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Transport Substances in Plants

Distribution of Vascular System in Dicotyledon Plants

Xylem tissue – transport water and minerals from roots to leaves / support the plant


Phloem tissue – transport products of photosynthesis from leaves to all parts of the


(draw root of dicotyledon plant)


(draw stem of dicotyledon plant)


(draw dicotyledon leaf)

Vascular Tissue in Plant
Xylem tissue

Xylem vessel
o One series of dead cells cylindrical and joined from end to end
o Protoplasm and end of the walls broken down to form a long and continuous
hollow tube
o Walls are thickened with lignin – give support
o Lignin is deposited in the form of rings, pit and spiral networks


o Elongated hollow tubes with tapering and closed end walls
o Wall thickened with lignin and cavities (pit)



: transport water and minerals from roots to all parts of the plant
: give support to plant

Phloem tissue

Sieve tubes
o Living cell that is an elongated tube with little cytoplasm and no nucleus
o Joined end to end to form a long cylindrical tube
o End walls at both end are perforated – sieve plates


Companion cell
o Consist of nucleus, cytoplasm, many mitochondria
o Helps to regulate activity of sieve tubes

roots. buds o Excess glucose transported to other parts of plant and stored as starch Transport of Water in Plants - Water is used for photosynthesis in leaves - Excess water evaporates from leaves – transpiration - Transpiration – loss of water in the form of water vapour from plant surface to atmosphere - Occurs thru stomata. transported to fruits. cuticle. lenticles - Importance of transpiration: o Produce transpiration pull (force) to pull up column of water from roots o Enable process of absorption and flow of water o Cooling effect to leaves and stem o Enable dissolved minerals to be distributed to all parts of the plant o Maintain osmotic pressure of cell sap Pathway of water from soil to leaves - Water from soil diffuse by osmosis into root hair the diffuse across cortex cells to reach the xylem tissues - Water transported upwards to xylem tissue in stem - In leaf. increase the rate of evaporation from surface of leaf - Rate of transpiration increase .- Function – tansport product of photosynthesis to various parts of the plant to be used ot stored – tanslocation Transport of Organic Substance in Plants - Tanslocation in sieve tubes of phloem tissue - Importance: o Growth and respiration o Glucose converted to sucrose. Temperature - Increase in temp. water diffuse from xylem tissues to mesophyll cells arnd it - Water evaporate into atmosphere thru stomata during transpiration External Conditions that Affect the Rate of Transpiration 1.

stomata opens. water vapour that diffuse thru stomata gather arnd stomata - Air arnd stomata saturated with water vapour - Rate of transpiration decrease - Windy condition. air is saturated with water vapour - Reduces rate of evaporation. Light intensity - Light intensity increase. Relative humidity - Relative humidity high. increase. temp. rate of transpiration decrease 3. root pressure generated due to turgidity of the root cells  Root pressure pushes water and mineral ions inwards to the xylem vessels of root and force water up the xylem vessel of stem c) Capillary action  Cohesion (force of attraction between water molecules) and adhesion of water (force of attraction between water molecules and walls of xylem vessels)exist in xylem vessels . Air movement - No moving air. Of cell sap in root hair cells  Water diffuse into root hair cells by osmosis  Water diffuse from root hair cells into adjacent cortex cells by osmosis  Water moves thru cortex cells in root by osmosis until xylem vessels in root  As water moves thru root hair cells and cortex cells by osmosis.2. swept away by fast moving air - Increase rate of evaporation. increase rate of transpiration Movement of Water in Plants a) Osmosis  Water moves from soil into root hair cells by osmosis  Diffuse by osmosis thru cells in cortex until ir reach xylem in root  Movement of water in mesophyll cells of leaf is by osmosis b) Root pressure  Water in soil is hypotonic to conc. water vapour diffuse thru stomata. rate of transpiration increase - Dark condition. speed up rate of transpiration - Bright condition. stomata close. reduce rate of transpiration 4.

guard cell do not carry out photosynthesis - Glucose content reduced. guard cell carry out photosynthesis - Glucose content in guard cell increase - Guard cell also accumulate potassium ions from adjacent cells thru active transport - Osmotic pressure in cell sap of guard cell increase - Water diffuse from surrounding epidermal cells into guard cells by osmosis - Guard cell become turgid. Cohesion and adhesion of water provide force to hold up a continuous column of water in xylem vessels d) Transpiration pull  In leaves. thin outer wall - Guard cell turgid – stoma opened / guard cell flaccid – stoma closed Opening of stomata - Light intensity high. causing stoma to open - Rate of transpiration increase Closing of stoma - Light intensity low. water evaporates from spongy mesophyll cells to air spaces in leaf and to atmosphere thru stomata during transpiration  Mesophyll cells have higher osmotic pressure compared to adjacent mesophyll cells. curve outwards. water diffuse from adjacent cell to cell by osmosis  Water moves thru mesophyll cells by osmosis until xylem vessels in vein of leaf  Water from xylem vessel in veins of leaf drawn into mesophyll cells  Movement of water due to transpiration generates a suction force – transpiration pull Opening and Closing of Stomata - Amount of water loss from leaf depends on size of stoma - Size of stoma controlled by guard cells - Guard cell – thick inner wall. potassium ions exit guard cell - Osmotic pressure in cell sap of guard cell decrease - Water diffuse out from guard cell into epidermal cells by osmosis .

- Guard cell become flaccid. stoma closed - Rate of transpiration decrease .