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Transport Substances in Plants

Distribution of Vascular System in Dicotyledon Plants
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Xylem tissue – transport water and minerals from roots to leaves / support the plant

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Phloem tissue – transport products of photosynthesis from leaves to all parts of the
plant

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(draw root of dicotyledon plant)

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(draw stem of dicotyledon plant)

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(draw dicotyledon leaf)

Vascular Tissue in Plant
Xylem tissue
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Xylem vessel
o One series of dead cells cylindrical and joined from end to end
o Protoplasm and end of the walls broken down to form a long and continuous
hollow tube
o Walls are thickened with lignin – give support
o Lignin is deposited in the form of rings, pit and spiral networks

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Tracheids
o Elongated hollow tubes with tapering and closed end walls
o Wall thickened with lignin and cavities (pit)

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Function

: transport water and minerals from roots to all parts of the plant
: give support to plant

Phloem tissue
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Sieve tubes
o Living cell that is an elongated tube with little cytoplasm and no nucleus
o Joined end to end to form a long cylindrical tube
o End walls at both end are perforated – sieve plates

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Companion cell
o Consist of nucleus, cytoplasm, many mitochondria
o Helps to regulate activity of sieve tubes

roots. buds o Excess glucose transported to other parts of plant and stored as starch Transport of Water in Plants - Water is used for photosynthesis in leaves - Excess water evaporates from leaves – transpiration - Transpiration – loss of water in the form of water vapour from plant surface to atmosphere - Occurs thru stomata. transported to fruits. cuticle. lenticles - Importance of transpiration: o Produce transpiration pull (force) to pull up column of water from roots o Enable process of absorption and flow of water o Cooling effect to leaves and stem o Enable dissolved minerals to be distributed to all parts of the plant o Maintain osmotic pressure of cell sap Pathway of water from soil to leaves - Water from soil diffuse by osmosis into root hair the diffuse across cortex cells to reach the xylem tissues - Water transported upwards to xylem tissue in stem - In leaf. increase the rate of evaporation from surface of leaf - Rate of transpiration increase .- Function – tansport product of photosynthesis to various parts of the plant to be used ot stored – tanslocation Transport of Organic Substance in Plants - Tanslocation in sieve tubes of phloem tissue - Importance: o Growth and respiration o Glucose converted to sucrose. Temperature - Increase in temp. water diffuse from xylem tissues to mesophyll cells arnd it - Water evaporate into atmosphere thru stomata during transpiration External Conditions that Affect the Rate of Transpiration 1.

stomata opens. water vapour that diffuse thru stomata gather arnd stomata - Air arnd stomata saturated with water vapour - Rate of transpiration decrease - Windy condition. air is saturated with water vapour - Reduces rate of evaporation. Light intensity - Light intensity increase. Relative humidity - Relative humidity high. increase. temp. rate of transpiration decrease 3. root pressure generated due to turgidity of the root cells  Root pressure pushes water and mineral ions inwards to the xylem vessels of root and force water up the xylem vessel of stem c) Capillary action  Cohesion (force of attraction between water molecules) and adhesion of water (force of attraction between water molecules and walls of xylem vessels)exist in xylem vessels . Air movement - No moving air. Of cell sap in root hair cells  Water diffuse into root hair cells by osmosis  Water diffuse from root hair cells into adjacent cortex cells by osmosis  Water moves thru cortex cells in root by osmosis until xylem vessels in root  As water moves thru root hair cells and cortex cells by osmosis.2. swept away by fast moving air - Increase rate of evaporation. increase rate of transpiration Movement of Water in Plants a) Osmosis  Water moves from soil into root hair cells by osmosis  Diffuse by osmosis thru cells in cortex until ir reach xylem in root  Movement of water in mesophyll cells of leaf is by osmosis b) Root pressure  Water in soil is hypotonic to conc. water vapour diffuse thru stomata. rate of transpiration increase - Dark condition. speed up rate of transpiration - Bright condition. stomata close. reduce rate of transpiration 4.

guard cell do not carry out photosynthesis - Glucose content reduced. guard cell carry out photosynthesis - Glucose content in guard cell increase - Guard cell also accumulate potassium ions from adjacent cells thru active transport - Osmotic pressure in cell sap of guard cell increase - Water diffuse from surrounding epidermal cells into guard cells by osmosis - Guard cell become turgid. Cohesion and adhesion of water provide force to hold up a continuous column of water in xylem vessels d) Transpiration pull  In leaves. thin outer wall - Guard cell turgid – stoma opened / guard cell flaccid – stoma closed Opening of stomata - Light intensity high. causing stoma to open - Rate of transpiration increase Closing of stoma - Light intensity low. water evaporates from spongy mesophyll cells to air spaces in leaf and to atmosphere thru stomata during transpiration  Mesophyll cells have higher osmotic pressure compared to adjacent mesophyll cells. curve outwards. water diffuse from adjacent cell to cell by osmosis  Water moves thru mesophyll cells by osmosis until xylem vessels in vein of leaf  Water from xylem vessel in veins of leaf drawn into mesophyll cells  Movement of water due to transpiration generates a suction force – transpiration pull Opening and Closing of Stomata - Amount of water loss from leaf depends on size of stoma - Size of stoma controlled by guard cells - Guard cell – thick inner wall. potassium ions exit guard cell - Osmotic pressure in cell sap of guard cell decrease - Water diffuse out from guard cell into epidermal cells by osmosis .

- Guard cell become flaccid. stoma closed - Rate of transpiration decrease .