kobé au Japon en 1995.. la solution de base en barrettes isolées apportait une cohésion homogénéisée moyenne de l’ordre de 24 kpa. Okinawa 2009. and mathieu f. et de la non extrusion entre tranchées. Benhamou l. Geomix caissons against liquefaction. les tranchées Geomix. reposant sur un procédé propre à solétanche Bachy et qui répond efficacement aux problématiques des clients en sites sismiques. ont permis de mettre en évidence la nécessité de privilégier non pas tant la rigidité que l'inertie des réseaux d'inclusions : la mise en œuvre de refends. June 2002. 26th annual asce los angeles Geotechnical spring seminar. 5 references the deep mixing method. Revue Travaux n°854. Vue 3d du renforcement derrière le rideau du quai existant.3 mpa. permet ainsi dans bien des cas d'apporter à des problèmes complexes une réponse particulièrement pertinente. ce risque est accru par une pente importante du substratum (dénivelé de 9 m sur une figure 7. figure 6. International Journal of Solids and Structures. du non-glissement. le cisaillement additionnel du sol et les efforts horizontaux provenant de la structure se concentrent sur les bandes Geomix. sur une épaisseur variable de 9 à 18 m correspondant à la pente du substratum. Paris 2013 c’est ce principe qui a été proposé et retenu pour les travaux de reconstruction du poste transmanche n°7 à calais. corneille s. cross trench configuration. london isBn 0-415-41586-1. sont espacées d’environ 4. Kitazume m. no 7 – 8/2002. New Orleans. em~2. physical modelling in Geotechnics 6th icpmG 2006. sur le site de la préfecture de fort-de-france.p. mise en œuvre entre octobre 2010 et janvier 2011 représente un vrai pas en avant dans l’approche des fondations pour les départements d’outre mer. réalisés au moyen de techniques récemment développées pour étendre le domaine d'application du procédé "soil mixing".50 m.Proceedings of the 18th International Conference on Soil Mechanics and Geotechnical Engineering. 3. le contexte géotechnique du site montre un fort potentiel de liquéfaction des alluvions à dominante sablo-limoneuse de faible caractéristique (pl*~0. plus largement. Queen mary presentation 2003. design of deep mixing for support of levees and floodwalls. Deep Mixing 2005. 4 conclUsion les quelques exemples présentés dans l'article. 4th International Conference of Grouting and Deep Mixing. 2508 . Coastal Development Institute Tokyo. trenchmix : une technique d’amélioration de sols qui contribut au développement durable. le risque de liquéfaction est évité. le massif de sol traité reprend la poussée des terres et les palplanches à l’avant ne reprennent plus que la poussée d’eau. représentatifs de différents domaines d'application. les déformations des panneaux sont limitées pendant l’épisode sismique. l’entreprise a proposé une solution variante pour répondre à la fois aux problématiques de liquéfaction et d'écoulement post-liquéfaction des sols sur la pente du substratum.. application examples of deep mixing method as aseismic measures. l’autre partie des vérifications a consisté à établir la cohésion homogénéisée du massif de sol. ils ont donc aussi le rôle de réduction des tassements sous la structure en situation statique. ISSMGE ..TC 211 International Symposium on Ground Improvement IS-GI Brussels. shinkawa n. recent advances in soil liquefaction engineeering : a unified and consistent framework. Stockholm. le traitement de confinement permet ainsi de limiter le cisaillement et le développement de pressions interstitielles dans le sol confiné non traité. application of physical modelling for investigating ground failure pattern. International Symposium on Deep Mixing & Admixture Stabilization. capacité portante ultime d’un sol renforcé par une tranchée. lebon s. variable de 45 à 85 kpa pour ce projet. les inclusions isolées de faible inertie ne peuvent résister à ce phénomène. Un nouveau type de fondations basé sur un quadrillage en sol mixing sous l’emprise totale des bâtiments (environ 36 m x 40 m) a été conçu (figure 7). attestant la bien moindre performance des renforcements disjoints par rapport à la disposition en refends de grande inertie. de parois continues ou de caissons "semi-rigides". la mise en place de refends de Geomix (méthode par havage spécifique à l’entreprise) perpendiculairement à l’axe du quai (figure 6) a permis de réduire la section des palplanches à mettre en œuvre dans le cadre des travaux d’approfondissement du quai. 2012. November 8th 2011. les caissons anti-liquéfaction servent également en phase service de fondation aux bâtiments par l’intermédiaire d’une dalle de transfert. Vue en 3d des fondations en caisson. new methods in european deep mixing – a contractor’s perspective on the developing challenges of execution. en réponse à l’appel d’offres. and ré a. cette première technique.. filz G and al. Juillet 2008. il s'agit d'une solution technique innovante. revue française de génie civil volume 6. longueur de seulement 40 m). d’épaisseur 0.. par leur forte inertie (par comparaison aux inclusions rigides) et à leur géométrie.

terzaghi (1943) suggested the well known simple method for one-dimensional (1d) vertical consolidation condition. Wissem frikha2 & mounir Bouassida3 Jebali H. École nationale d’ingénieurs de Tunis (ENIT) tunis. the second was an oedometer test on the same soil improved by a prefabricated vertical drain mebradrain 88 (mb88) type and the third test is similar to the second test in which vertical drainage was prevented.. résumé: ce papier présente une étude expérimentale réalisée sur des échantillons intacts du sol mou de tunis prélevés à 17. and accelerating consolidation of soft soils. those most used in practice ignore the effect of vertical drainage. Bp 37 le Belvédère 1002.Proceedings of the 18th International Conference on Soil Mechanics and Geotechnical Engineering. the consolidation of soft soil is related to the dissipation of excess pore pressure generated by the surcharge load. the vertical drainage by pdV has a considerable effect on the degree of consolidation of improved soil. hansbo (1981) and terzaghi (1943). 1996):         2 u r 1  u r  u r  c r   2 t r r   r   (2) cr is the coefficient of radial consolidation of soft soil r and (u ) =∆u(r. the commonly used consolidation theory for designing PVD’s is the unit cell model. for radial consolidation problem with centered vertical drain in oedometer cell. Prikha Bouassida aBstract: this paper presents an experimental study carried out on undisturbed cored samples of tunis soft soil extracted at 17. enit. and the deformation of pVd improved soil (1 – U) = (1 – Ur) (1 – Uv) (1) Ur and Uv are respectively the radial and the vertical average degree of consolidation. ensuite.25 m de profondeur de la marécage de Séjoumi. El Manar. (2) frikha_wissem@yahoo. Trois types d‘essais oedométriques ont été effectués : le premier est un test standard sur le sol mou de tunis. Geotechnical Engineering Research Team. le second était un essai oedométrique sur le même sol amélioré par un drain vertical de type mebradrain 88 (mB88). such as Barron’s theory. three types of oedometer tests had been performed: first type was a standard test on tunis soft soil.g. e. which results from imposing the same vertical deformation. le troisième test est similaire au deuxième test dans lequel seulement le drainage radial a été favorisé .jebali@gmail. t) is the excess of pore pressure at radius r and time t.25 m depth at the lagoon of sejoumi. l'évaluation de la théorie de carrillo est étudiée en quantifiant l'effet de la consolidation radiale et verticale sur le degré de consolidation global. Barron (1948). and (ii) “equal vertical strain”. however. prefabricated verticals drains (pVd) with preloading method was considered the most used improvement technique to accelerate the consolidation of soft soils and. Ecole Nationale d’Ingénieurs de Université Tunis El Manar. then. Paris 2013 Assessment of Carillo’s Theory for Improved Tunis Soft Soil by Geodrains Assessment of Carillo’s theory for improved tunis soft soil by geodrains Évaluation de la théorie de Carillo pour les sols mous de Tunis améliorés par géodrains halima Jebali1. Theoretically speaking. (3) mounir. Université TunisW. consequently. to increase their bearing capacity. for most cases in practice. tunis. introdUction does not occur in 1D condition.. Because the solutions considering both vertical and radial drainage are complicated.” resulting from a uniform distribution of vertical load. 1. 1948):  8t   U r 1  exp  r   fn   1 2509 (3) . email: (1) hlm. the soil is not homogeneous. solution of equation (2) that uses the condition of equal vertical strain without smear effect is given by (Barron. tunisia. Carillo’s formula (Eq 1) is only valid for instantaneously applied Geotechnical Engineering Research Team. the assessment of Carrillo’s theory is studied by quantifying the effect of radial and vertical consolidation from the observed global degree of consolidation of improved tunis soft soil specimens by geodrains. Carrillo’s theoretical solution (1942) is used to combine the vertical and radial drainage effects to predict the global degree of consolidation U: considerable attention has been recently devoted worldwide to the problem of building structures on highly compressible saturated soils and to the development of soil improvement techniques for increasing stability. in some cases. reducing settlements. the governing differential equation of excess pore pressure is (parakash et al.bouassida@fulbrightmail.. Barron (1948) developed solutions for two types of boundary conditions at the surface of improved soil such as: (i) “free vertical strain.

Clay 70 10 Figure 1. For each increment of loading. The loading cap has also a porous stone. filter papers are placed between the soil and the porous stones. Series 1 (VD): It corresponds to a standard oedometer test performed according to NF P94-90-1 standard (French Standard. Gradation curve of Tunis soft soil 3.Proceedings of the 18th International Conference on Soil Mechanics and Geotechnical Engineering. For vertical consolidation problem. This test is carried out on a cylindrical sample of saturated soil with 70 mm diameter and 19 mm thickness. (AFNOR. F(n) is a Barron’s function given by :  n²   3n ²  1  Fn     ln n      n²  1   4n ²  with dimension less than 80 µm.400. the sample is careful removed and its thickness and water content are measured. the differential equation of one-dimensional consolidation for the excess pore pressure is written (Terzaghi. From grain size analysis performed by hydrometer and sieving in accordance with standards NFP 94-056 and NFP 94-057. 1995). These tests involved applied increments of vertical load to the specimen and measurements of the settlement. Series 2 (RD): It corresponds to an oedometer test performed on Tunis soft soil improved by a single geodrain (Mebradrain 88) of sizes (thickness = 0. t) is the excess of pore pressure UV  2 Fine sand 80 D dw Tr  Coarse sand 90 Percentage passing. the decrease of the thickness of the sample versus time is recorded. Duration of the applied increment of load depends on the soil and its consolidation characteristics. Paris 2013 The smear zone is defined as the remolded zone of soil immediately adjacent to the drain. it also includes a high fraction of silt. The extracted sample is grey coloured. (4) “n” is the drain spacing ratio given by: (5) D and dw denote the equivalent diameters of unit cell and of PVD. so the sample remains saturated during the test. 1943):       2 u z   u z   CV    z2  t   . The sample is then placed in the consolidation cell and the unit cell.5 cm.1 0. depending of the depth z and time t. width = 1cm and length= 19 mm). Paris 2013 Proceedings of the 18th International Conference on Soil Mechanics and Geotechnical Engineering. The applied vertical load is doubled at each increment until reaching the maximum required load (50.25 m. 200. Tr  Silt 20 (u z ) = Δu (z. it has a characteristic smell and contains shell debris. The specimen is again unloaded. 100. Tr is the dimensionless time factor of consolidation due to radial drainage is written in function of time t: Cr  t D² (6) .When preparing the sample. Water is added into the cell around the sample. The range of applied stress depends on the range of effective stress which is needed in the consolidation analysis of the studied. Solution of the differential equation (7) is the vertical degree of consolidation U v as follows: 2.01 1E-3 sieve's diameter (mm) (7) Cv is the coefficient of vertical consolidation. 1997). (%) n Gravel 100 CONSOLIDATION TESTS Three series of consolidation tests were carried out on the Tunis soft soil in oedometer cells . The soil sample is enclosed in a metal ring and is placed on a porous stone. so the sample is sandwiched between two porous stones at the top and bottom of the sample to allow vertical drainage (VD).800 kPa). When the primary consolidation at prescribed load level is completed (200 kPa) the sample is unloaded in one or several steps until the increment (9) of load of 25 kPa is dismounted and the swelling of specimen can be measured. STUDIED SOIL Tunis soft soil specimens used in this study were obtained from the Sejoumi’s lagoon at depth of 17. respectively.Uv > 50%: U V 1  T ²  8 exp  V  ² 4   (9) Tv denotes the time factor of vertical drainage: Cv  t H² 60 50 40 30 (10) H is the drainage distance that is equal half of the thickness of specimen. In these tests only 2 2510 .Uv < 50 %: TV  (8) . At the end of the test. it was found that Tunis soft soil presents 85 % of particles 1 0.

figures 4a and 4b illustrate the variation of global degree of consolidation U in function of time for vertical consolidation stress of 400kpa and 800 kpa. cr/cv = kr/kv is only valid at high levels of consolidation stress (Jia and chai. figure 9 shows opposite variations of the ratios cr/cv and kr/kv when the consolidation stress varies from 100 to 800 kpa. ratios kr/kv and cr/cv versus consolidation stress degree of consolidation: in this paper. Cr/Cv 30 coefficients of vertical and radial consolidation cv and cr are determined from the evolution in time of settlement for each increment of loading (from 50 to 800 kpa).16 0.8 void ratio. from table 1. it is understood the swelling is only attributed to vertical infiltration of water with sample unloaded.022 0. in this range.16 0. 200. 25 20 15 10 0 coefficients of consolidation: 200 300 400 500 600 700 800 900  figure 3. vertical drainage is prevented by mean of an impervious membrane which covers the porous stone at the top and the bottom levels of the specimen. from the results obtained for series 1 and 2: cv and cr were determined by the logarithmic method. obtained results show that the assumption made e.023 4. this can be explained by the allowed vertical and radial drainage paths from which follows enhanced consolidation of the compressible soil.4 1 10 100 Variation of Cr/Cv and Kr/Kv log(kPa) figure 2. the first one uses the measured settlement at different levels of applied load in series 3 (case of vertical and radial drainage. in these tests the vertical drainage radial drainage are allowed.5 Serie 1 Serie 2 35 Serie 3 0.022 0.3 stUdY of three dimensional consolidation: kr/Kv 5 table 1: Values of compression and swelling indices serie of 1 : Vd 2 : rd 3 : V&rd tests cc 0. 2010). 1938). ratio cr/cv varies from 36 to 12 and ratio kr/kv varies from 4 to 12. in fact. the vertical consolidation Uv is obtained from recorded results in series 1 (case of vertical consolidation Vc) by using equation (2). U( t )  4.e 4. the second method consists in calculating U by the Carillo’s equation (1). obtained from the three series of tests (Vd. Paris 2013 radial drainage (rd) is allowed. 3 2511 . 0. oedometer apparatus (in series 1 and 2) is equipped with a conventional measuring device (tubes connected to the base of the specimen). series 3 (V&rd): it corresponds to an oedometer test performed on tunis soft soil improved by a single of geodrain (mebradrain 88) type sized as that used in series 2. Cs(Serie 3) 1.2 coefficient of permeability Vertical and radial hydraulic conductivities (permeability coefficients kv and kr) are determined by the variable head permeability test. the global degree of consolidation U(t) is predicted by two methods. which use the plot of thickness of sample versus the logarithmic of time: log (t) (casagrande. notice that the compression index obtained from series 3 (Vr&d) is roughly the double of that recoded in series 1 (Vd) and 2 (rd). rd and Vr&d) were determined from oedometer curves and summarized in table 1.6 40 Cc Cc 0.30 cs 0.1 100 verical consolidation stress  (kPa) 4. The radial degree of consolidation Ur is estimated from the experimental results of series 2 (case of radial consolidation rc) and equations (7) and (9). results of the three series of tests presented in figure 2 show the variation of void ratio e in function of the effective stress plotted in the logarithmic scale for loadingunloading – reloading sequences for three series of tests.Technical Committee 211 / Comité technique 211 th Proceedings of the 18 International Conference on Soil Mechanics and Geotechnical Engineering. Vr&d): s( t ) (11) s s(t) and s∞ denote respectively the settlements at given time and at the end of consolidation. 400 and 800 kpa).9 Cs(Serie 1) 0.7 Cc 0. the measurements are performed for different levels of applied load form 100 kpa to 800 kpa (100. oedometer curves obtained from three experimental series compression cc and the swelling cs indices.0 Cs(Serie 2) 0.g.

partial differential equations of mathematical physics. comparison between the ratios kr/ kv and cr/cv demonstrated that equality between the two ratios only happens at high level of stress consolidation. consolidation behavior of clayey soils under radial drainage. however when using measurements of in series 3 simple approximate methods. american society of civil engineers. 1943. Paris 2013 from the observed global consolidation of improved tunis soft soils was discussed. (2010).6 0. and rujikiatkamjorn . Volume.Z and Jian-Hua. consolidation of fine-grained soils by prefabricated drains. okinawa.0 -200 0 200 400 600 800 1000 1200 1400 1600 time (min) (b) figure 4. terzaghi. Vol. Kjellman W. higher degrees of consolidation starting from 70% are obtained. predictions of the global degree of consolidation showed that the Carillo’s theory leads to overestimated results with respect to predictions from recorded settlements. further. estimated from equation (11) by using measurements of serie 3 results. Journal of mathematics and physics. 3. from measurements coefficients of permeability kv and kr were determined by the variable head permeability test. harvard University 1-29. J.6 Acknowledgement: authors gratefully appreciate the help provided by mrs.K. c.2 0.8 (400 kPa) Ucarillo 0. (2001). 421-431. Guofu. K. Journal of soil mechanics. coefficients of vertical and radial consolidation cv and cr were determined from the evolution in time of settlement at different levels of consolidation stress. Balkema. carillo n. one can also remarks that by using the Carillo’s theory a lower degree of consolidation which starts from 10% is obtained. sridhar.4 0. while the degree of consolidation U. and chai. (1948). Kjellman W. «consolidation of fine grained soils by drains wells». asce. B. 29-36. s. Canadian Geotechnical Journal. Jia.8 U (800 kPa) Carillo 0. effect of strain distribution pattern on interpreting crs consolidation test results. it follows that the evolution of U predicted by the Carrillo’s theory are overestimated with respect to that deduced from recorded settlement from series 3. theoretical soil mechanics. accelerating construction of finegrained soils by means of card board wicks.0 U Degree of consolidation 0. reaches 100% in 24 hours.. 4 2512 . 38: 1142–1148. 1980. stockholm. 400 and 800 kpa). proceedings of the symposium on rigid inclusions in difficult soft soil conditions international society for soil mechanics and Geotechnical engineering (issmGe tc36). Variation of global degree of consolidation for applied loads (100. (1938) notes on soil mechanics-first semester. r. conclUsion this paper presented an experimental study conducted on tunis soft clay.2 0. elsevier.0 -200 0 200 400 600 800 1000 1200 1400 1600 time (min) References (a) 1. “Design charts for vertical drains considering construction time”.A. parakash .113 (2346): 748–751.c.rotterdam. G (2011) “determination of radial coefficient of consolidation using log t method”. rotterdam. sridharan . new York. transactions. Geotech. 677-682.. Volume 73. pp. Wiley. Boussetta during the experimental work carried out at the soil mechanics laboratory of the national engineering school of tunis. the effect of vertical and radial consolidations Barron a.test. proceedings of 10th international conference on soil mechanics and foundation engineering. the final global consolidation degree U is identical by using the two methods. in proceedings of the 2nd international conference on soil mechanics and foundation engineering.0 U Degree of consolidation 0. 1.. Paris 2013 Proceedings of the 18th International Conference on Soil Mechanics and Geotechnical Engineering. indraratna. in addition. J. (1948). 302–305.Proceedings of the 18th International Conference on Soil Mechanics and Geotechnical Engineering. (1948). in which three types of oedometer tests were executed: a standard oedometer test. (1981). a and asha. tyn myint-U. pp 718-743. s. pp. «simple two-and three-dimensional cases in the theory of consolidation of soils».4 0. an oedometer test on specimen soil improved by an element of geodrain and test a similar test to the second one by preventing the vertical drainage. 19 (4). (2006) “Predictions and Performances of prefabricated Vertical drain stabilized Soft Clay Foundations”. proceedings of the fourth Japan-china Geotechnical symposium. pp 1-5. Japan. G and robinson. contrarily to the common assumption made in previous studies. comparing between recorded and predicted global degree of consolidation U. 0. north holland. hansbo. sr (1996). 200. n°1. it is noted that the degree of consolidation as predicted by the Carillo’s theory reaches 100% for a time less than 24 hours. (1942). Discussion: “Consolidation of finegrained soils by drain wells” by R. casagrande a. astm. international Journal of Geotechnical engineering (373381). 2. Barron.

les drains verticaux ont été installés avec un espacement de 50 cm dans la partie des remblais les plus hauts.3 m² / an montre une argile plastique qui nécessite un long temps ou un réseau de drains verticaux très serrée pour la consolidation. BVT DYNIV GmbH. Ces déformations sont trop importantes pour l'autoroute existante en exploitation près du nouveau projet. KEYWORDS: soil improvement. Le coefficient de consolidation Cv <0. The undrained shear strength of the clay varied between 7 and 20 kN/m².5 m and up to 27 cm horizontal deformation were measured throughout one year of monitoring. Germany ABSTRACT: In the case of a new road crossing in Germany with 1. la zone supportée par les inclusions rigides a eu moins de 2 cm de déformation.5 to 7 m high embankments are built directly beside the traffic. Même avec l’utilisation de geotextiles de 600 kN/m. La résistance au cisaillement de l'argile varie entre 7 et 20 kN / m². Figure 1.0 m de hauteur en Allemagne près de la frontière danoise. a total vertical settlement of around 1. The traffic on the highways B5 and B202 in the site had to be maintained during the construction period and the existing road could not tolerate additional stability risks or settlements. des argiles particulièrement molles ont été trouvés de 13 à 20 m de profondeur sous le niveau de la mer. Ingenieurbüro Dr.5 à 7.0 m high embankments nearby the Danish border particularly soft clays were found 13 to 20 m deep below sea level. The crossing between B5 and B202 was designed as a bridge project with high embankments located on the unconsolidated soft soils. Within the first two years. Afin d’améliorer le processus d'installation des inclusions rigides supplémentaires. Without soil improvement methods large long-time settlements will occur. des drains verticaux ont été installés dans le sol mou avant l’installation des colonnes.5 m et des déformations horizontales jusqu’à 27 cm ont été mesurés pendant une année de surveillance. especially when the 1. RÉSUMÉ : Pour un projet d’une nouvelle route sur des remblais de 1. Due to stability risks. The water content was almost 100 % and the organic matter below 6 %. but we will focus only on the western part with the highest dam nearby the bridge. La teneur en eau est proche de 100% et la matière organique inférieure à 6%. which were built in three load steps. There are different stages to look at.Improvement of soft fat clay using rigid inclusions and vertical drains Amélioration d’une argile plastique molle par inclusions rigides et drains verticaux Kirstein J. The consolidation coefficient Cv < 0. Controlled modulus columns (CMC). des tassements verticaux de 1. vertical wick drains were installed at a 0.F. The existing west coast highway B5 near the German city of Husum will be widened from two to three lanes in the future in order to improve traffic. avec pour chaque étape des périodes d'attente de 60 à 80% degré de consolidation avant de la prochaine étape de chargement. typical at the flat costal region near the North Sea. Germany Wittorf N. which often causes damages to the road during the construction or later on. une déformation relativement petite comparé avec celles enregistrées dans des zones du projet consolidées par des drains verticaux. each time waiting for 60 to 80 % consolidation degree before loading the next step. full displacement concrete columns (rigid inclusions system CMC) were installed up to 22 m deep with load transfer platforms installed on top the inlcusions. En raison de calculs de stabilité. mud and peat reach between five and twenty meters from the surface. the area supported by the rigid inclusion experienced less than 2 cm of deformation. Lehners und Wittorf. All traffic constructions bring new loads in form of deadand live-loads to these soft soils. Des inclusions rigides (systeme CMC) ont été installées jusqu'à 22 m de profondeur avec différents matelas de répartition placés au dessus des colonnes. additional vertical drains were installed in the soft soil before the inclusions.5 to 7.3 m²/year is characteristics of a fat clay which requires a long time or tight spacing of vertical drains to consolidate. Au cours des deux premières années de construction. These deformations were too high for the existing and running highway in the middle of the new projects. Therefore. before glacial sands are encountered. a proportionally small amount compared to the deformations recorded in the wick drain consolidation parts of the project. In order to improve the installation process of the rigid inclusions. vertical drains 1 INTRODUCTION AND DESCRIPTION OF THE PROJECT Large areas nearby the northern sea are nearly flat with elevations slightly above or under the sea level. qui ont été construits en trois étapes de chargement. clay. Even using 600 kN/m woven geotextiles. detail of the highest embankment west with the bridge abutment over the highway B5 (CMC close to bridge and coloured areas with vertical drains and preloading) 2513 . Soft soil of silt.5 m spacing in the part of the highest embankments.

5 15 soft soil. (A) 3. silt (Bottom level) 16/6 20. F igure 3. free of vibrations.short installation period to complete the project on time . Preloading with three load steps with a distance of 30 m security and working space from the bridge and existing highway B5. After waiting for 1. The measured consolidation settlements shown in figure 8 fit with the given predictions according to figure 7.k Cu.0*10-7 20 SOILIMPROVEMENT TECHNIQUES Vertical drains Prefabricated vertical drains were installed in different spacings with lengths between 15 m (corresponding to the conditions in figure 3) and 22 m in other parts of the project. Table 1 . The CMC brought the following advantages: . soil parameters for the calculation of consolidation and stability in the coloured drain areas density γk/γk’ [kN/m3 ] shear strenght φ’k [grade] fill sand 18/10 30. (B) 5. This reaches 13 m up to 22 m in the deepest parts from the surface. The preload was brought back to the edge of the foundation systems between CMC and vertical drains area in order to optimize the settlement behaviour.5 --- soft soil. The CMC were installed between the driven piles afterwards.0 1. steps of consolidation and construction The working sequence with different steps was necessary because of stability calculations and the wide influence of the settlements during the consolidation. 2. The undrained shear strength cu in the soft soil from the results of shear vane tests multiplied with factors of 0. 7.(C) 6. boring.8 8.0 --- soft soil. organic matter and plasticity index ) as well as several load-settlement tests were performed. It was necessary .3 m settlement (figure 8) a part of the embankment and preload was temporarily rebuilt in order to install the controlled modulus Columns CMC.k [MN/m²] Consolidation coefficient cv [m²/s] 60 6.k [kN/m²] 50-100 kN/m² Figure 2. This was one more reason to select a CMC foundation nearby the bridge in the area of the lowest undrained shear strength. In additon to borings.8 2. Paris 2013 Due to stability and settlement calculations the foundation works took place according to the following sequence of works and according to the figure 2 below: 1. The project can be modelled with two layers of soft soils divided by a loose sand layer in between. Following this decision and the results of soil investigation and laboratory the geotechnical engineers assumed an undrained shear strength of cu = 12 kN/m² in vertical drain areas. Part 4 (Deutsche Institut für Normung 2002).1 Modulus Es. cone penetration test and shear vane test in the detail area bridge west The vane tests showed an undrained shear strength of cu = 6 to 8 kN/m² near the bridge and an undrained shear strength of cu = 12 to 20 kN/m² in other parts of the project. Installtion of deep foundations for the bridge took place on driven concrete piles with additional sleeves sockets in the soft soils.65 are linked to the plasticity according to Bjerum standard DIN 2514 3 3. several laboratory testing ( water content. silt top level 15/5 20.0*10-1 12 0. clay [top level] 14/4 17.0 10 soil properties / soil Cohesion C’. The representative soil parameters for the calculation of consolidation and stability in the project are given in the following table.Proceedings of the 18th International Conference on Soil Mechanics and Geotechnical Engineering.0 10 sand 18/10 27. Installation of vertical drains in different spacings from a one meter thick sand working platform. 4094-4.5*10-3 2.the vibration free technique allows to work close to the piles of the bridge . 4.0*10-8 25 2. An additional strong woven geotextile layer of 600 kN/m tensile strength between the embankment and vertical drains had very little influence on the vertical inclinometer results with 27 cm of deformation as shown in figure 9.0*10-9 12 0.The settlements of the embankment support on CMC with a stiff load transfer platform are compatible with the bridge abutment 2 SOIL-PARAMETERS After the first part of the soil investigations with several borings (BS) and cone penetration tests (CPT) it was clear that there was a problem of stability and consolidation time due to the presence of fat clay in the upper soft soil layer.5 to 0.

In this project the CMC have been first successfully checked under conditions with the lowest cuvalues by integrity tests and dynamic pile tests.2 4. By the standard DIN EN 12699 (Deutsche Institut für Normung 2001) above cu = 15 kN/m² the minimal distance between full displacing elements is linked to the undrained shear strength of the soils. With 500 kN characteristic load per CMC. The small spacings in this project were justified by the step loading and the presence of fat clay in the upper layer of soft soil with special low permeability and corresponding primary consolidation coefficient. Compared with other CMC areas the heave of the working platform and the excessive over-consumption of concrete. A continuous flow for several hours up to one day and the volume of water collected show an efficient fast additional consolidation. Compared to vibrating techniques. 3.1 CALCULATIONS AND PREDICTIONS Consolidation and stability calculations in the areas receiving vertical drains Initially. the calculated settlement at the top of each CMC is very similar to the settlement of the piles under the bridge. According to (Chaumeny. Immediately after the CMC installation the water starts to flow out of the vertical drain even at the top of the sandy working platform. On part of the project. settlement calculations with the three load steps Figure 4. the CMC are designed to take the full load of the embankment. could be reduced by the additional intermediate vertical drains. The time-settlement curves for both primary and secondary consolidation are shown below on figure 5. Critical distance is only relevant during the concrete curing period. Concrete pressure and adequate volume are monitored and maintained throughout the concreting phase.29 m was calculated in the area west of the bridge. c and porewater pressure were in good agreement with the calculations using the improved undrained shear strength. 2515 . Loads larger than 500 kN could be tested with a factor of safety larger than 2 FOS on the CMC.75 m The stability calculations are based on undrained shear strength cu and required to build the embankment in three steps of loading with berms and twice waiting for the sufficient degree of consolidation necessary. 129 cm of settlements within ½ year of primary consolidation with vertical drains spacing of 0. Figure 5. which is very critical in very soft soils. Δcu = U σ tan φ' (2) Figure 7. neglecting the small load bearing capacity of the soil in between the inclusions.2 Controlled Modulus Columns CMC The controlled modulus columns CMC are well adapted to installation in soft soils. the process of installing additional CMCs close to nearby fresh CMC was improved through the installation of vertical drains in-between the CMC. drilled into the glacial sand layer. Kirstein and Varaksin 2008) the shear strength was calculated using the following relation to the degree of consolidation: τ = U (σ tan φ'+c) + (1-U) cu U: σ: φ': c: cu: (1) degree of consolidation total load at a given depth internal friction angle final drained cohesion undrained shear strength Figure 6. Controlled Modulus Columns CMC Due to the presence of very soft soils. There are several references with CMCinstallation directly adjacent to freshly grouted CMC under cu < 15 kN/m² conditions.Technical Committee 211 / Comité technique 211 to pass the intermediate sandlayer in order to place the vertical drains in the glacial sand below the second layer of soft soil. a total settlement of 1. stability calculation of three loading steps and control calculation of the final situation For this project c = cu in formula (1) as improvement Δcu was added to the basic c u value in the stability calculations. The full displacement auger acts as a casing and maitain the right borehole diameter over more than two meter length. normally increasing with the thickness of softsoil. 4 4. The typical piling standards give a minimum limit of 15 kN/m² undrained shear strength to use for cast-in-place-concrete. CMC are usually faster to install and can be performed in softer soils with lower undrained shear strength. installation of CMC combined with vertical drains and porewater on the platform Field measurements and the stability analysis in final configuration based on φ'.

5 m of settlements and 27 cm of horizontal displacement were experience and closely match the calculations and show that it was the right decision not to place the highest embankment directly on the softest soil beside the bridge over the running traffic on the highway B5. MONITORING RESULTS Wick drains F igure 10. Additional soil investigations and laboratory tests were performed to be able to complete a proper design. An experience of consolidation of extremly soft mud for one of Europe’s largest projects “The AIRBUS A-380” factory in Hamburg. Through the addition of some gravel in parts of the sandy load transfer platform LTP.2 Controlled Modulus Columns CMC Several measurement systems were installed between the CMC and the reinforced earth in the load transfer platform.Proceedings of the 18th International Conference on Soil Mechanics and Geotechnical Engineering. vertical inclinometer results at the 7 m high damm with drains and 600 kN/m vowen geotextile The measured settlements during the consolidation process in figure 8 follow very closely the predictions shown in figure 7. 7 igure 9. J. Reinforced earth with galvanized steel was designed to hold the large horizontal forces of active earth pressure. Vibration free CMC in combination with reinforced earth allowed to construct this high embankment with less than two centimetre differential settlements to the piled bridge. measurement at the settlement plates SP 9 und SP10. there is no concrete slab or rigid structure like for the foundation of the bridge. DIN 4094-4: Subsoil – field testing – part 4 : Field vane test. DIN Deutsches Institut für Normung. The horizontal inclinometer was laid across six marked CMCcolumns (figure 1 and figure 9). F REFERENCES DIN Deutsches Institut für Normung.F. Large deformations of up to 1. Oedometer consolidation tests allowed to precisely predict the movements during the consolidation processes that were accelerated by the use of vertical drains at different spacings.1 5. 6 SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS Soft and fat clay were found at the B5 / B202 road crossing. The instruments show an almost perfect full stress concentration of the load on the CMC and less than one centimetre of horizontal deformation. S. With a careful planning of the work within the overall construction schedule. German version J-L Chaumeny. Figure 10 shows the cross section and the 5 vertical deformation measurements over a period of 2 years. Compared with plastic geotextiles. and as a result limiting the horizontal deformations of the embankment. 2008. the friction between LTP and CMC was greatly increase and nearly no deformation was necessary to mobilize the friction of the LTP. DIN EN 12699: Execution of special geotechnical work . detailed design combined with an extensive monitoring program. regarding stability and consolidation time.Displacement piles. economic soil improvement techniques can be combined with deep foundations in one project even on very soft soil can be treated successfully.Kirstein. Because of the large geotextile deformations during the consolidation period. There was a good agreement between the calculated values of the settlement and the results of the monitoring. 5 5. the steel grid material has only very small elastic deformations. below the embankment. An additional strong geotextile layer of 600 kN/m tensile strength between the embankment and the vertical drains had 27 cm of deformation measured with vertical inclinometers. Varaksin. 2002. Paris 2013 Nevertheless. A settlement of one centimetre of the top of the CMCs and two centimetres in-between CMC in the reinforced earth steel construction were measured. Glasgow. as shown in the following monitoring results. 2001. 2516 . the decision was made to use a stronger more rigid construction with nearly no deformation. horizontal inclinometer results with arround 1 cm of CMC settlements and 2 cm of reinforced earth settlements Figure 8.

Les résultats démontrent clairement l’interaction prononcée du système complexe. qui justifie aisément le grossissement du diamètre construit par rapport au diamètre théorique conçu lors du dimensionnement du projet. Flac3D. Democritus University of Thrace (DUTh). multi-stage backfilling. excavation. of a thickness ranging from 12 to almost 55m. le profil du sol avec leurs propriétés physiques. The examined area is located in the wide bed of a river in northern Greece. a summary of geological. Greece Sarigiannis D. The scope of this work is the investigation and a possible explanation of the problem concerning modification of the constructed stone column diameter. as well as.Interaction of stone column and surrounding soil during its construction: 3D numerical analysis Interaction d’une colonne ballastée et du sol environnant pendant sa construction : analyse numérique 3D Klimis N. consisting mainly of biotitic gneisses (gn) interpolated by amphibolites and marbles green-gray coloured. After a short technical description of the stone column constructing procedure adopted for this project. The upper part of the gneissic rockmass appears intensively weathered to totally weathered. geotechnical and seismological data are presented in a succinct way in the following chapters. Xanthi. mécaniques et de déformation. The mathematical model incorporates geometry and boundary conditions of the problem.D. MSc DIC ABSTRACT: This work deals with a simulation of a construction sequence of a stone column in two distinct stages: a) a one stage excavation and b) a multi-stage backfilling of the column stone excavation with crushed gravel at ascending steps of 1m. called FLAC3D. 5 INTRODUCTION – SCOPE OF THE WORK The present work focuses on the investigation of kinematic and strain interaction of a complex system consisting of a single column stone and the surrounding soil. consisting thus the weathering zone of 2 to 4m of thickness. RÉSUMÉ : Ce travail se réfère à une simulation numérique de la séquence de construction d’une colonne ballastée. clay-silty sands. deformational and mechanical properties and their constitutive laws. initial conditions of stresses and deformations of subsoil stratums of the examined area. versus the theoretical (design) one. 3. La simulation est effectuée à l’aide d’un modèle 3D qui représente la colonne ballastée et le sol environnant. Simulation of this procedure is attempted using a 3D model which represents the stone column and the surrounding soil. taking into account the procedure of the stone column construction. into an equivalent static vertical loading and subsequently into an equivalent radial pressure against internal wall of the cylindrical excavation of the constructed stone column. The geological bedrock of the examined site consists of rocks of the alpic age and belongs to the Rodopic Mass. et par la suite. its geometrical characteristics and the geotechnical model representing the surrounding soil and its physical. with a horizontal free-field peak ground acceleration value: amax=0. As for the seismological data. avec du matériau granulaire écrasé. resulting from preceding investigation projects on this area. Civil Engineering Department. it results that the prevailing soil formation are alluvial deposits consisting 2517 . mainly gravel consisting (RDg) are a rather permeable soil formation (k  10 3 m / sec ). complex system. profile of soil layers with their physical. Le code numérique utilisé est FLAC3D et il est basé sur le modèle des différences finies. Le modèle mathématique intègre la géometrie et les conditions limites du problème. the surface is covered by deposits that belong to the Quaternary and is subdivided into: a) river deposits (RD) consisting of silty sands. based on finite differences. whilst alluvial deposits present a rather low permeability ( 10 7  k  10 5 m / sec).16g. Results clearly denote that there is a strong interaction of the complex system in the kinematical and stress field. CPTs and Cross-Hole tests). valid from 1/1/2004. consisting mainly of sands with a largely fluctuating percentage of clays. prone to liquefy. and b) alluvial deposits (AL). geophysical. à une pression équivalente radiale exercée sur l’intérieur de l’excavation cylindrique de la colonne ballastée construite. à des pas montants de 1m. Analysis is carried out using a numerical code. GEOTECHNICAL CHARACTERIZATION According to the entity of the geotechnical and geophysical investigation programs performed on the broad area (geotechnical boreholes. the numerical model is determined and numerical analyses results are presented. KEYWORDS: stone column. during the excavation stage and the backfilling stage with crushed gravel. AUTh. silts and gravels. in an attempt to explain the deduced discrepancy between “constructed” and “designed” stone column diameter. based on a number of corresponding projects performed in the recent past. ainsi que leurs lois de comportement et les conditions initiales de la région examinée. interaction. The permeability of different geological formations is quite heterogeneous: the riverbed deposits. Une attention particulière est donnée à la simulation d’un chargement harmonique vertical imposé à la colonne vibrante. Special emphasis is given to simulation of an harmonically imposed vertical loading of the vibrating column. GeoloGical and seismioloGical DESCRIPTION OF THE SITE description of the ste According to geological and geotechnical data.S. deformational and mechanical properties. In the framework of this work. GEOLOGICAL AND SEISMOLOGICAL 2. diameter. according to the most recent Hellenic map of seismic zones. where a bridge is founded. gravels and locally cobbles of gneiss or marble. for the examined area. which satisfactorily justifies modification of the final diameter of the constructed stone column compared to the theoretical proposed diameter. en deux étapes séparées : a) une étape unique d’excavation. 2. et b) plusieurs pas successifs de remblayage de l’excavation cylindrique de la colonne ballastée. à un chargement équivalent vertical statique. the examined site belongs to zone I of low seismic hazard.

and then. SW-SM.1 Modeling Procedure By considering the construction of a stone column in the above soil profile. γ=21. In order to maintain the shape of the “deformed diameter” per constructed step of the stone column. whereas computational time difference was important. a weak zone boundary has been created.Proceedings of the 18th International Conference on Soil Mechanics and Geotechnical Engineering. Simulation of soil materials is realized by a 3-diamensional polyhedral grid with use of the finite difference method. SP-SM. SW. avoiding thus a rebound of the plastic lateral displacements obtained from sub-stage IIIa. we tried to match the increase of the “as built” diameter of the examined stone column. GW. and finally a design geotechnical section has been attributed to each bridge pier (Edafomichaniki 2007) used for dynamic analyses purposes. simulation of two distinct stages of the construction of a stone column is attempted using a three-dimensional (3D) model which represents the stone column and the surrounding soil. crushed fill material. corresponding to a precise pier of the bridge. in a distance of 0. SM.30 Layer S3A (19 to 23m) and layer S3B (23 to 35m): medium dense clayey sand-gravels mixture to sandy clay with gravels. 4.2 Assessment of equivalent lateral static loading It is widely known in Mechanics. the vibrational torpedo is sinked into the excavated cyclic area.2kN/m3. Sub-stage IIIb : Simulation of Crushed Stone Material filling This sub-stage simulates filling of the stone column crushed material taking under consideration the preceding compaction procedure. silty sand with presence of gravels to silty sand (GM-GP. ω1: 2518 . γ=20. ν=0. Therefore.5m. 4. ever after named as “Sub-stage IIIa and IIIb” Sub-stage IIIa : Simulation of Vibration and Compaction Based on the construction procedure concerning the one stage of excavation of the stone column to be realized. construction of cylindrical stone columns of the project with a theoretical diameter D=0. c’=5kPa. γ=20. However. it has been attributed a very high modulus of elasticity. Vertical normal stress. SP): NSPT  23. A vertical plane through stone column axis is a plane of symmetry for the analysis. The modeling sequence consists of the following stages: Stage I : Initial stresses Establish equilibrium conditions to initialize stresses Stage II : Excavation Stone column excavation at full penetration depth was decided to be numerically simulated in one and only stage. the mean value of blows was calculated about 23. Boundary conditions consist of roller boundaries along the external grid sides of column axis and a fixed base. in terms of an “equivalent static” lateral (radial) pressure. but not the most conservative one. is transferred as a lateral pressure “p” to simulate subjected compressive lateral loads of material due to gravel compaction. whilst linear elastic one is assigned to stone column backfilling crushed material. incorporates geometry and boundary conditions of the problem. c’=8kPa. each per bridge pier.5m and 1. which affects significantly the mechanical properties of the surrounding zone. by adjusting the values of mechanical and deformational parameters of the disturbed zone. considered as a linear elastic one. since in reality. has been initially divided into three subregions represented each by a different geotechnical design section (ITSAK & Gazetas 2003). excavation was accomplished in about 30 min for a typical stone column of the project. φ’=390. ω: frequency of the input motion. is realized by ascending steps of 0.0kN/m3. Stage III is sub-divided in two distinct calculation steps. the profile of soil layers.5kN/m3. ν=0. Es=20MPa. GM. ust : equivalent static displacement (=P/K). φ’=370. Es=15MPa. Es=10MPa. The whole area. The initial grid is assigned by 5. the crushed geomaterials are driven through the top of the stone column downwards (top feed method). SM): NSPT  25. characterized by USCS as SP. SM. c’=3kPa.0m and 50 units in x-direction. According to the almost 200 SPTs performed. they turn out to be gravel layers. our choice of computational ascending steps to simulate stone column construction was of 1.31 Layer S2B (12 to 19m): medium dense silty gravels. physical. by reducing φ’ & c’.32 Layer S2A (5 to 12m): medium dense gravels with silt and sand to silty sand with presence of gravels (GM-GP. constitutive laws for the geomaterials. in agreement with the quantity of the crushed material used for the construction of the stone column. φ’=370. deformational and mechanical properties. From various simplified design geotechnical sections. The mathematical model adopted. γ=21. The soil profile used in the present work. ν=0. such as: GP. 4. GP-GM. Es=12MPa. Model grid is shown in figure (1). for the needs of the present project. reaches the top of the crushed material and starts vibrating harmonically at a frequence of 30Hz. as being the most representative of the area. with a standard deviation of +11. SM): NSPT  28. SM-SW.0m and 50 units in z-direction and by 28. Stage III : Stone Column Construction In reality. according to the following equation: u  f   ust 1 2 1   f / f  2   4 2 1   (1) where.0m. since an initial comparative study between 0. SM-SP. based on the quantity of the crushed material measured in situ. per numerical ascending step of the stone column construction. Geometry of the problem is simplified to axial symmetry. φ’=400.0kN/m3. whereas in other cases. From 35 to almost 48m the weathering zone of the gneissic bedrock or highly weathered gneiss is met. harmonically applied on top of filling crushed material in order to compact the crushed fill material. could be discretized. the reduced values of the mechanical parameters and the elastic deformation modulus. γ=21. during the construction of a stone column of the project. with a high degree of heterogeneity. c’=6kPa. where ν: Poisson’s ratio.33 Layer S1B (2 to 5m): medium dense gravels with sand and sand to silty sand with local presence of gravels (GP. SP-SM. The width of the weak zone. u(f): dynamic displacement. METHODOLOGICAL APPROACH The analysis was carried out with FLAC 3D numerical code of finite differences.31. A Mohr-Coulomb constitutive model elastoplastic behavior is assigned to all zones of soil surrounding stone column.0m ascending steps. Namely. or silty sand-gravels mixture (GC-GM. In some cases they appear as clayey sand (SC) to sandy clay (CL). initial conditions of stresses and deformations of the subsoil stratums of the area under study. that a dynamic system responds to an harmonic external loading. whereas yaxis is oriented along vertical column axis and upward. φ’=360. as explained in the following paragraph. Coordinate axes are located with origin at the base of the grid. and also. revealed no significant differences. where the bridge is founded. Paris 2013 of sands to silty sands.5kN/m3. Equilibrium conditions for initial stresses are based on earth pressure coefficient at rest Ko=v/(1-ν). SP): NSPT  22. as well as. by 5.60m surrounding column lateral sides.8m and a length L=23. at each step. resulted from a “trial and error” back calculating procedure. in order to achieve an harmonically applied normal stress of 30 to 35MPa. c’=12kPa. because no steps of excavation during its construction. ν=0. can be described as follows: Layer S1A (0 το 2m): loose to medium dense gravels with sand and sand or silty sand with local presence of gravels (GP. ν=0. CL): NSPT  26.0m and 56 units of in y-direction.0m. in order to simulate relaxation due to excavation. it has been chosen one. Es=16MPa. SW-SM.

0.10 Pcyclic  qcyclic ©2006 Itasca Consulting Group. 11. where a mean depth of the soil column is admitted as: H=30m and VS30≈250m/sec.957e+001 column of a diameter d=0. due to gravel compaction/filling. it results:  f / f1  2 1 (2) Based on the aforementioned. From equation (1). the predominant frequency of the system for vertically induced harmonic external loading. 30cm. Settings: Model Perspective 13:40:35 Sat Sep 27 2008 Center: X: 6. reveal a past plastic yield (indicator –p) in shear or tension.000 Y: 130. 5. Minneapolis. VLa: wave velocity according to Lysmer (VLa≈1.322e+000 Z: 5. as: f1  4  30 x 3. and ζ: damping ratio of the system.13MN.3.14 x0.0m and 1. can be roughly approximated. At this case.000 Z: 360. plasticity disturbance of the soil is generated in a remarkable distance of 1. 2519 .000e+000 Live & unassigned mech zones shown Axes  z .: 22. Based on the above. we need to use a coefficient b(f). most of plastic indicators.: 1. earth pressure coefficient at rest. defined as in equation 2. it can be assumed approximatively. outwards radial displacement values (at excavated sides) for depths at 22. filling & compaction). resulting thus to a design coefficient bdesign=b x 2 = 0. Sub-stages IIIa & IIIb simulate the compaction/filling of crushed stone material and interaction of the above to surrounding soil. VS: shear wave velocity.Technical Committee 211 / Comité technique 211 predominant frequency of the system (herein: the soil column overlying gneissic bedrock). the ratio Pst/P(f). and H: depth of the soil column overlying the gneissic bedrock. and then the equivalent radial (horizontal) static normal stress is estimated σ’h =  Linestyle X Y Z Itasca Consulting Group. and also because the examined system is not a single degree freedom oscillator. leads to a remarkable plastic yield over limit close to the stone column head. outwards horizontal displacements are eliminated at distances more than 60cm of excavated sides.8 2 (7) According to linear elastic theory.0.3/(1. equation (3) results b≈0.5m.429. In this last case. Accordingly. when f/f1>>1. As b(f) is proportional to u(f)/ust. MN USA Figure 1. can be calculated via cyclic normal stress (30 to 35MPa) applied through the edge of the vibrating 1130 x 4  1777 kPa 3.e. Inwards horizontal displacements of the excavation are limited in a range of 4-5mm with maximum values appearing at deeper levels of excavation.2m surrounding column sides for the first example and in almost the entire surface area of the surrounding soil at the second one. 60cm and 100cm of the excavated sides of the stone column. it would be wiser to impose a factor of safety of 2. The vertical harmonic loading. FLAC3D 3.15. Figure (2) shows plasticity indicators generated due to the excavation at full penetration depth. 12cm and 20cm respectively. It is estimated that due to a large number of uncertainties of the system. it results that Pst≈30%Pcyclic. Inc. Inc. Outwards lateral displacement are being recorded at every depth level of the stone column. analysis results are mainly concentrated to the plasticity limits of soil strength and to the outwards lateral displacement of the stone column excavated sides due to gravel compaction. Consequently. as follows: Rotation: X: 140. equals to: k0 = ν/(1-ν) = 0. NUMERICAL ANALYSIS IMPLEMENTATION & RESULTS Developing a step by step simulation of a stone column construction (excavation.20-0. Low initial stress state at free soil surface. in different grid points with distance of 0. Plasticity indicators for shear or tension are divided at a present plastic yield indicator with symbol (–n) or a past plastic yield indicator with symbol (–p). in order to use an “equivalent static” loading instead of a dynamic or harmonic one. Concerning lateral outwards displacement of stone column excavated sides. for the examined case . it is evident that it will be inversely proportional to loadings. vertical harmonic loading imposed by a hydraulic vibrating torpedo. It can be seen that one step column excavation. it results that ratio u(f)/ust is greater than 1. For the numerical analyses performed.3)≈0. that: f1  VLa 4H  3VS 8H (4) where.757e+000 Dist: 7. even though equivalent static normal radial stress is very low. whereas.429 x 1777≈762kPa. it has been progressively reduced as ascending steps of stone column construction were getting close to the head of the stone column at free surface until it has almost been nullified in the last step. shows that values between 10 and 20cm keep well at a distance of 100cm of the excavated sides.836e+000 Y: 9. Therefore: b f   P f  Pst 1  2 1   f / f 2   4 2 1   (3) In the present problem. plasticity limits of soil strength developed in a distance of 0.0 when f/f1<1.4 2  3. and vice versa.500 Magfac = 0. Indicatively. Although.0 to 1. In general terms. which represents a reductional coefficient due to the frequency of the input motion. is calculated.25 Ang.000 Mag. has no remarkable effect at inwards horizontal displacements. Model grid used for 3D numerical analyses.14 x 0.5VS).0m are in a size of 23cm.3 x 3. Figures (3) and (4) exhibit plasticity indicators for two different construction depths from 16m to 15m and from 1m up to the head of the stone column (free soil surface) respectively.0-0.768MN 4 (6) providing thus an equivalent static vertical loading Pst≈30%Pcyclic=0. and an equivalent vertical normal stress that is estimated to compact vertically the crushed fill material of the stone column at every step of construction: Surface u ( f ) / u st  1 d 2 3  250m / s  3 Hz 8  30m (5) For input motion frequencies ranging from 20 to 35Hz (mean estimated value of 30Hz) and mean estimated value of damping ratio ζ=20% (Mylonakis et al 2006).40m.768≈1.40m surrounded excavated sides.0. for the deeper part of the stone column it was adopted a radial pressure of 750 to 800kPa. i.

The complex system consisting of a stone column 2520 . User’s Manual version 3.000 Z: 360. Footings under seismic loading: Analysis and design issues with emphasis on bridge foundations. and Gazetas G. resulting thus in an expansion of the constructed diameter.500 1716 13 11 1007 1006 1003 1001 Surface Magfac = 0.2.: 22.840e+000 Y: 8.000 Y: 130.957e+001 7. ©2006 Itasca Consulting Group. the physical procedure of the stone column construction. Egnatia Odos s. Earthquake Eng. horizontal inelastic displacements in the limit of the side wall of the cylidrical excavation range between 10 and 20cm. FLAC3D v3.046e+001 Z: 9. MN USA Figure 2. 2006.000 Mag.77 Ang. Minneapolis. Those are identified as two sub-stages per ascending step of construction: a) vibration and compaction.10. Soil Dyn. Geotechnical Final Design Study (boreholes GT1 to GT5).957e+001 Rotation: X: 120.320e+000 Dist: 7. the following points can be outlined: 1. that a zone of about 60cm is seriously disturbed. FLAC3D 3. Step 3676 Model Perspective 10:49:27 Mon Sep 29 2008 Center: X: 1.: 5. the plastic zones developed around the cylidrical excavation are limited. pp 73. Plasticity zones during multi-stage filling of the stone column with crushed geomaterial at depth of 16 to 15m simulated by an equivalent static radial pressure (sub-stage IIIa. 4. Minneapolis.000 Y: 120.000e+000 Exaggerated Grid Distortion Live mech zones shown 2726 23 21 Axes 37 36 33 31 Linestyle Block State Live mech zones shown None shear-n shear-p shear-p shear-p tension-p tension-p 47 46 43 41 57 56 53 51 History Location 67 66 63 61 77 76 73 71 Itasca Consulting Group. 23rd final ascending step of construction of the examined stone column) 6. affecting notably the mechanical and deformational parameters of the surrounding soil. in order to improve foundation soil behaviour..126e+001 Y: 2. 2003..000 Z: 360.10 Rotation: X: 120. 824-853.10 ©2006 Itasca Consulting Group. 8th ascending step of construction of the examined stone column) and the surrounding soil is numerically analyzed with FLAC3D numerical code based on finite differences.394e+000 Z: 5. as defined in §4. Step 115079 Model Perspective 20:07:50 Sat Sep 27 2008 Center: X: 1.Proceedings of the 18th International Conference on Soil Mechanics and Geotechnical Engineering. REFERENCES Edafomichaniki s. 2007.957e+001 Rotation: X: 110. Study of seismic response and evaluation of liquefaction risk.05 Ang. Minneapolis. materialized by application of an equivalent radial pressure against the internal wall of the cylindrical excavation and b) stone column filling with a linear elastic geomaterial assigned a high elastic modulus of compressibility.a. MN USA 157 156 153 151 167 166 163 161 177 176 173 171 187 Figure 3. Mylonakis G. in a rational and well documented way. after completion of excavation stage. Issue 1.: 4.000 Y: 130. yet representative. section of Nestos bridge and road access on it (14. compared to the theoretical one as designed.000 Z: 360. 2.970e+000 Dist: 7.8m diameter and 23m length are constructed.500 Surface Magfac = 0.. Excavation stage is simulated in one and unique stage.265e+001 Y: 1. Inc. preventing a rebound of the induced radial displacements of the first substage. Commenting the outcome of numerical analyses performed. 3.a. Inc.000e+000 Exaggerated Grid Distortion Live mech zones shown 17 16 13 11 Axes Linestyle Block State Live mech zones shown None shear-n shear-p tension-p shear-p shear-p tension-p tension-p History Location 1007 1006 1003 1001 27 26 23 21 37 Itasca Consulting Group.1. where typical stone columns of 0. as well as.784e+000 Dist: 7. Inc. whereas. ranging from some millimeters to only a few centimeters. construction of a stone column is simulated by a multistage complex procedure divided in two distinct calculating steps. Plasticity zones during the one stage excavation of the examined stone column 126 123 121 FLAC3D 3. and simulated at its best. Itsak and Gazetas G.000 Mag.10 : Fast Lagrangian Analysis of Continua. Paris 2013 FLAC3D 3.964e+001 Z: 7.000e+000 Exaggerated Grid Distortion Live mech zones shown Axes Linestyle Block State Live mech zones shown None shear-n shear-p shear-n shear-p tension-p shear-n tension-n shear-p tension-p shear-p shear-p tension-p tension-n shear-p tension-p History Location Itasca Consulting Group.2/14.: 22. progressively reduced as ascending construction steps approached the head of the stone column at the free surface. simulated by an equivalent static radial pressure (sub-stage IIIa. it has been documented via a “trial and error” back calculating procedure.2. its effects on the surrounding soil. Plasticity zones during multi-stage filling of the stone column with crushed geomaterial at depth of 1m to head of the stone column. Itasca Consulting Group Inc. soil profile corresponding to a bridge pier. CONCLUDING REMARKS For the needs of the present project it has been decided to adopt a rather simple.: 22. 26(9).: 3. Step 42971 Model Perspective 07:52:29 Fri Sep 26 2008 Center: X: 6. Inc.1).500 137 136 133 131 147 146 143 141 Surface Magfac = 0.10 ©2006 Itasca Consulting Group.96 Ang. due to the compaction procedure. The numerical code used considered the procedure of construction. Inc. same as horizontal displacements. MN USA 36 33 31 Figure 4. once excavation procedure is completed. Nikolaou S.000 Mag. Inc. the stage of constuction of the stone column has been simulated by a multi-stage procedure of ascending steps of 1m and application of an equivalent static radial pressure.

2004. organic subsoil.). based on Finnish research is gaining acceptance. Since then. With this technology the treated depths can be increased up to 40 m (Moseley and Kirsch. Firstly. If the main purpose is to reduce settlements and the weak soil is thicker than 5 m. préconisée partout. ayant une disposition variable et des diamétres différents. another technology. Lately. L’étude a pour but de faire connaitre las résultats des essais au laboratoire réalisés sur des éprauvettes prélevées du sol traité avec les liants: la chaux et le ciment. de la résistance et des caractéristiques de déformation des sols mous la malaxage est considéré comme une technique courante. where the whole soil mass is treated normally to a depths of 2 to 4 m (Figure 2.g. particularly with regard to its range of applicability. Mass stabilization . In the future this type of construction is suspected to increase. The trends of the calculation outputs are shown and evaluated. organic clay or soft clay deposits. The development of deep-mixing was started in Sweden and Japan in the late 1960’s with the application of a single mixing tool to produce column-type elements (Figure 1. and the main purpose of the treatment is to increase stability (Allu Stabilisation System). L’analyse des résultats de ces essais a mis à l’évidence l’influence des divers paramétres de malaxage sur la résistance à la compression simple et sur le modul de déformation du sol traité. then. The parameters of the soil improvement technique were analyzed to study their influence on the settlement and the stability of the embankment. numerical modeling 1 INTRODUCTION Road and railway embankments have often been constructed on soft. Széchenyi István University. Le but de cette étude était de fournir un moyen de calcul qui permat le suivi des tassements et la stabilité de la digue. Győr. ainsi que ses avantages économiques. Szepesházi R. Hungary ABSTRACT: The deep-mixing is nowadays world-wide accepted method as a ground treatment technology to improve the permeability. The low strength and the high compressibility together with the low permeability and the high creep potential result in stability problems. the railroad crosses an area where the subsoil is soft chalky silt. saturated. La procédure consiste á malaxer. RÉSUMÉ : Pour l’amélioration de la pérméabilité. increase the shear strength and/or reduce the compressibility.Laboratory tests and numerical modeling for embankment foundation on soft chalky silt using deep-mixing Essais au laboratoire et modélisation numérique de la fondation d’un remblai sur un limon crayeux mou des sols améliorés par malaxage en profondeur Koch E. new technologies using different mixing tools or binder types have been introduced. due to environmental and land management considerations. 2521 Figure 1. Mass stabilization is preferred if the subsoil is very poor e. the mechanical properties of the improved soil were investigated in the laboratory. and long term secondary compression. The goal of deep-mixing is to improve the soil characteristics. Column-type deep-mixing Figure 2. reposant sur des colonnes de sol traité. This paper describes the preparation of their use at this project. Logar. such as lime or cement are mixed in-situ with the soil by rotating mixing tools. extremely large settlements with prolonged consolidation times. mass stabilization. KEYWORDS: deep mixing. The improvement occurs due to ion exchange at the clay surface. laboratory test. les liants: la chaux ou/et le ciment et le sol in-situ à l’aide de l’outil de malaxage par rotation. par rotation. The paper describes the results of laboratory tests on chalky silt samples mixed with cement of different content. 2012). the height of the embankment is low. One of the solutions to avoid these problems is deep-mixing stabilization of the subsoil. Recently. by mixing the soil with some type of chemical additives that react with the soil. cette technologie approuve un développement continu même dans nos jours. The influence of the different mixing parameters on the unconfined compression strength and deformation modulus is shown and evaluated. and the thickness of the mass to treat is less than 5 m. The method is undergoing rapid development. en fonction de la variation des paramétres de malaxage. Grace á la diversité technique et aux possibilités d’application de l’appareillage. cost effectiveness and environmental advantages. dont la teneur par éprouvettes était variable. bonding of soil particles and/or filling of voids by chemical reaction products. Binders. Ces résultats nous ont rendu possible d’appliquer le programme d’éléments finis PLAXIS 3D.. the effectiveness of the technology as embankment foundation was evaluated with the PLAXIS 3D finite element program using the laboratory test results. The „Sárrét” railway line rehabilitation is one of these projects. Typical results of the laboratory tests were used in numerical modeling with PLAXIS 3D as input parameters to study the behavior of a 4 m high embankment constructed on this soil improved by deep mixed columns with different spacing and diameters. tout en respectant les intéréts de l’environnement. strength and deformation properties of soils. peat. e.).g. en vue d’étudiar une digue de 4m de hauteur. the use of deep-mixing technology has been planned on several Hungarian railway projects. Both deepmixing technologies could be applied on this site. approximately 60 cm diameter single columns are used.

It is essential that the water content of the original soil is considered when calculating the water content of the slurry.2 305 6 6. The chalky silt responded well to cement addition. These would be acceptable for column-type deep-mixing. 0. Parameters of the mixtures  mix.22 2. Since the water content of the original soil was high the addition of water was less significant in comparison to cement. Soil properties of the chalky silt soil in „Sárrét” wL % 72. 3 and 8 (cement content = 150-175 kg/m3 ) was about 330 kPa. The water content of the soil is described with − wT / c = mw. − inpl = mcement / Vmix = binder weight / mixture volume [kg/m3].0 MPa 28-day unconfined compressive strength is required for column-type deep-mixing. 14.8·10-5· inpl3. the increase of unconfined compressive strength with time is shown. kg/m3 96 49 187 120 144 166 231 274 97 120 144 188 231 qu kPa 28 42 14 Figure 3.. but 3 of them would be acceptable for a mass stabilization. Samples with high water content 2522 . the texture has small roots and organic threads.8 178 4 2. The cement content dominated the behavior of the mixture. unconfined compressive strength qu [kPa] IP % 17. only P2 with a cement content of 50 kg/m3 should be considered as too weak. the main parameters of the original chalky silt are listed in Table 1.08 2.33 5. Measured hardening/strengthening of chalky silt mixtures 28 days unconfined compressive strength q u [kPa] 2. and for 90 days it increased to 500 kPa (50 %).5 162 9 3.74 3.5-2. 2. The binder quantity is described with the cement factor ( and the in-place cement factor (inpl): − = mcement / Vsoil = binder weight / soil volume [kg/m3]. 2003]. Evaluation of stabilized soil parameters In Figure 3. Table 2. These mixtures could be accepted for mass stabilization.3 127 2 4.0015 0. but the hardening/strengthening rate is different from that of the concrete. These mechanical properties are generally measured at 7. Measured relationship between qu – inpl Figure 5 shows how the 28-day unconfined strength depends on total water-cement ratio. 6 and 7) which have a cement content of 125 kg/m3 or less did not reach 200 kPa unconfined compressive strength. Based on laboratory tests. Generally.43 4. Mixtures 1-5 were prepared with lower water contents but highly varying cement contents. al.4 204 1 5. It has high lime content. The mixtures 6-10 were made with a little bit greater water contents and with cement contents varied in the similar range. The exponential trendline fits the points well with R2=0. it is classified as highly plastic silt (MH).4 153 3 3.4 70 12 303 58 196 301 655 1037 81 81 196 370 508 day 70 11 567 92 343 312 1351 2125 94 165 334 910 1162 80 17 418 69 235 297 878 1487 71 92 231 542 670 93 18 727 88 334 380 1384 2853 82 174 424 1024 1458 90 104 17 980 93 430 598 1900 2991 117 246 508 1559 1952 2500 2000 1500 1000 500 0 0 P1 20 P2 P3 40 1 2 60 3 4 5 80 100 hardening time t [days] 6 7 8 9 10 Figure 4 shows the relationship between the 28-day unconfined compressive strength (qu) and in-place cement factor (inpl). while it turns light grey when drying. The strength is less than 2.97. − E = the Young’s modulus [MPa]).1 1000 R ² = 0.47 q u = 4.038 Data of chalky silt mixtures In the testing program the use of both deep-mixing technologies was investigated. because the stregthening of the improved soft fine grained soils is a long process. Mixtures P1-P3 were made with low water contents and with slightly-varying cement contents.4 214 10 2.97 500 0 0 50 100 150 200 250 300 cement factor in-place inpl [kg/m3] Figure 4. the strength increases with time. 42 and 90 days after mixing.37 3. but the qualifying parameter is generally the 28 day unconfined compression strength [Filz et. Paris 2013 2 LABORATORY TEST RESULTS 2.ur c * MPa MPa 2.0 MPa for cement content of 50-300 kg/m3.48 6. 2.81 13.67 2. The soil changes its color if its water content changes: the in-situ moist soil is pale yellow.8 108 7 5.2 − the 28-day unconfined compressive strength of mixtures 2.3 wP % 54.43 3.54 5.1 inpl 2500 wT/c total water-cement ratio 2000 1500 2.Proceedings of the 18th International Conference on Soil Mechanics and Geotechnical Engineering.7 254 5 2. − the 28-day unconfined compressive strength of the rest of the samples with cement contents of 200-300 kg/m3 were 5002000 kPa with a 90-day to 1000-3000 kPa (50-100 %). As expected. Thirteen different mixtures were prepared by varying  and wT / c parameters (Table 2).mix / mcement = the total water-cement ratio [-].75 6.81 4. 2004).5 51 P3 3.1 15 0. 1.1 e Es Es.5 134 8 4.7 268 Properties of the chalky silt soil before treatment Based on the laboratory tests.wT / c ture kg/m3 P1 6.8 102 P2 13. These quantites can be expressed by volume or weight. The data presented in figure three indicate that: − 4 tested mixtures (P2. 28.4 7 3000 Table 1. and somewhat lower strength for mass stabilization (Moseley and Kirsch.1 Parameters of deep-mixing technologies The quality of the mixed depends on the applied binder type and quantity as well as the ratio of water to binder in the mixture. The quality of the mixture is generally described with two parameters: − qu = the unconfined compressive strength [MPa].7 w % 71. and high sensitivity.

). 1500 200 100 mixture 3.5 kPa distributed load was placed on top of the ballast during the stability analysis. If qu is too small. it is clear that the role of cement factor is significant. no matter how close. with a 5. The value of Poisson’s ratio was = 0.1 Eref qu cref 50 0 Figure 9.4×5. up to 0. In this respect. 52. When wT / c < 4 the strength increased rapidly with decreasing water-cement ratio. was used for embankment material.Technical Committee 211 / Comité technique 211 show very low strength.8-m diameter equivalent columns were placed in 2. 40000 600 300 5.0 and 3. − there is a relation between column spacing and qu.0-m and 3.0  3. Strength assigned to the column material in the analysis was assumed to be half of the unconfined compressive strength measured in the laboratory.4 188 5. − for partial and total mass stabilization settlements reduce rapidly as qu.4. Variation in soil layering. − final state (consolidation up to 5 kPa pore pressure).0 1000 R ² = 0.97 MohrCoulomb 500 1000 1500 2000 2500 3000 unconfined compressive strength q u [kPa] Figure 6.0-m square grids (Figure 8). but the effectiveness depends significantly on column diameter and spacing. Based on laboratory tests. model partial mass stabilization. − stability analysis considering traffic load.4-m square grids (Figure 9.4 MPa.6 120 3 embankment  = 20 kN/m 2 E = 50 MN/m = 40° = 10° 3.5 Figure 7. The geometry of the embankment and the parameters of the untreated soil are shown in figure 7. the column spacing scheme is efficient. the improvement is much less significant. increases.0 2500 12 14 16 total water-cement ratio wT/c [-] Figure 5. − construction of final embankment height in 30 days. 20000 300 150 4.0×3. It can be seen that the trendline fits very well. The PLAXIS 3D program was used to assess the effect of stabilization on stability and settlement. Groundwater level was assumed to be even with the ground surface. Column-type deep-mixing The unconfined compressive strength of the 5 mixtures was used for modeling as base parameters (Table 2).6 m Figure 6 shows the relationship between the unconfined strength and the Young’s modulus. The model geometry and soil properties 500 0  3.8 m MODELING OF DEEP-MIXING TECHNOLOGIES Site evaluation The second part of our research program was to apply a calculation method and give some guidelines for design. 3. Partial mass stabilization Table 2. but this also means the soil is very sensitive to changes in its properties.0 q u = 24000/(w T /c) 3.0-m uniform length extending into the gravel layer. the chalky silt of „Sárrét” behaves as expected: the modulus is proportional to unconfined strength. In order to kN/m2 kN/m2 kN/m2 1. At a higher qu. and improvement of soil with wT / c > 8 is not possible. 150 diameter of equivalent diameter of single column d = 0.4×2. the column spacing is no longer effective.6 and 5. (1) where the units are both in kPa. this strength is represented by the cohesion (cref). The equation from the figure can be simplified to Eu = 70·qu Young modulus E u [MPa] 250 200 Eu = 0.6-m and 5.4-m.2 Analysis of settlement reduction The results were evaluated by plotting the calculated settlements versus the unconfined strength of improved soil elements (Figure 10. 7000 100 50 2. Measured relationship between qu – E 3.068 · qu R 2 = 0. In PLAXIS.2 . 3. 2523 . soil strength and compression parameters. 70000 1000 500 The analysis modeled the construction and load stages in five steps: − placement of deep-mixing soil material.0×2. Total mass stabilization has been analyzed by modeling the treated soil as a homogeneous composite of mixed and in-situ soils with averaged strength properties. Mechanical parameters of the mixtures 100 0 3 Figure 8. and embankment height will dictate the choice of technology. suitable for structural fill. Beyond this value. − construction of initial 2-m high embankment in 30 days. 3. The columns were placed in 2. 1.4 m column distance   L = 2.0  3.6×3. 28 days unconfined compressive strength q u [kPa] railtrack inpl cement factor in-place 49 2000 1500 96 97 144 144 166 231 231 274 120 187 0.0 m 0 2 2 1:1.6 m column d = 1.97 soft soil Es = 2000 kN/m gravel E = 25 kN/m 2 4 6 8 10 cref = 10 kN/m 2 unsat=15 kN/m3 = 6°  = 22 kN/m3  = 36° distance of equivalent columns L = 2. A 3-m wide. Measured relationship between qu – wT/c column diameter d = 0. Both technologies (column-type and mass stabilization) were studied for expected design conditions at the Sárrét site.). Sandy-gravel. Young’s modulus for the columns was 70 times the unconfined compressive strength. Column diameters were 60 cm. The following conclusions can be drawn: − with increasing strength all technologies reduce settlement. Since the total water-cement ratio hardly changes.

(2004): Ground Improvement. a further refinement of the proposed method can be achieved by assessing and involving the cost-effectiveness of the alternatives in the Brinkgreve R.0 0. − total mass stabilization can be the most effective technology.8 1. (2003): Innovative Technology for Accelerated Const-ruction of Bridge and Embankment Foundations in Europe.0×2.. Finite element modeling was used to study the effectiveness of the mixing improvement. In the future. the relationship between unconfined strength and total water-cement ratio can be described with simple equations. Weatherby.qu 3. − the 0.2 0. Hayward Baker. J. SF = 1.3 Stability analysis The influence on sliding stability was evaluated by plotting safety factor as a function of unconfined strength (Figure 11. Moseley.4×5.0×3.4 value with the maximum strength investigated. Column-type deep-mixing and mass stabilization are effective soil improvement technologies to reduce settlements increase safety against slope failure.0 1.0 m square grid .0-m. The Netherlands.0 CONCLUSIONS REFERENCES safety factor SF [-] 2. 57-92.2 0.8 2.0×3.4 0. but not very markedly.J. Hodges.0 m square grid . Using the trends from the figures. C. 5 3.6 without treatment mass stabilization 2.0-m grid spacing and of the 1. Reston.6 m 2.4 m square grid .0 MPa can be reached by adding relatively small amounts of cement.E.0 m square grid .0 1.6×3. pp. (2010): PLAXIS-Finite element code for soil and rock analyses. W. Calculated relationship between s .0-m grid spacing than in 3.2 1. − 60-cm diameter columns are more effective in 2. 331-428.6 0.B. 2524 . Ground Improvement State of the Art in South Eastern Europe. Plaxis 3D.6 m square grid .8 m 2.0×2. D.8 m diameter equivalent columns in 3.0×2.18 and it could be significantly increased with even a slight amount of treatment.K.6 1.4×5. Symposium Baugrundverbesserung in der Geotechnik am 13. While it cures relatively slowly. 2.haywardbaker. September 2012 an der TU Wien.2 unconfined compressive strength q u [MPa] Figure 11.8 1. Kirsch.0×2. but quickly reaches a plateau.4 m square grid .6 m 2.).5 MPa. pp.0 m square grid . − the line for total mass stabilization shows a very different behavior. an adequate strength is reached in about 40 6-13. pp. − there is little difference between the reduction curves of the 60-cm diameter columns in 2. the required SF = 1. While the underlying chemistry may be complex.. pp. Manuals. Construction Techniques.d=1. although the settlements are halved at qu = 1 MPa for the larger grid as well.4 5.6×3. and Marr.8 m 3. the performance of the mixed material can be evaluated by standard laboratory and field tests. strength values. Column-type and mass stabilization scenarios were analyzed using strength and compressibility values from laboratory test results.6 m 25 E 70 · qu 20 15 10 5 0 0.1-13.d=0.8 1.35 value can be achieved with even small unconfined strength. The Young’s modulus of the chalky silt can be calculated as 70 times the unconfined strength.6-m grid spacing.d=0. al. Based on the figures presented.0 0.4 1.6 m square grid . Laboratory tests have clearly demonstrated that the Sárrét chalky silt is suitable for improvement by cement.1 MPa) the settlements are reduced to one-fourth. soil improvement is a frequently-used technique. Unconfined strengths up to 1.allu.6 0.A.A. G. Even for very small unconfined strengths (qu = 0. With 1. K. Taylor and Francis. et. − the four lines show that for qu > 0..aspx Logar.8 m 3. 40 settlement s [cm] 35 30 without treatment mass stabilization 5. − the most effective technology to insure stability is the partial mass stabilization. ASCE Geo-frontiers. It generates a high safety factor even for small Allu Stabilisation System.P. M. 4 For road and rail embankment foundations. the effectiveness of various solutions can be evaluated at the first design stages easily and rapidly.0 1. (2012).2 3. the settlements are halved at about qu = 0.6-m diameter columns with 3-m grid spacing is the least effective just reaching SF = 1. Calculated relationship between SF – qu The results can be summarized in the following: − the lines for different diameters and grid spacing are very similar (except for mass stabilization).4 0. 19-46. und 14. improvement is not necessary. http://www.8-m diameter equivalent columns and 3. D. Virginia.8-m diameter equivalent columns made in 5..Proceedings of the 18th International Conference on Soil Mechanics and Geotechnical Engineering.d=1. For untreated soil. Its uniform and predictable response to treatment allows the engineer to design the field improvement.2 MPa.d=1. Delft University of Technology  Plaxis bv. For example. 2003.d=1. Both technologies showed reductions in settlement and increase in stability.8 m 3. Beyond this point the mechanics of the stability failure changes with the failure surface travelling through the embankment slope only. London.6 m grid spacing is dramatic. an optimal solution can then be arrived at during the detailed design phase by making only some calculations with PLAXIS for the actual design conditions. Filz. FHWAPL-03-014. To prepare new railway rehabilitation projects the usability of both methods was investigated on a special soil type: chalky silt in Sárrét (Hungary).6 m 2.d=0.6×3. Paris 2013 − 60-cm diameter column-type improvements reduce the settlements linearly with increasing unconfined strength.4×5.4-m grid spacing.M. http://www.0 E 70 · qu 0. Dumas. (2005): Standardized Definitions and Laboratory Procedures for Soil-Cement Specimens Applicable to the Wet Method of Deep Mixing. (2010) Geotechnical Construction.0×3. Vermeer P. − the improvement with 1. GSP 136 Innovations in Grouting and Soil Improvement.2 unconfined compressive strength q u [MPa] Figure 10.

and phase 2 . the morphological composition of waste creates an additional factor influencing the mechanical parameters. The amount of slag and ashes disposed on Polish landfills and usable for the road embankment construction and land reclamation is 261. Since 1993 only non-composted waste from the compostory plant has been disposed there (approximately 300 tons/day). Department of Geotechnical Engineering. It is a landfill surface cover protecting against the rainfall infiltration (limitation of leachate penetration). Warsaw University of Life Sciences . The most significant element of the embankment type landfill reclamation process is the reinforcement and biological stabilisation of slopes. quality tests of sealing (capping layer and vertical barrier) and filter materials. ce qui comprend entre autres l'utilisation des matériaux de récupération et de recyclage afin d'obtenir des déblais et remblais stables et durables. In 2012. it is presented how secondary materials could be used as a vegetation development accelerating and enhancing material. The remediation works on the landfill have been carried out since 1994. The landfill stability improvement activities are divided into phase 1 technical reclamation (implementation of civil engineering techniques). Furthermore. soil and vegetation cover can be excellent alternative for the heavy engineering activities for the landfill slopes reinforcement. which among others includes utilising secondary and recycled material in order to obtain durable and stable cuttings and embankments. 2 3 1 INTRODUCTION. For both of them it is highly recommended to use such recyclable materials as sewage sludge and fly ash as a landfill reinforcement filling (CEN/BT. It provides good establishment conditions for the vegetation cover.biological restoration (establishment of the vegetation cover). The construction plan has already been accomplished and accepted by a legal body. recycled materials. The local landslides treatment. The in situ and laboratory tests for Radiowo landfill has been performed since 1993. Le papier propose des solutions d’ingénierie à ces problèmes. based on numerical analyses Évaluation des matériaux de renforcement bio-mécaniques qui influencent la stabilité des pentes par des analyses numériques Koda E. and could be successfully utilised in landfill reclamation process. Osinski P. the annual production of sewage sludge in Poland is also significant . Poland ABSTRACT: The article is an answer proposal for the conclusion stated in European regulations regarding the environment friendly and more sustainable development. in Poland the production of fly-ashes from the coal combustion was 18. il est présenté comment les matériaux secondaires pourraient être utilisés comme un développement de la végétation accélérant et en améliorant le matériau.. In order to prove the reliability and efficiency of such activities the laboratory material tests and numerical modeling of slope failures were conducted. mineral capping. The combination of carefully selected types of fly-ash. UTILISATION OF ANTHROPOGENIC MATERIALS One of the elements of the landfill reclamation process is the construction of capping system. The organic matter content for non-composted waste is ca. All the presented solutions are based on the analyses conducted at the Radiowo landfill site located near Warsaw. 2525 .8 mln tons. 2009). The techniques proposed in the paper mainly consist of the proper vegetation cover implementation on embankment slopes. the paper content provides the alternative engineering solutions to such problems. No protection system against the environmental pollution was introduced into the surrounding area at the start of the landfill operation. SITE DESCRIPTION The Radiowo landfill (embankment type) was established in 1962. geotechnical tests of waste. the reinforcement of earth structures by utilising geotextiles and a combination of those two. In the Radiowo landfill case. Les techniques proposées dans le document se composent principalement de la mise en œuvre de couverture végétale sur les talus. which is a requirement when considering new development plan for contaminated sites (for more detail please refer to Koda 2012). Nowadays.5 mln tones. the landfill site is planning to be adopted as a winter sports activity complex. which are very sensitive to several destabilisation processes like i. Additionally. The field investigation consists of settlement measurements. as a rich in nutrients fertilizer (Koda et al 2012). RÉSUMÉ : L'article est une proposition de réponse à la conclusion énoncée dans les règlements européens concernant l'environnement de développement favorable et plus durable. back analysis (as well as slope failure tests). les essais de matériaux en laboratoire et la modélisation numérique des ruptures de pente ont été effectuées KEYWORDS: slope stability. stability improvement solution. It covers approximately 15 ha and the altitude is 60 m high. sewage sludge. landfill. Bearing in mind that the slope stability and erosion control on embankments are the issues rising the nowadays geotechnics awareness through all around the world. and significantly enhances slopes stability. They include: slopes forming and planting. En outre. changes in further exploitation.e surface erosion. bentonite cut-off wall as a limitation of the groundwater pollution and a peripheral drainage.500 000 tones. The municipal solid waste was disposed there up to the early 90’s. Il est admis que la stabilité des pentes et le contrôle de l’érosion sur les remblais sont des problèmes qui apparaisse comme des priorités pour la géotechnique actuelle. and the reinforcement treatment were required. A location map involving cross sections selected for slope stability analyses is presented in Figure 1. le renforcement des structures en terre en utilisant par géotextiles et une combinaison des deux. reinforcement. 5 %.SGGW. Warsaw. vegetation cover. Afin de prouver la fiabilité et l'efficacité de telles activités.Assessment of bio-mechanical reinforcement materials influencing slope stability.

Mineral phases of the fly-ash (Koda and Osinski 2011). The chemical reactions proceeding during the coal combustion process produce mineral phases stated in Table 1. Current development plan of Radiowo landfill. Recently it was recommended to use geomembrane instead of mineral barriers to insulate the surface of the landfill.slope with grass carpets II. carbonates and clayey minerals.5-2 1-7 0. The mineral and chemical composition is determined by mineral elements present in coal. 2010). Table 1. Paris 2013 I I II II III III retaining wall Legend: designed ski slope I. and location of cross-section for slope stability analyses. flay-ashes mixed with cohesive soil are a great material for the capping system. Mineral phases Glass Millite Quartz Hematite Magnetite Coke % content of total mass 60-83 4-25 4-18 0. in many cases resulted in enhanced fermentation processes (Koda 2011). The properties of the flay-ash mainly depend on shape and size distribution of its particles.Proceedings of the 18th International Conference on Soil Mechanics and Geotechnical Engineering.slope with trees Figure 1. Applying mineral capping systems (made of ashes and sewage sludge).designed slope with grass III. Because of its appropriate geotechnical properties like impermeability and good compaction conditions. These minerals are: iron oxides.5-5 The additional anthropogenic component which also presents high usability in terms of slope surface reinforcement is sewage sludge (Katsumi et al. The flay-ash is basically a by product of the coal combustion process in power plants. The bulk density of ashes contains in the range of 2000-2500 kg/m3. The mineral elements of . 2526 The reason for this is some of the particles are filled with gas. however there are lots of disadvantages like decreasing slope stability or slowing down the bio-chemical decomposition of waste.

The assessment of the effectiveness of bioengineering activity on landfill slopes were undertaken after 1. During the selection of reinforcing material the mechanical properties and the stock was considered. Additionally it has to be mentioned that sewage sludge supply is free of charge. The viscosity of the sludge and its mixing ability with other components. 1P/2K. A seeding suspension consisted of a mixture of three types of grass seeds: lawn type (MT).3 m 1 .5 m 2 .0 m 3 /2 MT 1 4 /2 4 8 .0 m 2 . As a reinforcing material the geotextile (G) and geogrid (Gs) was used. however cannot exceed normative values of dry mass.3m 1 2 . 1 /1 MT 2 /1 MT 3 /1 4 /1 5 /1 MP MP G 1 P /1 K /1 6 7 8 9 10 11 MT MT MT MT MP MP 1 2 /1 1 3 /1 G G V o lu m e tric c o n te n t o f su b s tra te : 1 s a n d m e a s u re 1 . maximum dry bulk density. A powerful equation of FOS concerning a vegetation influence. Due to the usability assessment of the compost. The most significant advantage of using the sewage sludge is the nutrition content. CPT. Norris and Greenwood 2003. WST back-analysis 20 CPT. 2 c o m p o st m e a su re 1 . pasture type (MP) and “gazon” type grass seeds (G). 23 CPT. This kind of material is hazardous when disposed but when treated by vegetation and additives it is safely absorbed and utilized by plants. A composite (grass carpet) consisting of three elements was constructed: reinforcing material.0 m 5 /2 1 2 . These parameters are: root reinforcement forces. and also an increase of erosion control on landfill slopes.pure substrate (100% compost).5 m 1 2 /2 5 /3 1 3 /2 1 5. The usability of ashes and sewage sludge for the geotechnical purpose is determined by several physical and mechanical properties such as: capacity index in saturated conditions.3 m 1 2 . substrate and grass seeds mixture was prepared. potassium and organic matter. and passive capillarity. Shear strength parameters for municipal solid waste (Koda. Greenwood (2006) developed an equation. there were also bio-engineering techniques applied with additional use of geosythetics. Additionally. slopes where the vegetation cover was applied. The grass carpets were introduced in order to maintain the observation and to conduct further research on how does such solution influence conditions of slopes.0 m 5 /4 2. the numerical analyses involving the influence of reinforcing layer also proved the correctness of applied method on slope of section I-I marked on Figure 1 where location map is provided. A reinforcing material task was to connect particular elements of the carpet.0 26 c [kPa] Method failure tests.0m 1 . WST failure tests. The results are listed in Table 2. grain-size distribution. 6. Clark et al. while on the slopes where only traditional method of planting was applied.N u m b e rs o f v a ria n ts Figure 2. the slope conditions are significantly worse. swelling. Table 2. A substrate consisted of sand and compost mixture in three different volumetric proportions: 1P/1K. Swedish (GEO-SLOPE program) and FEM (Z-SOIL numerical program) methods were performed for three chosen cross-sections of Radiowo landfill slopes and were applied for the shear strength parameters verification.3m 1 . based on the limit equilibrium method. The polypropylene materials guarantee long term durability and resistance to aggressive environmental conditions. In Slip4EX the Factor of Safety can be calculated by using several equations developed by Greenwood (2006). 4 VEGETATION COVER AS A RELIABLE METHOD OF SLOPE STABILITY IMPROVEMENT Beyond described activities for the slope stability and erosion control improvement purpose on the Radiowo landfill. assure even and smooth protection cover. In the present study.P a stu re ty p e m ix tu re 1 P /2 K /2 G . changes in the pore water pressure. 3 m 1. Such activity was also conducted for Radiowo landfill site.Technical Committee 211 / Comité technique 211 G E O T E X T IL E G E O G R ID w i d th 2 . The mixture is applied by hydraulic seeders supplied with high pressure pumps. nitrogen.0 25 14.0 m the sewage sludge are developing slowly and are not exposed to the erosion processes. 2012). Some of them are highly valuable for plants (Koda 2011). as even after 10 years of grass carpets establishment the slopes are evenly covered with plants.0 m 2 5 . and moreover. 2003). The additional solution improving the slope stability is a proper establishment of high trees and shrubs on slopes (Coppin and Richards 1990.3 m 1.2 l a y e rs o f s u b s tra te K /2 1 P /1 K /2 M T .5 m 1 /2 1 5 . and 10 years of the experiment duration. CPT and WST tests were conducted on site. 2. Additionally an application of already described fly-ash and sewage sludge suspension on such slopes to accelerate the establishment of a green cover was also provided.3 m 2. and K.0 20 12. which enables spraying on different soil/material types.5 m 2 5 . The result of the observation confirms the reinforcing purpose of the method. proposed by Greenwood is as follows: 2527 . as it presents similar characteristics to other methods used in this study.„G a z o n ” t y p e m ix tu re 1 P / 1 K /1 1 P / 2 K /2 1 /1 1 /2 3 /2 8 1 1 1 4 /2 . improving the shear strength and hydraulics conditions.0 m w id th 1 . Scheme of the experimental plot established at Radiowo landfill slopes (Koda 2011).1:1 (1 measure of sand + 1 measure of compost). where parameters of plants existing on the slope are considered. 2011) Material non-composted waste non-composted waste + sand old municipal waste  [kN/m3]  [] 11.1:2 (1 measure of sand + 2 measures of compost).3m 1. Especially the undrained sludge is rich in microelement. For the results please refer to Table 3. A porous structure of geotextile and geogrid enhances establishment of the root zone deeper into the surface.0m 2 .0 m 2 1. high adhesion to the sprayed surface. Greenwood 2006). have been assessed to see whether implementation of plants affected the resulting stability significantly. Firstly.3 m 1 .0m 2 . phosphorus.0 m 4 /2 MP 1 4 /1 2 1. or related to these. 0m 2 /2 1 2 .L a w n t yp e m ix tu re 1 P /2 K /1 M P . The advantage of using sewage sludge is that seeds are protected from the erosion and excessive drying. The scheme of experimental plot is presented in Figure 2.0 m 1 . from organic waste as an enhancing material for the grass carpets. internal friction angle. or the mass of vegetation. essential for the vegetation cover establishment. The back-stability analysis by the Bishops'. Comprehensively analysed plant species were selected in terms of root system characteristics and assimilation ability in such specific ecosystem as contaminated land (Coppin and Richards 1990. wind forces. however the geotechnical parameters of waste had to be determined. however in this study the Greenwood General Method was used. WST 25 The computations of factor of safety including vegetation cover influencing slope stability were conducted with use of General Greenwood Method. an experimental plot was established within the compostory plant area (Koda. For such purpose back analyses.

P.control 2003 Root reinforcement sewage for the erosion on sanitary landfill on unstable slopes in Northern Greece Italy. Congress onReinforcement Env. basic solutionis as proper selection reclamation the surface of landfill an aalternative. The computations were based on Bishop method slopes. Scient. 3873-and 3890. modeling however long presented unstable long The termonly monitoring proved that no singscondition. GeoCongress 2012.15 1. solution this issue is are presented in simple.and 24 (3). The reinforcement slope reclamation does not require heavy other wastemethods. fly-ash 2012.32 Figure includingthe theinfluence influenceofofvegetation vegetationcover cover (cross-section III-III please refer to Figure Figure3.30 Greenwood method 1.. efficient. Nottingham. 2003.SLIP4EX – A Program for Routine Katsumi T.Stability Eng.T. and Barraclough P. Table 3. Inter. of failure however were noticed. 2006. J. a ski Koda slope E. The computations were based on Bishop methodwhich which wasemployed employed during during analyses analyses performed performed in was in GeoStudio2007 GeoStudio2007 software. 302-317. 2012. Paris 2013 (c  cv )l  (W  Wv ) cos   (U  U v )l  (U 2  U 2 v)  (U1  U1v ) sin   Dw sin  (   )  T sin   tan   F  (W    )  T cos   (c  cv )l  (W  Wv ) cos   (U  (U 2D U v)W l v )sin Uw2cos( v)  (U 1  U 1v ) sin   Dw sin  (   )  T sin   tan   F (W  Wv ) sin   Dw cos(   )  T cos  (1) (1) 1. 1990. material basic like compost be a great substitute engineering solution could as a proper selection and of implementation plants isreclamation always worth consideration. 24 (3). How do roots penetrate strong soil? Plant and Soil . StabilityX Conf.35 1. influence. control on sanitary landfill ofsewage fly-ashsludge and sewage Warsaw Univ. Noof384 Congress on Env. 110-117 [InMethod.32 1.. factor whichWG2003 often determines processes of slopereport failure.State Scien. is veryand positive. technique acceleratingoflandfill works.J. Geotech.35 1. Koda Geotechnical E. 2528 . and cost effective. Use of vegetation in civilWG2003 engineering. for HowRoutine do Slope Stability Effects of roots penetrate strongAnalysis soil? PlanttoandInclude Soil .. Geotechnical Engineering. 2012. “For city transport and environmentremediated landfills with the use of Observational waste management issues”. conducted. The initial results of numerical modeling for bare slopes has initial results of numerical for term bare monitoring slopes has presented unstable condition. 2010... Geotech. 449-465. Polish].3890. G. example of results of numerical vegetation on slope slopes. Comparison and vegetated slopes Factor of safety Factor of Vegetated safety Cross Section Bare slope slope Cross Section Bishop method Greenwood Bare slope Vegetatedmethod slope I-I 1.CIRIA Earthworks. N. N.2012. and Richards. “For city and environmentScien.R.stability for bare and vegetated slopes is presentedfor in Table presented in Table 3. No.R... Vegetation. The second step was to determine factor factor ofof safety safety influenced by plants. SLIP4EX – A P. itit is Slip4Ex is possible possible totoassess assess howthe thedistribution distribution and and type type of vegetation vegetation can how can influences influencesthe the FactorofofSafety. 6 REFERENCES which positively influences the erosion control on slopes. reliable proved that no of failure noticed. 3873. It also and implementation of plants always worthwhich. CEN/BT 2009. No. Koda E.and NewHydrological Delhi Vol.and 2011. Osiński P. Development plan of Radiowo landfill site. the paper. which positively influences the erosionworks.. Greenwood. J.Inui 2006. where with vv mean mean changes changes where all all the the parameters parameters indexed indexed with according suchparameters parameters accordingtotovegetation vegetation influence. X Conf. J.Engineering. erosionAnn.E.B. and Greenwood.. 2011. 2012. 1). 2011.30 1. . – Butterworths. and Hydrological Changes.J. 110-117 [In Polish]. or or vegetation effects. Land Reclam. Inuilandfills T. 43 (1). Scient..Numerical Numericalanalysis analysis of of slope slope stability stability including (cross-section III-III please refer to Figure 1)..42 III-III 1. J. Land Reclam. Slope erosion control the use and for thesludge. slope construction. Changes. and 2011. the [In 6th Polish]. 255.15 1. and Barraclough 2003. London. which relatively efficient. No. J. Warsaw. in Inter. the 6th of Inter.R. from the economical and environmental point of view. I. landfill Warsawsite. Slip4Exspreadsheet spreadsheet (Greenwood (Greenwood 2006). Theproblem partial The instability of slopes processes is one of the most significant solution forreclamation this issue processes is presented in the paper. SGGW Press. I. Clark L. 1. ASCE GSP No 225. No 384 [In Polish]. GeoCongress . London. 1-12.. and Reinforcement Richards. and Kamon M. Safety. 255.the 93–104... Ann. Warsaw. consideration. Program Clark L.of the Art and Practice in ASCE GSPUse No of 225. Eng. Comparison of numerical analyses of factor of safety for bare and vegetated slopes of numerical analyses of factor of safety for bare Table 3. definitely and reasonable compost cost couldeffective. The compost could be used for reinforced grass carpets production. 6 REFERENCES Coppin. solves the problem of theis ash storage from theIt is definitely and costenvironmental effective. geotextiles. Warsaw. (cross-section 3. is very positive.. slopes. 4 The reinforcement doessewage not require heavy cost effective. Usewith of fly-ash Koda andOsiński OsinskiP. Earthworks. Geotech.R.B. the ofEffects geotechnics for reuse of by-products. and Głażewski M. 414-418. The use of fly ash and sewage sludge for the reclamation of the surface of landfill is an alternative. Vegetation. Paris 2013 Proceedings of the 18th International Conference on Soil Mechanics and Geotechnical Engineering. J. SGGW Press. Inter. 93–104. Norris. public. 43 (1). Sustainable remediated withKamon the use M. environment friendly reasonable economical point of view. a CEN/BT 2009.. 414-418.32 II-II 1. 1990. J. Conf. KodaE. influenced by plants. Warsaw. TT (tensile (tensile rooth rooth strength) ininthe basically developed developedtotoassess assess theequation. The results obtained proved that the factor of safety for the The results obtained proved that the factor of safety for the slopes covered with plant was improved as much as 20%.32 5 CONCLUSIONS 5 CONCLUSIONS The instability of slopes is one of the most significant problem concerning reclamation of landfill sites. Proc.R. New Delhi Vol. a other waste material like compostprocesses could be of a great factor which often determines slopesubstitute failure. After After full full establishment establishment and Factor and grow growof ofproposed proposed plantsthe thenumerical numerical analyses analyses of of slope slope stability plants stability were wereconducted. The slopes covered with plant was improved as much as 20%. It is The humus for theofsurface layer establishment. Life slopes.This This method method was was basically the soil reinforcement reinforcement by by thestability stability of of slope slope according according to the soil anchors effects. Slope erosion control with the use KodaofE. which are relatively simple. The use ofofflyslope ash and sludge only for the engineeringofmethods. Thereand are available methods. force). equation.E. The availableformethods.only Furthermore. technique accelerating landfill reclamation Furthermore. geotechnics for reuse of by-products. Geol. 302-317. Final Feb. 1-12. Greenwood... 2003 Root reinforcement on unstable slopes in Northern Greece and Central Italy.State of theand ArtCentral and Practice Conf. 1.38 Bishop method 1. and Osinski P. of Observational Method. Whalley1 W. CIRIA – Butterworths. Whalley1 W. on Problematic Soils.3. Additionally Additionally such like strength) are arealso alsoincluded included likeDDww(wind (windforce). control on slopes. 2009.pollutant 449-465. Therepartial are concerning of landfill sites. transport from Koda E. G. The example of results of slopes numerical analyses for stability for bare and vegetated is analyses slope 3. 2009. be used environment for reinforcedfriendly grass carpets production. Sustainable Slope Stability Analysis to Include Proc. of humus for the surface reclamation layer establishment.42 I-III-II 1. Głażewski M. public.E.. and Geol. Nottingham. on Problematic Soils.sludge and Greenwood.Proceedings of the 18th International Conference on Soil Mechanics and Geotechnical Engineering. Development of Radiowo a ski Life and sewageplan sludge.ofThe reliable explanation forsings such state could were be a presence wellonly developed explanation stateThe could be a presence of well developed vegetation for on such slopes.R. Univ. and pollutant from construction. The second step was to determine software. Geotech. waste management issues”.38 III-III 1. and 2010. Firstly the the numerical numerical analyses analyses were Firstly were conducted conducted for for bare bare slopes. distribution of of high high vegetation vegetation cover AA distribution cover on on analysed analysed slope slope (cross-sectionIII-III) III-III)isis presented presented in in Figure Figure 3. Katsumi T. It also solves the problem of the ash storage which. fly-ash Norris. J.. No. Koda E. By By using using the the anchors oror geotextiles. Coppin. Final report Feb. Use of vegetation in civil engineering.

Choi Y. l is the drainage path length. therefore. it is revealed that the proposed analysis provides a reliable prediction on the consolidation rate of soft ground installed pVd. in this study. il s’est révélé que l'analyse proposée fournit une prévision fiable sur le taux de consolidation des drains verticaux installés dans les sols mous. is an area where has reduced permeability and increased compressibility comparing with an undisturbed soil. reduced permeability in the disturbed zone governs the rate of consolidation. and the consolidation settlement predicted by the modified solution is comprared with measured settlement data in the field. smear zone. modified analYtical solUtion hansbo’s (1981) solution has been widely used to evaluate the consolidation behavior with vertical drain. aBstract: the installation of vertical drains accelerates the consolidation process by reducing the drainage path and predominating horizontal flow within the soft deposits. Une étude paramétrique est notamment menée pour étudier les effets des propriétés du sol sur l'analyse proposée. because the hydraulic head loss in soil near the drain further increases when the permeability decreases. modification of hansbo’s solution is proposed to evaluate the degree of radial consolidation. many researchers insisted that the soil adjacent to the drain is remolded. de is the circular diameter influenced by the drain. 1991. 1987. hird and moseley 2000. Korea University Hong S. characterisitcs of the modified solution are discussed. modification of hansbo's analysis is proposed to analyze the degree of consolidation on a horizontal plane by considering the properties of the soil within the smear zone in this study.Evaluation of Vertical Drain-enhanced Radial Consolidation with Modified Analytical Solution Évaluation de la consolidation radiale améliorée par des drains verticaux par une solution analytique modifiée Lee C.. Environmental. ch is the coefficient of horizontal consolidation in the field. the radial consolidation of the vertical drain installed into the soft ground is governed by the permeability of a smear zone. KeYWords: permeability. hansbo’s solution is modified in this study. Ltd. called smear zone. and Architectural Engineering. sathananthan and indraratna 2006). Daelim Industrial Co. lo 1991).. 1991. it is simple and accurate as compared with other rigorous solutions and numerical analysis (onoue 1988. Lee W. Bergado et al. the validity of the proposed analysis is examined by comparison with the settlement data from a field measurement. the average degree of radial consolidation ( U r ) by vertical drain is U r  1  exp(8Th /  s ) (1) where. considering the consolidation characteristics of remolded clay. radial consolidation.. and qw is the drain discharge capacity. it is difficult to obtain due to the anisotropy of permeability and difference between laboratory and field measurement values (Bergardo et al. 1983. Vertical drain 1 introdUction 2 the radial consolidation flow into the vertical drain induces a reduction in the flow channel and an increase in flow rate approaching the drain. l'observation montre que l’équation proposée est relativement insensible à l'incertitude du rapport entre perméabilités horizontales entre les zones non perturbées et les zones d’influence. hansbo’s analysis is based on the horizontal flow characteristics of the undisturbed zone (kh or ch) to evaluate the radial consolidation. ks is the coefficient of horizontal permeability in the disturbed zone.J. on the other hand. la validité de l'analyse proposée est examinée par comparaison avec les données de tassement d'une mesure sur site. dw is the drain diameter. to analyze the radial consolidation based on the consolidation characteristics of disturbed zone. a parametric study is carried out to investigate the effects of the soil properties on the proposed analysis. chai and miura 1999). µs = ln(de/dw)+(kh/ks-1)ln(ds/dw)+π·z(2l-z)(kh/qw)-0. School of Civil. ds is the disturbed zone diameter.75. it causes that the hydraulic head is dramatically decreased as the distance to the drain decreases. kh is the coefficient of horizontal permeability in the undisturbed zone. th is a time factor (= ch·t/de2). since the permeability of drain is generally designed to be larger enough than that of soil. rÉsUmÉ : l'installation de drains verticaux accélère le processus de consolidation en réduisant les chemins de drainage et d'écoulements horizontaux prédominant dans les dépôts mous. however. lo 1991). it is known that the well resistance is negligible if the discharge capacity exceeds the required discharge capacity (holtz et al. according to hansbo (1981). the proposed equation is observed to be relatively insensitive to the uncertainty of the horizontal permeability ratio between the undisturbed and smear zones. Une modification de l'analyse de hansbo est proposée dans cette étude pour analyser le degré de consolidation dans un plan horizontal en considérant les propriétés du sol dans la zone d’influence. Technology Research & Development Institute. and several researches were investigated the smear effect by obtaining the permeability of the distrubed zone from the permeability of remolded clay (tavenas et al. in comparison with hansbo’s solution. the disturbed zone. 2529 . the installation of vertical drains induces a soil disturbance in the vicinity of the mandrel. however. the permeability of drain and soil near the drain control the rate of consolidation by the vertical drain. since hansbo’s solution assumes an equal vertical strain. toutefois. la perméabilité de la zone d’influence détermine le degré de la consolidation radiale induite par les drains verticaux installés dans les sols mous. the consolidation characteristics of the disturbed zone are homogeneous and isotropic due to the disturbance (lo 1991). the ratio of horizontal permeability between the undisturbed and disturbed zones (kh/ks).

With these assumptions.224 and 0. (b) proposed method is the same as the consolidation coefficients ratio between the undisturbed and disturbed zones (ch/chs). the consolidation tests were carried out for 50 samples for the natural clay and 3 samples for the remolded clay to figure out the consolidation characteristics of clay layers. the effect of kh/ks on the analysis results is investigated both hansbo’s solution and modified solution. other factors are maintained as a constant value (de/dw=25. which occurred in the interval between pVd installation and a surcharge loading. and these results are compared with observed settlements in field. respectively (hong 2011). the plastic limit (wp) exists in relatively narrow range from 20 to 30%.94 0.84 0. therefore. the clay layers of Busan new-port are divided into 3 layers for the consolidation analysis based on the soil properties.22 kh/ks=20 r 1. 3. respectively.0 5. and well resistance is ignored. 4) the shape of disturbed zone is a circular cross section. Paris 2013 table 1.8 22. 2) the void ratio reduction due to the disturbance around the drains occurs faster than the consolidation settlement under a surcharge load. Burland (1990) suggested that the e-log σ'v relation for the remolded clay: e r  e L ( A  B log  ' v ) (3) where. el is the void ratio at the liquid limit. because the rate of vertical drain-enhanced consolidation is governed by the permeability of disturbed zone (Basu and prezzi 2007).46 1.2 Consolidation properties of each clay layer in this study. the extent of the disturbed zone is evaluated from measured ground settlement. ground settlement that occurred without applying the surcharge load is mainly caused by the void ratio reduction due to the disturbance. the rate of consolidation settlement is evaluated by hansbo’s solution and modified solution.46 0. the rate of consolidation by hansbo’s method is continuously retarded with increasing in kh/ks. table 1 shows the void ratio.0 (10-4 cm2/sec) note.35 e0 1. therefore. the consolidation rate by proposed method (figure 1(b)) is slightly speeded up and finally converged with increasing in kh/ks. 3. µ’s = ln(ds/dw)+[ln(de/ds)+π·z(2l-z)(kh/qw)-0. 3.57 0.04 0. figure 1 shows the effect of kh/ks on U r  Th and U 'r  Ths curves.81 r 2. 3) the extent of the disturbed zone and the variation of the void ratio within the disturbed zone are a invariable property with depth. 3 application (BUsan neW-port site) the consolidation behavior in Busan new-port site is analyzed to verify the proposed analysis. Void ratio and compression index of each clay layer property layer 1 U el kh/ks=1 kh/ks=2 layer 2 r U 1.95 1.1 3. compression index (cc) and coefficient of consolidation (cv) representing the each clay layer. and a and B are constants. the clay layers can be presumed normally consolidated.0 cv 7. the void ratio of the clay adjacent to the drain is the same as that of the remolded clay at the same effective stress level. however.3 Extent of the disturbed zone in this study.78 cc 0. is important factor for the vertical drainenhanced consolidation. σ'v is a vertical effective stress (kpa). By using this condition. rearranged the average degree of radial consolidation ( U ' r ) is U ' r  1  exp(8Ths /  ' s ) (2) where. for Busan clay. ds/dw=5). the permeability reduction in the disturbed zone.Proceedings of the 18th International Conference on Soil Mechanics and Geotechnical Engineering. ths is a time factor based on chs. profiles of soil properties figure 1.256.65 1.32 1. the values of a and B are 1. er is the void ratio of the remolded clay. as shown in figure 1(a).1 Soil properties of clay layers the profiles of clay layer properties (Busan new-port) are shown in figure 2. the . effect of kh/ks on the degree of consolidation: (a) hansbo’s method. 2530 although ocr at shallow depth is slightly larger than 1. therefore.8 13. r: remolded clay kh/ks=5 kh/ks=10 layer 3 U 2 40 60 0 kh/ks=1 kh/ks=2 kh/ks=5 kh/ks=10 kh/ks=20 figure 2. U: undisturbed clay.34 4. several assumptions are made to evaluate the extent of the disturbed zone: 1) the soil adjacent to the drain is completely remolded. frequently represented as kh/ks. Busan clay can be divided into upper and lower clay layers based on el 30m. the natural water content (wn) and liquid limit (wl) vary 35~75% and 40~80%.57 0.75]/(kh/ks).

this ground settlement could be occurred by the two reasons: 1) void ratio reduction within the disturbed zone. the volume changes due to the disturbance induced by pVd installation can be expressed as: V    rs 2  H  e /(1  e0 ) V    [(r f 2 Case a (4) 2  r f  rt  rt ) / 3]  H  e /(1  e0 ) Case b (5) where. and qw=15cm3/sec are used for analysis.0 ch = cv in undisturbed zone. (2006) suggested the simplified µs for the linear spatial variation in disturbed zone (case b). shin et al. as shown in figure 5(c). and parabolic). the average degree of consolidation ( U ) is calculated by using carillo's suggestion (1942). 3. ch = cv no disturbance.0 in nature. calculated value of rt is 4. in case of proposed method.0 kh/ks or kh/kf = 5. Based on the pVd property. indraratna and redana 1998.4 Consolidation analysis the consolidation rate of Busan new-port is predicted using both hansbo’s method and proposed method. figure 4. 2009) were consistently insisted a decrease in the permeability or the void ratio within the disturbed zone. hird and moseley 2000.6 cm. however. it is necessary to know proper values of ch and kh/ks. most studies (onoue et al.8 cm of the ground settlement.0rm (8. the settlement rate for case b is calculated by the proposed method. dw=6. de=135cm. .g. ch = chs ch = cv in undisturbed zone.Technical Committee 211 / Comité technique 211 void ratio reduction (Δe) due to the disturbance can be evaluated from the liquid limit and the natural water content.1rm. the settlement rate at a certain time is underestimated to compare with the measured settlement. previous studies suggested that the rf is approximately 1. ch = chs in disturbed zone. two possible permeability variations within disturbed zone are considered. and h is the thickness of the target clay layer. although there are some differences in shape of variation (e. for cases a and b. as shown in figure 5(a). based on the consolidation test results. to consider variation of the permeability or the void ratio within the disturbed zone.0) is well matched with measured settlement within 100 days. kh/ks = 5. figure 5 shows the rate of consolidation settlement predicted by both hansbo's method and proposed method.8 cm. analysis conditions case 1 2 3 4 5 figure 3. case a assumes a constant permeability or void ratio within the disturbed zone (rs). to obtain the best result by hansbo's analysis. as shown in table 2.5 kh/ks or kh/kf = 2. ch = cv ch = cv in disturbed zone. therefore. linear. since the rf is assumed to be 1. 1991. in the analytical solution. the measured settlement that occurred between the pVd installation and surcharge loading is 85. figure 4 shows the ground elevation and total ground settlement during the entire period of the improvement. ch = chs in disturbed zone. the slightly underestimation of the settlement rate predicted with the presumed kh/kf value may occur due to the difference in the surcharge schedule. sharma and Xiao 2000). bilinear. table 2. case 4 (kh/kf = 5. 1991. case b assumes that the void ratio linearly increases from the value equal to er at the outer boundary of the fully disturbed zone (rf) to the initial void ratio (e0) of the undisturbed soil at the outer boundary of the transition zone (rt). all cases do not fit well with the measured settlement. and the measured settlement for the layer located above el -30 m.6rm (onoue et al. the consolidation settlement in the undisturbed zone is calculated as 13. and 2) consolidation settlement in the undisturbed zone due to the sand mat. however. since the typical value of ch/cv could be larger than 1. since the extent of disturbed zone is evaluated relatively large compared with the real condition due to an assumption for a constant permeability or void ratio within the disturbed zone.8 cm by using Zeng and Xie's solution (1989). where rm is the equivalent radius of the mandrel. the ground settlement caused by the void reduction within the disturbed zone is 71.0 cm). it is hard to calculate the values of rf and rt for case b because both rf and rt values are variables. proposed analysis (case a) results show in figure 5(b). hansbo's analysis for cases 1 and 2 overestimate the settlement rate compared with the measured one because the coefficient of horizontal consolidation in the disturbed zone is assumed to be the same as cv. kh/ks = 10. parametric study is performed for a set of different conditions.0~1. and then the consolidation settlement is calculated by considering the non-linear relationship between the consolidation settlement and the degree of consolidation. the suitable kh/ks ratio appears to vary with the assumed ch value. in this study. Ground level and settlement of Busan new-port site 2531 analytical condition hansbo’s method proposed method no disturbance. however. ch = chs in disturbed zone. kh/ks = 2. and then case 3 (kh/kf = 2.6 cm based on 71.0. Variations of void ratio in disturbed zone figure 3 shows two possible variations of the void ratio with radial distance from the center of the drain.0 the extent of the disturbed zone (rs) for case a is easily calculated as 21. Using this suggestion.5) shows good agreement with the measured settlement after 100 days.0 kh/ks or kh/kf = 10. for the linear spatial variation. Δe is the void ratio reduction due to the disturbance. ch = 2cv in undisturbed zone no disturbance.5 ch = cv in undisturbed zone. the kh/kf is presumed larger than 3. to evaluate effect of consolidation properties. Basu et al.

2011. Geotechnique 40(3). hansbo s. analytical solutions for consolidation aided by vertical drains. permeability of disturbed zone around vertical drains. 1983. part ii: permeability characteristics.h. 1987..X.. 180-184.. Jamiolkowski m. on compressibility and shear strength of natural clay.s. and redana i. effect of the smear and transition zones around prefabricated vertical drains installed in a triangular pattern on the rate of soil consolidation. Journal of Geotechnical Engineering 117(10). Zeng G. sathananthan i.h. 1998. and Balasubramaniam a. (b) proposed method with case a. 1509-1530. and leroueil s. 165-174. tavenas f. asakami h. J. the settlement rate predicted by the proposed analysis is well matched with the measured field settlement when the kh/kf ratio is 2. which corresponds to a certain degree of radial consolidation. detection of smear zone using micro-cone and electrical resistance probe. while. and prezzi m. and indraratna B. furthermore. Boulder.G. 1435-1438. sharma J. in the field.s. 2007. Basu d. Proceedings of 12th International Conference on Soil Mechanics and Foundation Engineering. 879-890. Basu p. 5 figure 5.. construction industry research and information association (ciria) report. Soils and Foundation 28(4).Proceedings of the 18th International Conference on Soil Mechanics and Geotechnical Engineering. When a constant permeability or void ratio within the disturbed zone is assumed. 2009. . hong s.J. characterization of a smear zone around vertical drains by large-scale laboratory tests. Journal of Geotechnical and Geoenvironmental Engineering 125(3).7rm.3. leblond p. carillo n. Korea University. 3443.2. doctoral thesis. the extent of the transition zone rt is estimated to be 4. and Xie K. and prezzi m. holtz r. laboratory evaluation of smear zone and correlation between permeability and moisture content. 1999.s. 1989.o. Jean p. 942-945... lee c. 2000. and moseley V. Canadian Geotechnical Journal 46(6). the extent of the disturbed zone rs is estimated to be 2. measured and predicted settlement rate for the layer above el -30m: (a) hansbo’s method. ting n. Geotechnique 50(1). 329-378.. investigation of factors affecting vertical drain behavior.t. Proceedings of 10th International Conference on Soil Mechanics and Foundation Engineering.. and lee W. Burland J. and miura n. the permeability of natural soft clays. 63-71. consolidation by vertical drains taking well resistance and smear into consideration. model study of seepage in smear zones around vertical drains in layered soil.sweden.1265-1271. Proceedings of 1991 ASCE Geotechnical Engineering Congress. 216-226.. Soil improvement by vertical drains. 645-660. the extent of the disturbed zone is evaluated using two possible void ratio variations within the disturbed zone. research project 364. Journal of Mathematics and Physics 21(1). Paris 2013 within the disturbed zone. Evaluation of geotechnical properties of Busan Newport clay. lo d. proposed analysis gives the almost identical U 'r  Ths curves when the kh/ks value becomes larger than 20. 89-97.5 with a linear spatial distribution of the permeability 2532 references Basu d. the radial consolidation enhanced by the vertical drain is discussed with the analytical method existed. and Whitman. for Busan new-port site. Vol. 1981. Vol. for the linear spatial variation within the disturbed zone.K. (c) proposed method with case b the surcharge load is assumed to be applied all at once. 2006. Canadian Geotechnical Journal 37(6). smear effects of vertical drains on soft Bangkok clay. stockholm.719-726. lee J. 2. Brazil. consolidation of fine-grained soils by prefabricated drains..c.t.. new development of the vertical drain theories. and Xiao d. 1991. Bergado d.c. Journal of Geomechanics 7(1). through parametric study and comparison between the calculated and measured settlement rates. Journal of Geotechnical and Geoenvironmental Engineering 132(7). 1942.1rm with the same equivalent radius between fully disturbed zone and mandrel (rf = 1. 1990. Geomechanics and Geoengineering: An International Journal 1(1).c. alfaro m. 1988. the time factor for proposed analysis (ths). slightly decreases as the degree of disturbance increases. 1991.. the results are summarized as follows.. and pedroni s. doctoral thesis.V.h. 2006. Journal of Geotechnical and Geoenvironmental Engineering 124(2). University of illinois at Urbana-champaign. however.B. 4 conclUsion in this study. 1991. lancellotta r. 11-18. colorado.. indraratna B.. simple two and three dimensional cases in the theory of consolidation of soils.W.J. and the modified solution is suggested. rio de Janeiro. Germaine. hansbo’s analysis shows that the time factor th increases for a certain degree of radial consolidation. chai J. 677-682.. hird c. 2000.0rm). as the degree of disturbance increases. Vol. Performance of prefabricated band-shaped drains.. the proposed method has advantages to evaluate the extent of disturbed zone and it is less influenced by the disturbance effect than hansbo’s method.d. onoue a. Canadian Geotechnical Journal 20(4). shin d. r. onoue a. the surcharge load is applied incrementally. laboratory determination of smear zone due to vertical drain installation.

three different binders were tested. from this model minor excavations were performed for soil sampling. maX iV.1 Geotechnical testing the pre-investigation of the geology included geotechnical sounding as well as geophysical measurements as well as core drilling through the soil layers down into the bedrock. Sweden aBstract: in lund a new next-generation synchrotron radiation facility are under construction. in order to achieve a monolith the binders’ setting time was critical since the soil is stabilised in 0. the soil consists of clay till with high clay content. 1. the tolerance is 26 nm (1 s rms above 5 hz) and this requires a very good damping from external and internal vibrations. different solutions were discussed and simulated during the design phase and the best performance was achieved with a four meter thick layer of stabilised soil below the concrete foundation. close to max iV runs a major highway which will introduce ground vibrations. the seismic velocity testing was performed according to a methodology developed at lund University and tested on 2533 . Sweden Rydén N. Lund University. p-wave. the alternative that best fullfilled external and internal damping was a 4 meter thick stabilised layer underneath the concrete slab.Adjusting the soil stiffness with stabilisation to minimize vibration at Maxlab IV – Asynchrotron radiation facility in Sweden Ajustement de la rigidité du sol par stabilisation pour minimiser les vibrations à Maxlab IV. le liant qui répondait le mieux aux exigences à la fois de conception et de construction était une combinaison de chaux vive et de laitier granulé de haut fourneau (slGhf). the geology consists of 12 to 16 meters of soil (clay till) on top of the bedrock. lime alone would not work with the sandy silt till. 1 introdUction max-lab is a swedish facility for materials research based on synchrotron radiation. sesmic testing. the results indicated that the cracks were introduced during construction of the stabilised layers. ce centre nécessite des techniques exceptionnelles pour les travaux de terrassement sur le chantier. will be 100 times more efficient than any now existing comparable synchrotron radiation facility in the world. during the seismic testing of the mock-up cracks were found in the stabilized material. however.  cement/slag (80/20)  lime/slag (50/50) during the construction phase of the mock-up. cement and slag. fe-calculations as well as seismic measurements performed on the mock-up showed that a shear wave velocity needed to be at least 900 m/s in the stabilised soil.two different binder recipes were chosen from the initial laboratory testing. the location of the new max-lab is placed just outside the city of lund in southern sweden. maX iV. au cours de la phase de conception. ce qui nécessite un très bon amortissement des vibrations internes et externes. vibration. KeYWords:soil stabilisation. the clay till from this area have been tested in a earlier study and the combination of lime and slag was discovered to be efficient in this type of soil (lindh. les exigences de vibrations sont très strictes par rapport à la norme de terrassement traditionnel. un centre de rayonnement synchrotron en Suède Lindh P. the vibration requirements are very stringent compared to traditional earthwork standard. the layer in question was milled 50 mm down into the layer below to ensure interaction between layers. the slag was ground granulated blast furnace slag (GGBfs). 2004). lime. the high clay content indicated that lime should be used to break up the clay. de nombreuses combinaisons de liants différents ont été testées pour répondre aux critères de conception concernant le module sismique. the binder’s working period was not sufficient to guarantee that the next layer could be milled into the stabilised bottom layer without causing cracks. cement and slag were chosen due to the current weather conditions and the time schedule for the mock-up. est en cours de construction à lund. the binder to best meet both design and construction requirements were a combination of quicklime and ground granulated blast furnace slag (GGBfs). the new version. the major parts of the soils were clay till with layers of silty sand till. des solutions différentes ont été discutées et simulées au cours de la phase de conception et la meilleure performance a été réalisée avec une couche épaisse de quatre mètres de sol stabilisé en dessous de la fondation en béton. Peab Anläggning AB. the clay till contained up to 40% clay and the sandy silt till has low clay content. rÉsUmÉ : Un nouveau centre de rayonnement synchrotron de dernière génération. several foundation alternatives vere discussed and some of them were tested with fem-simulations to determine which alternative that fullfilled the requrement of damping both external and internal vibrations. this facility requires extraordinary techniques for the earthworks at site. after the in-situ investigation and evaluation a geological model for the site was developed. la tolérance est de 26 nm (valeur efficace 1 s rms au-dessus de 5 hz). this resulted in a change of binder to a combination of lime and slag (50/50).in this case it corresponds to a compression wave velocity (p-wave) of 1430 m/s. en raison de la réalisation d'un monolithe. le temps de durcissememt était critique puisque le sol est stabilisé en couches de 0.35 meter layers were the next layer are mixed into the layer below.35 mètre dont la couche suivante est mélangée dans la couche de dessous. the soils were classified and an extensive testing was performed to evaluate which binder or binder combination that was optimal for the soils. since the facilitiesare sensitive to vibrations an extensive measurmet program of background vibrations vere executed. max iV. during the design phase many different binder combinations were tested to meet the design criteria regarding seismic modulus. le sol se compose de till argileux à forte teneur en argile.

the different samples are denoted ps9 and ps11 in the figure. figure 4. the lowest frequency peak corresponds to a fundamental mode longitudinal resonance frequency of 2074 hz which corresponds to a p-wave velocity of 1043 m/s. the testing procedure also included sampling from the stabilised soil when the mixer had made two mixing passes. the longitudinal resonance frequency of 2074 hzcorresponds to a p-wave velocity of 1043 m/s for sample 2. the difference in p-wave development is shown in figure 3. Paris 2013 cement stabilised soils (rydénet samples were prepared to measure the early strength development. this resulted in a small drop in p-wave velocity. in order to study the development of p-wave at different temperatures two pairs of specimens were manufactured. 2006). figure 2.different frequency modes for sample number 2 after 56 hourscuring.a result from seismic in-situ measurement along the surface of the stabilised layer is presented in the figure. it does however give an idea of how low temperature will affect the stabilised soil in-situ. the drop in velocity after 1240 hours is caused by removing the samples from the plastic mould. there was a great variation in the development of p-wave velocity versus curing time for different samples.92Vs) of 800 m/s at the time for measurement. 2534 . the production sample denoted ps9 required more than 2400 hours achieving the limit value of 1430 m/s and the sample ps 11 did not achieve the required limit.. in figure 2 the measured frequency is shown together with higher frequency modes. pulverization and evib measurement with the compaction roller. see figure 3. most of the production samples (ps) were stored in room temperature to ensure the same conditions compared with the laboratory compacted samples. the samples needed approximately 500 hours of curing in 20 degree celsius to meet the requirements regarding p-wave velocity. the seismic measurements of the prepared samples were performed several times every 24 hours for the first 400 hours.development of compressive wave velocity with time for 1200 1000 2200 Sample 1 Sample 2 Limit 800 2000 1800 0 200 400 600 800 1000 1200 1400 Curing time (h) figure 1. the top layer has almost reached a surface wave velocity (~0. the seismic testing will be followed up in future with testing on the concrete slab. the sample ps 9 was stored at room temperature and the sample ps 11 was stored at outside air temperature.  Variation in water content  Variation in density  Variation in grading (clay content)  Variation in the degree of pulverization 1400 figure 3. however. storing a specimen in an outside air temperature is not fully correct compared to the in situ conditions due to larger volume of stabilised soil and in the in-situ case the heat transfer is one dimensional. the in-situ measurement of the stabilised soil is performed with the same equipment as used for sample testing.after more than 1200 hours the samples were removed from the plastic mould that supported the samples during compaction and in the beginning of the curingperiod of the samples. see figure 1.the figure shows the development of compressive wave velocity with time. P-wave velocity (m/s) 600 1600 PS 6 PS 5 1400 800 PS 6 PS 5 PS 6 PS 5 PSPS 11 PS 2 PSPS 22 PS 1 1200 1000 PS 6 PS 6 PS 5 PS 5 PS 6 PS 5 PS 1 PS 6 PS 5 PS 6 PS 5 PS 6 PS 1 PSPS 15 PS 6 PS 5 PS 2 PS 2 PS 9 PS 9 PS 11 PS 9 PS 11 600 PS 1 PS 9 PS 11 11 PSPS 2 PS 9 PS 11 PS 9 PS 9 PS 9 PS 11 PS 9 PS 9 PS 9 PS 11 PS 11 PS 11 PS 9 PS 9PS 9 PS 9PS 9 PS 9 PS 11 PS 11 PS 11 PS 11 PS 11 PS 11 PS 11 PS 11 400 PS 9 PS 11 200 0 200 400 600 800 1000 1200 1400 Curing time (h) reference and production samples. after compaction the p-wave velocity was measured and compared with the laboratory mixed samples. however. mcV. 1800 1600 P-wave velocity (m/s) the causes of this variation were a combination of different parameters such as. the stabilised soil that would be tested was excavated and transported to a field laboratory for compaction in plastic moulds. one pair was stored in room temperature and the other pair was stored at outside temperature. the target shear wave velocity after curing is 900 m/s.Proceedings of the 18th International Conference on Soil Mechanics and Geotechnical Engineering. the in-situ testing involves the whole volume and gives a true value of the stabilised soils’ performance. an example of the in situ seismic measurements is shown in figure 4. 2 in-sitU measUrements the quality testing in-situ was done both as ordinary testing with binder content.

acKnoWledGements the authors acknowledgepeabanläggning opportunity to publish this data. it has also been shown that seismic testing works very well for both laboratory and in-situ testing of stabilised soils. 5 aB for the references lindh p. the binders’ working period has also been an important issue to ensure a crac-proof construkton. and lindh p. report 66 rydén n. august 3-4. 2004. stuttgart. lUtVdG/tVGt-1013 / swedish Geotechnical institute. division of soil mechanics and foundation engineering. 2006 / dGZfp .. has been proven that it is possible to achieve a homogenius stabilised monolitic ring with a circumference on 528 meters and a depth of 4 meters. department of Building and environmental technology. in this project the soilstabilisation has been a key issue to meet the requrements regarding vibrationsin a cost effective way.lund University.and strength properties of stabilised and unstabilised fine-grained tills.) lecture 34.proceedings BB102-cd (deutsche Gesellschaft für Zerstörungsfreie prüfung e. advanced testing of fresh cementitious materials. 2535 .Technical Committee 211 / Comité technique 211 3 4 conclUsions soil stabilisation with binders increases the stiffness (emodulus) of the soil and thereby changes the resonance frecuency of the soil. 2006.V. sGi. ekdahl U. the homogenity of the stabilised material is a result of an extensive testing program in both laboratory and full scale. Quality control of cement stabilised soil Using non-destructive seismic tests.


dumping activities and sand-filling activities). RÉSUMÉ : Dans un important projet de développement portuaire à Singapour. Parmi les défis relevés durant ce projet étaient la grande profondeur des eaux à l’emplacement de la digue de confinement (> 25m) et le volume du trafic maritime dans les eaux de Singapour vue que le site se trouve à proximité du terminal portuaire existant. Maritime and Port Authority of Singapore (MPA).K. Singapore Lam J. Figure 1 Location of project site in Singapore (Google image) 2537 . filled mechanically with sand or other fill material. Des instrumentations et mesures approfondies ont été menées pendant et après la phase de construction pour vérifier la conception.P. National University of Singapore (NUS). dredging activities.K.W. A “geotextile tube” is a tubular container (diameter 1m to 10m) that is formed in-situ. Singapore Chew S. Cette étude présente le facteur clé dans la conception innovatrice et la construction d'une digue de confinement en géotextiles. Surbana Corporation Pte Ltd. The barge will then move to the desired position. Tan C. which is located at the Southern part of Singapore water (Figure 1). de même que la performance du système de digue de confinement en géotextiles. and the bottom of the barge will open allowing the containers to sink into the sea at the intended location. This containment bund. Housing and Development Board (HDB). a containment bund using modified geotextile tubes (M-GT) filled with cement mixed soil has been constructed. containment bund. Department of Civil Engineering. 2006). is being constructed by systematically stacking of modified geotextile tubes (M-GT) and filling of cement mixed dredged soil.Construction and Performance of Containment Bund Using Geotextile Tubes Filled With Cement Mixed Soil in Singapore La construction et la performance de la digue de confinement utilisant des tubes géotextiles remplis de terre mélangée au ciment à Singapour Loh C. This containment bund forms part of the Pasir Panjang Terminal Phase 3 & 4 Expansion Project.e. Singapore Lim S. de déversement et de remplissage au sable). KEYWORDS: Geotextile tubes. In addition. On the other hand. The containment bund also serves as a retaining structure to retain dredged materials during the sand-key construction and other port expansion works. instead of usual sand fill. Among the challenges faced in this project were the great water depth of this containment bund location (>25m) and high traffic volume in Singapore water course as the site is next to the existing operating port terminal. le sol dragué est mélangé avec du ciment avant d’être utilisé comme matière de remplissage dans cette digue. a été construite. and sewn the top opening to form into a closed “container”.. During the project construction phase. on land or in water. the dredged soil mixed with cement was used as the fill material in this bund. En outre. by hydraulically filling the tube with sand or dredged material (Pilarcyzk.Y. “geotextile container” is made of geotextile sheet laid onto a split-bottom barge. au lieu du remplissage au sable habituel. Extensive field instrumentation and monitoring were carried out during and post construction phase to verify the design. cement mixed soil. as well as ascertain the performance of the geotextiles containment bund system. A typical cross section of the geotextile containment bund is shown in Figure 2. The main purpose of this bund is to create a containment area to contain any sediment plumes due to construction activities (i. The volume of these containers can range from 100m3 to 800m3. Le but principal de cette digue est de créer une zone de confinement afin de contenir les déblais de sédiments provenant des travaux de construction (c’est-à-dire travaux de dragage.H. une digue de confinement utilisant des tubes géotextiles modifiés (M-GT) et remplis de terre mélangée au ciment. La digue de confinement sert également de structure de retenue pour retenir les matériaux de dragage lors de la construction de la tranchée d'étanchéité et d'autres travaux d'extension de port. 1 INTRODUCTION A containment bund consisting of modified geotextile tubes (MGT) filled with cement mixed soil has been constructed for a major port development project in Singapore. this bund serves as a retaining structure to retain dredged materials and at the same time contains any sediment plumes arises from construction activities from being transported towards the nearby forest reserve area by currents. This paper presents the key consideration in the innovative design and construction of a geotextile containment bund. 2000) and Lawson. termed as a geotextile containment bund. Singapore ABSTRACT: In a major port development project in Singapore.

which is 260kN/m2. The length of bund 1 is 500 m and bund 2 is 1800 m. After taking into account of soil variability and the factor between the laboratory test result and in-situ achieved results. settlement and deformation. the kinetic energy of the falling tube is converted to elastic energy. In order to satisfy the stability criteria of the geotextile containment bund. and was used as in-fill material in the M-GTs and as the core of the geotextile containment bund as shown in Figure 2. is being pumped into the modified geotextile tube via the inlet ports that are available at the top face of the M-GTs. 5) Stabilized phase of the M-GTs − The final shape of the tube attained depends on a number of interrelated factors such as the volume of fill. which combines the structure / shape of a “geotextile tube” and the method of installation of a “geotextile container”. there are a few stability criteria that have to be fulfilled: Stability against hydraulic force of waves and current. This is because the installation of the tubes at water depth of 25m is deemed to be ‘extreme’ in the field installation of geotextile tubes and containers. for practical reasons. However. The theoretical maximum volume of M-GT is 490m3. High tension in geotextile is expected to be experienced at this stage. Paris 2013 The modified geotextile tube (M-GT) introduced in this paper is an innovative application. a) Two geotextile containment bunds were constructed in this project. local stability against slip failure. 4) Impacting onto the seabed − At the point of impact. the filled volume is only about 290m3 or 60% filled in this project. namely:1) Filling of the M-GT − The dredged material mixed with cement. (Lawson. 2006). 2) Opening of split-hopper barge − the bottom of the splithopper barge opens slowly to allow the exit of the filled M-GTs through its opening. Bund 1 was constructed first in order to provide a staging ground for other construction activities at the site. and dredged materials from port extension works have been mixed with cement to form into Cement Mixed Soil (CMS).3x200. drag. The installation process of the M-GT consists of five (5) main phases. 2006). 4 PERFORMANCE OF CONTAINMENT BUND The performance of the bund has been monitored during and after the construction through an extensive instrumentation plan. The construction sequence of the bund is illustrated in five steps (Figure 4(a) to (e)). 2538 USE OF CEMENT MIXED SOIL (CMS) AS IN-FILL MATERIAL Discarded soil from other excavation projects on land or sea in Singapore. etc. Tensions are generated in the tube due to the balancing of these forces. from a cone shape into a transitional cylindrical shape and eventually into a semi-oval shape or rectangular shape (Pilarcyzk. . the targeted in-situ unconfined compressive strength is state as 1. (2010). internal shear resistance of the fill material and the stiffness of the geotextile material (Lawson. buoyancy. There are a number of equations and formulas available for the determination of the tension development in some of the stages mentioned above. 2000). known as cement mixed soil. The equations used in the design of MGT in this project can be found in Chew et al. The layout and length of the bunds are shown in Figure 3. The tensile strength of the geotextile material is one of the major design parameters.Proceedings of the 18th International Conference on Soil Mechanics and Geotechnical Engineering. The diameter of M-GT is 5m and the length is 25m (limited by barge length). which will reshape the tube. Figure 2 Typical cross section of geotextile containment bund   3) Free-falling of M-GTs onto the seabed − Air pockets inside the tube or container during free-falling would exert certain forces onto the geotextile and cause higher strain (Pilarcyzk 2000). d) b) e) c) Figure 4 (a) to (e) Construction sequence of geotextile containment bund (cross-section view) Figure 3 Length of geotextile containment bund 1 and 2 (Plan view) 2 DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION OF GEOTEXTILE CONTAINMENT BUND 3 In the design of this bund. fill weight. the cement mixed soil has to achieve a design value of unconfined compressive strength qu of 200kN/m2. local stability against sliding failure.

Out of the 11 instrumented clusters. Figure 7 Location of inclinometers at CH. The profile of the bund can be plotted using the survey results as shown in Figure 5. 1370 (Figure 7).0 CD  25  29  ‐‐‐  ‐12. (2011) and it showed that high tensile forces of about 180kN/m were recorded at the bottom of M-GT during the impact onto the seabed.0 CD  24  ‐‐‐  ‐‐‐  ‐6. Table 1 Settlement of containment bund Figure 6 Instrumentation cluster installed in the containment bund The results from the inclinometers installed at the top and side faces of the bund are discussed here. where the maximum deflection occurred close to the bottom of the bund. Figure 5 Profile of completed bund 1 After the completion of the bund. One of the key parameters was that monitored closely is the strain development of the M-GT at different stages. This shows that the containment bund has remained stable throughout the period of other construction activities that occurred during this period.Technical Committee 211 / Comité technique 211 A total of 28 numbers of M-GTs were instrumented and monitoring at various stages of the installation process. a total of 11 instrument clusters have been installed to monitor the performance of the containment bund during other construction activities such as the filling of dredged soil behind the containment bund and soil improvement works for the dumped material within the containment bund. 2539   Settlement (mm)  Elevation  Extensometer  Extensometer  (Center)  (Side)  Settlement  plate  Top  ‐‐‐  ‐‐‐  11  ‐3. The settlement measured by extensometers installed on the top and side instrumentation clusters and settlement plates at the top of the bund are given in Table 1. Hydrographic survey was used to monitor the shape of the installed M-GTs.0 CD  18  8  ‐‐‐  . The overall construction progress of the bund was also tracked using hydrographic surveys that were conducted every 5 days. Figure 8b shows the lateral deformation at the sides of the bund.0 CD  26  40  ‐‐‐  ‐9. The location of the inclinometer is at CH.e. The lateral deformation in the section perpendicular to the centre line of the bund is plotted in Figure 8 for both top and side inclinometer. 6 of them were placed at the top of the bund and the remaining was installed to monitor the slope of the bund by using a staging.5m (Figure 8a). which is one of the performance indicators of this design. The measurement was taken at 911 days after the completion of the bund at that location. which shows one of the completed bund.0 CD  17  23  ‐‐‐  ‐15. The results of the monitoring during the installation process were presented by Chew et al. The accuracy of the installation was determined by using survey results conducted before and after the dumping of the instrumented M-GTs. The lateral movement above the surface of the bund (side inclinometer) indicates that the dredged filled material has been placed onto the sides of the bund and at the same time being treated. The cross section of the instrument clusters is given in Figure 6. which was also found to be within 10mm. -5m to +10m). Higher lateral deformation of up to 30mm was also recorded by the inclinometer at elevation above the bund (i. 1370 of the bund (Plan view) The inclinometer readings show that the maximum deformation of the bund centre is 10mm at elevation of -8. The settlement readings showed that the geotextile containment bund filled with cement mixed soil has remained stable and performed as expected throughout the construction period of this project.

The 1st International GSI-Asia Geosynthetics Conference.K.W 2000. Pilarczyk.W..H. Application of Geotextile Containment System in Coastal. Geotextile containment for hydraulic and environmental engineering. 2010. Design and Construction of Containment Bund using Geotextile Tubes in Singapore.. and deemed to be suitable as in-fill material for geotextile tubes and the core portion of a containment bund. The innovative use of discarded soil from other excavation projects on land or sea via mixing with cement is proven to be a good fill material.. C..Y. Field measurements of lateral deformations and settlements showed that the bund has performed well within the design limits and expectations. Tan.3 kilometres in Singapore. 2540 REFERENCES Chew. Geosynthetics and Geosystems in Hydraulic and Coastal Engineering.Proceedings of the 18th International Conference on Soil Mechanics and Geotechnical Engineering. C. The 8th International Conference on Geosynthetics. and Tan. Beach and River Restoration Projects. Paris 2013 (b) (a) Figure 8 Lateral deformations measured from inclinometer at: (a) top of the bund. Loh.P. C.A. J. Lim. 2006.W. 2011. C.. Yokohama. K. (b) side of the bund 5 CONCLUSION 6 The construction of the geotextile containment bund using modified geotextile tubes (M-GT) filled with cement mixed soil (CMS) has been completed successfully over a total length of 2. This CMS material was shown to be able to achieve highly uniform and well controlled properties. Balkema. Hong Kong Chew. . Lawson. H. S. Rotterdam. The 14th Asian Regional Conference on Soil Mechanics and Geotechnical Engineering. S.. Taiwan. Lam.Y.H. S.K. Japan. Tan.

Maher and Ho (1994). Consoli et al. It is not guaranteed. Hong Kong is a modern city with growing population. KEYWORDS: laboratory tests . The short discrete fibres used in the tests presented here were similar to those used by Silva dos Santos et al. Des essais de laboratoire ont été faits sur du granite complètement décomposé en utilisant du béton projeté et des fibres courtes en polypropylène comme matériau de renforcement. but it is mainly applied to landscaping of otherwise stabilised slopes. b) the type of fibre and its specifications (fibre length. for example as a green cover on an existing shotcreted slope. e.. Maher and Ho. Using randomly distributed short discrete fibres in Hong Kong completely decomposed granite (CDG) could help stabilise the soil while keeping the density low enough to allow growth of vegetation. but these studies have been generally done independently and have not always been consistent. (2010) ont utilisé les données obtenues au cours d’années de recherche pour développer un modèle de comportement pour un sable quartzitique uniforme renforcé avec des fibres en polypropylène. (2009a).. Il n’est pas garanti cependant qu’un sol résiduel a la distribution granulométrique bien calibrée comme le CDG se comportera de la même façon que les sables utilises par les chercheurs précédents. Santoni et al. The topology of Hong Kong has led to urban development on natural or man-made slopes. Gray and Al-Refeai (1986). Laboratory tests have been carried out on completely decomposed granite using short discrete polypropylene fibres as a reinforcing material. and is one of the most common geo-materials in Hong Kong. that a well graded residual soil like CDG would behave in the same way as sands used by previous researchers. par exemple pour la plantation de surfaces de pentes recouvertes de béton projeté. Le comportement du mélange CDG-fibres lors de l’essai triaxial drainé en compression es tpassé de dilatant a contractant avec plus d’effet aux pressions faibles. It was found that the fibres increase the unconfined compressive strength of the CDG prepared at its maximum dry density by up to tenfold for fibre contents less than 1%. Hong Kong.N. These tests seem to indicate that discrete fibres could be considered for improving the performance of CDG..A.. Crockford et al. The fibres are randomly distributed in the soil. Santoni et al. (2009a). Crockford et al. 2 MATERIALS AND METHODS Completely decomposed granite was used as the host soil. but these studies have been generally done independently and they have not always been consistent (Silva dos Santos et al. 2010). Santoni et al. mais ces études ont été généralement faites indépendamment et elles n’ont pas toujours été synthétisées. Baudet B. Conventional methods of stabilising slopes such as shotcreting the whole face of the slope (current practice) are neither cost effective nor environmentally friendly and alternative sustainable methods are being sought after. RÉSUMÉ : L’utilisation de fibres pour renforcer les sols ont déjà fait l’objet de nombreux travaux de recherche e. Hong Kong ABSTRACT :The use of discrete fibres as reinforcing material for soils has been researched by many. residual soil 1 INTRODUCTION Adding fibres to soil can be an effective way of strengthening it. with more effects at low confining pressures. 1994. In Hong Kong. It originates from in-situ weathering of the parent igneous rock. (2010) used data gathered through many years of study to develop a framework of behaviour for a poorly graded quartzitic sand reinforced with polypropylene fibres. Crockford et al. (2001). Coarser particles are usually of quartz origin owing to its high chemical resistance while finer particles are most likely other primary hydrous minerals. fibre content and its aspect ratio). (1993). Consoli et al. 2. so that engineers are pressed to optimise land utilisation. however.. Silva dos Santos et al. On a trouvé que les fibres ont pour effet de multiplier par presque dix fois la résistance en compression simple du CDG préparé à sa densité sèche optimale. Les essais paraissent indiquer que l’utilisation de fibres courtes pourrait être considérée pour améliorer la performance du CDG. The University of Hong Kong. 2001. 1986. Gray and AlRefeai (1986). This paper presents initial results from laboratory tests performed on completely decomposed soil reinforced with discrete fibres. Many researchers have produced a large body of research on the performance of discrete fibres with soils (Gray and AlRefeai. Silva dos Santos et al. (2001). A Hong Kong. Completely decomposed residual soils are well-graded in nature as the tropical climate has weathered the parent rock to a material comprising gravel and sand grains down to silt and clay-sized particles. A careful study of the mechanics of the fibrereinforced soil will help practising and design engineers to understand better its behaviour under different loading conditions. mais l’application se limite à l’aspect paysager de pentes déjà stabilisées. 1993. 2009a). The behaviour of the fibre-CDG mixture during drained triaxial compression changed from dilative to compressive. the construction industry has used reinforcement with continuous fibres for some time. (1993).g. reinforced soils . (2010). Les fibres sont distribuées de façon aléatoire dans le sol.1 Materials tested The completely decomposed granite (CDG) host soil was obtained from a construction site near Beacon Hill. l’industrie de la construction a utilisé des fibres continues comme moyen de renforcement depuis longtemps. such as 2541 . pour une teneur en fibres de moins de 1%. The factors influencing the effectiveness of the fibre-reinforced soils are a) the type of soil and its deformation behaviour.g. L’utilisation de fibres courtes distribuées de façon aléatoire dans le granite complètement décomposé de Hong Kong (CDG) pourrait aider à stabiliser le sol tout en gardant sa densité assez basse pour permettre à la végétation de pousser. by providing tensile strength at high strains. Maher and Ho (1994).Reinforcement of completely decomposed granite with discrete fibres Renforcement de granite complètement décomposé avec des morceaux fibres Madhusudhan B. Consoli et al.

Particle size distribution of CDG.02. Table 1.37 for pure CDG specimens and 0. Loose specimens were prepared. The membrane and area corrections were made as per the recommendations proposed by La Rochelle et al. Test v0 vc UR 100 1. The specific gravity of the soil was found to be 2. ensuring Skempton B values of at least 0. avoiding macro-voids and taking care of minimising membrane penetration. Looser specimens were difficult to prepare due to the presence of macro-voids which caused an initial collapse of the specimen.42 for CDG-fibre specimens.5% fibre are presented in figure 2. They are chemically inert and have uniform characteristics.Proceedings of the 18th International Conference on Soil Mechanics and Geotechnical Engineering. The plot clearly shows that the specimens of reinforced CDG yielded at very high strain. Using the Unified Soil Classification System (USCS) the soil can be classified as clayey sand of low plasticity (SC-CL). Unconfined compression of CDG and fibre-reinforced CDG. then it was sieved to constituent particle sizes so that the samples could be prepared in exact proportion as shown in figure 1. 2.5mm/min in all cases. resulting in void ratios after consolidation within the same range as those for the dense specimens. Only dense specimens were prepared for the test programme.92 throughout the testing programme.6% respectively.42 1. methods and sample preparation 3. After performing a series of unconfined compression tests on CDG reinforced with a range of fibre contents (0.1 TEST RESULTS Unconfined compressive strength Representative unconfined compression test results on pure CDG and CDG + 0. 3 3. with a relative density of 0. contributing an additional tenfold strength to the soil.4 OCR 5 1 1 5 1 1 The void ratios determined after consolidation (before shearing) were found to vary between 0.6% and 35. Figure 2. Tests on particles finer than 425μ indicated the plastic and liquid limits to be 25.58 1.6 98. Details of the tests are shown in Table 1 (UR and R refer to unreinforced and reinforced specimens respectively).32 UR 200 1.0 210.2 Triaxial Testing Drained triaxial tests were performed using a conventional triaxial apparatus with a computer controlled GDS cell and back pressure controllers. The triaxial tests were run at a low 2542 Triaxial shearing Triaxial drained tests were performed on isotropically consolidated specimens of pure CDG and reinforced CDG (Table 1). From Standard Proctor compaction tests. discarding particles above 5mm.3 – 1%). Summary of the triaxial tests. The axial strains were measured outside the cell using a standard displacement transducer.32 and 0. a tensile resistance of 120MPa.3%. The particle sizes passing 2mm diameter sieve were used for preparing specimens in a 38mm diameter.9 499.9 202.37 UR 500 1.2.2 2. Figure 1.91.01% per minute to ensure no excess pore pressure development within the sample (this was checked by measurement at the opposite end of specimen). The stress-strain and volumetric responses during shearing are shown in figure 3.2. (1988).36 R 200 1.32 R 500 1.48 1.32 R 100 1. The samples were saturated under back pressure and the effective confining pressures ranged from 100 to 500kPa. On the other hand unreinforced CDG yielded at very low strength (131kPa) and low strain. The soil was first soaked in water with a deflocculating agent and left for air drying.93Mg/m3 with an optimum moisture content of 12. 76mm height mould at maximum dry density and optimum moisture content. The dimensions of the fibres used in the tests were 0.41 pc'(kPa) 112.1 Uniaxial Compression Test Unconfined compression tests on CDG and CDG+fibre soils were performed in a uniaxial compressive testing machine.023mm in diameter and 24mm long (Silva dos Santos et al. The grain size distribution (shown in figure 1) reflects that the soil has 16% particles finer than 63.43 1. Some specimens were over-consolidated by a ratio of OCR=5 before being sheared.4 499. The fibres used are short filaments made of polypropylene similar to those used by Silva dos Santos et al.2 axial strain rate of 0. Saturation was monitored in each test.58 1. 2012). an elastic modulus of 3GPa and a range of linear deformation at rupture between 80% and 170%. The void ratios are calculated averaging from that obtained by the initial density of the sample and the final moisture content. The stress-strain response (figure 3a) shows that the reinforced specimens generally have higher . Paris 2013 kaolinite and feldspar (Yan and Li. The compression tests were performed at 0. In all tests the difference in specific volume compiled was less than 0. it was decided to continue the study with 0.. 2010).3% of fibre per weight in the triaxial tests. 2. the maximum dry density of the soil was determined as 1.65. (2010).32 and 0. taking account of the measured volume change in all the stages.42 1. The specimens of 76mm diameter and 152mm height were prepared in a sample preparation mould. The shearing tests were performed with a constant effective stress on specimens of both unreinforced and reinforced (with polypropylene fibres) CDG soil. Testing apparatus.

depending on their consolidation history. In the present study. (2010).1. (a) (b) Figure 3.Technical Committee 211 / Comité technique 211 strength and higher initial stiffness at the beginning of shearing. Similar behaviour on fibre-reinforced sands is reported by Consoli et al. Previous findings on Botucatu residual soils (Consoli et. The pure CDG specimens converge to a unique critical state stress ratio ranging from M=1. while at higher effective stress this effect is not so evident (figure 3b). which was also observed in the stress-strain behaviour.57 . did not follow the frictional trend but showed much less volumetric deformation up to critical state. The end of test points are also plotted for the reinforced specimens but no attempt has been made in this paper to define the critical state envelop for fibre-reinforced CDG because at low stresses. which is similar to what was found by Silva dos Santos et al. However the reinforced specimens that mobilised their full strength only did so at shear strains in excess of 20%. but the effect of over-consolidation is new and more test results are required to explain it within the critical state framework. The reinforced CDG specimens tested at effective stresses of 200 and 500kPa converged to a critical stress ratio of M = 1. it tends to dilate after 20% shear strain even though it is expected that reinforcement will impede dilation. Stress-strain-volumetric response of CDG and fibrereinforced CDG sheared at different effective confining stresses. which may have released some of the tension in the fibres prior to shearing.14. (2010) who found that the critical state lines of the unreinforced and reinforced specimens converge at large stresses of the order of 5MPa. show a typical frictional behaviour. The over-consolidated specimen of reinforced CDG shows a different volumetric response i. R100) was also observed by Consoli et. For example Silva dos Santos et al.26 (500kPa) times that of the pure CDG. reducing marginally with increasing effective stress. For sands..61. the specimens were sheared to strains up to 50% and it is clear that the strain hardening behaviour of specimens R200 and R500 stopped beyond s>35% to reach a critical state. as was done by Silva dos Santos et al.57 to M=1. R100 kept gaining strength and never reached critical state even at large strains (about 50%). al (2005) on Botucatu residual soil. (2010) on fibre-reinforced sand. The deviatoric stress and corresponding mean effective stress in the test that reached a stable critical state are plotted in a q-p' plane in figure 5. The effect of the fibres on the volumetric response of the reinforced CDG in comparison seems to be that of restricting the degree of dilation in the specimen sheared at lower effective stresses.76 (100kPa).. For the lower effective stress of 100kPa (R100). adding fibres contributes to reducing the degree of dilation in the reinforced specimens (Silva dos Santos et al. (2010) found that the effect of fibres depends on the effective stress at which they are sheared. The over-consolidated specimens. The unreinforced specimens on the other hand either reached a constant stress by 20% strain or they showed strain-softening. More tests are required over a larger range of stresses to do so. Figure 4.83. however their data were limited to strains of about 25%. when compared to their unreinforced counterparts. 2010). reinforced and unreinforced. This is found to be consistent with critical stress ratio M = 1. The stress-dilatancy behaviour of CDG (black symbols) and reinforced CDG (grey symbols) samples tested at different effective stress are shown in figure 4. This behaviour is again either due to over-consolidation or to low effective confining stress. This may have been caused by locking of the fibres during compression and swelling prior to shearing. Consoli et. the specimen reached a higher stress ratio of M = 2. Unlike the other reinforced specimens. 2543 .61. The peak strengths of reinforced CDG were calculated to be 1.e. 2005) and other pure sands may be extrapolated to normally consolidated CDG. Stress-dilatancy response of CDG and fibre-reinforced CDG. This may be due to the overconsolidation history of the specimen. The governing mechanism for the strain hardening behaviour of R100 specimen might therefore be due either to the effect of low effective stress or to the effect of overconsolidation. or a combined effect. 2007. 1.57. obtained from the stress-dilatancy plot (figure 4). All normally consolidated specimens. it is already reported that at low effective stress. The persistent strain hardening behaviour (figure 3a. al. These points form a critical state envelope for the pure CDG with a critical state gradient M=1. UR100 and R100. the deviatoric stress does not stabilise (figure 3a).29 (200kPa) and 1. al (2005) and Silva dos Santos et al.

and Ho Y. J. Géotechnique. Crockford W. Geoenviron. (1986). but more work is needed to confirm it. noticeably in the stress-dilatancy response. 258–268.. Strength and life of stabilized pavement layers containing fibrillated polypropylene.C. Geoenviron. Geotechnique 45 (1). Geosynthetics Int.D.T. British Standards Institution. Mechanical response of medium-fine-grained decomposed granite in Hong Kong. 3.R. Changes to particle characteristics associated with the compression of sands.S.. ASCE 112. Consoli N.D. No. 5. Engng. Festugato L.C. and Al-Refeai T. 804–826. Géotechnique. (2009b). 6. 791–799. Initial results also seem to indicate that the over-consolidation ratio affects the performance of the reinforced CDG. Dalla Rosa F. Effect of relative density on plate tests on fibre-reinforced sand. Behavior of fabric versus fiber reinforced sand. ASCE 127. No. Critical states and end of test points for CDG and fibre-reinforced CDG in q-p' plane. Engng.H. Casagrande M. and Webster S. 1434–1436.A.W. but with different critical state stress ratios (M) for the fibre-reinforced specimens depending on their effective confining stress. and Coop M.S. (2010). Thomé A. Tingle J. No. Heineck K. Engng . Engng. and Coop M.5% fibres content in the soil prepared at maximum dry density and optimum moisture content. Unique critical states were reached for the unreinforced CDG and reinforced CDG tested at high effective stress.R.C. 8. No.L.. 2544 BS 1377:1990.D. as well as its initial stiffness. Geotech Geoenviron. (1995). Geotech..C.L. Gétechnique 61.M. and Coop M. ASCE 131. Engng. 10. The University of Hong Kong) for providing the Unconfined compressive test results. No. Engineering properties of sand–fiber mixtures for road construction. J. No. Santoni R.S. Consoli N. Lee I. 5 ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS The authors wish to acknowledge Ku Hei Man. 60.S.P.H. 4 CONCLUDING REMARKS The results presented indicate that using discrete fibres can be an effective means of reinforcing CDG. 1418.P.S. Engineering Geology 129-130 (2012) 1–8.Proceedings of the 18th International Conference on Soil Mechanics and Geotechnical Engineering. Grogan W. The mechanics of fiber-reinforced sand. 16. Shear strength behavior of fiber-reinforced sand considering triaxial tests under distinct stress paths. The unconfined compressive strength tests showed a tenfold increase in strength with 0. Consoli N. Silva Dos Santos A. Effect of fiber reinforcement on the isotropic compression behavior of a sand. Figure 5. (2005).N. Transpn Res.. 471–476.C.K. 59. Methods of test for soils for civil engineering purposes. 11. Casagrande M.70211 is gratefully acknowledged. Maher M. The stress-dilatancy was found to be frictional for all normally consolidated specimens.. ASCE 120. The intrinsic behaviour of a decomposed granite soil. (1993). 2. 109–115. Consoli N.. Dilation was also found to be reduced. 459–471. 11. No. . 117–130.R. Strainhardening behaviour of fibre-reinforced sand in view of filament geometry. Paris 2013 6 REFERENCES Altuhafi F. Rec. 60–66. No. 1466–1469. Yan W.T. London Consoli N.T. No. (2012). and Chill D. Geotech.C. 1381–1393.. and Li X. Mechanical properties of kaolinite/fiber soil composite. specifically at low effective stresses. (2007). Casagrande M. 8. and Baudet B. J. (1994). Geotech.. and Coop M.R. In triaxial drained tests. Gloria (final year project student 2012. The financial support provided by Hong Kong Research Grant Council GRF No. and Fahey M.. adding fibres seems to increase the shear strength by up to two times the strength of the unreinforced specimens. (2009a). J. J. Gray D. Geotech. (2001). (2011). ASCE 133. and Heineck K.

2 As2 Dvc 5. This newmethod for improving the soft ground under embankments helps control ground deformation. In this paper.81@8=22. especially in the areas adjacent to the embankment toes. Twodimensional finite element analysis was adopted to the case and foundeffective for simulating the performance. Also proposed is a design flow for the new method that efficiently determines the best arrangement of deep mixing columns and walls. nous présentons les concepts et les fonctions générales de l’application hybride de méthode de « Deep Mixing » sur des colonnes combinées à des murs. Yokohama. Miki et al.0m Deep mixing methods have been widely used in Japan for the foundation systems of embankments constructed on soft clayey ground. Taisei Corporation.. Une méthode d’optimisation est également proposée en vue de déterminer de manière efficiente la meilleure disposition des colonnes et des murs. Cette nouvelle méthode d’amélioration de sols mous sous remblais aide à contrôler la déformation du terrain. not only under the embankment but also adjacent to the embankment toes. and various low improvement ratio arrangements have been proposed (Miki and Nozu 2004. KEYWORDS:soft ground improvement method. deep mixing method 12. RÉSUMÉ : Dans cet article. 10. JAPAN ABSTRACT: In this paper. Numerical parametric studies were carried out to compare the new method with conventional methods.5m 7.0m 2. we introduce theconcepts and general functions of a hybrid application of deep mixing columns combined with walls. Also proposed is a design flow for the new methodto efficiently determine the best arrangement of deep mixing columns and walls.48m 37. This reduces the volume of soil that must be improved and limits the ground settlement under the embankments.76m 3. numerical parametric studies were carried out to compare the new method with conventional methods.2m 1 Outside piles 16. La méthode a permis de limiter efficacement la déformation induite de la surface du sol à un niveau cible.6m 1.48m 2.8 Ac1.Geological profile and arrangement of the deep mixing columns and walls at theconstruction site where the method was applied.Hybrid Application of Deep Mixing Columns Combined with Walls as a Soft Ground Improvement Method Under Embankments Application hybride de la méthode de « Deep Mixing » sur des colonnes combinées à des murs en tant que méthode d’amélioration des sols mous sous remblais Matsui H. mais aussi dans les zones adjacentes aux pieds de talus. Nous décrivons brièvement un cas dans lequel la méthode a été appliquée sous un remblai d’une hauteur de 7 m. Two-dimensional finite element analysis was adopted to simulate the performance. the concepts and general functions of the method are introduced. 2009.2m Ac2. Horikoshi K.8m 39.. The method effectively restricted the induced deformation of the ground surface to a target level. Des études paramétriques numériques ont été menées pour comparer la nouvelle méthode avec les méthodes classiques. embankment construction in urban areas requires strict control of ground deformation.76m 2. 2009) as a method of improving the soft ground under embankments to control ground deformation. Ishii H. finite element analysis. The authors propose a new hybrid application of deep mixing columns combined with walls (Tsutsumi et al.2 36. which Figure 1. 2011).2m Section view 6. Finally. Une analyse par éléments finis en deux dimensions a été appliquée à ce cas et s’est avérée efficace pour simuler les performances.6m 3.0m Plain view 2.9m 37. Typical of recent applications is to achieve limited soil improvement— around 10-20%—through an arrangement of soil improvement columns.0m INTRODUCTION 21.0m 3.3 Walls Dvs 9.0m 2 CONCEPTS AND GENERAL FUNCTIONS OF A HYBRID APPLICATION OF DEEP MIXING COLUMNS COMBINED WITH WALLS 1:1. We brieflydescribe a case in which the method was applied under an embankment 7m in height.7m 4.2m 1. Ishikura et al. non seulement sous le remblai.0m 3. Technology Center. Moreover. 2545 .5m 2.2m Inside piles Ac2. The paper then describes a case in which the method was applied under a tall embankment 7 m in height.2m The basic concept of this method is to place deep mixing walls in the ground directly under the embankment slopes.5m 1.

too. 3000 300 Table 1.20m Dvs GL ‐41. Due to the symmetry of the embankment. 400 600 Elapsed days (day) ‐100 18600 6000 12600 4@2810 2600 3000 1:1 1760 . The vertical strain measured in the walls is shown in Fig.Material properties used for numerical model 800 Limit value :± 20mm 10m Embankment 0 7000 Figure 3 shows the settlement history of the ground surface at the center of the embankment. Deep mixing piles are placed inside and outside the walls to restrict vertical and horizontal deformation caused by the embankment. 2. the geological profile and mechanical properties of the deep mixing columns were analyzed using Plaxis 2D Ver. Before the embankment was constructed. settlement plates and pressure gauges were installedfor the purpose of taking measurements. This method is designed to economically satisfy the limit value of settlement by optimizing and minimizing these parts in the design. so a large volume of settlement could be expected after constructingan embankment 7m in height. The soft clay at the construction site was about 40 m thick. large the walls prevented deformation under the embankment. Subsequently. 1 was determinedto be optimal. keeping the settlement around the embankment below the limit value.8 Steel wire H steel Geotextile Ac1‐2 Outside piles 21200 Work outline Result of construction 200 Figure 3.20m Inside piles 39200 3.In the improvement case. 3 No treatment 2 Ac2‐2 GL ‐21. Inside piles: Columns placed in the ground directly under the crown of the embankment. 7. 3. 200mm of settlement occurred one year after embankment construction. Figure 1 shows an example of the arrangement of deep mixing columns and walls at a site. Figure 4 shows the settlement history fora one-year period after the construction road was removed. This part transfers the load of the embankment slopes.5%.0MN/m2. was kept below the fracture strain value.and three-dimensional effective stress analysis. Adjacent area: Lateral and horizontal displacement since the start of construction is equal to or lower than 20 mm.2 No treatment 2546 1000 Settlement after construction  of embankment (mm) 100 Walls 200 300 Improvement 400 No treatment 500 0 10 20 30 40 50 Distance from center line of embankment (m) 60 Figure 4. The same figure also shows a similar settlement history. Therefore. the arrangement shown in Fig. The numerical model is shown in Fig.60m Figure 5. Starting date of  service Improvement 0 0 Figure 2. Paris 2013 Out l i ne of embankment Settlement of  embankment (mm) I nsi de pi l es Out si de pi l es Wal l s 8 6 4 500 1500 3. Walls: Walls are placed in the ground under the edges of the embankment crown. TRIAL EMBANKMENT The effectiveness of this method was demonstrated in a road construction project along the Ariake Sea in Kumamoto Prefecture. many of the arrangements were compared using two. In the improvement case.Ground surface after soil improvement. only half of the geometry was considered for the model.20m Walls Ac2‐3 GL ‐31.9. observed at a trial embankment nearby with no subsoil treatment.3 Back-analysis To investigate the applicability of two-dimensional effective stress analysisunder actual construction conditions.History of ground surface settlement in at the center of the embankment. This part bears a large part of the embankment load and prevents the soil from moving.Distribution of ground surface settlement after construction of the embankment. and the arrangement hadan improvement ratio of 18.00m Dvc GL ‐36. Each column had a design strength of 1. Some parts of the proposed road were close to residential buildings. This part transfers the load from the center part of the embankment to the deep layer. this. settlement converged in both cases. Starting date of  service 2000 GL ‐1. After considering all of the above. 5. a limit value for deformation was set not only for the embankment but also for the area adjacent to the embankment. Embankment: Settlement sincethe start of service is equal to or lower than 300 mm. During the design stage. as described below.50m As2 GL ‐11.02.90m GL ‐4.Section view of the numerical model.1 Improvement 1000 0 bear the embankment loads as well as the lateral movement of the soft ground.Height of  embankment (m) Proceedings of the 18th International Conference on Soil Mechanics and Geotechnical Engineering. The function and placement of each pile and wall are explained below. Outside piles: Columns placed in the ground directly under the embankment slopes. The distance from the embankment . The ground surface after soil improvement is shown in Fig.

Technical Committee 211 / Comité technique 211



Settlement of
Embankment (mm)








Elapsed days (day)



Figure 6.Settlement history of ground surface in center of the


Limit value:
± 20mm






Distance from center line of embankment (m)


Figure 7.Distribution of ground surface settlement after construction of
the embankment
Horizontal displacement of walls after
construction of embankment (mm)
‐40 ‐20


Vertical strain of walls after
construction of embankment (με)
‐500 ‐1000 ‐1500

Depth (m)

In this method, the piles and walls are effectively arranged
according to the limit values of deformation in the embankment
and the adjacent area. Due to the countless combinations of
planar arrangements and improvement depths, arbitrary
parametric studies require considerable time to identify
optimum arrangement. Therefore,the following3-step method is
proposed fordetermining the optimum arrangement.
1) Determine the planar arrangement: First, walls are placed
in the ground under the edges of the embankment crown. Next,
inside and outside piles are arrangedequidistantly by an amount
not less than the necessary improvement ratio α, defined as



Settlement after construction
of embankment (mm)

toe to the lateral boundary is 80m. As a boundary condition of
deformation, the bottom surface was fixed. The side surface was
free verticallyand fixed horizontally.As a drainage condition,
excess pore water pressures at the ground surface and bottom
surface were set to zero.
The soil layer is modeled as an elasto-plastic material using
the Sekiguchi-Ohta model (Sekiguchi and Ohta 1977). The sand
layers and deep mixing columns are modeled as a linear elastic
material. The embankment is modeled as an elasto-plastic
material using the Mohr-Coulomb model. Table 1 lists the
model parameters used for the analysis.
The history of the embankment construction was modeled
bybuilding up the elements. In converting from actual threedimensional ground to the two-dimensional numerical model,
the deformation modulus of the deep mixing columns was
reduced according tothe improvement ratio and the coefficient
on permeability for deep mixing columns was set to thevalue for
each layer of ground.
The following figures are for the sake of comparison and
analysis: Figure 6 shows the history of ground-surface
settlement at the center of the embankment; Fig.7 shows the
distribution of ground-surface settlement after construction of
the embankment; Fig. 8 shows the horizontal displacement and
vertical strain of the walls. The settlement history and
displacement of the ground surface and walls are quantitatively
evaluated using two-dimensional analysis. However, a clear
difference in the vertical strain exists at greater depths. In the
numerical models, the deformation modulus of wallsless than 21
m in height is lower than that of walls greater than 21m in
heightas perthe arrangement of the deep mixing columns. This
is thought to be the cause of the difference in vertical strain.
Individual material propertiesare effective for evaluating the
strain distribution of walls.

Height of
Embankment (m)

Unit Effective
Deformation Initial Consolidation
Compression Expansion
angle of
weight cohesion
yield stress
(kN/m3) (kN/m2)
Embankment 19.0
28,000 -

1,720 2.13

28,000 -

6,380 2.53
7,130 2.00
6,510 1.21

70,000 -

367,000 –


*1 The deformation modulus of thedeep mixing columns was derived from quality verification tests, which reduced dependence on the improvement
*2 The coefficients of permeability of the deep mixing columns are same as those for each layer.






Figure 8.(a) Horizontal displacement of walls (b) Vertical strain
in walls


Proceedings of the 18th International Conference on Soil Mechanics and Geotechnical Engineering, Paris 2013

Optimum arrangement

盛 土


□ ○ Result for Saga (Example) 
■ ● Result for Kumamoto
(○ ・● : Optimum arrangement)


Walls reached
bearing layer



Settlement of embankment (mm)


All columns reached
bearing layer
盛 土

盛 土

New technique

Improvement volume per one meter in a longitudinal direction (m3/m)


Limit value

Settlement of a point 10m away 
from embankment toes (mm)

Confined range


Improvement volume per one meter in a longitudinal direction (m3/m)

Figure 9.Example of confining the range of consideration and the result
of the consideration for in-situ construction in Kumamoto

in which γ is the unit weight of the embankment, H is the height
of the embankment and quck is the design strength of the deep
mixing columns.
2) Confine the range of consideration: For the planar
arrangement noted above, the deformation of three
arrangements with different improvement depths(as shown in
Fig.9) is calculated. The relation between the improvement
volume and the deformation of the three arrangements is
illustrated in Fig. 9. The range of consideration is narrowed by
comparing with the limit value of deformation in the adjacent
3) Identify the optimum arrangement: The optimum
arrangement in the range noted above is the arrangement with
the lowest improvement volume that satisfies the limit value.
Figure 9 shows the results of a search for the optimum
arrangement in areas along the Ariake Sea in Saga Prefecture.
Figure 9 also showsthe results of a search in Kumamoto as an
example of an arbitrary parametric study. The positional relation
between both cases is fitted and the results indicate the
effectiveness of the search method.

To confirm the effect of displacement suppression, a hybrid
arrangement is compared with conventional columns
arrangements as well asan arrangement in which the columns
are equidistant and narrowly spaced.
Under the same geological conditions and embankment
height as in the Kumamoto case, the settlement of the
embankment and at a point 10 m from the embankment toes of
each arrangement were calculated using two-dimensional
Figure 10 shows the relation between individual settlement
values and improvement volumes per meter in the longitudinal
direction. Regarding settlement of the embankment, the
settlement of the hybrid arrangement and the equidistant
arrangement are lower than the arrangement under the slopes,
confirming the effect of displacement suppression. For the
settlement ata point 10m from the embankment toes, the hybrid
arrangement is the lowest among same improvement volumes.
When the limit value of settlement in the adjacent area is 20mm,
the hybrid arrangement is more effective than conventional
methods in reducing the improvement volume.

Equally arrenged
in low ratio




under slopes



On-site measurements confirmed the method’s effectiveness in
suppressing displacement. The validity of deformational
estimation using two-dimensional effective stress analysis also



Equally arrenged
in low ratio

under slopes

New technique

Limit value

Improvement volume per one meter in a longitudinal direction (m3/m)

Figure 10.(a) Settlement of embankment (b) Settlement at a point 10
meters from the embankment toes.

was confirmed. However, little difference was seen in the
estimation of stress and strain distribution in the walls.Using
individual material properties for the walls, however, is
effective.The two examples of searching for the optimum
arrangement using the method proposed in this paper confirmed
the method’s effectiveness. Analytical comparison ofthe new
method with conventional methods also confirmed the
economic efficiency of the new method.


The development of this column link method is the result of
collaborative research involvingthe Public Works Research
Institute, Japan, and thirteen private corporations in Japan. The
authors are particularly gratefulfor the kind assistance of
ShouichiTsutsumi (PWRI), Hirotaka Kawasaki (Shimizu Corp.),
ShouichiTsukuni (Takenaka Civil Eng. & Const. Co., Ltd.), and
NaotoshiShinkawa (Fudo Corp.).


Miki, H. and Nozu, M. 2004. Design and numerical analysis of road
embankment with low improvement ratio Deep Mixing
method,Geotechnical Engineering for Transportation Projects, Vol.
Ishikura, R. Ochiai, H. and Matsui, H. 2009. Estimation of settlement of
in-situ improved ground using shallow stabilization and floatingtype columns, Proceedings of 17th International Conference on Soil
Mechanics and Geotechnical Engineering, 2394-2398.
Miki, H. Okochi, Y. and Makino, M. 2011. Evaluation of constraint
effect of DMM with varied shape and arrangement of stabilized
bodies using centrifuge model test, Proceedings of Indian
Geotechnical Conference, 501-504.
Tsutsumi, S. Sawamatsu, T. Iso, Y. and Oshita, T. 2009. Centrifuge
model experiment of new improvement type in deep mixing method
with steel tied by cable for lateral flow, Deep mixing 2009 Okinawa
Sekiguchi, H. and Ohta, H. 1977. Induced anisotropy and time
dependency in clays, Constitutive equations of soils, Proceedings of,
9th International Conference on Soil Mechanics and Foundation
Engineering, 229-238.


Application of cement deep mixing method for underpinning
Application de colonnes de sol-ciment pour travaux de reprise en sous œuvre
Melentijevic S., Arcos J.L.

Grupo Rodio-Kronsa, Madrid, Spain

Oteo C.

Universidad de A Coruña, A Coruña, Spain

aBstract: this paper presents a case history of the application of wet deep soil mixing columns for underpinning of the existing
floor slab of an industrial building, which settled due to different encountered post-constructive pathologies related to ground
conditions. the soil-cement columns were constructed with the application of the new developed springsol tool that permits the
underpinning of existing foundations, infrastructure transport platforms and embankments, as well as working in limited spaces and
under low headroom conditions. the quality control regarding laboratory testing of core and wet grab samples is reported. design
procedure and the finite element analysis that verify settlement calculations are described. the fem is focused on the axisymmetric
numerical modeling in plaxis.
rÉsUmÉ : cet article présente une étude de cas de réalisation de colonnes de soil mixing par voie humide pour la reprise en sous
œuvre du dallage d’un bâtiment industriel, ayant tassé après sa construction à cause de pathologies du sol. les colonnes de sol-ciment
ont été réalisées avec la méthode springsol, qui permet la reprise en sous oeuvre de fondations existantes, d’infrastructures de
transports et de remblais, à partir d’emprises étroites et sous faible gabarit. les contrôles le qualité réalisés en laboratoire sur des
éprouvettes carottées et sur des prélèvements frais y sont présentés. le mode de dimensionnement ainsi que les analyses par éléments
finis pour estimer les tassements sont également décrits. les calculs ef ont été réalisés avec le code plaxis en axi-symétriei.
KeYWords: deep mixing, soil-cement columns, springsol, underpinning, fem.



in order to reduce settlements, increase bearing capacity of
natural ground and improve the overall stability, different
ground improvement techniques can be put into practice, but not
all of them can be applied for underpinning projects. the
limitations for the applications are mainly related to capacity of
the machinery to pass existing foundation structures as
reinforced slabs or footings, and insufficient working spaces
and/or low headroom conditions.
the soil-cement deep mixed columns for ground
improvement of soft soils have an extensive application for
different geotechnical projects due to their higher strength and
lower compressibility than the untreated natural soft soil. the
application of traditional deep mixing methods, both wet and
dry, was very restricted for the underpinning of existing
foundations, improvement of existing embankments and
infrastructure platforms, due to the form and dimensions of the
mixing tool.
With objective to present new wet deep soil mixing system
called springsol a case history with its application in
underpinning project is reported in this paper. to prevent
further settlements and guarantee bearing capacity of the
foundation of the industrial building that presented various postconstructive pathologies, the springsol deep mixing columns
were proposed as an alternative method to basic project
underpinning solution comprising jet-grouting, traditional tubea-manchette grouting and micropiles for different areas of the
building. due to its technical, economic and environmental
advantages, soil-cement columns were accepted and executed as
a global solution. in the following chapters the main
characteristics of the springsol system will be described as
well as the analysis of the solution adopted and performed for
this project. some recent applications of the springsol
technique are given in melentijevic et al., 2012.

sprinGsol soil cement colUmns

springsol device was originally developed for improvement of
soils under existing railways due to its spreadable form
(innotrack 2009, le couby 2010). the folded tool is introduced
through the casing to the required depth at the beginning of the
column head. once it reaches the end of the casing and
penetrates the underlying soft soil, the blades spread out
forming the soil-cement column down to the required depth.

figure 1. the springsol spreadable tool: (a) original and (b) modified.

at present, springsol columns permit an application in
ground improvement for underpinning of existing foundations
(both slabs and footings), paving, embankments and subbase
below infrastructures (both highways and railways). originally
it was developed to form columns of 400 mm diameter. due to
continuous necessity for construction of soil-cement columns of
larger diameters the springsol soil mixing tool has technically
evolved into the new modified version, permitting achievement
of different column diameters ranging from 400 to 700 mm. the
modified tool also includes the automatic system for opening
and closing blades thus having the possibility to form variable


Proceedings of the 18th International Conference on Soil Mechanics and Geotechnical Engineering, Paris 2013

diameter along the column depth. figure 1 shows the nowadays
available original and modified improved springsol tool. the
folded tool is of a diameter of 150 and 165 mm for the original
and modified version respectively.
some of the advantages of the method are:
no pollution of the subgrade layer with the cement
slurry, due to insertion of the casing that enables the
recovery of spoil.
the spoil collection with the system installed at the
base of the mast of the drilling rig, connected to the
peristaltic pump drawing the spoil directly to the
the high production rate.
Working under difficult execution conditions and
limitations, i.e. under low headroom conditions and
within reduced spaces.
execution with small batching plants and small drilling
rigs in reduced limited spaces, etc.
the quality of soil-cement columns regarding their
homogeneity and strength is influenced by two parameters:
im (rev/m) - blade rotation number determining the
mixing efficiency defined as a total number of mixing
blades passing along one meter of tool penetration, and
ii (kg/m3) - cement quantity introduced per m3 of the
treated soil.
table 1. springsol columns performance and geo-mechnaical
diameter (mm)
Water / cement ratio
penetration velocity (cm/min)

min 350

ii (kg/m3)


Ucs (mpa)
shear strength
Bending strength

Grouting gap slab-fill

see Figure 3

Man made fill

Springsol columns Ø400mm
Length = 5.50–8.00m
Grid=1.50x1.50m 2.00x2.00m
Natural soil-clays with
gravel and boulders

figure 2. cross section of the ground treatment solution.


im (rev/m)

same material for construction of a fill without its appropriate
the affected area included more than 8000 m2 with the
installation of more than 2500 soil-cement columns. the length
of soil-cement columns ranged from 5.50 m to 8.00 m in
function of the thickness of the man-made fill, with the total
length of columns of more than 15000 meters. due to the form
of the springsol tool, the columns were embedded
approximately 20 cm in the natural ground. the columns of a
400 mm diameter, performed with the originally developed tool,
were distributed in a square grid pattern ranging from 1.50 m to
2.00 m in function of the surcharge to be transmitted from the
slab. the performed solution is schematically presented in
figure 2.

(50-500) Ucs
20-40% Ucs
8-15% Ucs

the general execution parameters and geo-mechanical
characteristics (unconfined compressive strength - Ucs,
stiffness modulus – e50, shear and bending strength) of the soilcement columns executed by the springsol device are given in
table 1. these data are established on experiences gained on
different projects and field tests carried out recently in spain
(melentijevic et al 2012, melentijevic et al 2013). these
findings on geo-material properties are in agreement with
worldwide published information on deep mixed columns
(Bruce 2001, cdit 2002, etc.).

the post pathology site investigation consisted of 46
dynamic penetration tests and 5 drilled boreholes with standard
penetration tests, executed from the working platform, i.e. the
existing floor slab level. the natural ground, detected at the
depth of 5.50 to 8.00 m from the surface, consisted of clays of
high consistency with gravels and boulders, with the n20>40
(dpsh). the overlaying treated loose man made fill was
formed of clays with gravels (n20<10) proceeding from the
natural ground after a massive excavation for the foundation of
the main structure elements.
the soil treatment solution included following steps:
coring of the existing slab (diameter = 62 mm) for
grouting of the gap between slabs and fill.
contact grouting between the slab and the fill in order
to fill gaps due to settlement of badly compacted man
made fill.
coring of the existing slab and contact grouted gap
(diameter = 182 mm) for the passage of the spreadable
execution of springsol columns (diameter = 400 mm).
filing the gaps of coring the existing slab.
Visual description of the executed steps previously
mentioned is shown in figure 3.
Coring 182 mm

Coring 62 mm

Grouting gap slab-fill

3 proJect details and adopted GroUnd
improVement solUtion
in this chapter an example of application of the springsol
technique for underpinning is presented. the industrial building
in the central spain presented different post-constructive
pathologies regarding differential settlements of floor slabs and
pavements as a consequence of poorly compacted anthropic fill
material. the main structure (walls and columns) were founded
on a natural ground, and due to its adequate geotechnical
characteristics did not present any pathology. the shallow
foundation on a natural ground was performed after a massive
excavation of superficial layers of natural soil, applying the


Springsol columns 400 mm

figure 3. Visual control of the excavated treatment area.


the overall average total core recovery was more than 97% for all soilcement columns. while the slab is characterized 50-150 kN/m 2 1. nsc-natural soil clay layer.0m 6.06. the homogenized settlements as well as negligible differential settlements due to high rigidity of the load transfer layer. (a) Geometry of the unit cell – mesh and model dimensions.00 kn/m2) are taken into account.2 SC Results figure 6 present the employed mesh in the fem model. Both the soft soil and the soilcement column behaviour are modelled by the elastic-plastic mohr-coulomb failure criterion. the slurry mix was of a cement / Water type with the relation 1/1. the samples were cored at a distance of 110 mm to 120 mm from the centre of columns. Wet grab samples were taken in the half an hour after execution of columns and were tested at same age as core samples.2 0.9 mpa. referred as a unit cell model.5 density (kn/m2) 22 16 17 18 20 500 5 10 20 500 40 18 20 22 35 300 2. both of them usually being the main mean of the quality control of wet deep mixing methods. cm-medium clay layer.50 to 2. the homogenization equivalent model is usually not used due to lack of access to column stresses. by the elastic law. drilled core samples of soil-cement columns.5m (1) where: req is the radius of the unit cell and s is the grid spacing.5m When using finite element analysis to model deep mixed columns installed in a periodic pattern. some of the drilled core samples extracted from soil-cement trial test columns is presented in figure 4. sc-soil cement column) used in the numerical analysis are given in table 2.50 m corresponding to the surcharge of 20 kn/m2.00 to 20. table 2. Geotechnical parameters of each material (ltlload transfer layer.Technical Committee 211 / Comité technique 211 4 Geomaterial soil-cement colUmn characteriZation the cement used for the construction of soil-cement columns was of the portland type cem i 52.4 to 3.3 0.5 1.2 cohesion (kpa) friction angle (º) Young´s modulus (mpa) poisson ratio 5. cU-upper clay layer. the Ucs values of wet grab samples after 7 days varied from 1. formed by grouting the layer of gravel below the slab. stiffness modulus values determined from Ucs tests varied from 270 to 330 mpa.2 to 4. the Ucs tests were also used to determine the stiffness modulus e50 (secant value of Young´s modulus of elasticity determined at 50% of Ucs).4 mpa and axial failure strain values varied from 1 to 1.85 mm CM General data 0-50 kN/m 2 a b 150-200 kN/m 2 c figure 6. (c) axial stresses. the unconfined compressive strength tests (Ucs) were performed both on drilled core samples and wet grab samples (cylinder dimensions height / diameter > 2). three core samples were taken from different soil-cement trial test columns. while Ucs values for drilled core samples on 28 days ranged from 2. numerical modeling results for reinforced soil. the problem is usually modelled in a 2d axisymmetric model. and the results regarding vertical displacements and axial stresses for the case of the grid spacing of 1. 5 5. Req LTL 5-8 mm CU figure 4.5 sr. as well as the finite element mesh. parameter LTL CU CM NSC thickness (m) 0.1 SC nUmerical model  2-5 mm max 385.3 0. the average penetration rate for the construction of columns was 30 cm/min with the rotation velocity of 50 to 55 rpm and the average cement consumption of 350 kg/m3. 2551 . with the average relationship between e50 and Ucs resulting in approximately 100. 21 days after the completion of the soil-cement columns. (b) Vertical displacements. the radius of the unit cell depends on the grid spacing: Req  s 4.5 5. material parameters.2 %.2 4.00 m) depending on the surcharge of the slab (ranging from 10. the load transfer layer formed by grouting the gap within the contact gravel layer below the existing slab of the approximate thickness of 20 cm is modelled by the mohrcoulomb law.6 kN/m 2 NSC 0-2 mm 4. in this project different square grid patterns (grid spacing varying from 1.0 50 300 0.5m max 7. the cross section of the fe model is presented in figure 6 showing the geometry and soil layers used in analysis. and soil-cement columns can be observed in figure 6-b.5 >4.3 0. it can be observed uniformly treated springsol columns. in this study the commercial finite element code used for 2d modelling is plaxis (version 8.6).

a. federal highway administration. report fhWa rd-99-167. the evaluation of efficiency of the soil treatment by soil-cement columns. francisco martín and esteban casado. the load efficiency ranges from 36 to 50 %.8 Grid spacing (m) 1. the design procedure and the estimation of settlements by the finite element method (plaxis commercial code) based on axisymmetric model is in concordance with the monitored settlements. a. the results of the load and settlement efficiency are given in figure 8 in terms of different grids adopted in the project for different surcharge loads and for different column length in function of the thickness of the soft layer. the difference of approximately 25 to 30 % between load and settlement efficacy relationships is observed. they are represented by the following equations: EL  QP W Q E set 1 SM (2) where: Qp is the load acting on the head of soil-cement column. Volume iii: the verification and properties of treated ground. is determined confirming its effectiveness.6 1.. 50 45 4 Settlements (cm) 40 35 30 3 25 20 15 2 10 1 5 0 1. EJGE Vol. & prieto l. the settlement efficiency (eset) represents the reduction of a settlement by a soil-cement column compared to the settlement of the unit grid without ground improvement. innotrack. in terms of load and stress efficiency.. plaxis BV.plaxis.6 1.5 1. and underpinning of existing structures is presented. Cimentaciones y Excavaciones Profundas. . surcharge and column lengths taken into consideration in the project. references asiri national project 2012. while the settlement efficiency varies between 64 and 78 %. & arcos J. 7 acKnoWledGements the authors wish to thank to the personnel of Grupo rodioKronsa for their technical assistance.SC col length 5. load and settlement efficiency. le Kouby a.s. 2009 subgrade reinforceemnt with columns. International Conference Installation Effects in Geotechnical Engineering. the case history of underpinning of existing industrial building. martin f. Balkema. 2002. 80 75 4 Efficiency (%) 70 3 65 60 55 50 2 45 1 40 35 1. prieto l.7 1.version 8. execution of springsol deep mixed columns: field trials. as well as insignificant differential settlements are achieved by the good interaction of the performed soil-cement column and load transfer layer formed by grouting of the layer of gravel below the slab. the general homogenized nature of settlements.l. 2001.5m 4 Without improvement thickness 8m figure 7. the deep mixing method. 2010. 15: 461-494 melentijevic s. Juan manuel dimas.SC col length 8m Settlement efficiency . The Netherlands. department of transportation. embankments and subbase below railways and roads. project nº tip5-ct-2006-031415. subgrade improvement method for existing railway lines – an experimental and numerical study. Sevilla. U. Rotterdam. Bourgeois e. 2013. sm is the settlement of the soil reinforced by soil-cement columns measured at the surface of the load transfer platform and s0 is the settlement of the natural soil without ground improvement. Proc. recommendations for the design.7 1. in cases without and with the soil improvement for different grid meshes is shown in figure 7. which settled due to poorly compacted antrophic fill. also. 9º Simposio Nacional de Ingenieria Geotécnica.8 1.SC col length 5. an introduction to deep mixing methods as used in geotechnical applications. the comparative study of the maximum vertical displacement.a.5m 3 Settlement efficiency . www. part 1 Vertical columns. with the use of the springsol system is reported.SC col length 8m figure 8.5m 4 6 Load efficiency . part 2 inclined Both terms of 2552 conclUsions the general application of the wet deep mixing method by the springsol system for ground improvement of existing paving. the collaboration and provision of all necessary information by the proprietary of the industrial building is highly appreciated. melentijevic s. aplicaciones de columnas suelo-cemento tipo springsol. Bruce d.9 2 Grid spacing (m) 2 1 Load efficiency . it is important to emphasize that the estimated settlements obtained by the analysis by fem were in accordance with the observed settlements after ground improvement by the performance of soil-cement columns and re-loading of the slab of the industrial building. especially to Juan ignacio lópez.Proceedings of the 18th International Conference on Soil Mechanics and Geotechnical Engineering. Symp. the numerical calculations were also analyzed in terms of load and settlement efficiency (asiri 2012) in order to determine the effectiveness of the soil improvement method. 2012. maximum vertical displacements. 17-19 October 2012: 255-268. 24-27 March 2013: accepted for publishing. Paris 2013 the maximum allowable axial stresses in soil-cement columns defined by the Ucs value and verified by the fem analysis was not exceeded for different cases of grid spacing. 8 (3) S0 efficiency have the same tendency. 2008. construction and control of rigid inclusion ground improvements. & rocher-lacoste f..9 2 1 With improvement SC col length 5. Japan. W is the dead load of the load transfer platform and Q is the force of the surcharge applied to the slab.5 1. the load efficiency (el) is defined as a ratio of a transmitted load to the head of a soil-cement column and the total load acting on the unit cell. the significant settlement reduction with the applied soil improvement can be observed in function of grid spacing and for different thicknesses of the soft soil layer. cdit (coastal development institute of technology).5m 2 With improvement SC col length 8m 3 Without improvement thickness 5. plaxis 2d manual .

liquid limit. Simultaneously. lime is consumed. Whereas there was a large increase in plastic limit. and 7 to 9. connecting them together and producing silt. adsorbed lime particles begin to attack the soil particle surfaces at the points of contact. 62 to 154%. de 14 à 24. Dissolved silica and alumina react with the dissociated calcium hydroxide and form new compounds.2 à 12. et de 7 à 9. 14 to 24.3 to 12. because large amount of water is enclosed within the flocs and 2553 . As the dissolved hydrated lime is used up in the chemical reactions with silica and alumina. une limite liquide.A ABSTRACT: Lime improvement of frictional resistance was examined using samples of Brenna Clay Formation from North Dakota. Le traitement à la chaux augmente l’angle de frottement après remaniement de 5 à 10 sous une contrainte effective normale de 100 kPa et de 3 à 5 sous 300 kPa. the maximum lime content as percent of dry weight of soil that can dissolve in the porewater during the mixing process is quite small and a function of soil water content (only 1. and fully softened friction angle and residual friction angle.75 g/ℓ). U. de 62 à 154%. A calcium hydroxide particle is attached to more than one soil particle. Immediately after introduction of hydrated lime. une limite plastique. soil mineral particle surfaces become unstable and begin to dissolve in the porewater. le pH augmente à des valeurs de 12. and (b) part of the remaining lime is dissolved in the soil porewater. Moridzadeh M. Verhasselt 1990). 60 to 95%. in connection to road and airfield construction (Bell 1996). Montgomery Watson Harza. 1962. soil porewater becomes saturated and pH increases to approximately 12. The montmorillonitic stiff clay samples had a natural water content. pH began to decrease. L’augmentation de la limite de plasticité suite au traitement à la chaux est importante. clay size fraction. the liquid limit response to lime treatment was dependent on the effective confining pressure.5% of lime for 5% lime content at soil water content of 100%). measurements of pH as an indicator of chemical environment. are soil water content.7. Lime treatment increased the residual friction angle by 3 to 6 at both 100 kPa and 300 kPa.2 to 12. The dissolution of soil particles and local attack of adsorbed lime on the particle surfaces continue at the initial rate until all free lime is completely consumed. and residual friction angle.4.S.and sand-sized flocs and agglomerates (Diamond et al. lime treatment. For Brenna clay samples treated with lime. respectively. l’augmentation de la limite de liquidité dépend cependant de la pression de confinement. pH begins to decrease as the dissociated calcium hydroxide is used up in the chemical reactions with dissolved silica and alumina. often dramatically. through two mechanisms: (a) part of the lime particles is adsorbed on soil particles during the mixing process. On the other hand if the objective of lime treatment is to improve long-term stability of first-time or reactivated landslides in stiff clays and shales.4. permanent changes in the size and shape of clay particles must be realized to increase drained frictional resistance. Illinois. U. 1 INTRODUCTION The effectiveness of lime treatment of soils has been commonly evaluated in terms of improved workability and increased undrained unconfined stiffness and compressive strength. in the range of 42 to 85%. 1964. The main variables. becoming insignificant as pH drops to values probably less than around 9 (Eades and Grim 1960. the remaining free lime.and Ca2+ leads to a rise in the pH. KEYWORDS: Brenna clay. after satisfying the adsorption. Chicago. 20 to 40%. Atterberg plastic limit and liquid limit as indirect measures of changes in particle size and shape. frictional resistance. RÉSUMÉ: L’amélioration par addition de chaux de la résistance en frottement est examinée sur des échantillons de la formation d’argile de Brenna dans le Dakota du Nord.7 mais commence ensuite à décroître dans les heures qui suivent. in the absence of carbonation. de 60 à 95%. landslides. dissolves in the porewater and pH is maintained at 12. under the elevated pH condition. in addition to soil mineralogy.3-12. Urbana. Illinois 61801. however. This has been confirmed by pH measurements and chemical analyses conducted by Clare and Cruchley (1957) and Diamond et al. Eades et al. if any. Dissociation of hydrated lime to (OH). The reaction products begin to harden or crystallize as pH decreases.Lime Remediation of Reactivated Landslides Traitement à la chaux pour la stabilisation des glissements réactivés Mesri G.A. fully softened friction angle. Le traitement à la chaux augmente l’angle de frottement résiduel de 3 à 6% autant sous une pression de 300 kPa plutôt que de 100 kPa. Lime treatment increased fully softened friction angle by 5 to 10 at effective normal stress of 100 kPa and by 3 to 5 at 300 kPa. lime content. If enough lime is left. Thereafter. 2 LIME-SOIL INTERACTION When dry hydrated lime is thoroughly mixed with a wet soil. un angle de frottement après remaniement et un angle de frottement résiduel respectivement de l’ordre de 42 à 85%. Immédiatement après l’addition de chaux hydratée. and duration of lime-soil interactions. Under the strong alkaline condition. une fraction de dimension argileuse. pH increased to a range of 12. Les échantillons d’argile raide montmorillonitique ont une teneur en eau. Therefore.S. Soil improvement is expected to result from the flocculation of clay minerals and cementing action of lime-soil chemical reactions. The Atterberg plastic limit increases. were used to examine possible mechanisms of lime-soil interactions. The solubility of calcium hydroxide in water is rather small (0. (1964). within hours. Hunter 1988). Lime-soil interactions that may produce less platey and larger soil particles begin and continue with time under the highly alkaline pH environment. Dissolution of soil particle surfaces continues at a decreasing rate. University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign. de 20 à 40%. plastic limit.

drying of lime-treated soils during stabilization is likely to result in some irreversible dehydration as well as irreversible aggregation. and dissolution.000 to 8. dark grey. only part of the porewater contributes to plasticity. plastic limit and liquid limit of Lower Brenna are in the range of 42 to 69%. Eades and Grim 1960) and degree of dispersion or aggregation. Richardson et al. 2554 . during the Late Wisconsin Glacial Episode of the Pleistocene Epoch (Quigley 1980). In other words. is used up through adsorption. surface area increases. The proposed concept of lime particle adsorption on soil particles is somewhat similar to physical adsorption of calcium hydroxide molecules proposed by Diamond and Kinter (1965). Zolkov (1962) considered it as remarkable that in spite of the very small solubility of lime in water.6 Plastic Limit Untreated 20 100 Untreated 80 60 40 20 Plasticity Index 0 Figure 1. 1975. However. which is characterized as a uniform. considering that a clay-sized hydrated lime particle may contain 1011 molecules of Ca(OH)2. lca. This is similar to diatoms with poriferous particles in soils such as the Mexico City clay.4 for lime contents far in excess of that required for the saturation of porewater. days Lime-Brenna clay interaction under effective confining The lime content required to fully satisfy adsorption is mainly related to soil particle size and shape and therefore. the mineralogy of soil solids (Goldberg and Klein 1952. respectively." Most of the chemical reaction products have a layer structure. glacio-lacustrine clay with little or no visible stratification. for typical soil water contents a very small lime content is required to saturate the porewater. and a particle morphology that has been described as thin plates. irregular. adequate but not excessive lime attack may improve morphology of existing soil particles by producing ragged. lc. and the corresponding range for Upper Brenna are 60 to 85%.Proceedings of the 18th International Conference on Soil Mechanics and Geotechnical Engineering. lcd. and 107 to 154%. 100 40 particle size decreases and therefore. 140 130 120 Untreated 110 Liquid Limit 3 Water Content. pressure 10 20 30 40 50 BRENNA FORMATION The highly plastic lacustrine clays of Lake Agassiz lead to slope instability along the banks of the Red River that separates Grand Forks. This behavior appears to suggest that lime adsorption must be satisfied before lime is dissolved in the porewater to increase the pH. The major source of sediment for the Brenna Formation was the highly plastic montmorillonitic Pierre Shale bedrock (Quigley 1968. In summary. and 62 to 103%. 200 US standard sieve. (1994) have mentioned layers of Ca(OH)2 sandwiched between silicate layers. respectively.6. large amount of lime was required "to bring the pH of the soil slurry to 12. On the other hand. This unit is divided into Lower Brenna and Upper Brenna members. Lime content consumed through adsorption is probably also related to the soil water content as it influences dispersion of soil particles and facilitates thorough mixing to allow full distribution and intimate contact between lime and soil particles. 1964. As the reaction products continue to form and later harden or crystallize at the reaction sites of adsorbed lime particles. North Dakota from East Grand Forks. Terzaghi et al. Baracos 1977). Because some of the reaction products during the stabilization process are amorphous and hydrated. 1994). experience indicates that pH remains below 12. The time-dependent manifestation of adsorbed lime is a gradual chemical reaction of calcium hydroxide with soil particle surfaces. However. Minnesota. 4 60 Curing Time. Paris 2013 agglomerates. Canada (Mesri and Huvaj 2004). % 60 0 6.500 years before present. The Brenna Formation. These features are expected to improve mechanical behavior of soils. 1996). is full of slickensided surfaces. and rolled up sheets (Diamond et al. As soil TESTS ON LIME-TREATED BRENNA CLAY Drained direct shear tests on lime-treated Brenna clay were performed using reconstituted specimens. total lime content. and andosols containing allophane in which water is trapped within soil aggregates (Mesri et al. Drained multiple reversal direct shear tests on precut specimens were used to measure residual shear strength. 27 to 38%.3-12. The clay size fraction of Brenna Formation ranges from 60 to 95% (Arndt 1977). a more significant time-dependent chemical reaction of adsorbed lime with soil particle surfaces is expected for adsorbed lime particles than for adsorbed lime molecules. however sometimes fibers or laths occur which could contribute to particle interlocking. as it flows north to Lake Winnipeg in Manitoba. % 100 80 Lime Content. soft to firm. Richardson et al. and drained direct shear tests on uncut specimens were used to measure fully softened shear strength. Both soils display unusually high plastic limits. lca increases. The natural water content. Samples of both Lower Brenna and Upper Brenna were used in the present investigation. degree of pulverization of hydrated lime. 20 to 40%. Because the solubility of calcium hydroxide in water is very small. Air dry Brenna clay was pulverized until all of a representative sample passed the no. they improve soil particle connections within the flocs and agglomerates that may mature into porous soil aggregates (Baver 1956). foils. The clays of the Red River slopes are the glaciolacustrine deposits of glacial Lake Agassiz that is believed to have existed from 13. and the intensity of mixing. have high surface area. frosted or serrated particles and following proper compaction connect them by the new reaction products.

during the 60 day observation period. and shear displacement rate was in the range of 3. show that immediately after introduction of lime. dry hydrated lime was sprinkled on the exposed shear surface or on the top and bottom. pH begins to decrease. either the resulting aluminosilicates do not hydrate much or they experience irreversible dehydration through consolidation. These samples were sealed. The pH measurements are shown in Fig. In a few direct shear tests. of the direct shear specimen to examine lime diffusion. % PH 11 INTERPRETATION OF THE MEASUREMENTS The pH measurements on lime-treated Brenna clay. For another series of lime-treated Brenna clay samples with lime content of 2. they hydrate fully.Technical Committee 211 / Comité technique 211 the range of 100 to 450 kPa in the direct shear tests. such as the n in 80 70 60 Plastic Limit 50 Untreated 40 30 50 Untreated 40 30 Lime Content. 3). The interpretation of this significant observed behavior appears to be that when aluminosilicates form in unconfined condition. however. pH remained above 9 suggesting continued lime-clay chemical reactions. Nevertheless.7. and was thoroughly rehydrated using distilled water. is significant for both laboratory study of lime-soil interaction to improve frictional resistance as well as field application of lime to remediate reactivated landslides. 10 9 8 Untreated 7 140 130 13 120 12 110 100 10 Lime Content. such as those in Fig. and the liquid limit and plastic limit at lime content of 5% and water contents of 80 and 100% are shown in Fig. there is a minor increase in liquid limit (Fig. All index tests and direct shear tests reported here were performed at laboratory temperature of 20 ± 2C. 2. whereas when curing takes place under an imposed effective stress condition. Rapid chemical attack of adsorbed lime on clay particles contributes to the production of porous flocs and agglomerates that entrap water. These data are shown in Fig. however. 2 as well as others. The rather immediate large increase in plastic limit above that of the untreated Brenna clay. liquid limit dramatically increases above the liquid limit of untreated clay (Fig. such as observed in Figs. 100. 5 and 9% and water content of 80. pH increases to a range of 12. and water content was in the range of 30 to 274%. The data on residual friction angle and fully softened friction angle from drained direct shear tests are summarized in Table 1. 1. The implication of this behavior. pH and Atterberg limits were measured as a function of time. shortly thereafter. Lime-Brenna clay interaction under unconfined condition The fully softened friction angle and residual friction angle of stiff clays and shales decrease with the increase in effective normal stress (Mesri and Shahien 2003. 3.6%. 150 and 230%. 1). This observed behavior suggests that either within hours no free lime is left to dissociate to maintain pH above 12. days 60 70 Figure 2. they were not subjected to confining pressure. Mesri and HuvajSarihan 2012 ).3x10-4 to 5x10-4 mm/min. liquid limit and plastic limit were determined at the end of the test. The consolidation pressure ranged from 100 to 450 kPa. On the other hand when lime-clay reaction products form under effective confining pressure. especially as the water content is reduced during the plastic limit simultaneously consumed by the silica and alumina dissolved from Brenna minerals. % 2 5 9 9 8 7 Untreated 80 100 Untreated 90 0 10 20 30 40 50 Curing Time. thus resulting in little change in the liquid limit. Two halves of the pre-cut specimen were formed by remolding or compaction and separately consolidated inside the top and bottom halves of the shear box using the procedure described by Mesri and CepedaDiaz (1986) and Mesri and Huvaj-Sarihan (2012). The secant friction angles of Brenna clay in 2555 . Lime content as a percent of dry weight of clay ranged from 0 to 10%. which is under more detailed examination. % 20 10 0 5 Plasticity Index 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 Curing Time. pH measurements of lime-Brenna clay 5 Liquid Limit 90 Water Content. For one series of direct shear specimens with lime content of 6. When the curing of lime-Brenna clay takes place unconfined. or dissociated (OH). 1 and 3 results from flocculation and agglomeration of limetreated clay. days Figure 3. 13 12 11 PH The pulverized clay was mixed with dry hydrated lime. thus holding significant amount of water that contributes to the high liquid limit.2 to 12.

For the 27th Avenue slide in Grand Forks. and Cruchley A. 109-115. Peck R.0 3. Clays and Clay Minerals. 223-237.L. 1952. Compositional and structural anisotropy of Winnipeg soils – a study based on scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction analysis. Unconfined lime treatment results in a significant increase in liquid limit. 125-143.0 5. with lime content and with duration of treatment. 1956. Richardson I. Formation of new minerals with lime stabilization as proven by field experiments in Virginia. 129 (1). Bell F. 5 (2).. Symp. 527-554. 150-167.0 4. . 925-931. Groves G. Highway Research Record 309. Symp. on Concrete Roads. 1977. 1990. North Dakota Geological Survey.8 environment measured over a period of 8 weeks. effective normal stress range of 100 to 300 kPa. and Klein A. Geotech. ASTM Special Publication 142. with entire slip surface in Brenna clay at residual condition. Rokhsar A. Symp.. The detailed correlation between improvement in frictional resistance of Brenna clay as well as other stiff clays and shales. 5% lime content treatment of fifty percent of the slip surface increases computed factor of safety from 1. Goldberg I..6 6.0 3. Brazil.L. Clare K. 3rd edition. 1965. Mesri G.4 180 w0 (%) [φ’fs]s100 [φ’fs]s300 [φ’r]s100 [φ’r]s300 67 111 74 98 30 74 74 109 111 111 274 274 75 97 75 64 77 105 74 111 15 24 17 - 14 - 20 29 34 20 18 20 36 17 18 21 18 - 9 9 11 11 11 11 15 13 12 13 15 13 11 16 - 7 6 7 9 8 9 11 10 12 12 13 13 11 16 - Notes: a.G.0 3. Verhasselt A. 1962. 1968. and Shahien M. Proc. The longest crossing of HDD to date has been 2000 m and borehole diameter of up to 160 mm. d. 1988. and Huvaj-Sarihan N. New York.B. c. including scanning electron observations of reaction products. Soil mineralogy. Winnipeg swelling clays. Terzaghi K. and Dolch W. 9th Int. is under further investigation with additional index and direct shear tests. and Bohor B.0 5. J.0 6. These increases in frictional resistance were realized with lime contents in the range of 3 to 8% and treatment periods of 2 to 8 weeks. Proc. in the 2556 REFERENCES Arndt B.R.P. is being investigated for introducing lime into clay along a pre-existing slip surface. 813-829.5 to 9..Lower Brenna was used for these specimens. 549 p. Engrg.(Ed. Residual shear strength mobilized in Red River slope failures.M. Composition and compressibility of typical samples of Mexico City clay. 269-274. Stratigraphy of offshore sediment Lake AgassizNorth Dakota.-39. and Mesri G. Transformation of clay minerals by calcium hydroxide attack. J. 83-102.0 Curing (days) 0 0 7 11 28 54 1 11 7 120 40 56 3 8 14 26 26 0. and dry jet mixing (DJM). White J. together with signal receivers at the ground surface. John Wiley & Sons. 112-128. and Cepeda-Diaz A.G. 1975. Mesri G. Géotechnique 7 (2). and Grim R. 120-122. Cement Concrete Res. Engrg. Highway Research Record 262. mechanical deep mixing (MDM) with augers and paddles. 60. .E. Report of Investigation No. Laboratory experiments in the stabilization of clays with hydrated lime.6 6. Conf. Geotech. Residual shear strength measured by laboratory tests and mobilized in landslides. 51-63.6 6. J. New York. Proc. Can. on Landslides.Lime was sprinkled on the shear surface.0 5.0 3.J. Residual shear strength mobilized in first-time slope failures. Soil Physics. 12th Int. 24 (5). Geotech.E. 359-379. Eades J. Can. Mechanisms of soil-lime stabilization: an interpretive review.0 0. Diamond A.M.. These results suggest formation of stable clay aggregates through the lime-clay chemical reactions.d 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 c 20 a 0.6 8. Frictional resistance of lime-treated Brenna clay Sample Ic (%) 1 2a 3b 4 5a 6b 7c 8 9a 10 a.. 3rd edition. Highway Research Record 92. 14 (1). Lime treatment increased the residual friction angle by 3 to 6 at both 100 kPa and 300 kPa. Engineering Geology 42. Pergamon Press. Some effects of treating expansive clays with calcium hydroxide. 1996. thus underestimating the decrease in plasticity index and associated increase in frictional resistance resulting from lime remediation. Influence of chlorides and hydroxides of calcium and sodium on consistency limits of fat clay.F.37 (φ’r = 7 to 8 increases to φ’r = 12). 2012.6 6.0 5. Zolkov E. b. 1996. and Grim R. Mesri G. 1977. 2003.Lime-treated sample was stored for 120 days before being placed in the shear box. and Huvaj N. Paris 2013 Table 1 correspond to effective normal stresses of 100 kPa and 300 kPa. 2004. Baver L. The increase in drained frictional resistance suggests formation of stable clay aggregates through lime-clay chemical reactions under the highly alkaline pH 12. 1962. Engrg. Géotechnique 36 (2). 1114 (2).Geotech. The characterization of hardened alkali-activated blast-furnace slag pastes and the nature of the calcium silicate hydrate (C-S-H) phase.F. Nichols F. Baracos A. J. Diamond S. John Wiley & Sons.F. and Geoenviron..B. on Exchange Phenomenon in Soils. 97111. and Geoenviron. 31. Reaction of hydrate lime with pure clay minerals in soil stabilization.E. Géotechnique 25 (3). 1960. Highway Research Board 335. and Dobson C. 67-76. 7 Table 1. Eades J. Lime-induced heave in sulphate-bearing clay soils. and Kinter E.00 to the range of 1. 6th Int.M.26 to 1. Residual shear strength of clays and shales. 138 (5). 1957.L. Hunter D. 6 CONCLUSIONS Remediation of the montmorillonitic Brenna clay from North Dakota using lime contents of 3 to 8% and treatment periods of 2 to 8 weeks increased drained fully softened friction angle by 3 to 10 and drained residual friction angle by 3 to 6. 585-593. Lime-cement stabilization of wet cohesive soils. Quigley R. A combination of horizontal directional drilling (HDD). London. North Dakota (Mesri and Huvaj 2004). 1986.Proceedings of the 18th International Conference on Soil Mechanics and Geotechnical Engineering. Lime treatment of Brenna clay increased fully softened friction angle by 5 to 10 at effective normal stress of 100 kPa. Mesri G. 1994. Madrid.W.E.D. W.Lime was sprinkled on top and bottom of the sample to investigate the treatment caused by lime diffusion.0 5. The measurements of liquid limit as an indicator of changes in particle size and shape resulting from lime treatment must be carried out on samples cured under an effective stress condition rather than sealed but unconfined. Lime stabilization of clay minerals and soils.L. Mesri G. In: Bradley.). This level of lime remediation effort is expected to have a significant effect on rate of movement of the slide. Brough A. Geotech. 12-31. 1964. Soil Mechanics in Engineering Practice.0 10. and by 3 to 5 at 300 kPa.6 6.

and analyzing the stress-strain behavior and the stability of the improved ground.Improvement of the Soil under the Concrete Pavement of a Plant’s Hall Amélioration du terrain d’assise sous la dalle en béton d’une halle d’usine Mihova L. 1). the geological profile includes uncompacted non-homogeneous fillings at a depth of up to 4 m and soft clays at a depth of up to 10 m. imbibés d’eau. prévu pour la construction d’une halle de l’usine “stilmet” à sofia. the required thickness of the reinforced pad is much smaller compared to unreinforced soil replacements. and of geosynthetic reinforcement. the design of the ground improvement by the reinforced pad involves the following steps: (1) choosing the thickness of the pad and the number of reinforced layers. longitudinal beams on the concrete pavement of the hall transform the point loading into striped. some projects based on this way of soil improvement are realized in Bulgaria in the recent years (mihov Y. Bulgaria. (2) construction of an experimental improved ground area and realization of “in situ” settlement/load tests. is being constructed near halls of the same kind (fig. Sofia. geosynthetics. and the properties of the different layers are summarized in table 1. the ground 2557 . 2. the water level is 1. which specializes in producing aluminum elements. Kolev Ch. contient des sols peu solides. high bearing capacity and low ground deformation values are obtained by applying a foundation pad constructed of layers of hard soil. the equipment of the hall is composed of steel shelves. and each being 12 m high and weighing 12 tons. to determine the mechanical parameters of the improved soil ground. Sofia. whose area is 3000 m2. and mihova l. armée de matériaux géosynthétiques. and verifications of its deformation behavior using plate settlement/load tests. deep strip excavation in three longitudinal axes. the pavement of the hall is made of fibre concrete with a thickness of 20 cm. rÉsUmÉ : le profil géologique du terrain d’assise. la stabilité à court terme (non drainé) et l’évolution des contraintes et déformations (consolidation) des sols améliorés sont étudiés. the improvement is developed of the natural ground by constructing a geosynthetic reinforced pad of crushed stone. Civil Engineering and Geodesy. the high water level requires analysis of both the undrained short-term stability and the consolidated long-term stress-strain behavior of the soil ground. it has a frame steel structure with spread footings constructed after a 4-meter- the geological profile is shown in figure 2. aBstract: the geological profile of the ground for the construction of a hall of the “stilmet” plant in sofia includes soft saturated soils. like compacted crushed stone. using a circular steel plate with a diameter of 300 mm. (a) (b) figure 1. KeYWords: soft saturated soil. University of Architecture. each being supported at 8 points. fem 1 introdUction the design of reinforced earth structures to replace natural soft soils is a modern practice in geotechnical engineering of improving the foundation ground. Bulgaria.5 m under the surface. reinforced foundation pad. (3) fe modeling using the actual mechanical parameters. on a exécuté des essais in situ et l’on a obtenu la relation affaissement-charge. Todor Kableshkov University of Transport. (4) realization of the improvement of the hall’s ground. based on fe analysis of various configurations of reinforced soil replacement. a numerical model is made of the ground by the finite element method. on a établi un modèle numérique suivant la méthode des éléments finis. and mihova l. this paper presents some investigations of the improvement of soft saturated ground under the hall of the “stilmet” plant in sofia. pour définir les paramètres mécaniques de la fondation consolidée. in situ tests have been performed and settlement/load relationships and e modulus values have been obtained. steel hall structure (a) and equipment shelf (b). the seismic loads on the pavement are obtained by performing a dynamic analysis of the shelf structures.1 Geological profile 2 Geotechnical considerations the “stilmet” plant hall. on a effectué une amélioration du terrain d’assise naturel par la mise en place d’une semelle en pierres concassées. ainsi que le module e. 2012. 2012). the undrained short term stability and the consolidation long term stress-strain process of the improved soil ground are investigated. Kolev ch.

5 18.0 the pad should be built of stone particles sized 0–85 mm. construction of the experimental reinforced crushed stone pad figure 2 the first 30-cm-thick stone layer 25.0 field testinG procedUre 2. a field test program is performed. the settlement/load curves for the first and the last stage of pad construction are shown in figure 6. figure 5.0 5.86 32. figure 4.0 3 the first geogrid layer and the second 50cm-thick stone layer 44. the optimal structure of reinforced pad with regard to mechanical behavior of improved soil is obtained (fig. 900/600 kn/m at 0. structure of the reinforced crushed stone pad figure 6.5 15. no. 4). tenaX 3d Geogrid Xl (www.82 1. (2) after building the first layer of crushed stone with a thickness of 30 cm. technical characteristics of the geogrids are: bi-axial stiffness 2558 stage of the pad construction E mpa Ee mpa 1 compaction of the natural ground 10. settlement/load curves for the plate loading tests table 2.5% strain and coefficient of friction soil/geogrid 1.3 m thick.41 1.30 1.0 5. average values of the soil layers characteristics.05 mpa and settlement/load curves are obtained.0 5 sandy clay 0.5 3 Brown clay 0. the E-modulus of total settlement and the Ee-modulus of their elastic part are estimated.7 60. figure 2. and the results are shown in table 2.2 Structure of the reinforced crushed stone pad investigations about the stress-strain behavior of the improved soil ground with various thickness values of the crushed stone pad.70 11. soil type e - γ kn/m3 c' kpa φ' deg E mpa 1 top soil 1. and should be 1. 3). Geological profile table 1.tenax.95 1. 3 to determine the e-modulus of the improved ground.5 2 Black clay 1.0 4 the end of the pad construction 57.0 8.3 121. where solid clay lies. the reinforcement is composed of two polypropylene tenaX 3d geogrid Xl layers which have particularly large concaved shaped ribs that enhance the interaction mechanism between grids and stone particles by restricting the horizontal movement of particles (fig.62 15. the moduli values increase more than five times after the soil ground improvement.Proceedings of the 18th International Conference on Soil Mechanics and Geotechnical Engineering.5 4 silty clay 1.tenax. various numbers and various stiffness values of the geosynthetic layers have been carried out in advance by fem models.7 181.35 1. Paris 2013 is being examined at a depth of up to 10 m.89 32. it includes the construction of the reinforced pad of area 150 m2 and an application of a static loading by rigid plate of dimension 30 cm at the following four stages of construction: (1) after compaction of the natural ground. at each stage three loading/unloading cycles are applied by steps of 0.45 11. (3) after placing the first geogrid layer and building the second crushed stone layer with a thickness of 50 cm.0 6.0 3. Values of the E-moduli of the soil ground at field testing no.0 33.0 .0 3.5 7.2 (www. (4) at the end of the pad construction.

1 Consolidation of the ground at dead and live loads the consolidation process is investigated.Technical Committee 211 / Comité technique 211 4 nUmerical analYses 4. figure 7. (b) at the end of consolidation 4. figure 10.2 Results from FE analyses 4. the maximum horizontal displacement is 1.1 Finite element model plane-strain finite element model of the improved ground is made (fig. step number 6 is related to the loading completion. finite element model 4. an impermeable bottom boundary of the fe model is assumed in consolidation analysis.2. as shown in figure 13. pore pressure distribution 2559 . Before the pavement loading calculations. the curves pore pressure vs. the distribution of the vertical displacements is shown in figure 8. the zones of lateral displacements are located. the concrete pavement is modeled by using linear beam elements. the maximum value of the normal stresses on the soft subsoil at the bottom of the crushed pad is 52. and its distribution is represented in figure 9. reduce the normal stresses under it. caused by vertical loading. and 3 years and 4 months is the time of the pore pressure dissipation. it is evident that in all clayed soils under the pavement the pore pressure increases up to the value of the applied load. the vertical displacements figure 12. distance the membrane forces of geogrids. ( i layer ) ( ii layer ) figure 11. the 29.2. 7). the loading of the pavement is assumed as uniformly distributed with a value of 30 kpa for combination of dead and live static loads and with a value of 45 kpa for seismic load combination. the initial condition of gravity loading is formed by the k0procedure. the construction stages of consecutive excavation and the replacement of the soil are simulated by means of phases of calculation with various fe meshes. figure 8. the behavior of soil is modeled as mohrcoulomb material.6 kpa maximum value of pore pressure is calculated at point B situated at the bottom of the field. the vectors of the total displacements are shown in figure 12.3 kpa. distance at 18 time steps are shown in figure 10 for the cross section a – B.2 Stability of the ground at seismic load combination the undrained analysis is performed and the lateral displacements are estimated. and the stability of the ground is provided. figure 11 presents the tensile forces in geogrids.62 cm at point a (fig. the forces in geogrids at time moments: (a) at a pavement loading. the maximum value of the pavement settlement is 2. the vectors of the total displacements figure 9. interface elements are included for modeling the interaction between the soil and the structure elements. the maximum pore pressure values are obtained immediately after the load application. 7) and this value corresponds to the end of the consolidation process. the consolidation curves pore pressure vs.4 cm and it occurs at depth of 4 m under the crushed stone filling of the foundation excavation. linear bar elements that only have tensile strength are used for the geogrids.

42 for deep slide surface. Paris 2013 6 references mihov Y. Kolev ch. tuzla. 2012. figure 13. the improvement of the ground by replacing of the soft foundation soil by the reinforced crushed stone pad is an effective modern technology which decreases excavation works and increases the heartedness of the foundation soil. proc. the coefficient of stability has a value fs = 3. 5 conclUsion the required thickness of reinforced crushed stone pad is about two times smaller compared to the unreinforced pad. and mihova l. 2012. 2nd international scientific meeting. c -reduction method. and mihova project for improvement of a soft soil under the foundation slab of a building in haskovo. 2560 . (unpublished). the horizontal displacements the stability of the ground has been estimated using the  .Proceedings of the 18th International Conference on Soil Mechanics and Geotechnical Engineering. www. finite element analysis of reinforced foundation soil. tenaX 3d Geogrid Xl.

Installation of SCPs is known to cause disturbance due to smear in a limited zone of the soil surrounding the SCP. installation effects. Les résultats donnent à penser que le comportement de contrainte-déformation de l’argile a été influencée par la présence de la zone de souillure. In India. 1993).g. installés avec SCP pour simuler le comportement de la résistance du terrain composite sous différentes pressions de confinement allant de 50 kPa à 575 kPa. Aboshi and Suematsu 1985. (1997) also reported an increase in strength of the composite SCP ground within three months of the SCPs installation. et compactées au pneumatique.2 to 1. Bergado and Balasubramniam 1994). Kashmir. Shear induced pore pressures were found to be less in specimens which had the smear zone surrounding the sand column. La zone de souillure a été créée en utilisant une enveloppe rugueuse pour percer le trou. Dans cette étude.g. Madhav et al. (1979) observed up to 50% increase in the undrained strength in about one month after the SCP installation at test sites in Japan. conventional triaxial tests have been performed on 200mm long and 100mm-diameter clay samples installed with SCP to simulate the strength behaviour of composite ground under different confining pressures ranging from 50kpa to 575kpa. 1991. Granular piles such as sand compaction piles (SCPs) are considered as cost-effective and alternative solution to the problem of stability and settlement posed by construction on soft ground. Aboshi et al. L’installation de MCS est connue pour causer des perturbations dues au frottis dans une zone limitée du sol entourant le SCP. both the stiffness and the strength of the specimen increased. lorsqu’on augmente le ratio de remplacement du frottis. The disturbance in this zone depends upon the column diameter and the tools used in the installation (e. KEYWORDS: Sand compaction pile.25 to 64% and compacted using pneumatic compactor. Recently. However. 2006). la rigidité et la résistance de l’échantillon augmentent. It was observed that the diameter of the severely disturbed or remoulded ground around a driven closed-ended casing was about 1. 1979. Xu et al. MH. having large potential for settlement with low inherent shear strength. Deptt. Le tissu naturel du sol a été détruit adjacent à la SCP et les pressions interstitielles induites par cisaillement étaient inférieures dans les échantillons composites avec un effet de maculage. The smear zone was created by using a rough casing to drill the hole. Les MCS ont été préparés à l’aide du coefficient de remplacement de 6. Singh and Hattab 1979. Matsuda et al. pore pressures began to increase close to failure due to rearrangement of soil particles (Mir 2010). Bergado et al. India ABSTRACT: Sand columns traditionally known as sand compaction piles-(SCPs) have been used to increase the load carrying capacity of soft clays and accentuate consolidation during preloading. En outre. of Civil Engineering. (2010) compared the smear zone around model SCPs to that observed around driven piles. RÉSUMÉ : Des colonnes de sable traditionnellement connues comme piles de compactage (SCPs) de sable ont été utilisées pour augmenter la capacité portante des argiles molles et accentuer la consolidation au cours du préchargement. as the area replacement ratio was increased. of Civil Engineering. improvement of soft soils has been extensively implemented for the various development projects all over the world due to extremely limited stable construction sites. sol mou 1 INTRODUCTION Soft ground is widely distributed especially along the coastal area. and also in near-shore regions for land reclamation works (e.Sol mou renforcé Mir B.25 à 64 %. India Juneja A. Many researchers (e. The effect of smear zone on SCP was investigated by observing the change in pore pressure during undrained shear strength of the composite ground.190006. Deptt. In the recent years. Sand compaction pile (SCP) is a method of constructing large diameter sand column in the ground. In this study. resulting in a composite soil mass that has greater shear strength and improved stiffness compared to the unreinforced clay. The SCPs were prepared using area replacement ratio of 6. National Institute of Technology Srinagar. Laboratory and field tests previously conducted to determine the extent of the disturbance caused by pile driving into soft clay deposits have demonstrated that the natural structure of the clay around the pile is excessively disturbed (Randolph et al. smear. The natural fabric of the soil was destroyed adjacent to the SCPs and the shear-induced pore pressures were less in composite specimens with smear-effect. Dissipation of the excess pore pressures often results in increase in the shear strength. The insertion of SCPs into soft clay has been shown to have a positive effect on the load carrying capacity of the clay. soft ground MOTS-CLÉS : Sable tas de compactage. Juneja and Mir 2011) have investigated the effect of SCP installation on disturbance to the surrounding soil. It was observed that the smear zone around SCPs installed on the centrifuge extended up to 1. de 100 mm de long et de 200 mm de diamètre. the granular columns have been used to improve ground for container freight station at Navi Mumbai and the construction of dry dock at Pipavav shipyard (Raj and Dikshith 2009). Weber et al. Indian Institute of Technology Bombay. les effets de l'installation. les frottis. The extent of the disturbed or smear zone can affect the engineering behaviour of the composite ground.g.A. The results seem to suggest that the stress-strain behaviour of the clay was influenced by the presence of smear zone. In addition.4 times the SCP diameter. Mumbai-400076. 2561 . les essais triaxiaux conventionnels ont été réalisés sur les échantillons d’argile.Effect of Smear on Strength Behavior of SCP-Reinforced Soft Ground Effet de comportement de l’étalement de force du SCP. L’effet de zone de souillure sur SCP a été examiné en observant le changement de pression interstitielle au cours de la consolidation et de la résistance au cisaillement du sol composite.4 times the diameter of the casing. This method of ground improvement has been widely used for rapid improvement of soft ground.

Materials and methods of sample preparation Soil specimen The test specimens were prepared in 450mm long and 250mm diameter stainless steel cylindrical mould. Paris 2013 In this study. The SCPs were prepared using area replacement ratio of 6.64 3. In addition. 1979) that ranges between 6. The effect of smear beyond this zone was ignored. the block of clay was extruded and trimmed into three 100mm diameter cylindrical specimens using soil lathe. The natural fabric of the soil was destroyed adjacent to the SCPs with smear zone which in turn affected pore pressure response of the composite soil sample. tress-strain behavior of the clay was influenced by the presence of smear zone.1. The effect of smear zone on SCP was investigated by observing the change in pore pressure during consolidation and undrained shear strength of the composite ground. In few tests on normally consolidated clays. amongst others). The composite specimen were prepared by driving a small diameter PVC casing into the sample and then backfilling the cavity with sand column after removing the casing. RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONS Consolidated undrained triaxial tests were performed on 200mm long and 100mm diameter cylindrical samples prepared from remoulded and reconsolidated commercially available kaolin clay installed with SCP. both the stiffness and the shear strength of the specimen increased. Figure 2. the effect of smear zone on strength of model SCP installed in 100mm diameter and 200mm long clay specimens is investigated using conventional triaxial compression tests under different confining pressures ranging from 50kPa to 575kPa. the ends of the specimen were covered with a thin circular rubber sheets having a central hole. Indraratna and Redana. 2). Deaired clay slurry was consolidated on the laboratory floor. The casing was roughened using sand glued to its outer walls prior to insertion to replicate the smearing effect. Consolidation set-up on the laboratory floor PVC casing pushed into the sample Pneumatic compactor Table 1 Properties of kaolin clay Clay Silt Liquid (%) (%) limit (%) 75 25 49 Plastic limit (%) 23 Shrinkage limit (%) 16 Gs 2. (1977).g. Soil sample Upon completion of the 1-D consolidation.67 sin '  (1) where ′ is the effective angle of friction (e. The ratio of the diameter of sand column with smear zone to the diameter of sand column without smear zone (ds/d) was about 1. Sand column (Aboshi et al. p0' was taken equal to the higher of either p' or the mean effective stress after 1D consolidation. Figures 3a-b show results of deviator stress.1 to 1. After preparing the sand column. The specimens were held in split cylindrical moulds and a smooth PVC casing slowly pushed along its length to form a cylindrical hole at the centre. As can be seen. p' which varied between 50 and 575 kN/m2. The specimen was enclosed in a rubber membrane and the chamber filled with water.25 to 64% and compacted using pneumatic compactor. 1998. Diameter of the hole was slightly less than that of the sand column so as to only permit radial drainage. Preparation of composite specimen Diameter of the sand column varied between 25. as 2562 . but this difference was not apparent when 80mm diameter SCP with smear zone was used. The experimental program consisted of 20 tests on composite clay with sand column.25. The test results suggest that. In the table. p0' to p'.and 80mm in the specimens. all samples reached peak deviator stress (qmax) at 6 to 10% axial strain. OCR is defined as the ratio of the isotropic preconsolidation pressure. sand compaction piles currently stand as one of the most viable and practical techniques for improving the mechanical properties of soft clays. a. which compares well with the values reported by the previous researchers (e. Shear induced pore pressures were less in soil specimens with smear-effect.Proceedings of the 18th International Conference on Soil Mechanics and Geotechnical Engineering.Table 1 shows properties of the clay used in this study. In this method. This was expected since these soil samples were overconsolidated prior to the shearing. q plotted against axial strain. The soil samples were then isotropically consolidated under mean effective stress. as the reinforcement area ratio increased. The smear zone was created by using a rough casing painted with a paste of coarse sand (d50 = 1. p' estimated using the equation (Wroth 1984):   p'  'v 1  0. first under its own self-weight and later under surcharge of 211. This corresponds to an area replacement ratio. Thus.3mm) compacted in layers at 90% relative density using a pneumatic compactor (Fig. EXPERIMENTAL WORK 2. Up to 3 specimens could together be prepared using this mould. the column and surrounding clay are assumed to act as a single element with equivalent distributions of stresses and strains in composite 404 kN/m2 applied in stages on top of the clay surface using a custom designed pneumatic load frame (Fig. Slurry consolidation Specimen trimming Final specimen size Figure 1. 2.1). Figures 3a-b also show that the ultimate strength exhibit transient peaks in some tests. Two deaired porous stones were then placed at the two ends of the specimen and the entire assembly mounted on the triaxial chamber. Table 2 shows the details of the soil specimens prepared for testing. q decreased after passing qmax because of instability of the failed samples at high confining pressure. SCPs of different diameters (25-80mm) were used to investigate the improvement in the load-carrying capacity of the specimens. Thickness of the smear zone was taken equal to the thickness of the paste. Schofield and Wroth 1968).3mm) to drill the hole. The hole was backfilled with fine sand (d50=0.and 64%.2 in all tests. The load-deformation data was analyzed using the unit cell arrangement proposed by Balaam et al.

4 S2:50kPa S3:575kPa S3:375kPa S3:75kPa 0 5 10 15 20 30 Figure 4.1 1 1 2. a. This was expected because the smear zone did not permit the pore pressures to dissipate within the SCP.6 -0. 30 900 CSL Without smear With smear 800 S1:100kPa S1:150kPa q (kN/m2) 700 Figure 3a-b Deviator stress versus axial strain relationship for: (a) Samples without smear zone. $: p′o =Preconsolidation pressure.2 1 1 500 300 100 0 5 10 15 20 25 s s q (kN/m2) 600 u  p '  0. .7 149 50  S2 211 35.44OCR 0.with smear effect 30 1.6 285 95  S1 404 24. With smear Test S1:100kPa S2:150kPa 5 NC  (a) 0  1 800 0 p' p'  0. both the stiffness and the shear strength of the composite samples also increased. As seen.99 .2 575 572  S3 211 45. Effective stress paths for samples without smear and with smear zone Figure 5 show the effective stress path in p'-q stress space. 800 600 q (kN/m2) 3 2 1 2 1.2 375 372  S3 211 45. It seems clear that the presence of smear zone has reduced the ultimate undrained shear strength by 25%. and the effect of stress history induced 2 su ratio ' p 25 Axial strain (%) (b) over consolidation on undrained strength S1:150kPa S1:300kPa S2:450kPa 0.8 700 10 for OCR=1. af of these samples was between 0.2 S1:300kPa S2:450kPa 500 an empirical (3) 0. **: p′ = Mean effective stress at end of consolidation.2 149 68  S4 211 80 149 144  S4 211 80 149 142 *: σ′v =Vertical stress at end of 1D loading.2 400 200 100 15 20 25 A-factor 0.6 300 299  S1 264 29 187 95  S1 264 29 187 145  S1 264 29 300 289  S2 211 31. The undrained shear strength (su) of composite specimen was 600 M 500 1 400 was S2:450kPa S2:200kPa S3:375kPa S3:75kPa S4:150kPa 100 0 S1:300kPa S2:50kPa S3:575kPa 300 200 q taken equal to max . and m is The evidence of the smear zone was not significant on the ultimate undrained shear strength when 25mm and 30mm diameter sand columns were used.7 200 197  S2 211 31.33OCR 0. plotted against axial strain. undrained shear strength (su) of composite ground was expressed in the following form: S3:575kPa S3:375kPa S3:75kPa S4:150kPa 200 s equal to S2:450kPa S2:50kPa 400 (2) where a is the normalized undrained shear strength of NC soil Without smear Test S1:100kPa S1:150kPa S1:300kPa 700 0  s p'   aOCR m  u   OC OCR 0 100 200 300 400 500 600 700 800 900 p' (kN/m2) Figure 5. and (b) Samples with smear zone.7 450 434  S2 211 35.1 which is typical for normally consolidated clays.7 and 1. #: ds = Equivalent diameter of sand column. Variation of Skempton`s parameter A with axial strain for samples with and without smear zone.7 149 49  S3 211 40 375 374  S3 211 40 575 575  S3 211 40 149 71  S3 211 45.Technical Committee 211 / Comité technique 211 Table 2 Experimental program Test σ′v* ds# Smear p′o $ p′** No (kPa) (mm) zone (kPa) (kPa)  S1 404 24.7 200 195  S2 211 35. Using test data. Figure 4 show results of Skempton's (1954) pore pressure parameter.2 Axial strain (%) expressed as: S1:100kPa 0 S2:50kPa S3:575kPa S3:375kPa S3:75kPa S4:150kPa 300 (4) Without smear With smear 0.without smear u Axial strain (%) 900 u   exponent equal to 1   .90 . In addition. What was surprising is that the effect of smear was apparent on the ultimate shear strength when 80mm diameter sand columns were used. the A-factor in specimens with smear effect was less from early stage of shearing even when the specimens had the same OCR. a. However.  are soil model parameters   obtained from triaxial testing.3 1 1 1 3 1 1 3 1 1 2. as the area replacement ratio was increased.6 285 146  S1 404 24. there was a marginal increase in a-factor after passing qmax.7 450 450  S2 211 31. 2563 .

(1984). R. and Mir. Pores (a) (b) Figure 6. Laue. Paris 2013 The figures show that the shear induced pore pressures were found to be less in specimens which had the smear zone surrounding the sand column. Geotechnical Engineering 159. Undrained shear strength of clay improved with sand compaction piles. Vol. Settlement analysis of soft clays reinforced with granular piles. and Redana. Influence of SCP driving on the behaviour of clay.T.5 mm x 7. 361-393.Proceedings of the 18th International Conference on Soil Mechanics and Geotechnical Engineering. B.. Shear induced pore pressures were less in soil specimens with smear-effect because the water was not permitted to flow towards the column during shearing. Juneja. Geotechnique 29(4). S. Laboratory determination of smear zone due to vertical drain installation. (1993). 25. (2011). Due to the smear zone. Balaam. B. 2. and Wroth. and Nozu. Takahasi. Proceedings of the 5th Southeast Asian Conference on Soil Engineering. Geotechnique 29(4). and Wroth. I. and Miura. (1979). Skempton. Vol. C. Weber.V. Singapore. Thomas Telford London. GeoSS. M. Driven piles in clay-the effects of installation and subsequent consolidation. (1985). Park. No. 5. 197-206. Indraratna. Critical State Soil Mechanics. CONCLUSIONS The strength behavior of composite ground reinforced with sand compaction piles has been studied using 20 consolidated undrained triaxial tests. 4. Thesis.1. and (b) Composite samples with smear zone. A. ASCE. M. Carter. Sand compaction pile method: State-of-the art paper. and Balasubramniam. (1994). M. MacGraw-Hill. Smear zone identification and soil properties around stone columns constructed in-flight in centrifuge model tests. Study of the influence of smear zone around sand compaction pile on properties of composite ground. No. 23-32. Specimens sheared with smear effect appear closely packed and more homogeneous with partly discernible particle systems. Modelling and Study of Smear Zones around Band Shaped Drains. N. pp. The clay minerals in the smear zone appear to be closely packed with reduced pore space.. Matsuda. Geotechnique 59(3). Bergado. P.. H. (2006). Proceedings of the International Conference on Soil Reinforcement: Reinforced Earth and other Technique. H. 1. C. These changes affect the effective horizontal stress in the clay and hence the load carried by the individual sand columns. Plotze. ACKNOWLEDGEMENT The first author would like to acknowledge the financial support from the Indian Institute of Technology Bombay (IITB) in the form of research scholarships. A laboratory study of efficiency of sand drains in relation to methods of installation and spacing. 6a-b) taken on post shear tests of specimens with and without smear. Journal of Geotechnical Engineering. N. Brown. N. The images of samples with and without the smear zone show differences in the microstructure. London. REFERENCES Aboshi. This was also evident from Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) images (Fig. A. (1968). (1979). and Kitayama. It was postulated that the difference in the behavior of smear and non-smear specimens was because that the pore pressure measurements were taken within the sand column. (2010). Geotechnique 34(4). Y. Madhav. and Dikshith. SEM images: (a) Composite samples without smear zone. and Hattab. The interpretation of in-situ soil tests. N. Xu. A. these pore pressures within the SCP were reduced because the water was not permitted to flow towards the column during shearing. Singapore. Asaoka. H. Procc. India. J. Vol. Bangkok. SEM images indicated that the natural fabric of the soil was destroyed adjacent to the SCPs with smear zone which in turn affected pore pressure response of the composite soil sample. pp. Singh. 143-147 Raj. 6. T. S. C. T. Soils and Foundations. 285-296. M.. H. Enoki M.. Proceedings of the 3rd International Geotechnical Seminar on Soil Improvement Methods. 1. Vol. while specimen without smear condition indicate a distinct division between smaller intra-aggregate pore spaces and the larger inter-aggregate voids. L. 4. IIT Bombay. 81–91. P.. Vibro replacement columns for shipyard infrastructure at Pipavav. E. D.5 mm air dried samples were prepared at room temperature for the SEM images. (1994). P. C. India. 1-10.. Geotechnique 4(4). P. Aboshi. (1998). No. (1977). B. Soils and Foundations. H. B. Proceedings of the International Symposium on Ground Improvement Technologies and Case Histories. G. and Harada.. T. M. (2009). F. (1954). (1979). S. “Effects of Sand Compaction Pile Installation on Surrounding Soft Soil”.. M. Vertical stress of the sand column was examined when the composited specimens were tested to failure in conventional triaxial tests. 233-238. 395-422. 449-489. of National Conference on Recent Advances in Ground Improvement Techniques (RAGIT-2011). Mir. and Lehane. P. Vol. A. Liu. M. Ph. Peschke. Gujarat. A. Composer: method to improve characteristics of soft clays by inclusions of large diameter sand column. 211-216 (1979).. and Suematsu.5 mm x 7. (1997).D. 7. G. (2010). Wroth. Paris. T. W.G. Ground improvement geosystems: Densification and reinforcement. 2564 . 4.. 34.P. N. Narryang Technological Institute. 137-149. D. Ichimoto. It seems clear that the presence of smear zone has reduced the ultimate undrained shear strength by 25%. The test results suggest that the stress-strain behavior of the clay was influenced by the presence of smear zone. Proceedings of the Institution of Civil Engineers. 124. This difference was not apparent when 80mm diameter SCP with smear zone was used. CBRI Roorkee. M. W. 763-769. T. Schofield. Randolph. A. X. No. 33. and Springman. The pore-pressure coefficients A and B. K. and Poulos. Issue GE4 pp. Laboratory testing of prefabricated vertical drains (PVD). Kodaka. M. A. J. 218. Geotechnical Engineering Journal. p. Pipe pile installation effects in soft clay. 180-184 (1998). Fujiwara.

clean fine sand. results indicate that the strength of the unsaturated soils significantly increase from intermittent surficial treatments.c. was used in the soil column tests. damage from these events can result in severe property damage. including highways. large wave action and high sea levels erode the sandy soil that supports coastal infrastructure. loss of revenue. aug. (photo: news & observer. loss of revenue.. clean fine sand. and large repair costs. microbial induced carbonate precipitation (micp) has been shown to be an effective method to improve the soil behavior in saturated conditions subjected to undrained monotonic and seismic loading in both laboratory and centrifuge tests (montoya et al. natural bio-geochemical methods can be used to reinforce the erodible sandy soil to help prevent damage to the infrastructure. a discussion of upscaling the results from the laboratory tests to application in situ to improve the resiliency of coastal infrastructure is also presented herein. 2011. rigid-walled soil column tests were conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of treating sandy soils by flooding the surface of the soil with the appropriate microbes and nutrients and allowing free drainage. undermined by erosion due to the storm surge and wave action during hurricane irene. pipelines. and sandy in 2012) which have inflicted damage to vital coastal lifelines as illustrated in figures 1 and 2. natural bio-geochemical methods can be used to reinforce the erodible sandy soil to help prevent damage to the infrastructure. 31. introdUction Vital coastal lifelines can be vulnerable during large storm events. typical of coastal dune deposits. calcium carbonate cementation can be induced in situ to bind the sand grains together. USA aBstract . thereby improving the strength and stiffness of the soil and in turn preventing erosion of the coastal deposits. the strength of the cemented sand was evaluated using unconfined compression tests. the outer banks of north carolina have seen several hurricanes in recent years (irene in 2011. deJong et al.M. results indicate that the strength of the unsaturated soils increase from intermittent surficial treatments. North Carolina State University. and large repair costs. calcium carbonate cementation can be induced in situ to bind the sand grains together. was used in the soil column tests. Raleigh. large wave action and high sea levels erode the sandy soil that supports coastal infrastructure. typical of coastal dune deposits. Shanahan C.Bio-mediated soil improvement utilized to strengthen coastal deposits Amélioration du sol biologiquement négociée utilisée pour renforcer les dépôts côtiers Montoya B...Vital coastal lifelines can be vulnerable during large storm events. structures. Feng K. applying this proven natural treatment technique to unsaturated coastal soils can improve the soil’s resiliency during large storm events. rigid-walled soil column tests were conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of treating sandy soils by flooding the surface of the soil with the appropriate microbes and nutrients and allowing free drainage. 2565 figure 1. 1. and other utilities. pipelines. n. structures. 2011) . mortensen and deJong. Utilizing naturally-occurring biological metabolic activity.. and other utilities. 2013. 2006). NC. Utilizing naturally-occurring biological metabolic activity. damage from these events can result in severe property damage. changes in the strength of the sand from the unsaturated cementation treatments was evaluated using unconfined compression tests. a discussion of upscaling the results from the laboratory tests to application in situ to improve the resiliency of coastal infrastructure is also presented herein. thereby improving the strength and stiffness of the soil and in turn preventing erosion of the coastal deposits. a section of highway 12 at the edge of rodanthe. microbial induced carbonate precipitation (micp) has been shown to be an effective method to improve the soil behavior in saturated conditions subjected to undrained monotonic and seismic loading in both laboratory and centrifuge tests. applying this proven natural treatment technique to unsaturated coastal soils can improve the soil’s resiliency during large storm events. including highways.

ottawa 50-70 sand was used for the initial cementation trials. two pore volumes of nutrients were used in each treatment flush (concentrations of nutrients presented in table ii). was grown at 30 °c in an ammonium-Yeast extract medium (atcc 1376: 0. which are reported in table iii. however.4 Mass of Calcium Carbonate Measurements the mass of calcium carbonate was determined post-test using methods outlined in astm d4373.9 2. martinez et al. figure 2. the cementation within the soil column was extremely uniform. 2012) 2. Urea-calcium cementation media was used to induce ureolytic-driven calcite precipitation. 2013). figure 3. individual ingredients were autoclaved separately and mixed together post-sterilization. the mass of calcite in the four soil columns is relatively small compared to published results from other micp treatment studies (Weil et al. 10 g l-1 (nh4)2so4. a urea hydrolyzing bacterium. 2011. oven dried cemented sands are dissolved in hydrochloric acid and the resulting pressure generated from the dissolution of calcium carbonate is measured. Bacteria were introduced into the soil during the initial cementation flush. the soil column specimens had a 50. high ocean waves from hurricane sandy lap against highway 12 and erode the underlying sand. table i.65 0. a GeoJac automated load actuator was used to perform the unconfined compression test.13 mol l-1 tris buffer (ph=9. and allowing the cementation media to freely drain through the sand (figure 3).8 mm (2 in) diameter and an aspect ratio of 2:1. (photo: news & observer. 3. a summary of the components and concentrations are presented in table ii..0). the specimen was flushed with water to remove residual chemicals from the cementation treatments. 2011). montoya et al. 2013. as indicated in table iii. Paris 2013 cementation treatments were performed by flooding the top surface of the soil column.8-1. mortensen and deJong. as indicated by the mass of calcium carbonate of the top and bottom samples (table iii). cultures were centrifuged at 4000 g for 10 min in 15 ml volumes and washed in fresh growth medium. and 20 g l-1 yeast extract). at the end of the cementation treatments. table ii. the cemented soil columns were then subjected to unconfined compression tests until failure.87 Quartz round 2. Biological Treatment Process Sporosarcina pasteurii (atcc 11859).1. Sand and Specimen Preparation four soil column specimens were prepared by dry pluviation to a target relative density of 40%. 14. a summary of the sand characteristics is listed in table i. 2.. pasteurii stock culture and incubated aerobically at 30 °c in a shaking water bath (200 rpm) for approximately 40 hrs before harvesting at a final optical density (od600) of 0. the growth medium was inoculated with the S. chemical recipe for cementation media chemical chemical concentration (m) Urea 1. calcium chloride was not included in the initial treatment with the bacteria to prevent precipitation during inoculation.Proceedings of the 18th International Conference on Soil Mechanics and Geotechnical Engineering. 2566 .1 Calcium Carbonate Content in Soil Columns mass of calcium carbonate was taken in the top and bottom of the cemented soil column.25 2.3. Specimen Shearing after cementation was completed. initial biological flush through soil columns. materials and methods 2. the cementation treatments were repeated for a total of 40 times.0 cacl2 0. the generated pressure is equated to an equivalent mass of calcium carbonate.. 2006. Standard Test Method for Rapid Determination of Carbonate Content in Soils. cementation flushes allowed to free drain through pluviated soil.2. the cemented sand was removed from the soil columns. harvested bacteria were stored in the centrifuge vials at 4 °c for a maximum of 2 days. resUlts 3.4 0. cementation treatments were repeated every 3 to 6 hours.. nov.0. the percentage of mass of calcium carbonate is expressed as the mass of calcium carbonate divided by the mass of soil (not including calcium carbonate). because of the published results with the sand (deJong et al. ottawa 50-70 sand characteristics d50 (mm) cu cc Gmax emin emax mineralogy shape ottawa 50-70 sand characteristics 0.55 0.22 1.

070 0.082 0. and a low enough level of cementation so that native wildlife. to rectify the tendency for disturbance.4 as indicated in table iV. summary of mass of calcium carbonate soil column 1 (top) 1 (bottom) 2 (top) 2 (bottom) 3 (top) 3 (bottom) 4 (top) 4 (bottom) mass of caco3 (%) 0. an approximate shear wave velocity of 400 m/s corresponds to the strength data.2 5. unconfined compression tests were performed on only two of the four columns. 2012). a high enough level of cementation should be used to resist induced shear loads from waves and storm surges.068 0. Unconfined compressive strength (kpa) 5. figure 5. further work will include upscaling the 2567 . cemented soil column mid-test during the unconfined compression test.081 0. such as birds. indicating the cemented soil columns represent lightly cemented sand. Based on previous work. the mass of precipitated calcium carbonate is relatively small compared to published results from other micp treatment studies.102 0. the unconfined compressive strength of the cemented sand columns was about 5 kpa. other studies found that micp treated ottawa 50-70 sand could get compressive strengths of about 170 to 350 kpa at higher levels of cementation (faison and mahin. burrowing animals. can still interact with the coastal deposits. the soil in the remaining columns was extracted from the soil column walls by creating vertical slices through the acrylic walls and allowing the soil to be removed through the sliced opening. micp treated sand with a friction angle of 36 degrees is typical of sand treated to a shear wave velocity of 400 m/s (montoya. the angle of the failure plane in soil columns 1 and 4 was about 63 degrees from the horizontal. this failure plan angle is representative of soil with a friction angle of 36 degrees.2 Cemented Sand Compressive Strength Unconfined compression tests were performed on the cemented soil columns (figure 4 and figure 5).070 0. Untreated ottawa 50-70 sand has a friction angle of about 33 degrees (montoya.068 3. unconfined compression tests were able to be performed on the cemented sand columns. two of the soil columns were not able to be tested because they were disturbed during extraction from the soil column walls. an appropriate level of micp cementation should be used. and dune grass. the cemented soils were especially vulnerable because of the low levels of cementation. a summary of the compression test results are listed in table iV. as mentioned. summary of compressive strength soil column 1 4 figure 4. 2012).Technical Committee 211 / Comité technique 211 table iii. 2012).103 0. failed cemented soil column at the end of the unconfined compression test. table iV. for use as a treatment process for costal sand deposits. however even at low mass of calcium carbonate levels.

deJong.t. hunt.m.t. (2012). d. ASCE Journal of Geotechnical and Geoenvironmental Engineering.. J. mortensen.. t.h. references astm d4373.. and Boulanger.m. Barkouki. and mahin. december. davis. major.m. s.. h. (2012) Bio-Mediated Soil Improvement and the Effect of Cementation on the Behavior. faison.m.c. in review.2.B.” ASTM Geotechnical Testing Journal. doctoral dissertation..h. pp. ASCE Journal of Geotechnical and Geoenvironmental Engineering. 1381-1392. pp.. m. the free-draining treatment process was designed to be similar to likely treatment processes of unsaturated surficial sands in situ.. J.. conclUsions micp can be used to reinforce sandy coastal deposits to improve the resiliency of vital lifelines during large storm events. Standard Test Method for Rapid Determination of Carbonate Content in Soils deJong. B..r. B. montoya. and deJong. “microbial induced calcite precipitation in partially saturated soils. (2012).. (2011). as demonstrated with the unconfined compression tests. soil columns of clean fine sand were treated with micp. m.c.a. and dune grass to interact with the coastal deposits. Weil. 4012-4020. J. B. 132. J. “strength and stiffness of micp treated sand subjected to Various stress paths”. Geotechnical special publication 211. Waller. Improvement. no. and resulted in lightly cemented sand. (2013) “seismic response of liquefiable sand improved by microbial induced calcite precipitation”. c. Ginn. J. tanyu. B. Vol. B... mortensen. B. Geotechnique.t. University of california. “seismic and resistivity measurements for real-time monitoring of microbially induced calcite precipitation in sand. montoya. t. fritzges. (2013) “experimental optimization of microbial induced carbonate precipitation for soil improvement”... (2006) “microbial induced cementation to control sand response to Undrained shear”. J.” PEER 2011/10 – Earthquake Engineering for Resilient Communities: 2011 PEER Internship Program Research Report Collection. r. the lightly cemented sand had an increase in strength. burrowing animals. B. 4. 238. martinez. this treatment process provided uniform levels of cementation throughout the height of the soil column.t. future work involves investigating the optimal range of micp cementation to provide enough strength to resist the loads from large storm events while continuing to support the coastal ecology. Vol. pp. the light levels of cementation achieved in the soil columns provide an increase in shear strength while still allowing for birds. and increase in friction angle. and Performance of Sand..W. ASCE GeoFrontiers 2011: Advances in Geotechnical Engineering. Paris 2013 treatment process using a wave tank to identify optimum ranges of cementation for treatment of coastal deposits. 35. 5.m. 11.t.t. deJong.. in press.Proceedings of the 18th International Conference on Soil Mechanics and Geotechnical Engineering. martinez. B.. mortensen. deJong. and nüsslein. K. 2568 . no.

Geotechnical Engineering Laboratory. Each cement was pulverized to produce three additional cements with nominal maximum grain sizes (dmax) of 40μm.Effect of Grout Bleed Capacity on the Engineering Properties of Cement Grouted Sands Effet de la capacité de ressuage de coulis de ciment sur les propriétés mécaniques des sables injectés Pantazopoulos I. d) une augmentation de l’angle de frottement jusqu’à 5°. Le ressuage des coulis est un indicateur du volume des vides du sable remplis de coulis solidifié mais son degré de corrélation avec les propriétés statiques et dynamiques des sables cimentés varie de très bonnes à négligeables. KEYWORDS: cement grout. respectively. with W/C ratios ranging from 0. avec un rapport eau/ciment variant de 0. The W/C ratio of the suspensions was set equal to 0. Scope of this presentation is to provide some insights on the effect of grout bleed capacity on permeability.. shear strength parameters and dynamic properties of ordinary and microfine cement grouted sands. Although the bleed capacity of cement grouts has been frequently quantified. (e) higher shear modulus by up to 25 times and (f) improved damping ratio by up to 10 times. permeability.K. et une capacité de ressuage se situant jusqu’à 70% lorsque injectés. (c) cohesion in the range of 100kPa to 1400kPa. Department of Civil Engineering.6 to 3. e) un module de cisaillement jusqu’à 25 fois plus élevé. Typical gradations of these cements are presented in Figure 1. a Portlandcomposite and a pozzolanic cement (CEM I. 2 preparing cement-based suspension grouts.0. unconfined and triaxial compression and resonant column tests were conducted to investigate the influence of grout bleed capacity on the engineering properties of cement grouted sands. its correlation with the engineering properties of the grouted sand has not been investigated so far. 0. All suspensions were prepared using high speed mixers. b) une compression simple de 1MPa à 35MPa. All suspensions tested during this investigation were prepared using potable water since it is considered appropriate for Cement : CEM II/B-M nominal dmax 90 Finer by weight (%) 1 10μm 20μm 40μm 70 100μm 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 100 10 Figure 1. unconfined compressive strength. Cements with dmax=10μm can be considered as “microfine” according to Standard EN 12715 (d95<20μm and specific surface over 800m2/kg). 20μm and 10μm and average Blain specific surface values of 567.1 . each at four different cement gradations. marginally. Also. Typical cement gradations. Greece ABSTRACT: Grouts of three different cement types. cements with dmax=20μm have adequately small characteristic grain sizes to be considered. RÉSUMÉ : On a injecté des coulis de trois types de ciments différents.. as “microfine”. L’injection du ciment a résulté en: a) des valeurs de coefficients de perméabilité aussi faible que 10-8cm/s. consequently.G. (b) unconfined compressive strength in the range of 1MPa to 35MPa.0 and 3. dans deux sables différents. in conjunction with the effect of the grout W/C ratio. 2. 720 and 928m2/kg.0 by weight.0 and bleed capacities ranging up to 70% were injected into two different sands. c) une cohésion de 100kPa à 1400kPa. Permeability. in order to test both stable and unstable suspensions in terms of bleed capacity.A.6 à 3. the effectiveness of cement grouts in terms of the percentage of soil voids volume filled by grouting.0.K. Bleed capacity is an indicator of sand void volume filled with solidified grout but its degree of correlation with the static and dynamic properties of the grouted sands ranges from very good to negligible.6. damping ratio INTRODUCTION Improvement of the mechanical properties and behavior of soils by permeation grouting using cement suspensions is frequently required in order to assure the safe construction and operation of many structures.. a Portland. Basas V. University of Patras. strength. f) une augmentation du coefficient d’amortissement jusqu’à 10 fois plus élevé. 2569 1 Cement grain size (μm) 0. 1. CEM II/B-M and CEM IV/B according to Standard EN 197-1) were used. The grout water-to-cement ratio (W/C) and the maximum cement grain size (dmax) are two important parameters controlling the cement grout bleed capacity and. shear modulus. Atmatzidis D. (d) improvement of the internal friction angle by up to 5°.4 % by weight of dry cement was used to improve grout properties. chacun avec quatre dosages en ciment différents. As recommended by the superplasticizer producer.8. A superplasticizer (patented new generation of admixture based on polycarboxylate chemistry) at a dosage of 1. Papageorgopoulou S. de compression simple et triaxiale et de colonne résonnante pour étudier l'influence de la capacité de ressuage des coulis sur les propriétés mécaniques des sables injectés. Cement grouting resulted in (a) permeability coefficient values as low as 10-8cm/s. On a effectué des essais de perméabilité. 100 80 MATERIALS AND PROCEDURES For the purposes of this investigation. bleed capacity.

Testing procedures and interpretation of raw data complied with well established methods (Pantazopoulos and Atmatzidis 2012). After 24 h. without initial saturation and consolidation. 40 Unconfined compr.6 was required to obtain stable suspension of the coarse cements (dmax=100μm and 40μm) while microfine cement suspensions were stable for a W/C ratio of 1. similar to the arrangement described in ASTM D4320-84.00E-09 0.5 2 2. It can be observed that a W/C ratio of about 0.5 1 1. Two different sand gradations were used with grain sizes limited between sieve sizes (ASTM E11) Nos.5 1. Drained triaxial compression tests were conducted under confining pressures of 100.00E-07 1.6 and attains a value of about 10-7 to10-8cm/s indicating practically impermeable materials. W/C 3 3.1%/min. For cement grouts with dmax equal to 100μm and 40μm.5 Water-to-cement ratio.5 2 2. respectively) in order to allow grouting by both the coarse. a suspension is stable when it has a bleed capacity of not more than 5 % after 120 min from preparation. of approximately 5*10-5 % to 5*10-2 %.00E-08 1. k 20 (cm/s) 0. For comparison.00E-06 1.1%/min.0 100μm 5-10 17-19 16-39 44-60 60-70 40μm 5-7 11-15 10-26 42-55 56-68 20μm N/T N/T 0-4 25-37 43-49 10μm N/T N/T 0-2 7-26 38-42 N/T: Not tested the total amount of cement. 200 and 400kPa and axial strain rate equal to 0.00E-04 1.Proceedings of the 18th International Conference on Soil Mechanics and Geotechnical Engineering. but allows some observations to be made in terms of the effect of cement grain size. Injection was stopped when the volume of the injected grout was equal to two void volumes of the sand in the molds.00E-03 100μm . The dynamic properties of the grouted sands were investigated at confining pressures up to 400kPa by conducting torsional resonant column tests for a shear strain range. similar tests were conducted on clean sands. ready for testing (Pantazopoulos et al. Effect of grout W/C ratio and bleed capacity on the permeability of cement grouted sands.00E-05 1. qu (MPa) 0.40μm 20μm .5 3 3. with a height of 112mm and a diameter of 50mm. 3 Coefficient of permeability.00E-02 Coefficient of permeability.0 1.00E-04 1.40μm 20μm . The coefficient of permeability decreases considerably (by about 5 orders of magnitude) as the W/C ratio decreases from 3 to 0.8 W/C 1. W/C 40 COEFFICIENT OF PERMEABILITY The coefficient of permeability values of all grouted sands tested are presented in Figure 2 with respect to W/C ratio.6 dmax 100μm .2° and 42. Then. limestone sands with angular grains and were grouted at a dense (relative density approximately 90%) and dry state.8mm.00E-02 dmax 35 100μm .10μm 30 25 20 15 10 5 0 0.00E-05 1.10μm 30 25 20 15 10 5 0 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 Bleed capacity (%) Figure 3. bleed capacity and maximum cement grain size of the suspensions.5mm and 0. The permeability of the grouted sands appears not to be affected by the cement grain size.0 The soils used were clean.5 1 1.00E-06 1. Bleed capacity values (%) of all cement grouts 3. strength. Hydraulic conductivity tests were performed according to the procedure described by Head (1986) for permeability testing in a triaxial cell with two back-pressure systems.6°. k 20 (cm/s) dmax dmax 1.0 d max 35 100μm .00E-03 1. was used to produce small-size grouted sand specimens. the coefficient of permeability of the grouted sands attained values in the range of 10-7 to 10-8cm/s and 10-3 to 10-4cm/s.40μm 20μm . uniform. Bleed capacity measurements were conducted for all cement suspensions used and the results are summarized in Table 1. 2012).00E-09 0 10 20 30 40 Bleed capacity (%) 50 60 70 Figure 2. for grout bleed capacity ranging from 6% 2570 Unconfined compr. respectively. According to Standard EN 12715.and fine-grained suspensions.00E-08 1. the rest of the water was added and mixing continued for another 5 min.00E-07 1. 10-14 and 14-25 (d15 size of 1. Effect of grout W/C ratio and bleed capacity on the unconfined compression strength of cement grouted sands.10μm 1.10μm 1. Paris 2013 Table 1. 70 % of the water and the superplasticizer dosage were mixed for 5 min. strength. γ. . the specimens were extracted from the split molds and cured in a humid room for 28 days before testing. Evaluation of the permeability of the grouted sands in terms of grout bleed capacity indicates a similar trend as with the W/C. Laboratory equipment. q u (MPa) 2. The angle of internal friction of the sands was 42. Grouted specimens were tested in unconfined compression at a displacement rate equal to 0.5 Water-to-cement ratio.40μm 20μm .

400 200 0 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 Bleed capacity (%) Figure 5. 2004) and seems not to affected by cement grain size. G. c (kPa) 1200 1000 800 600 400 σ3 (kPa) 100 . of grouted sands at a confining pressure equal to 50kPa and shear strain equal to 10-5%.5 Water-to-cement ratio. grouted sands injected with stable grouts (bleed capacity values less than 5%) obtained the highest cohesion values ranging from 1200kPa to 1450kPa. 5 100μm .200 . W/C 1600 d max 1400 100μm . generally. c (kPa) 1200 1000 800 600 400 SHEAR MODULUS Presented in Figure 6 are typical results obtained for the shear modulus.400 30 0 10 20 30 40 50 Bleed capacity (%) 60 70 Figure 4.40μm 20μm .5 Water-to-cement ratio. respectively. In general. Effect of grout W/C ratio and bleed capacity on the internal friction angle of cement grouted sands. as verified by other research efforts (i.400 30 0.10μm 55 1600 d max 1400 100μm . higher coefficients of permeability. It should also be noted that (a) similar coefficient of permeability values (10-7 to 10-8 cm/s) are obtained when injecting with stable or unstable suspensions for bleed capacity values up to 30% and (b) for higher bleed capacity values.40μm 20μm .200 . microfine cement grouts with the same bleed capacity as cement grouts yield significantly lower grouted sand strength. where the microfine cements exhibit higher values of cohesion than the coarse-grained cements.e. compared to sands grouted with the coarser cement suspensions.1GPa to σ3 (kPa) 100 . from 4. for similar bleed capacities. the microfine cement suspensions are stable (bleed capacity < 4%) and fill the sand voids with cement more completely and uniformily than the coarse cement suspensions with W/C=1 (bleed capacity >16%).Technical Committee 211 / Comité technique 211 to 30% and from 48% to 68%. Furthermore. This is reasonable and can be attributed to the increased amount of coarse-grained cement needed to obtain the same bleed capacity with suspensions of microfine cements.5 3 3. The effect of confining pressure is not pronounced for the grouted sands tested (Pantazopoulos and Atmatzidis 2012). as shown in Figure 5. for W/C ratios equal to 1. by 40% to 150%.5 2 2.5 3 3. at W/C ratio equal to 1. As shown in Figure 5.200 . The unconfined compression strength of the grouted sands is very well correlated with grout bleed capacity of both the coarse-grained cements (dmax=100 and 40μm) and the microfine cements (dmax=20 and 10μm) but. leads to an almost linear decrease of the cohesion values from 800kPa to 100kPa. this can be attributed to the increased amount of coarse-grained cement needed to obtain the same bleed capacity as microfine cement suspensions.40μm 20μm .5 1 1. is misleading since the suspensions used had different bleed capacities for the same W/C ratio. As with permeability. 4 60 dmax Internal friction angle. Effect of grout W/C ratio and bleed capacity on the cohesion of cement grouted sands. the coefficient of permeability of the grouted sand decreases dramatically but remains in the range of 10-4 to 10-3cm/s. W/C 60 dmax 100μm . φ ( ο ) 55 50 45 40 35 σ3 (kPa) 100 . As shown in Figure 6. the internal friction angle ranged from 40° to 50° and the effect of W/C ratio. Sands injected with microfine cement grouts (dmax=20μm and 10μm) obtained. The cohesion of the grouted sands is strongly affected both by the W/C ratio and by the bleed capacity of the grouts. Dano et al. definitely.400 200 0 0. the cohesion values of the grouted sands ranged from 600kPa to 1450kPa.5 UNCONFINED COMPRESSION STRENGTH 1 1. The effect of cement grain size on grouted sand cohesion. from 300kPa to 500kPa and from 50kPa to 250kPa.200 .40μm 20μm . 2571 .10μm Internal friction angle.10μm Cohesion. SHEAR STRENGTH The shear strength of the grouted sand specimens is expressed in terms of internal friction angle and cohesion.5 2 2. As indicated in Figure 4. by half to one order of magnitude. respectively. bleed capacity and cement grain size appear to be insignificant. by applying the Mohr-Coulomb failure criterion. the shear modulus values decrease. For example. However. the effect of cement grain size can be clearly demonstrated in terms of grout bleed capacity. 2 and 3. 6 50 35 The results presented in Figure 3 indicate that the unconfined compression strength of the grouted sands increases significantly with decreasing W/C ratio of the grouts. the internal friction angle of the grouted sands was up to 5° higher than the value obtained for clean sands. Increased bleed capacity values (unstable suspensions) in the range of 15% to 65%. φ ( ο ) 45 40 σ3 (kPa) 100 .10μm Cohesion.

1986. In general.e.5 GPa. cohesion) and not at all with other properties (i.H. London. Soil Dynamics and Earthquake Engineering 42.40μm 20μm . Pantazopoulos I.5 2 1. G (GPa) 1.5 Water-to-cement ratio... 2004. mainly for coarse-grained cements.N. by 15% to 30%.5 DAMPING RATIO 10 REFERENCES 2.40μm 3.5 dmax Shear modulus. G (GPa ) 4 100μm .I. The effect of shear strain and confining pressure on the grouted sand damping ratio has been presented elsewhere (Pantazopoulos and Atmatzidis 2012). For similar bleed capacity values. Journal of Geotechnical and Geoenvironmental Engineering 130. D t (%) 100μm .5 1 σ3 = 50 kPa 0. Markou I.K. with increasing W/C ratio.5 7 1 1. Hicher P-Y.A. d max 3. Effect of grout W/C ratio and bleed capacity on the damping ratio of cement grouted sands.6 to 3.5 γ = 10 -5 % 0 0.5 3 2.5 1 σ3 = 50 kPa 0. the following major conclusions may be advanced: 1. damping ratio.. The distinction between stable and unstable grouts may not be an indicator of grout effectiveness since similar effects may be produced by both stable and unstable grouts. 2012. the sands grouted with microfine cement grouts have lower shear modulus values.10μm 3. which have a tendency to increase with increasing W/C ratio. indicating an improvement up to 10 times by grouting. Engineering properties of grouted sands.5 2 1. The effect of grout bleed capacity on the shear modulus of grouted sand is clearly depicted in Figure 6.5% to 8.5 Water-to-cement ratio. Paris 2013 4.5 3 2. W/C 4. 17-31. Pentech Press Ltd.. the shear modulus of the grouted sand decreases sharply by about 40%. 2012.5 1 σ3 = 50 kPa 0. internal friction angle) . Antiohos S. W/C 9 4 Damping ratio. where it can be observed that above a bleed capacity value of about 30%.10μm 3 ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS The information reported herein is part of research project PENED-03ED527. Even though the available data are limited.N.. Chaniotakis E.5 1 1.A.5 γ = 10 -5 % 0 0 10 20 30 40 50 Bleed capacity (%) 60 70 Figure 6. Cement and Concrete Composites 34. vol. The grout W/C ratio has a measurable effect on the damping ratio values of the grouted sands. Dano C. Pantazopoulos I. The effect of grout bleed capacity on the damping ratio of the grouted sand appears to be less dominant..Proceedings of the 18th International Conference on Soil Mechanics and Geotechnical Engineering. compared to sands grouted with coarse-grained cement grouts.40μm 20μm . Manual of soil laboratory testing. 3.5 3 3. and Atmatzidis D. The shear modulus values of the clean sands did not exceed 170MPa. Tailliez S. Development of microfine cement grouts by pulverizing ordinary cements.e.5 2 2. Christodoulou D.. since it is representative of the soil void volume filled by cement. Effect of grout W/C ratio and bleed capacity on the shear modulus of cement grouted sands. For microfine cements there is a tendency for the damping ratio of the grouted sands to increase with increasing bleed capacity of the grouts. The damping ratios of the clean sands (for confining pressure and shear strain equal to 50kPa and 10-3%.5 γ = 10 -3 % 0 0. 328-338.5 2 2. 4 dmax Damping ratio. Bleed capacity values correlate very well with some grouted sand properties (i.5 γ = 10 -3 % 0 0 10 20 30 40 Bleed capacity (%) 50 60 70 Figure 7. Dynamic properties of microfine cement grouted sands. Atmatzidis D. indicating an improvement up to 25 times by grouting. Bleed capacity is an indicator of grout effectiveness. 2572 .K.40μm 20μm . Head K. respectively) did not exceed 0.0%. D t (%) 20μm . from 0. 8 100μm .5 3 3.3. Droudakis A.5%. co-financed by the European Social Fund (75%) and the Greek Ministry of Development (25%).5 4 Shear modulus. 593-603. grouted sands injected with stable grouts (bleed capacity less than 5%) of microfine cements indicated damping ratios lower by 50% than those for grouting with unstable grouts.5 CONCLUSIONS Based on the results obtained and the observations made.10μm 3. 2. the values obtained ranged from 0.5 2 1. 3 0 The damping ratio values of the grouted sands are presented in Figure 7 for a confining pressure equal to 50kPa and shear strain equal to 10-3%. increased with increasing shear rate (from 5*10-5% to 5*10-2%) and decreased with increasing confining pressure (from 50kPa to 400kPa). dmax 100μm . Cement grain size seems to have a measurable effect on the shear modulus values of the grouted sands.10μm 2.5 1 σ3 = 50 kPa 0.K. unconfined compression strength.5 2 1.

(2008) Ghandeharioon et al. (2000) Sharma and Xiao (2000) Hird and Moseley (2000) Bo et al. induces disturbance of the soil surrounding the drain. In the last two decades. vertical drain 1 INRODUCTION Intact Zone Finding efficient ground improvement techniques to modify the soft soil properties.(1981) Jamiolkowski et al. Results of this study indicate that the assumptive properties for smear zone characteristics may result in inaccurate predictions of ground deformations and pore water pressures. (1991) Onoue et al. considering the project time limitation and the construction cost has been a continuous challenge for the construction companies. The finite difference analyses have been verified using a case study. (1994) Hansbo (1997) Indraratna and Redana (1998) Chai and Miura (1999) Eriksson et al. Intact Zone Smear Zone kh rs kv rw Vertical drain S R kh rs Vertical drain rw kh ks k v R Intact Zone Intact Zone Smear Zone Smear Zone rs kv Smear Zone ks rw R ks Vertical drain rs Vertical drain rw ks kh kv R Figure 1. (2009) Kim et al. Furthermore. (2005c) Sathananthan and Inraratna… Sathananthan et al.(1981) Jamiolkowski et al. Cross section of PVD surrounding by smear zone Extent ratio (rs/r m) Barron (1948) Casagrande and Poulos (1969) Holtz and Holm (1973) Akagi (1976) Hansbo (1981) Hansbo et al. Sydney. 1. (2003) Indraratna et al. 1998. numerical analysis. which are illustrated in Figure 2. Shang et al. (1993) Almedia et al. (2010) Tran-Nguyen and Edil (2011) Ghandeharioon et al. (1991) Onoue et al.Numerical Analysis to Quantify the Influence of Smear Zone Characteristics on Preloading Design in Soft Clay Analyses numériques pour quantifier l’influence des caractéristiques de la zone endommagée sur la conception de préchargement dans les argiles molles Parsa-Pajouh A. which are installed in rectangular pattern. (1994) Hansbo (1997) Indraratna and Redana (1998) Chai and Miura (1999) Eriksson et al. The proposed range shows that the extent of the smear zone (rs) may vary between 1. KEYWORDS: FLAC. FLAC 2D finite difference software with additional developed subroutines has been employed to conduct the numerical simulations. The assumptive properties for smear zone characteristics may result in 2573 . the permeability (ks). Khabbaz B. a comprehensive parametric study is conducted to investigate the influence of smear zone permeability and extent on the model predictions. (2005b) Indraratna et al. (2003) Indraratna et al. Il est recommandé aux ingénieurs d'utiliser les résultats de l’essai de préchargement afin de calculer les caractéristiques requises de la zone endommagée pour optimiser la conception. (1991) Bergado et al. University of Technology Sydney (UTS). 1991. (1983) Bergado et al. Le logiciel de différences finis FLAC2D avec sous-programmes additionnels a été utilisé afin de réaliser les simulations numériques. Generally. employing prefabricated vertical drain (PVD) assisted preloading has been recognised as a very efficient ground improvement method for sites with deep soft soil deposits (Holtz et al. (2012) 4 5 6 7 8 0 Applied method: Back-Analysis Experimental Analytical Lower bound Upper bound 1 2 FEM 3 4 5 6 7 8 Assumed Figure 2. Les analyses de différences finis ont été vérifiées à l’aide d’une étude de cas. Par ailleurs. Determining both the smear zone extent and its permeability is a challenging task. (2005c) Sathananthan and Inraratna (2006) Sathananthan et al. It is recommended to practising engineers to use results of trial preloading to back calculate the required smear zone characteristics in the early stages of embankment construction to optimize the design. where kh is the horizontal permeability of the intact soil. (1991) Bergado et al. According to literature. (2012) Extent ratio (r s/r m) Lower bound 0 1 2 3 Barron (1948) Upper bound Casagrande and Poulos (1969) Holtz and Holm (1973) Akagi (1976) Hansbo (1981) Hansbo et al. 2005). (2008) Ghandeharioon et al. Installation of the prefabricated vertical drains using mandrel. (1993) Hansbo (1994) Mesri et al. Proposed values for smear zone characteristics It can be observed that wide ranges are proposed for kh/ks and rs/rm and there is no definite method to predict these parameters precisely to be used by practising engineers. This may lead to early removal of the surcharge in the construction process causing excessive post construction settlement. Cela peut conduire à un retrait précoce de la surcharge dans le processus de construction engendrant un tassement post-construction excessive. two major parameters are proposed to characterise the smear zone. very diverse values are reported for the permeability ratio (kh/ks) and extent ratio (rs/rm). (2010) Tran-Nguyen and Edil (2011) Ghandeharioon et al. preloading. RÉSUMÉ : Dans cet article. and the extent (rs) of the smear zone.0 to 6 times of mandrel equivalent diameter (rm). Les résultats de cette étude montrent que les propriétés supposées pour les caractéristiques de la zone endommagé peuvent entrainer des prédictions incorrectes de déformations du sol et de pressions interstitielles. (1993) Almedia et al. Figure 1 illustrates the cross section of prefabricated vertical drains surrounded by smear zone. Predicting the soil behaviour surrounding the drain requires an accurate estimation of the smear zone properties. (1993) Hansbo (1994) Mesri et al. the effects of uncertainties of smear zone characteristics induced by installation of prefabricated vertical drains on the preloading design are numerically investigated. Indraratna et al. The proposed range for the permeability ratio (kh/ks) is 1. Fatahi H. School of Civil and Environmental Engineering. les effets des incertitudes des caractéristiques de la zone endommagée induites par l’installation des drains verticaux préfabriqués sur la conception du préchargement sont étudiés par une méthode numérique. une étude paramétrique approfondie est effectuée afin d’investiguer l’influence de la perméabilité de la zone endommagé sur les prédictions du modèle. smear zone. (1983) Bergado et al. (2005b) Indraratna et al..6 to 7 times of the drain radius (rw) or. resulting in a smear zone of reduced permeability adversely affecting the consolidation process. (2000) Sharma and Xiao (2000) Hird and Moseley (2000) Bo et al. Various ground improvement methods have been proposed to improve the strength properties of the soft soil. (2009) Kim et al.3 to 10.. Australia ABSTRACT: In this paper.

The site is located on the bank of Karnafully river beside the Bay of Bengal in the Indian Ocean.31 1. 2 Embankment Height (m) 4 In the present study. Vertical drains were installed down to the depth of approximately 9 m below the ground level in square patter to cover the full depth of the soft clay. n is the spacing ratio equal to B/bw where B and bw are equivalent planestrain radius of the influence zone and radius of the drain respectively. the largest sea port in Bangladesh. FLAC 2D v6.5 The equivalent plane-strain permeability (khp) proposed by Indraratna and Redana (2000) has been used in the numerical analysis.13 0. (iii) the option to define the exact location of desired points to generate and plot any future history graphs. Surcharge material was placed in two layers of approximately equal thickness. for handling loaded containers. Required new subroutines have been written using the built-in programming language FISH (FLACish) to tailor analyses to suit specific needs for the parametric study. (2011). According to Dhar et al. Construction history (Chittagong Port embankment) NUMERICAL MODELLING CL 3 G1 4m 9m G2 1m 7m 10m Figure 3. This can lead to early removal of surcharge in construction process resulting in excessive post construction settlement. Therefore. The discretised plane.1. Cross section of constructed embankment 1m Figure 5. Preloading with prefabricated vertical drains was adopted to preconsolidate the compressible soft deposits.75] (1) (ksp/khp) = β / [(khp/kh) [(ln(n/s)+(kh/ks) ln(s)-0. respectively. where only half of the trial embankment is considered by exploiting symmetry. A surcharge load consisting of 3.700 m2 and was designed to support a container load producing a contact pressure of approximately 56 kPa. The sides of the surcharge load were kept vertical along the boundaries of the area using sand bags and brick stacks. (ii) ability to change different parameters such as the model dimensions. Figure 3 shows a profile detailing the ground improvement work schematically.0 has been employed to model the PVD assisted preloading process focusing on smear zone uncertainties. The yard covers an area of 60. Adopted soil properties (after Dhar et al. The value of kh needs to be determined first (laboratory or field). Case Study: Chittagong Sea Port in Bangladesh PVDs 2 Figure 4. ksp can be obtained from Equation (2). has been selected for the numerical simulations and verification of the developed code and subroutines. Adopted soil properties in the numerical analysis are summerised in Table 1.74 Silty sand 0m 10 20 30 40 50 60 Time (days) 70 80 90 FLAC 2D numerical code incorporating modified Cam-Clay constitutive soil model has been employed to simulate Chittagong Port preloading process applying plane strain conditions.75]-α] (2) 3 2 α = 2(n-s) / [3(n-1)n ] (3) 2 2 β = [2(s-1) / (n-1)n ] * [n(n -s-1) +1/3 (s +s+1)] (4) where. giving the following unique advantages to the developed code for this study. ks and ksp are axisymmetric and plane-strain permeability values of smear zone. Surcharge Material 0 LL=45 PI=18 Gs=2.0m Clayey silt/Silty clay (CL/ML) Commencement of recording settlement plate readings 1 0 2. respectively. (khp/kh) = 0. Chittagong Sea Port in Bangladesh with 3. then khp can be calculated using Equation (1). a container yard has been constructed at Chittagong Port. Sample of mesh grid pattern for Chittagong Port embankment considering the smear Numerical results are compared with the field measurements in Figure 6. Thus.0 m high embankment on 9 m deep soft clay. it is essential to study the influence of the uncertainties in the smear zone size and its permeability on the preloading design to improve the performance of soft deposits. Settlement gauge (G1) Intact zone Smear zone 60 kPa PVD 20 m Sand bags γ t=20 kN/m 3 10 m 3. and s=rs/rw. vertical drain properties. Table 1. The primary consolidation settlement is 2574 . When khp is known.Proceedings of the 18th International Conference on Soil Mechanics and Geotechnical Engineering. In addition. FLAC predictions are in a good agreement with the field measurements considering kh/ks=2 and rs/rm=3. Figure 4 shows the construction history of the embankment. 2011) Layer Soil type M λ κ ν e○ γs kN/m3 kh 10-9m/s kh/ kv Clayey Silt Soft soil 0.28 14. subsoil profile. which was followed by the field monitoring.3 1.0 m high fill of sand was placed for preloading. According to Figure 6. The zero excess pore water pressure has been considered along the vertical drains and the ground surface boundary to model the PVD and surface drainage.026 0. and (iv) automatic solving process based on the modified input data. smear zone characteristics and preloading conditions. a numerical code using FLAC 2D has been developed in this study to investigate the uncertainties of PVD smear zone characteristics on the preloading design which can be used to back calculate smear zone characteristics for actual preloading projects.67 / [(ln(n)-0.0 2. kh and khp are axisymmetric and plane-strain horizontal permeability values of intact zone respectively. Geotechnical investigations revealed the presence of a soft to very soft clayey silt/silty clay deposit with a thickness of approximately 7 m (Figure 3).94 0. α and β are geometric coefficients.strain finite-difference mesh composed of quadrilateral elements is shown in Figure 5. (i) automatic mesh generation process by entering the required parameters to modify the grid pattern inside and outside the smear zone. Paris 2013 inaccurate predictions of the ground behaviour.

0 t = 34. 2011) 150 Numerical predictions (Point G1) 100 50 0 0 10 20 30 40 Time (Days) 50 60 70 Figure 6.Technical Committee 211 / Comité technique 211 predicted to be approximately 258 mm. which is approximately twice longer than the minimum (see Figure 7d). The general trend in Figures 7(a)-7(d) shows that changing the permeability ratio in a smaller range results in large variations of the required time to obtain 90% degree of consolidation considering a constant extent ratio. For this purpose. When smear Excess pore pressure (kPa) Figure 7. 300 (a) Settlement (mm) 250 rs/rm=2 Ū = 90% 200 t = 53. (a) rs/rm=2. Effect of smear zone properties on excess pore water pressure dissipation for Chittagong port case history at point G2 2575 .0 100 t = 60. As illustrated in Figures 4 and 6. 0 20 80 (c) 250 t = 63. Figure 8 illustrates the numerical parametric study results investigating the influence of the smear zone properties on the excess pore water pressure (EPWP) dissipation.0 Settlement (mm) Kh/Ks=2 Kh/Ks=3 Kh/Ks=4 Kh/Ks=5 40 0 200 50 rs/rm=2 Full height of embankment reached 50 80 rs/rm=4 100 (a) 60 0 100 Ū = 90% t = 36. According to Figure 7a.5 100 t = 41. (c) rs/rm=4. For example.0 t = 47. Parametric study results for Chittagong port case history at point G1.0 Settlement (mm) 40 60 Time (Days) Excess pore pressure (kPa) 0 300 zone properties are kh/ks=5 and rs/rm=5. considering kh/ks=2 and rs/rm=2.0 50 t = 48. According to Figure 7(a). respectively. while keeping rs/rm=3. Figure 7 illustrates the parametric study results for settlement-time relationships. and (d) rs/rm=5 20 40 60 Time (Days) (d) 70 80 100 rs/rm=5 Full height of embankment reached 60 50 Kh/Ks=2 Kh/Ks=3 Kh/Ks=4 Kh/Ks=5 40 30 20 10 0 0 20 40 60 Time (Days) 80 100 Figure 8. according to Figure 8b.0 150 Kh/Ks=2 Kh/Ks=3 Kh/Ks=4 Kh/Ks=5 50 0 20 80 (b) 250 100 rs/r m=3 Ū = 90% 200 Kh/Ks=2 Kh/Ks=3 Kh/Ks=4 Kh/Ks=5 t = 57. the settlement curves are converged to a unique value of approximately 258 mm. the consolidation time is increased by 23% by varying the permeability ratio from 2 to 3.0 100 t = 42. (b) rs/rm=3. The required time to obtain 90% of primary consolidation settlement (232 mm) has been considered to investigate the effect of smear zone properties on consolidation process.0 t = 45.0 50 t = 67. the required time would be the maximum and equal to 67 days. the permeability ratio is more critical parameter than the extent ratio. there is 160% difference between the predicted excess pore pressure values after 34 days (90% of the field degree of consolidation) for kh/ks=2 (EPWP=13 kPa) and kh/ks=5 (EPWP=34 kPa). the influence of smear zone permeability variations is more critical when the smear zone extent ratio is larger. kh/ks (permeability ratio) and rs/rm (extent ratio) have been changed from 2 to 5.0 150 Kh/Ks=2 Kh/Ks=3 Kh/Ks=4 Kh/Ks=5 30 20 10 20 40 60 Time (Days) 80 (b) 70 100 r s/rm=3 Full height of embankment reached 60 50 Kh/Ks=2 Kh/Ks=3 Kh/Ks=4 Kh/Ks=5 40 30 20 Ū = 90% 10 0 0 20 40 60 Time (Days) 80 (d) 250 0 100 80 rs/rm=5 Ū = 90% Excess pore pressure (kPa) 0 300 200 t = 47. Figure 8 confirms that increasing the permeability and extent ratios prolongs the pore water pressure dissipation process considerably. while this boost is 80% (from 37 days to 67 days) for extent ratio of 5.0 150 t = 35. the field settlement is measured immediately after placing the surcharge to the full height of 3 m (after 12 days).0 Settlement (mm) 40 60 Time (Days) Excess pore pressure (kPa) 0 300 70 Kh/Ks=2 Kh/Ks=3 Kh/Ks=4 Kh/Ks=5 10 20 30 40 50 60 Time (Days) (c) 70 70 80 90 100 rs/rm=4 Full height of embankment reached 60 50 Kh/Ks=2 Kh/Ks=3 Kh/Ks=4 Kh/Ks=5 40 30 20 10 0 0 0 20 40 60 Time (Days) 80 0 100 80 According to Figure 7. 300 Ū=90% Settlement (mm) 250 (Kh /Ks=2 & rs/rm=3) 200 Field measurements (Dhar et al. According to the settlement curves in Figure 7.0 150 t = 37. According to Figure 8.Comparison of numerical results with filed data 3 PARAMETRIC STUDY AND DISCUSSION Parametric studies have been conducted to investigate the influence of the smear zone characteristics on the preloading design simulating Chittagong Port case study with the details presented in the previous section. while this change is 17% and 12% when the permeability ratio is changed from 3 to 4 and 4 to 5. although the influence of extent ratio variation on the consolidation time can not be neglected. For instance the required time to obtain 90% degree of consolidation has been increased by 56% (from 34 days to 53 days) changing the permeability ratio from 2 to 5 considering the extent ratio equal to 2. the minimum time of 34 days is needed to achieve 90% degree of consolidation. which is the primary consolidation settlement. Graphs are plotted for point G2 located at the depth of 4 m (see Figure 3).0 t = 53.

1998.0 32 34 36 38 40 42 44 46 48 50 52 54 56 58 60 62 64 66 68 70 Time (Days) Figure 9. 2011.75 rs/rm 2 3 4 5 Numerical analyses applying developed FLAC code have been conducted to compare the settlement and excess pore water pressure variations against the consolidation time. 2000. the consolidation time significantly depends on the smear zone permeability and extent. A vertical line is plotted from t90%= 34 days. 994-1014. CIRIA.85 1. S.85 & rs/rm=4 (S3) Kh/Ks=1.. Smear zone is a reduced permeability area induced by mandrel insertion that halts the consolidation process. J. S3 and S4. assuming kh/ks as a constant parameter can influence the required consolidation time by more than 25%. Indraratna. The required time to obtain 90% degree of consolidation for this condition is equal to 34 days. R. Z. 300 (a) Settlement (mm) 250 200 150 Kh/Ks=2.0 1. In this study. Lancellotta..75 & rs/rm=5 (S4) 50 40 30 20 10 0 0 20 40 Time (Days) 60 80 Figure 10. Canadian Geotechnical Journal. Vacuum preloading consolidation of reclaimed land: a case study. It can be noted that the difference is more significant for larger values of rs/rm. I. Results presented in Figure 9 indicate that the influence of uncertainties in rs/rm becomes more important when permeability of smear zone decreases.0 2. Different combinations of smear zone extent and permeability may result in the same t90%= 34 days and predictions are presented in Figure 10. which is highlighted as point S2 in Figure 9. Butterworth-Heinemann.75 & rs/rm=5 (S4) 0 0 20 40 Time (Days) 60 80 Kh/Ks=2. FLAC 2D software has been employed to develop a numerical code assisting with the parametric study and back calculating smear zone properties. 5 REFERENCES Dhar. Holtz. B. Predicted time to obtain 90% degree of consolidation Figure 9 clearly indicates that the smear zone extent ratio (rs/rm) is an important parameter influencing the consolidation time and cannot be neglected. M. Paris 2013 CONCLUSIONS Preloading time during consolidation process can significantly be affected by formation of the smear zone in the vicinity of the prefabricated vertical drains (PVDs). Jamiolkowski. rs/rm=2 Permeability ratio (k h/ks) 5. Smear zone properties at these points are summarised in Table 2. the predicted settlement curve is in the best agreement with the field measurements considering smear zone properties of kh/ks=2 and rs/rm=3. 2005. and Pedroni. Numerical modeling of vertical drains with smear and well resistance installed in soft clay. Therefore. assuming rs/rm=2. C. which intersects the set of lines at points S1. S.. smear zone properties of any of these points can be adopted for the practical design purposes.. and Redana. S2. Canadian Geotechnical Journal. Rujikiatkamjorn. Back calculated smear zone properties to achieve t 90%= 34 days S1 S2 S3 S4 kh/ks 2. S3 and S4. According to Figure 9.0 Excess pore water pressure (kPa) Proceedings of the 18th International Conference on Soil Mechanics and Geotechnical Engineering. 35(5). I.1 & rs/rm=2 (S1) 100 Kh/Ks=2 & rs/rm=3 (S2) Kh/Ks=1. 2(2). (b) Excess pore water pressure dissipation 4 S2 S1 Point (b) 60 Figure 10 shows that the curves for the settlement variations and the excess pore water pressure dissipations with time follow the same trend for points S1. Results of this study indicate that assumptive properties for smear zone characteristics may result in inaccurate predictions of ground deformations and pore water pressures. and Sathananthan. 740-749. and Ameen. Analytical and numerical solutions for a single vertical drain including the effects of vacuum preloading. Siddique. Varying rs/rm in the range of 2 to 5. the required times to obtain 90% degree of consolidation are approximately 33 days and 53 days. R.85 & rs/rm=4 (S3) 50 Kh/Ks=1. London. indicating 60% difference. Prefabricated vertical drains: design and performance. Indraratna. According to the back calculation results presented in Figure 6. respectively. 42(4).. Thus.B. 4. Ground improvement using pre-loading with prefabricated vertical drains. B. and Miao. A. International Journal of Geoengineering Case Histories. 132-145. For example. Shang. S2. M. for the case with kh/ks=2 and kh/ks=5. Table 2.0 rs/r m=3 r s/r m=4 rs/rm=5 3. numerical analyses have been employed to investigate the effects of uncertainties of smear zone characteristics on the preloading design. A. F. Tang.0 S4 S3 1. 2576 . The verification exercise on Chittagong port case history confirms the validity of the developed numerical code. FLAC analysis results for points in Table 2 (a) Settlement variation.The required time to obtain 90% degree of consolidation for different smear zone properties is illustrated in Figure 9 using parametric study results.10 & rs/rm=2 (S1) Kh/Ks=2 & rs/rm=3 (S2) Kh/Ks=1. 37(1). Canadian Geotechnical Journal. Available literature proposes a wide range for the smear zone extent and permeability and yet there is no definite prediction method that can be used to estimate the extent of smear zone and its permeability to be used in the design procedure. 86-104. W. R. Therefore.Q. According to the parametric study results the properties of the smear zone have key roles on the required consolidation time to achieve a certain soil strength and stiffness satisfying both bearing capacity and settlement design criteria. accurate estimation of the properties of smear zone based on the soil type and the installation method is vital for the ground improvement projects adopting PVD assisted preloading. Combined effects of uncertainties in the smear zone extent and permeability will result in momentous changes of consolidation time. 1991. This can lead to early removal of surcharge in construction process resulting excessive post construction settlement. it is recommended to practising geotechnical engineers to back calculate the smear zone properties using a trial construction similar to the future construction procedure.10 2. which presents a better interpretation of the effects of the smear zone properties on consolidation time.D.

… Xn are individually standard normal random variables. not merely pertaining 2577 to a single laboratory/field parameter. X2. The goal of these studies was to quantify the difference in the designs based on these full and partial information scenarios. Most soil parameters are not normally distributed. which is achieved using multivariate normal distributions. the purpose is to emulate site investigation efforts as realistically as possible. et non plus seulement théorique. because they are measuring the same mass of soil. (2012b) arrived at the same observation for selected parameters of sands. The purpose of developing a virtual site is not to replace actual site investigation. SPT and/or piezocone test (CPTU) may be conducted in close proximity.K. 2 MULTIVARIATE GEOTECHNICAL DATA Multivariate information is usually available in a typical site investigation. overconsolidation ratio. X2. cone tip resistance. By doing so. and Ching et al. National University of Singapore. uncertainties. la réduction réelle de l'incertitude que l'on peut obtenir en augmentant le nombre et/ou la qualité des essais de sol peut être estimée de manière réaliste. It is not possible to emulate every aspect of a real site at present. A set of multivariate soil parameters Y = (Y1. liquid limit (LL). it is possible to evaluate the actual merits of reliability-based design approximately. The site investigation data so obtained constitute the typical partial information scenario commonly encountered in practice. site investigation. X2. This paper summarizes the current development of such virtual sites. where (. X1. One well known cumulative distribution function (CDF) transform approach can be applied to convert Y into a standard normal variable X: X = -1[F(Y)]. Chinese Taipei ABSTRACT: This paper presents the construction of “virtual sites” using multivariate normal distributions calibrated from actual soil property databases. soil properties. and these correlations can be exploited to reduce the coefficient of variation of a design parameter.) is the CDF of Y. reliability-based design. The impact on RBD is obvious. although they could be measuring different aspects of soil behavior under different boundary conditions and over different volumes. the scope is to reproduce the information content arising from a typical mix of laboratory and field tests conducted in a site for the purpose of estimating a design undrained shear strength (su) for clays and friction angle () for sands. In this paper. Moreover. By doing so. Each spatially variable realization constitutes a plausible full information scenario. …Xn) can be defined uniquely by a correlation matrix: . Even so. Jaksa et al. recent studies by Ching et al.Construction of virtual sites for reliability-based design Construction de sites virtuels à des fins de conception fiabiliste Phoon K. These data could be correlated. because they are positive valued. correlation. data sources such as the unit weight. and F(. Yn) can be transformed into X = (X1. rather than elaborate on the theoretical merits widely discussed in previous studies. 1 INTRODUCTION This paper presents the concept of a “virtual site”. The distinct features of this paper are: (a) a more realistic bag of multivariate information containing both laboratory and field data and (b) the probability model is constructed from an actual database of clays and sands.) is the CDF of a standard normal random variable. These features are critical to the objective of this paper. This section presents statistical characterization of multivariate geotechnical data. In this paper. RÉSUMÉ: Cet article présente la construction de "sites virtuels" en utilisant des distributions normales à plusieurs variables calibrées à partir de bases de données de propriétés de sols réels. (2010) and Ching and Phoon (2012a) showed that the multivariate normal distribution is an acceptable approximation for selected parameters of clays. Site investigation is then carried out numerically by sampling the continuous random field at discrete locations. The multivariate normal probability density function for X = (X1. (2005) and Goldsworthy et al. The critical feature here is the consistent and realistic coupling of different test data. Singapore Ching J. Par cette méthode. rather than theoretically. KEYWORDS: virtual site. (2007) used three dimensional random fields and Monte Carlo simulation to simulate the spatially variable elastic modulus of a “virtual” site. Y2. Xn). plastic limit (PL). standard penetration test N-value. when undisturbed samples are extracted for oedometer and triaxial tests. X2. The idea of simulating a “virtual site” is not new. The purpose is to quantify the uncertainty reduction in su and  by incorporating the test results from better and/or more tests. National Taiwan University. and Atterberg limits. and liquidity index (LI) are commonly determined from relatively simple laboratory tests on disturbed samples. Data from different tests will be correlated. the virtual site simulation is based on multivariate normal distributions that couple soil parameters such as su. This objective is only achievable if the information contained in the virtual site is comparable to that contained in a real site. For example. For instance. Let Y denote a non-normally distributed soil parameter. but to a group of parameters that are correlated in a realistic way. the actual magnitude of uncertainty reduction from conducting better/more soil tests can be estimated realistically. By definition. It is crucial to note here that collectively (X1. …Xn)’ does not necessarily follow a multivariate normal distribution even if each component is normally distributed. which is to quantify the uncertainty reduction in su and  by incorporating the test results from better and/or more tests.

The practical advantage of capturing multivariate dependencies in any dimension (i.. LI-sure and LI-St correlations.365 0.453 X4 (’p) -0.82kN/m2 66. namely X1 and X2. Y2) = (N60. (2010) presented another clay database containing four soil parameters: Y1 = OCR. For n = 3.280 X2 (su) -0.850 1.52 0.v. Comparisons between the calibration database and the simulated data points (Source: Ching & Phoon 2012a). The range of OCR of this database is wider – from 1 to 50. the CDF transform is:  X i ln  Yi    i  i (3) The transformed (X1. standard deviation of ln(Yi) = i) are summarized in Table 1.453 0. It is simple to obtain realizations of independent standard normal random variables U = (U1.e. X3) can be obtained using X = LU. Y4) = (OCR. i 0.v (net cone resistance). covering a wide range of sensitivity. and (Y4. Fissured and organic clays are mostly left out of the database. Hence. The multivariate normal distribution performs adequately. even for those with nonlinear trends. X2. X2. is next simulated using this OCR sample and the SHANSEP model (Ladd and Foott 1974): . Realizations of correlated standard normal random variables X = (X1.63kN/m2 0. It is accurate to say that although it is common to measure more than two soil parameters in a site investigation. with simultaneous knowledge of (Y1.1 Y1 = LI Y2 = su Y3 = sure Y4 = ’p Y 5 = ’ v Lognormal Lognormal Lognormal Lognormal Lognormal 1. the correlation matrix is given by:  1 12  C 1  12  13 23 13  23   1  (2) between Xi and Xj (not equal to the correlation between the original physical variable Yi and Yj). (Y1.280 0.000 -0..e. There are 345 data points of structured clays from 37 sites worldwide. Y4) = (qT .000 0.051 0. N60) are missing. Y2 = su. The marginal probability density functions (PDF) for (Y1.226 4.Proceedings of the 18th International Conference on Soil Mechanics and Geotechnical Engineering. mean of ln(Yi) = i. and Y5 = ’v (effective vertical stress) is complied in Ching & Phoon (2012a). Y2) = (OCR.176 0.49 0.801 0.51kN/m2 105. The OCR values of the data points are generally small. X1 and X3. Y2. They considered Y1 = OCR as a given number and the remaining soil parameters (Y2. To deal with this difficulty of incomplete bivariate correlations. in which L is the lower triangular Cholesky factor satisfying C = LL. … X5) for the five selected parameters of structured clays (Source: Ching & Phoon 2012a). Y4 = ’p (preconsolidation stress). su).25 31. Bivariate data on (Y1. X2. any number of random variables) using only bivariate dependency information is obvious. Y2 = su from CIUC test. in which Xi are standard normal random variables. 2. mostly less than 4. each soil parameter is obtained using Yi = F-1[(Xi)]. N60). Y4) starts from OCR.2 Incomplete multivariate information (unstructured clays) Ching et al.v. it is uncommon to establish correlations between all possible pairs of soil parameters.98 0.823 Table 2. su.v) = 3+ 3X3.835 0. ’v). ln(Y2) = ln(su) = 2+ 2X2.311 3. Y2. including St = su/sure. U3) using library functions in many softwares. and clay types. Y2) = (qT . The undrained shear strength.801 X3 (sure) -0. The multivariate normal distribution is employed to simulate samples of (LI. ’v) are shown but the correlations among their derived (normalized) quantities. …X5) is shown in Table 2. The correlation matrix C for (X1. ’p. Y3. Y2.824 -0. Y3) = (OCR.898 1. X1 (LI) X2 (su) X3 (sure) X4 (’p) X5 (’v) X1 (LI) 1.. etc. X2. qT . e. Given that complete bivariate information is not available. COV of Yi = Vi. Correlation matrix C for (X1. are also shown. For lognormal Y.276 1. and X2 and X3. and (Y3.01kN/m2 2. Table 1. Distributions and statistics of (Y1. …X5) is assumed to be multivariate normal with the correlation matrix listed in the table. Paris 2013  f (X) C  1 2  n (2 ) 2 e 1  X ' C-1 X 2 (1) where C is the correlation matrix. sampling disturbance.g. sure. su/’v.000 Complete multivariate information (structured clays) A multivariate database of Y1 = LI (liquidity index). (Y3. Y3. …Y5) and their statistics (mean of Yi = i.v). It is not necessary to measure X1.95 1. Y4) are lognormally distributed random variables. OCR = ’p/’v.176 0. and X3 simultaneously. However. Finally.122 3. su. The simulation of (Y1. sure.891 ln(Yi). and Y4 = N60 (SPT N corrected for energy efficiency).365 1. (2010) constructed a multivariate normal distribution using a Bayes net model which prescribed a dependency structure based on some postulated but reasonable conditional relationships between the soil parameters. the bivariate correlations ij are only partially known. Y3 = sure (remolded undrained shear strength). Not only the correlations among the original random variables (LI.915 0. i. it is not possible to apply the aforementioned CDF transform approach directly.459 0.824 0.000 0.083 -0. and ln(Y4) = ln(N60) = 4+ 4X4.276 0. Because su values depend on stress state. 2. strain rate. It is clear that the full multivariate dependency structure of a normal random vector only depends on a correlation matrix (C) containing bivariate correlations between all possible pairs of components.850 X5 (’v) 0. only bivariate data on (Y1. …Y5) for structured clays (Source: Ching & Phoon 2012a). ln(Y3) = ln(qT . X5) are individually standard normal random variables.000 0. X2.083 1. i 0. LI. shown in Figure 1 together with the calibration database.Y2. U2. as the simulated samples closely mimic the correlation behaviors of the calibration database. …Y5).Y2. Y3 = qT . su). Distribution Mean COV Mean of stdev of 2578 Figure 1.80 ln(Yi). Ching et al.915 0. X2.191 0. su) are available. and (X1. all su values are converted into mobilized su values following the recommendations made by Mesri and Huvaj (1997). ’p. ….

Italy. (2010). degrees of sampling disturbance. X3. CK0UE.000 ln   N 60  1. UU. i. bOCR.000 0.000 0. and plasticity. Table 5 bOCR. quantified by the COV in Table 6.458 1. South African. 5.NC.642 1.456 and 0. The Y data points for each test mode are roughly lognormally distributed. probably because it imposes a different stress state from TC tests.395 0. Y4 = (qc/Pa)/(’v/Pa)0. DSS. su. X5) for the five selected parameters of clean sands (Source: Ching et al. The correlation matrix in Table 4 should be suitable for normally consolidated clean sands. X7). 24]. Thailand. 3.NC. The clay properties cover a wide range of OCR (mostly 1~10. Canada.536 0. Table 6 shows the statistics of Yi. 2579 Factor bOCR Test type CIUC CAUC Formula OCR0. Spain.e. ln(Y4) = ln(qc1) = 4+ 4X4. Table 3. Table 4. X4.835 0. (2010) but for clean sands.403ln  v 0   3. X3.681 . (2012) further assumed OCR to be lognormal with a reasonable COV = 0.835 X4 (qc1) 0. Taiwan. If we further assume cv and IR are normal with reasonable standard deviations of 3o and 1o. 2013). respectively.000 Incomplete multivariate information (clean sands) Ching et al. VST. Table 7 shows the correlation matrix C for (X1. 6. FV (field vane). N60.491 0. while Y4 and Y5 are lognormal. The correlation matrix in Table 3 should be suitable for unstructured clays covering a fairly wide range of OCR.v} for a case where OCR is uniformly distributed over [5.73). ….458 X4 (N60) 0. Japan.25.34U 3 2. In particular.64 ln  OCR   ln  v 0   0. and ln(Y5) = ln[(N1)60] = 5+ 5X5. Ching & Phoon (2013) constructs the multivariate normal distribution of the su values from seven su tests (CIUC. X4. Xi = [ln(Yi)-i]/i is roughly standard normal.v using the su sample: X1 (cv) X2 (IR) X3 (p) X4 (qc1) X5 [(N1)60] X1 (cv) 1.59. The geographical regions cover Australia. Y2 = IR (dilatancy index.491 0. su of a clay evaluated by different test procedures are different because these tests may have different stress states.Technical Committee 211 / Comité technique 211  ln  s u  0.1%. Such relatively low correlation between FV and TC may be due to the fact that the FV test has several distinct aspects (stress state. Hence.5).642 0. strain rate.63). and U1 is standard normal. Malaysia. and Y5 = (N1)60 (SPT N corrected for energy efficiency and overburden stress). Brazil.536 X2 (IR) 0. UU. X2.642 0. Y4. Y3 = p = 3+ 3V3X3. 2013. Y2  Y7).000 0. Y1 = cv = 1+ 3X1 and Y2 = IR = 2+ X2. N60..638 X5 [(N1)60] 0. may be due to measurement errors in su and global inherent variability in su (su from different geographic locales) as well as the transformation uncertainties associated with the standardization steps for PI.1%. DSS. few studies OCR > 10. England. qT . Norway. 2012b).v) X4 (N60) 2. in which Xi are standard normal random variables.536 X3 (p) 0.395 X2 (su) 0. X2. X7) seem mutually highly correlated (ij > 0. Y3 = p (peak secant friction angle).P20 is the undrained shear strength of a NC clay with PI = 20 subjected to a 1% per hour strain rate.PI20 σ v =  s u σ v   bOCR  c rate  d PI  (6) where su.642 1.v} samples. Finland. United Kingdom.355 0. Sweden.638 1.642 0. They considered Y1 = cv and Y2 = IR as given numbers and the remaining soil parameters (Y3.633ln  s u   0. Poland. X3. X2.554 0.491 0.764 1.000 0. It is interesting that the correlation between FV and DSS is high (ij = 0. Many su data points are associated with a known test mode (6310 points). X6. and strain rates. X2. X5) has the correlation matrix shown in Table 4. Austria. see Bolton 1986). Hence.714 X3 (qT .1%. X4) have the correlation matrix shown in Table 3.845  0. Undrained shear strengths under various test procedures s u.237U1 (4) where 0. 2. stress histories.536 0. X2. i.456U 2 (5a) ln  q T   v  ln  s u   2.355 0.v) 0. strain rate. Northern Ireland.54  0.e. X4) for the four selected parameters of unstructured clays (Source: Phoon et al. Correlation matrix C for (X1.8). the scatter in the Yi data points.714 0. su.602 OCR0. New Zealand. The four triaxial compression (TC) test modes (X1. there are seven random variables (Y1. The third step is to simulate N60 and qT .642 0. An important step for the construction of the multivariate distribution is to convert all su data points in the database into the following standardized form: where 0. X2. CAUE. CK0UC.3 X1 (OCR) 1. and OCR. Mexico. Correlation matrix C for (X1. they showed that the underlying standard normal variables (X1.. Singapore.5 = qc1 (corrected cone resistance). Figure 2 shows the correlation plots for the simulated {OCR. strain rate. X7) having ij = 0. and dPI are modifier factors that adjust the reference normalized undrained shear strength for overconsolidation ratio.874  0. The correlation coefficients between FV and TC are relatively weak as well (ij  0. 4. UC) based on a large clay database consisting data points from 146 studies. The CAUE test mode (X3) has weak correlation with TC test modes (ij < 0. crate. CAUC. (2012b) presented a study that is very similar to Ching et al. Germany. Figure 2. and UC. Phoon et al. Korea. and Venezuela. but nearly all studies are with OCR < 50) and a wide range of sensitivity St (sites with St = 1~ tens or hundreds are fairly typical).NC. The test mode indices are respectively 1.764 0. The Yi data points are converted to standard normal variables Xi = [ln(Yi)-i]/i. it can be shown that the underlying standard normal variables (X1. The standardized su. Given a test mode i. China. and dPI factors (Source: Ching et al. The estimated correlation coefficients ij are quite sensible. Table 5 shows these factors (Ching et al. Under this assumption. France.34 are the standard deviations of the transformation uncertainties. 2012).237 is the standard deviation of the transformation uncertainty.000 0. a known OCR (4584 points).000 0. X1 (OCR) X2 (su) X3 (qT .P20/’v is be denoted by Ytest mode index.000 0. and also assume independence between cv and IR.000 1. qT . and failure mode). with the exception of (X6. Correlation plots for {OCR. Iraq.554 1. drainage boundaries. X3. and U2 and U3 are standard normal.000 0. and 7 for CIUC. Y5) are random variables: Y3 is normal. The study was based on a database containing five selected parameters of normally consolidated clean sands: Y1 = cv (critical state friction angle).491 0. crate. and a known plasticity index (PI) (4541 points).4 (5b) The undrained shear strength (su) of a clay is not a constant. Ching & Phoon 2013). Hong Kong. United States. Based on the results of Ching et al.

2012. C. Shear strength mobilized in undrained failure of soft clay and silt deposits. K. Y2.K.243 0. Second-moment characterization of undrained shear strengths from different test modes. Yeh. U2. For lognormal distribution. 2013. Based on the above information. W. H. 5 REFERENCES Bolton. and Foott. 2012b. and Lee.184 0.932 1. 1974. showing the simulated su data when no site-specific tests are conducted. and Huang.68 * insufficient data pairs. in which L is the lower triangular Cholesky factor satisfying C = LL.L.B. 65-78.090 -1.78 0..316 0.372 0.800 OCR0. 16-33. ASCE Journal of Geotechnical Engineering Division 100(7).640 Figure 3. J. and qT-v within [9. J. and SPT N tests.R.1350kN/m2]. Xn) can be obtained using X = LU.6* 0.S.315 0. D. 2007.. N60[7.C. The histogram of the simulated su data for the same virtual site is given in the left plot of Figure 3. Paris 2013 CAUE DSS VST UU UC crate CIUC CAUC CAUE DSS VST UU UC dPI shown in the right plot of Figure 3. H. Y.00 0. N60 [1100kN/m2.. Geo-Denver 2007. Reston. 2005.1].T. Géotechnique 55(2).355 0. 2012.324 0..5* 0.223 0.523 Mean of ln(Yi). H. and qTsimultaneously from the v’[1100kN/m2..3* 0..6* 0.9]..45 1.124 (PI/20)0 = 1 (PI/20)0 = 1 Table 6 Statistics of Y data points (Source: Ching et al.6* 0.00 0.4* 0.504 0.350 0. Kulhawy.5. K.4* 0. X7) (Source: Ching & Phoon 2013). Modeling parameters of structured clays as a multivariate normal distribution.D.1350kN/m2] population at large.39 0. GeoCongress 2012 – State of the Art and Practice in Geotechnical Engineering (GSP 225). Reducing shear strength uncertainties in clays by multivariate correlations. Reston.00 0. obtain realizations of independent standard normal random variables U = (U1.3* 0. This is illustrated below using results presented in Figure 2. N. it is possible to evaluate the reduction in the uncertainties associated with design parameters as a function of better and/or more tests. to appear in Geotechnical Special Publication honoring Professor F. W.9].399 0.72 0. Ching. J.468 -1. G. Towards reliable and effective site investigations. Multivariate distribution for undrained shear strengths under various test procedures. K. and Phoon.41 0. Yi = exp(i+iXi).88 0. Ching.84 0.1log10(strain rate/1%) (PI/20)0 = 1 (PI/20)0 = 1 (PI/20)0.46 X6 (UU) 0.523 -1. and Phoon. 522-545. X2. Griffiths. D. N60. Un) using library functions in many softwares. Goldsworthy. 2010. This section will further discuss how to use the simulated data to quantify the uncertainty reduction in su and  by incorporating the test results from better and/or more tests. The histogram of these conditional samples is CONCLUSION The construction of “virtual sites” are demonstrated in this paper using multivariate normal distributions calibrated from actual soil property databases.Proceedings of the 18th International Conference on Soil Mechanics and Geotechnical Engineering. 4 Table 7 Correlation matrix C for (X1.78 0. …. 1986. …. Chen.B. ASCE Journal of Geotechnical and Geoenvironmental Engineering 138(2).1].72 0. The practical goal is to establish an actual (not theoretical) link between the cost of a site investigation program and the potential design savings accrued from reliability-based design.V. Geotechnique 36(1). By doing so. Ching. Ching. …. X1 (CIUC) X2 (CAUC) X3 (CAUE) X4 (DSS) X5 (VST) X6 (UU) X7 (UC) X2 X3 X4 X1 (CIUC) (CAUC) (CAUE) (DSS) 1.47 0. J. Kaggwa W.. Yn).64 1.K.748 -1. 217-229.84 1.64 0.7* 0. J. the conditional samples of su can be easily obtained by filtering out samples satisfying OCR[9. Examination of multivariate dependency structure in soil parameters. OCR0.39 1.00 0. Figures 1 & 2 already showed the simulated data (Y1. Mean COV 637 555 224 573 1057 435 387 0.5.5* X5 (FV) 0. 2013. Y2.00 0..241 0. Geotechnical Special Publication 173.275 0. Fenton.A. Phoon.G..A. Fenton. Let us consider a site investigation program consisting oedometer. 2012a.S. The su values associated with this filtered set of (OCR.416 0.G. R.13. ASCE. 2580 . 2952-2960.363 -1. given the information from better and/or more tests. it is simple to simulate virtual site investigation data (Y1.73 1. ….902 OCR0. Suppose the test results show that OCR is within within [7.00 0.v) values are therefore the conditional su samples.. 2007. Updating uncertainties in friction angles of clean sands. Histograms of the (conditional) su samples. Jaksa.955 -1.6* 0. Griffiths.K. 2013).W. Kuo. qT . ….404 0.88 0. Phoon.611 Stdev of ln(Yi). J. M. i 0. Phoon.63 0.. J. 109-121.280 0.41 0. It is clear that the uncertainty in su is significantly reduced. K.35 0. New design procedure for stability in soft clays..47 0. G. X2..63 0. and Phoon.. each soil parameter is obtained using Yi = F-1[(Xi)]. Proc. Y1 (CIUC) Y2 (CAUC) Y3 (CAUE) Y4 (DSS) Y5 (FV) Y6 (UU) Y7 (UC) # pts. Ching. Denver. J.S.45 0. The strength and dilatancy of sands. Canadian Geotechnical Journal 49(5). Finally. Goldsworthy. G.7* 0.178 (PI/20)0. su. J.K.Y. ASCE. First.85 0. H. Canadian Geotechnical Journal 47(1).V. K..85 0.0+0.463 0.68 1. CPTU. and Huvaj.C. submitted to Canadian Geotechnical Journal. Ladd.749 OCR0. Realizations of correlated standard normal random variables X = (X1.73 0.46 0.13. estimated based on judgments X7 (UC) 0. Mesri... i -0. Kaggwa. K.898 OCR0. M. and Chen. J.277 0.00 3 REDUCING UNCERTAINTY IN DESIGN PARAMETER WITH BETTER AND/OR MORE TESTS As mentioned earlier.0655 (PI/20)0. Measuring the risk of geotechnical site investigations. 763-786. Y. M.S.. Ching.35 0. and Poulos.K. Yn). and Poulos.318 0. K. Jaksa.

the use of local materials and a well-tried technology of reinforced base laying. it was compared with previously obtained results of the experiments and calculations carried out with the help of BS8006. R. section ABSTRACT: On the basis of carried out investigations. As in the above-mentioned methods.A. Pour estimer la méthode proposée. but at the same time the change in elongation of the geosynthetic reinforcing material depending on the load was taken into account. The optimal choice of these parameters requires rather complex calculations taking into account load – elongation dependences. the method of Giroud et al (1990). The obtained mechanisms allowed to propose the calculation methodology of the reinforced base surface settlement in the territories expose to deformation.A. low-rise buildings.E. BS 8006: Parameters used to determine reinforcement. 2). In Russia ground base reinforcement has not been used widely so far due to various factors. 1995 – Fig. When it is sufficient to provide only partial security. – method (Blivet et al. the authors obtained stress and strain development mechanisms of the reinforced ground mass depending on the properties of Perm national research polytechnical university. Zolotozubov D. and large volumes of excavation arise from the need of a sufficiently deep placement of reinforcing layers. in accordance with ISO 10319:2008 (Fig. c'était en comparaison d'auparavant résultats acquis des expériences et calculs accomplis avec l'aide de BS8006. High quality geosynthetic materials themselves are not cheap. The existing methods (the method outlined in the British Standard BS 8006. To do calculations using this method it is necessary to have load – elongation dependences which are obtained when testing geosynthetics at rupture. 1 INTRODUCTION When laying foundations of buildings and structures in areas prone to possible vertical deformations (for instance. In the course of our studies we were doing experiments with account of the current Russian regulations enabling to apply tensile-testing machines to ensure the constant rate of bottom 2581 . R.L methods and PLAXIS and Sofistik programs. However. fall in ground mass. e-mail: spstf@pstu.A. the depth of their location and their number. The results of S.A. 2 EXPERIMENTAL INVESTIGATIONS Effective use of geosynthetics for reinforcement under ground mass collapse is possible with the joint account of such factors as physical and mechanical properties of foundation soil. The choice of measures depends on the type of security – perfect or partial.4 (BSI. la profondeur de leur situation et leur nombre.Technique of reinforced soil base calculation under fall initiation in ground mass Technique du compte armé les raisons du sol à l'apparition des échecs à le massif du sol Ponomaryov A. for example. geosynthetic material reinforcement of a ground base is most commonly used. They are applied for single-layer reinforcement. karstic and technogenic dolines). Giroud.L.A. les particularités des éléments du renforcement. On the basis of the mechanisms obtained we proposed the technique for calculating the reinforced base surface settlement in areas prone to deformation.F. The study of reinforced bases under ground mass collapse conducted by the authors allowed to obtain the mechanisms of stress – strain development in the reinforced ground mass depending on the foundation soil properties. Giroud. It is connected with the fact that ground reinforcement is more economical as compared with other methods. the depth of reinforcing layers and their number. software packages that implement numerical methods give great inaccuracy. the method of Perrier (1985).E. their depth and quantity. 2002) do not consider the actual tensile force – relative deformation ratio.. les méthodes R. Les régularités reçues ont permis de proposer la méthode du compte le dépôt de la surface des raisons armées sur les territoires exposés aux déformations. KEYWORDS: reinforced soils. RÉSUMÉ : À la base des études accomplies les auteurs ont reçu les mécanismes du développement de l'effort et l'effort de la masse affermie de la raison en fonction des propriétés des sols. Perrier.F.A. tensile properties of geosynthetics. give a good economic effect. technique of calculation. To evaluate the proposed method. Perrier. including both the increase in the cost of construction connected with the use of geosynthetics and sufficiently large amount of excavation works. In the majority of case reinforcing of the bases by geosynthetic materials apply at building automobile and railways. the calculations were carried out for single-layer reinforcement.E. Being used to solve geotechnical problems. Figure 1. the characteristics of the reinforcing elements. 1). it is necessary to provide measures to prevent emergency situations.L et PLAXIS et les programmes Sofistik. but at the same time they allow to calculate more quickly and check more types of reinforcement including those of multi-layer reinforcement. Besides at building on karstic territories it is expedient to reinforce geosynthetic materials of the bases low-charged constructions. as well as the increase in the safe upkeep of buildings.F. Schwerdt’s investigations were also used in the study. the characteristics of the reinforcing elements.

Paris 2013 clamp sinking. Figure 3. – the reinforcing layer is located in the homogeneous ground. 3 TECHNIQUE OF REINFORCED SOIL BASE CALCULATION The design scheme of the proposed method is shown in Figure 5.0 %.Proceedings of the 18th International Conference on Soil Mechanics and Geotechnical Engineering. Typical load-elongation curve. 3. Example of elongation-load curve according to the test results. In practice. with absolute error indications of elongation ± 1. the constant strain rate or the fixed rate of load increase (similar to ISO 10319:2008) with relative error indications of breaking load ± 1.  the arch effect is not taken into account. 4).0 mm. Figure 4. we had to build these relationships using the results obtained with the help of the tensile-testing machine that provided the constant rate of bottom clamp sinking (Fig. Design diagram of reinforced ground settlement under earth collapse. The obtained dependences were used in the calculations done with the help of both numerical methods (PLAXIS program) and the developed technique. Example of elongation-load curve according to the test results. 2582 .  the deformation form of the ground mass above the reinforcing interlayer has a sectional view of a trapezoid. In this method the following assumptions allowing to use formulas well-known in soil mechanics for the calculation of stresses in ground bases were made:  the reinforced ground mass is in an equilibrium (stabilized) state before the ground collapse formation. – the stress-strain state is considered at that moment when the marginal state of the ground mass is reached. with an average rupture duration regulated from (30±15) to (60±15) sec.  the geosynthetic material does not stretch beyond the collapse region. Figure 5. Figure 2.

Design of Soil LayerGeosynthetic Systems overlying Voids. 1995. h is the depth of the reinforcing layer.5 107 34 Experiment BS8006 i 1 where n is the number of ground layers above the reinforcing interlayer. n   h i i i 1   n h (5) i i 1 Surface settlement. Geotextiles und Geomembranes. the data for comparison were taken from Schwerdt’s works. EuroGeo 3: Geosyntetics conference. Effect of reinforcing material depth on bearing capacity of foundation under ground collapse. 2009. D is the collapse length (diameter). Herald of Civil Engineers. C. Performance of aggregates in geogrid-reinforced soils used for protection against surface collapse into underground voids. In the British standard BS 8006 the value of 0. To evaluate the proposed method. Geotextiles – Geomembranes rencontres. 7. 2001... Die Ueberbrueckung von Erdeinbruechen unter Verwendung von einlagig verlegten Geogittern . m. Design of embankment with reinforced soil foundation on poor ground. Giroud. D. Germany. Perrier H. Untersuchungen zur Uеberbrueckung von Tagesbruechen und Erdfaellen durch Einbau einer einlagigen Geokunststoffbewehrung.P. D... Girard (ed): Geosynthetics 7.L. Muenchen. its comparison with the results of the experiments and calculations performed by other methods (BS8006.G.F. Geotechnik. The received value a is used to determine the maximum deflection sa of the reinforcing material Deflection of geosynthetic material.5 90* 30* Perrier 120 90 90 R. Swets & Zeitlinger.. Munich. as shown in Fig. the surface load and geosynthetic material elongation . al. Paul A. **-Negative values are received.G.E.G.A. hi is the height of the i-th ground layer. i is the specific weight of the i-th ground layer. Gourc. If the condition s ≤ sи is not satisfied. Zolotozubov.. 2010. Herald of Volgograd State University of Architecture and Civil Engineering. Baraize E. Code of Practice for Strengthened/Reinforced soil and Other Fill.78. R. A. Delmas. S. Tome 1. 11-50. Perrier. A. Ponomaryov. 2003. (1) where k is the coefficient taking into account the supposed form of the collapse (for the rectangular collapse – plane problem – it is equal to 1). BS 8006: 1995.Technical Committee 211 / Comité technique 211 The algorithm for calculating the proposed technique is based on the tensile force dependence in the geosynthetics Fa on the size and shape of the collapse. Our studies showed that the tensile force – elongation dependence is determined most accurately with the use of the formula similar to that in the BS 8006 standard Fа 0. If there are ground layers having different specific weight values and located above the reinforcing interlayer. m.. Its calculation depends on the surface load amount by analogy with the calculation of the additional pressure (tension) in the ground mass. the load area-to-collapse region ratio. O. 9Jg. Results of calculations sa  3 / 8 a D 2 . (3) To calculate the maximum ground surface settlement.Vergleich zwischen Versuchsergebnissen und den Ergebnissen von analytischen und numerischen Berechnungen. the following formula is used. 95. 2 (23). Jenner. 2  D  s  sa . Table 1. Proc. That’s why. Naciri. Zolotozubov.E.  2h  tanθ  (4) where  is the inclination angle of the slip plane to the vertical. Schwerdt. the reinforcing interlayer depth. Structural protection of ground bases under collapse initiation in karst areas. 95105. mm Calculation method (2)  hi Tensile force in geosynthetic material . Ponomaryov. 98– 121. 100-104. Pappiau Ch. kN/m Proposed method *-These are initial data according to the indicated methods.8 120 –** PLAXIS 103 160 – Sofistik 113 130 –*** 114. 2). nor the specific elongation of the geosynthetic material a because the actual dependence of the elongation on the tensile load is not taken into account in the formula (1). the surface load location with respect to the ground collapse.B. кН/м. Since it is necessary to determine the maximum surface settlement by the current Russian regulations. 483-488.. kN/m3. Motorway level fortification above carstic cavities. but studies showed that higher convergence with the experimental results was obtained when k = 0. Schwerdt S. which is located above the reinforcing interlayer. 93-99. S. Giroud J. British Standart Institution.. 2002. ***-The Sofistik program does not allow to determine the surface settlement.A.  is the specific weight of the ground. Schwerdt. Beech J. Informationsund Vortragstaguung Kunststoffe in der Geotechnik.B. 2004.A. q is the equivalent surface load on the reinforcing layer.5  k  (  h  q )  D  1   1 6 a . a is the specific elongation of the geosynthetic material depending on the tensile force in the reinforcing interlayer. 4 REFERENCES Blivet et. ICG. 15-18. Design method for geosynthetics as reinforcement for embankment subjected to localized subsidence. mm 105 90 30 64 240 30* Giroud 215. The main problem when calculating by this method is that at the initial calculation stage we are aware of neither the tensile force Fa.. H.A. 1. Bonaparte R. in practical calculations = is taken.F. Due to the fact that we were not able to do model experiments in Russia. 26. The obtained value of the surface settlement s is compared with the normative or design values for this construction 2583 .67 for the axisymmetric case is given . In case the ground layers located above the reinforcing interlayer have different  values.L. as well as on the load type. which is determined according to the graphs (for example. Section 8. the following value is used.F. Section: Construction and architecture 15 (34). The values  depend on the characteristics of the backfill soil. 251257. it is necessary to make the following replacement in the formula  h n  i project. we used the successive approximations method accurate to 5 %. then a geosynthetic material with different characteristics is selected and the calculation is done again.) as well as PLAXIS and Sofistik programs was carried out. 1990.


The solutions were obtained based on axisymmetric FEA using PLAXIS software programme for a “unit cell” consisting of a stone column and the surrounding soil within a column’s zone of influence. Charts to assess the equivalent 2D column stress concentration ratio are provided for the design of full depth and floating columns under the influences of various key parameters. b. Artarmon. 2D stone column strips The equivalent friction angle eq of the strips can be derived based on force equilibrium approach as given by (2) IDEALISED 2D MODELLING APPROACH For the modeling of stone columns in 2D FEA.3. 3 STRESS CONCENTRATION OF STONE COLUMN This section presents a series of elasto-plastic solutions in charts for the stress concentration (n) of stone columns founded on (i) rigid boundary and (ii) infinite compressible soil materials. This paper presents a design approach where stone columns are idealised as equivalent strips in 2D finite element analysis (FEA).7 in 2585 . 57-63.Stress Concentration Ratio and Design Method for Stone Columns using 2D FEA with Equivalent Strips Ratio de concentration de contraintes et méthode de conception pour les colonnes ballastées en utilisant une analyse aux éléments finis 2D avec des bandes équivalentes Poon B. The accuracy of the proposed 2D strip model is investigated by comparing the results with a baseline 3D and axi-symmetric FEA. for square column arrangement and for equilateral triangular arrangement. La précision du modèle de bande 2D proposé est étudiée en comparant les résultats avec une base en 3D et d’une analyse aux éléments finis axisymétrique. stress concentration. Chan K. Il se trouve que le modèle de bande proposé est préférable à l'approche conventionnelle qui utilise les propriétés d’un bloc composite pour représenter le sol amélioré. Note that the present 2D FEA is an elasto-plastic analysis in which the decay of excess pore pressure with time was not taken into account. which is taken to be the same as the soil itself. Cela implique la modélisation des colonnes en tant que bandes avec une largeur de bande appropriée ainsi que l’espacement et les propriétés des zones d’influence basées sur le ratio de concentration de contrainte. Australia ABSTRACT: This paper presents an approach for the prediction of vertical and horizontal displacements of soft ground treated with stone columns in a 2D finite element analysis (FEA). ground improvement. they are less certain for the prediction of horizontal displacement. Mohr-Coulomb model is used for the stone columns with Poisson’s ratio of 0. The equivalent Young’s modulus Eeq and the cohesion ceq of the strips can be calculated based on weighted average approach as given by Eq 1. RÉSUMÉ : Cet article représente une approche pour la prédiction des déplacements verticaux et horizontaux de sols mous traités avec des colonnes ballastées par une analyse aux éléments finis (FEA) en 2D. KEYWORDS: Stone column. A series of design curves for the stress concentration are presented to facilitate parameter derivation in practice. (1) where Asoil and Acolumn are the areas of the soil and column inside a unit cell within the 2D strip as shown in Figure 1. 1 b cos30º INTRODUCTION Conventionally. NSW. numerical analysis. While these approaches have been accepted as reasonable methods for settlement prediction. The stress distribution between the stone column and surrounding soil is essential for determining the strength parameter of the equivalent strips. Les graphiques pour évaluer le ratio 2D équivalent de concentration de contraintes sont donnés pour la conception des colonnes profondes et flottantes sous l'influence de divers paramètres. 2 d = diameter of a = width of equivalent stone column strip in 2D FEA 2D strip a Asoil d Acolumn b Figure 1. The accuracy of the 2D strip model is investigated by comparing the results with the 3D and axi-symmetric FEA. the design of stone columns involves the prediction of settlements using a composite material approach in which equivalent strength and deformation parameters are derived using semi-empirical correlation to represent the entire improved soil. n. This involved modeling the columns as strips with appropriate strip width. The spacing of the strips is equal to the actual spacing.. The determination of eq requires a presumption of stress concentration. spacing and smeared properties based on stress concentration ratio. Herbert Street. Interface elements were introduced at the soilcolumn contact to allow for slippage. GHD Geotechnics. The interface strength was assumed to be 70% of the original soil strength (Rint= 0. It is found that the proposed strip model is preferable over the conventional approach using composite block properties to represent the improved soil. Section 3 presents an appraisal for this parameter. the width of the stone column strips can be made to be equal to the width of an equivalent square for the cross-sectional area (Figure 1). which is defined as the ratio of the average applied vertical stress within stone column to the average applied vertical stress of the surrounding soil at the same level.

Ec/Es = 30 (for y/a ≤ ) (3) where  is the influenced zone (also normalized by the column diameter a) that is measured from the base of the column to the equal settlement plane (where r = 1). The magnitude of m controls the rate of reduction of r with y/d. Figure 4 presents a series of normalised curves for the n value under different modulus ratios. Stone column on rigid base Soil Rigid boundary Stress Concentration ratio n 0 -2 -4 -6 -8 -10 -12 -14 -16 -18 -20 -22 -24 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 20kPa 60kPa 80kPa 100kPa 140kPa 120kPa 0 Elastic solution 1 Stress Concentration n 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 nmax 2 40kPa Fill Load (c) B C z/ qa Depth z belowtop of stone column (m) Plastic stress point (b) 3 A 4 5 6 7 120kPa 10 b/a = 2. which is consistent with design chart solution provided in FHWA (1983) for embankment supporting columns. the calculated n (dash line in Figure 3b) increases from 5 at the top of column. ´=22°.Proceedings of the 18th International Conference on Soil Mechanics and Geotechnical Engineering.5. Note that the embankment fill was modeled as soil elements and the arching stresses developed above the column have been accounted for in the FEA model. When qa=40kPa and =17kN/m3. was normalised by qa/. The soil is generally elastic and therefore the soil friction angle has little influence on the solution. (a) 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 Embank. Ec/Es = 20 b/a = 2. The turning point of the normalized curve corresponds to the transition from the upper yielding zone to the lower non-yielding zone. when qa = 60kPa. respectively.3:=2. where qa is the applied fill stress and  is the total unit weight of the soil. Stone column with rigid base 40kPa 8 0 2 4 6 8 1012141618202224 b/a = 2. Also. Ec/Es = 20 b/a = 3. c´=1kPa. column spacing and friction angles of the stone column. m = 9 Ebase = 50MPa 1 0 (b) FEA results  Eq3: =1. Ko = 0. The higher the m the more rapid reduction of r would be towards the column tip. Ec/Es = 10 b/a = 2. to about 14 at depth. the ratio r reduces more rapidly towards the column tip (i. z. A comparison of the corresponding curves in Figures 4a and 4b shows that the loss of stress concentration due to yielding is more severe for column material having a lower angle of internal friction. yielding elements begin to form at the column top after a small load (~20kPa) is applied. ´= 40°. nmax 0 140kPa Figure 3. For example. Figure 5b shows a plot of normalised distance from the column base y/a (y and a defined in inset in Figure 5b) versus stress concentration reduction ratio r (= n / nmax) for the corresponding elastic FEA results given in Figure 5a. Figure 6 presents the computed and m for the different Ebase/Ecolumn and Ebase/Esoil ratios based on elastic FEA.5. total = 17kN/m3 (b) Stress Concentration n (a) z  / qa Figure 3b presents the calculated n with depth for a particular case where embankment load is applied on stone columns that are founded on rigid base. point A in Figure 3c occurs at z·/qa = 4. Conversely. which occurs at different z for the different qa. z = 9. More load is transferred from the column to the surrounding soil and therefore the stress concentration n reduces (see Figure 5a). Figure 3a shows the stress state of the unit-cell model after the application of maximum embankment load. Stone column with rigid base (elasto-plastic solution) Figure 3c shows a normalised plot in which the depth of the column. fill Stonecolumn Clay: E´=3MPa. m increases) as Ebase increases. Stone column with compressible base -elastic solution Figure 5b indicates that as the Young’s modulus Ebase of the soil beneath the columns increases. It is found that the normalised stress concentration curves for the different load levels (≥ 40kPa) lie on a single curve. below which the columns move more than the soil to mobilise positive skin resistance of the soil. Ec/Es = 30 b/a = 2. the extent of the yielding zone. The selected column configuration and parameters are shown in Figure 2. Ec/Es = 10 If the column and soil were appraised as elastic materials. for the columns with a given modulus ratio. the extent of  reduces. z ∙ / qa PLAXIS).2. leading to a reduction in stress concentration. Ec/Es = 20 For stone columns founded on compressible soil. Conversely. Note that the interface properties have minimal effect on the results as the stone column is in triaxial state. Ec/Es = 30 b/a = 3. This occurs because there is less b/a = 2. Curves 1 and 4 in Figure 6a delineate such relationships for column spacing b/a of 3 and 2.4 0. It indicates that most yielding elements are confined within the column periphery.3. and hence the reduction of stress concentration. b/a = 2. m = 27 Ebase = 200MPa 0 0.5 a z Figure 2.e. which is commensurate with the equal strain solution (soil and column settle at the same rate at depth) given by Balaam and Poulos (1982).6 0.2 0. c´= 0kPa. The following points can be drawn:  The influenced zone  at the column base reduces as Ebase/Ecolumn increases.2 60kPa 100kPa 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 ´column = 40° Stress Concentration n 0 2 4 6 8 1012141618202224 Figure 4. A curve in between representing b/a = 2586 .5. z ≈ 14m (Point C). total = 22kN/m3 ν´clay = ν´column = 0.5m (B in Fig 3b).45. log(Ebase/Ecolumn) plot. the elastic FE solution has indicated that there exists a lower equal settlement plane. is greater as the spacing ratio increases even though the maximum stress ratio in the columns is ultimately similar. When the column and soil are modeled as Mohr-Coulomb materials. The FEA results for r near the column base can be approximated by the following logarithmic relationship. The reduction may be approximated by a straight line in  vs. For a given column spacing ratio and friction angle. b -2 E´column=60MPa -4 E´soil=3MPa b/a=2 -6 -8 Lower equal settlement plane -10 E´base=50MPa -12 -14 (a) E´base=200MPa 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 Stress concentration n 6 normalised y/a from column base Stone columns on rigid base Depth z below top of column 3. The nmax is the maximum computed n value based on elasticity as shown in Figure 5a. the stress concentration is higher for higher modulus ratio Ec/Es. Ec/Es = 10 b/a = 3. 80kPa 9 ´column = 35° Stone columns on compressible soils (elastic appraisal) 3. leading to greater yielding zone and stress reduction within columns. Paris 2013 Column: E´= 60MPa. The yielding of the column (hence the reduction of n) progresses downwards through the column as the applied load level increases (see the solid curves in Figure 3b).8 r = n / nmax 1 Figure 5.1 confinement for the spaced columns. a 5 E´column E´soil y 4 3 E´base 2 Eq.

Technical Committee 211 / Comité technique 211











2 b/a = 3, Ebase/Esoil =2
5 b/a = 2, Ebase/Esoil =2
4 b/a = 2, Ebase/Esoil ≥10
8 b/a ≤ 3, Ebase/Esoil =2
7 b/a ≤ 3,Ebase/Esoil ≥10
1 b/a = 3, Ebase/Esoil ≥10













60kPa – 140kPa

Stress Concentration ratio n
0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16





Figure 7. Stone column on compressible (a) c- and (b) su soil

0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8


3 b/a = 3, Ebase/Esoil =1
6 b/a = 2, Ebase/Esoil =1
9 b/a ≤ 3, Ebase/Esoil =1

Stone columns on compressible soils - elasto-plasticity

The effect of compressible base on stress concentration n is now
discussed based on Mohr Coulomb model. In particular, the
soils surrounding and below the stone columns have been
appraised alternatively using (i) effective shear strength (c, )
and (ii) undrained shear strength su.
Figure 7a shows the computed n under different fill loads for
the same case as in Figure 2,except that the column is founded
on compressible soil that is represented by c- materials. The
stress concentration curves initially follow identical paths as
those shown in Figure 3b until they intercept the lower equal
settlement plane and thereafter trace along the curve of the
elastic solution at the column base. To explain this stress
transfer mechanism, the material stress state of the model at the
end of simulation (under 140kPa fill stress) is presented (inset
in Figure 7a). As before, yielding of the column follows a topdown process. While there is significant yielding of the column
due to high stress ratio, there is little yield in the surrounding
soil especially towards the column base because of sufficient
confinement even with an adopted soil friction angle as low as
22°. Since the soil is elastic, the reduction of n due to the
compressible elastic base soil can be superimposed directly onto
the aforementioned reduction due to yielding of column.
Figure 7b presents the results for the case where su = 30kPa
has been adopted for the soils surrounding and below the
column. Significant yielding occurs in the soils, which has
altered the shape of the stress concentration curves towards the
column base as compared to that of the c- soils. However the
differences are not great and for the purpose of assessing n, the
problem can be idealised by assuming that there is no failure in
the surrounding soil so that its behavior is essentially elastic.

0 2 4 6 8 10121416


Figure 6. Stone column with compressible base -elastic solution


Stress Concentration ratio n

Depth z below top of stone column (m)


where r is the stress concentration reduction ratio given in Eq.
3, which is a function of and m given in Figure 6. nmax is the
maximum elastic n value below the turning point of each
normalised z·/qa− n curve in Figure 4.
Step 3 – Superimpose the solution from Step 2 onto that of
Step 1. Thereby, the final n along the depth of the column is the
lower of the two solutions at the same depth.
Depth z below top of stone column (m)

Influenced zone y/a

2.5 has not been shown for clarity of the figure. Note that
these curves can apply to cases where Ebase/Esoil ≥ 10 as Esoil
has negligible effect on the shape of r under this condition.
For a particular b/a ratio, the shows a lower value as
Ebase/Esoil reduces to less than 10, although the trend of
reduction with log(Ebase/Ecolumn) remains linear and parallel
with that for Ebase/Esoil ≥ 10 (curves 2 & 3, 5 & 6 in Figure 6a).
 The rate of reduction of r towards the column tip, represented
by the m, has been found to increase linearly with Ebase/Ecolumn.
Curve 7 in Figure 6b shows such relationship and is applicable
for cases with different b/a ratio up to 3 (limit of parametric
range) and with Ebase/Esoil ≥ 10. Curves 8 and 9 delineate the
corresponding curves for cases with Ebase/Esoil = 2 and 1.

Procedure for assessing stress concentration

The following procedure for assessing the stress concentration
of the stone columns under fill embankment may be proposed:
Step 1 – Assessing the stress concentration n along column
depth by using charts such as Figure 4, which have accounted
for the influence of load level, column spacing, modulus ratio of
column and surrounding soil, and yield of the stone column.
Step 2 – Assess the influence of the compressible base soil
on n based on elasticity by the following equation:
n = nmax × r


The accuracy of plane strain idealisation of stone columns using
equivalent strips in 2D FEA was investigated under self-weight
load imparted by a 6m high embankment with 2H:1V batter.
The analyses undertaken for the investigation include: Analysis
1 - Full 3D FEA of embankment over stone columns modeled
by solid elements; Analysis 2 - Axisymmetric FEA of a unit cell
consisting stone column; Analysis 3 - 2D plane strain FEA with
the stone columns modeled as strips; and Analysis 4 - 2D FEA
with the soil and columns modeled as equivalent block. The 2D
and 3D FEA were carried out using software programme
PLAXIS 2D and PLAXIS 3D, respectively.
Table 1 summarises the adopted parameters for all analyses.
The 3D FEA is considered a baseline model that comprises a
13m long segment of embankment over soft clay treated with
stone columns which are founded on compressible soil. The
analysis was repeated with the 0.9m diameter stone columns
spaced at 1.7m, 2m and 2.5m in triangular pattern. The 3D FE
mesh is shown in Figure 8. The stone columns are modeled
using 15 nodes wedge element with interface elements at the
column-soil contact. Two cases of interface strength of 100%
and 67% of the surrounding soil strengths have been considered.
Table 1. FEA Model Parameters
3 - 2D









Stone Column Parameters
Ecol=50MPa, ccol=0kPa, col = 40º
Estrip=26MPa, cstrip~1kPa, strip = 36.5 38° along shaft , = 35.5 near base
Estrip=22MPa, cstrip~1kPa, strip = 35.5º37° along shaft ; =34° near base
Estrip=18MPa, cstrip~1kPa, strip = 34.5º35.5° along shaft; = 33° near base
Eblock=6MPa, cblock~1kPa,block = 30º

4 - 2D
Eblock=6MPa, cblock~1kPa, block = 30º
Eblock=6MPa, cblock~1kPa, block = 30º
Soil surrounding columns are Esoil = 3MPa, csoil = 2kPa, soil = 26º;
Soil beneath columns are Ebase = 3MPa, csoil = 5kPa, soil = 28º

In Analysis 3, a 2D plane strain idealisation of the stone
columns using equivalent strips was investigated. The strips are
divided into several segments, each of which has different
strength properties that correspond to the varying stress
concentration along the column depth. The dimension and
spacing of the 2D strips are as per those outlined in Figure 1.
Analysis 4 presents a conventional 2D approach in which the
entire treated soil is represented by a single block with the


Proceedings of the 18th International Conference on Soil Mechanics and Geotechnical Engineering, Paris 2013

equivalent properties, block, c block and E block derived based on
the semi-empirical relationships given by Madhav, 1996.
Embankment with 2H:1V batter



Soft Soil without

Figure 8. 3D FEA mesh

The baseline 3D model (Analysis 1) and the 2D strip model
(Analysis 3) show similar deformation mechanisms of the stone
columns, which can be broadly divided into three zones (see Fig
9a, 9b): Zone 1 away from the fill batter where columns
underwent vertical deformation by “bulging”; Zone 2 just
behind the crest of the fill batter where columns underwent both
vertical and horizontal deformation by “bulging” and “leaning”;
and Zone 3 beneath the fill batter where columns underwent
mainly leaning. This numerical prediction of the deformation
appears to be consistent with the results of the centrifuge model
test carried out by Stewart and Fahey (1994). The maximum
settlement of the embankment occurs in Zone 2 just before the
crest of the fill batter (more than that in Zone 1). This is
presumably due to the concurrence of bulging and leaning
deformation mechanisms of the stone columns. Conversely, the
columns in Zone 3 exhibit the maximum horizontal
displacement and are likely due to the prevailing leaning
deformation of the stone columns.

Zone 1


(a) 3D FEA (Baseline Analysis 1) with cylindrical stone columns
Max vert.
Max vert. disp.

(b) 2D FEA (Analysis 3) with
equivalent stone column strips


Area replacement ratio ar


Hori. displ. (mm) at point Q






Area replacement ratio ar


Settlement at Point P

3D (100% )
2D_Strip (100%)


3D (67%)
2D_Strip (67%)



This paper presents a 2D FEA approach for analysing the
response of stone columns under embankment loading. The
stone columns are modeled as equivalent strips with the ceq and
Eeq of the strips calculated based on weighted average area
approach, and the eq derived based on force equilibrium
method, which requires a presumption of stress concentration
ratio of the stone column. For convenience, charts to assess the
stress concentration ratio have been generated for full depth and
floating stone columns. The solutions cover key parameters
including load levels, column spacing ratio, Ecolumn/Esoil ratio
Ebase/Ecolumn ratio, Ebase/Esoil ratio and column friction angles.
The accuracy of the proposed 2D strip model has been
investigated by comparing the results of the 3D baseline FEA
and the conventional composite approach. It has been shown
that the proposed strip model is preferable over the conventional
approach for the prediction of horizontal displacement.
However, further research is needed to develop a regime to
determine equivalent interface strength in the 2D strip method.

(c) 2D FEA (Analysis 4) with
equivalent composite block


Settlement (mm) at point P

Zone 3

Zone 2
Bulging & Leaning

Figure 9e presents the predicted horizontal displacement at
point Q. The following points are drawn from the results:

hen original soil strengths are used for the interface
properties, the result of the 2D strip model (curve 1) compares
well with that of the 3D baseline model (curve 2). Both results
show a trend of reducing horizontal displacement with ar.

hen the interface strength of the columns in the 3D model are
reduced to 67% of the soil strengths, the result (curve 3)
indicates an initial drop off in horizontal displacement with ar,
but increases again once ar > 20%. This is due to increasing
proportion of yielding elements in the remolded soil as the
columns draw closer to each other.

he application of the same interface strength reduction (67%
of surrounding soil strength) in the 2D equivalent strip model
has caused excessive yield in the remolded soil and led to
increased horizontal displacement with ar (curve 4). A better
fit to the 3D solution is by changing the interface strength to
80% of the surrounding soil strength (curve 5). Evidently,
there needs a regime to determine an equivalent interface
strength for the strip model. This merits further research.

he 2D block model result (curve 6) under-predicts the
horizontal displacement when compared with the 3D baseline
model predictions. This indicates that the use of isotropic soil
properties in the 2D block model, which were derived based
on semi-empirical relationships originally for settlement
prediction under axially loading condition, have
overestimated the reduction in lateral spreading underneath
the embankment batter. The use of equivalent strips in the 2D
strip model is able to capture the interaction between the soil
and the stone column, leading to a better agreement for the
lateral deformation with the 3D baseline solution.

Hori. Point Q

2D_Strip (80%)

Figure 9. Comparison of FEA results

Figure 9c presents the deformation predicted by the
conventional 2D FEA using composite block material (Analysis
4). This method is unable to capture the bulging and leaning
deformation of the stone columns. The maximum settlement
occurs at the centre of the embankment (i.e. in Zone 1) as
opposed to in Zone 2 as predicted by the baseline 3D FEA and
the proposed 2D FEA using equivalent strips.
Figure 9d shows a plot of predicted settlements at points P
versus area replacement ratio ar. All analyses give comparable
results, indicating that all the different FE methods are
commensurable in terms of settlement prediction under axially
symmetric load condition.



Balaam, N.P. and Poulos, H.G. 1982. The behavior of foundations
supported by clay stabilized by stone columns. Proc. 8th European
Conf. on Soil Mechanics and Foundation Engineering, Helsinki.
FHWA. 1983. U.S. Department of Transportation Federal Highway
Administration (Dec, 1983) – Design and Construction of Stone
Columns, Vol 1. Report No. FHWA/RD-83/026.
Madhav,M.R. and Nagpure,D.D. 1996. Design of granular piles for
embankments on soft ground. Proc. 12th SE Asian Geot.Conf.,
Kaula Lumpur. 1: 285-290
Stewart, D.P. and Fahey, M. (1994). Centrifuge modelling of a stone
column foundation system, Seminar on ground improvement
techniques , Perth, Curtin Printing Services, 1: pp 101-111.


Porosity/cement index to evaluate geomechanical properties of an artificial
cemented soil
Le paramètre porosité/ciment pour l’évaluation des propriétés géomécaniques d'un sol cimenté
Rios S., Viana da Fonseca A.

Faculty of Engineering of the University of Porto

ABSTRACT: This paper highlights the importance of the porosity/cement index on the evaluation of the geomechanical properties of
soil-cement mixtures as a contribution to analyse these materials. This index is defined as the ratio between porosity and volumetric
cement content combining the degree of compaction with the cement content. The relevance of these two parameters is defined by an
exponent to the volumetric cement content which changes with the type of soil. This paper results from a broad experimental program
with unconfined compression tests, indirect tensile tests, triaxial tests and oedometer tests, which were all analysed by this index
adjusted by a specific exponent value. The (tensile and compression) strength, the (elastic and initial tangent) stiffness, as well as the
compressional behaviour are conveniently represented by this index and a different behaviour is observed when this index is changed.
RÉSUMÉ : L’importance du paramètre porosité/ciment dans l’évaluation des propriétés géoméchaniques des mélanges sol-ciment est
présentée dans cet article comme une contribution pour l’analyse de ces matériaux. Ce paramètre est défini comme le rapport entre la
porosité et la teneur volumique en ciment. L’importance relative entre la porosité et la teneur en ciment est introduite en introduisant
un exposant à la teneur volumique en ciment dépendant du type de sol. Les résultats d’un vaste programme expérimental incluant
essais de compression simples, essais de traction indirect, essais triaxiaux et essais œdométriques sont présentés et analysés par ce
paramètre ajusté par un exposant spécifique. La résistance à la compression et à la traction, la rigidité élastique et tangente initiale,
ainsi que le comportement en compression sont bien représentés par l’intermédiaire de ce paramètre et un comportement différent est
observé si le paramètre est modifié.
KEYWORDS:soil-cement, porosity/cement index, tensile strength, compression strength, compressional behaviour.


Soil-cement mixtures are very interesting for the construction of
road and railway platforms, especially in the noble layers of
subgrade as well as in transition zones between embankment
and concrete structures, where good mechanical properties are
required. This solution, not only concurs to improve those
characteristics, but also leads to a significant reduction in the
economic and environmental costs of these works. Despite these
advantages this method has not a generalized application in
Portugal due to the lack of design methodologies based on
mechanical parameters.
There are several factors affecting the behaviour of cemented
soils, such as the type of cement and cement content, the curing
time and stress, the water content and porosity. Seeking for a
ratio that would reflect the influence of some of these
parameters Consoli et al. (2007) presented an index property
defined as the ratio of porosity to the volumetric cement
content, called porosity/cement ratio (n/Civ). Some previous
attempts have been made, such as the degree of cementation
proposed by Chang and Woods (1992) that concerns the
percentage of voids filled with cement, being this parameter
developed for sands. Lorenzo and Bergado (2004) have also
presented the ratio of the after curing void ratio to the cement
content (eot/Aw) proving to be quite interesting for clay mixtures
with high values of water and cement content.
Another available parameter is the water/cement ratio used
for concrete. However, soil-cement mixtures for road or railway
platforms are usually cured in a non saturated condition, which
makes the previous ratio inadequate in the analysis of these
mixtures behaviour. The main difference between soil-cement
mixtures and concrete (besides the cement content) is that
during the curing of concrete all voids are completely full of

water and therefore concrete stress-strain behaviour is not
dependent on the void ratio but on the water content. In
opposition, soil-cement mixtures currently executed in
embankments and transport platforms have curing water content
lower than the saturation water content and so their
compressibility will be related to its porosity. Moreover, while
concrete has an almost linear behaviour for a wide range of
deformations, soil-cement mixtures have a clear non-linear
behaviour since very small strains as a result of the progressive
degradation of the cemented structure. Therefore, even if the
soil-cement mixture is saturated after the maximum strength has
been achieved (i.e. after curing) the curing void ratio still has a
very important role on the mechanical behaviour of the mixture.
The influence of the porosity/cement ratio on strength and
stiffness parameters is described in Consoli et al. (2012)
providing the comparison between two different materials
mixed with Portland cement: well graded Porto silty sand and
uniform Osorio sand. An advance analysis on the compression
and shearing behaviour of cemented Porto silty sand through
this parameter is described in Rios et al. (2012).
This paper summarizes some geomechanical properties of
cemented Porto silty sand through this index in terms of
strength (unconfined, tensile and triaxial), stiffness (initial
tangent and unload-reload) and one-dimensional compression.


A well graded soil, classified as silty sand (SM) in the unified
classification system (ASTM, 1998) was used in this study. The
soil is derived from weathered Porto granite which is abundant
in Northern Portugal (Viana da Fonseca et al., 2006). Its particle
specific gravity is 2.72, and it contains around 30% fines,


Proceedings of the 18th International Conference on Soil Mechanics and Geotechnical Engineering, Paris 2013

although a low plasticity index was obtained (IP=wL-wP=34%31%=3%). From the particle size distribution curve presented in
Figure 1 an average diameter D50 equal to 0.25 mm was
obtained, as well as uniformity and curvature coefficients of 113
and 2.7 respectively.A high strength Portland cement (CEM I
52,5R) of grain density equal to 3.15 was used as the cementing
agent in order to speed up the laboratory tests.
The experimental program is performed with specimens
made by the mixture of silty sand, Portland cement and tap
water that is compacted statically in three layers in a stainless
steel mould. For each specimen, a quantity of fines equal to the
weight of cement to be introduced was removed from the soil,
in order to have the same grain size distribution curve in the
mixture of soil-cement as in the soil itself. Following this
procedure the dry density of the soil was also constant
throughout the study even though the cement content changed.
The specific gravity of the cement-soil mixture was calculated
as a weighted average of those of the soil (Gs=2.72) and of the
cement (Gs=3.15), and thus it was different for different cement

ASTM sieves series (mm)






















Grain size (mm)


Taking into account the possibility of shrinkage in cemented
materials, the evaluation of the tensile strength is of utmost
importance. In that sense, indirect tensile tests following the
standard EN 13286-42 (CEN, 2003) were performed on similar
specimens whose results were plotted against n/Civ0.21 for which
Eq. (2) was obtained,
Rtb (kPa) = 2E+09 (n/Civ0.21)-4.719


The results showed that the indirect tensile strength (Rtb) was
about 11% of the UCS. In Figure 2 both Rtb and UCS are
plotted against n/Civ0.21 in different scales for comparison. It is
clear that both trends are very similar (except for the absolute
values) corroborating the convenience of the adjusted
porosity/cement ratio.
In Consoli et al. (2011), where the data from these tests is
plotted together with data from other two soils, it is shown that
for the three soils a decrease in porosity promotes an increase in
the tensile strength as a consequence of the higher number of
contact points between particles which improves the
cementation. Also for the other two soils, a unique correlation
was found between the adjusted porosity/cement ratio and the
indirect tensile strength, the exponent of the ratio depending on
the soil.

Figure 2. Indirect tensile strength and unconfined compression strength
against the adjusted porosity/cement ratio


3.2 Triaxial test