You are on page 1of 602

ENCYCLOPEDIA

HARPER'S

of
STATES

UNITED
FROM

458

"THE

OF

OF

R. HARPER,
PRESIDENT

UNIVERSITY

BUSHNELL

PROP.

OF

AT

A.M.,
AT

T.

HARRIS,

U.

S. COMMISSIONER

PREFACE

PROF.

ON

ETC.,

ETC.,

STUDY

WITH

ORIGINAL

OF

THE

DOCUMENTS,

COMPLETE

VOL.

HARPER
NEW

"

YORK

HISTORY

ETC.,

NAVY

BY

MAPS,

ETC.

PLANS,

VOLUMES

TEN
IX

BROTHERS
-

STATES

UNITED

PH.D., LL.D.

PORTRAITS,

IN

AT

D.C.L.,

MAHAN,

PEOPLE,"

PUBLISHERS
=

YALE

Ph.D.

OF

AMERICAN

CORNELL

AT

HISTORY

UNIVERSITY

PRINCETON
AUTHOR

HISTORY

OF

LANGUAGES

AMERICAN

WILSON,
OF

AT

ETC.

OF

TORONTO

Ph.D.

BOURNE,

SEMITIC

OF

CAPTAIN

THE

PRESIDENT

HISTORY

GOTTHEIL,
T.

EDUCATION

WOODROW

"A

H.

ALFRED

Ph.D., LL.D.
ETC.,

WITH

J.

CALIFORNIA

OF

OF

PROF.

R.
OF

G.

OF

LL.D.

TYLER,

COLUMBIA

AT

LL.D.

UNIV.

LL.D.

UNIVERSITY

D.C.L.,

HISTOR

PROF.

HARVARD

LL.D.
UNIV.

OF

COIT

MOSES

AND

Ph.D.,

PRINCETON

OF

SMITH,
PROF.

EDWARD
LAW

HISTORY

WILSON,

CHICAGO

Ph.D.

HART,

LITERATURE

WILLIAM

AMERICAN
INCLUDING

GOLDWIN

D.D.

OF

HISTOR

OF

INTERNATIONAL

FRYER,
OF

OF

PRESIDENT

MOORE.

B.

PROF.

PHASE

HISTORIAN

Ph.D., LL.D.,
THE

OF

PROF.

JOHN

AMERICAN

OF

FIELD-

ETC.

ETC.,

WOODROW
THE

AUTHOR

PICTORIAL

AUTHORITIES,

FISKE.

ALBERT

ETC.,

EVERY

FMINENT

AND

"THE

"

l8l2

OF

COVERING
BY

LL.D.

RECORD"

HISTORICAL

WAR

THE

DEVELOPMENT

JOHN

OF

REVOLUTION

THE

OF

CONTRIBUTIONS

SPECIAL

WM.

PLAN

LOSSING,

AMERICAN

FIELD-BOOK

PICTORIAL

THE

BOOK

JOHN

1909

"

"

WITH

TO

THE

JOHN

EDITOR

SOMETIME

A.D.

UPON

BASED

BENSON

HISTORY

LONDON

"c.

COLUMBIA

LL.D.
(Retired^

Copyright,

Copyright,

1905,

igpi,

/"//

by

HARPER

"

BROTHERS.

by

HARPER

"

BROTHERS.

rights

reservtd.

LIST

OF

PRESIDENT

WILLIAM

HOWARD

PRESIDENT

ZACHARY

TAYLOR

THE

STORMING

TAFT

Frontispiece

Facing

TICONDEROGA

FORT

OF

PLATES

THE

BATTLE

OF

JOHN

PRESIDENT

UNITED

THE

"

"

"

"

22

78

116

"

TYLER

t:

144

ELECTION

His

TRENTON

RECEIVING

WASHINGTON

page

ANNOUNCEMENT

THE

TO

THE

FIRST

PRESIDENCY

OF

OF

"

STATES

*'

168

MAPS

THE

UNITED

ORIGINAL

STATES

THIRTEEN

STATES

Facing

"

page

"272

160

ENCYCLOPEDIA

HARPER'S

OF

HISTORY

STATES

UNITED

T.

Vt., Nov.

hend,

College;
practised
of

in

March,

O.

and

made

was

and

1876,

United

in

May
the

judge

was

in

1882-

where

Russia,

to

WILLIAM

Taft,
cinnati,

O.,

Taft,

phonso
in

cinnati

College
political record
Jan.,

1881.

members;

Law

School

since

and

has

then

at

March,

1882.

Internal

Cin

been:

March,

and

Resigned

"

Revenue

March,
April,
tion.

the

"

1888.

to

the

tempt
later

the

the

Bricklayers'
on
leading case

vs.

become

by

XIII.

1890.

citor-General

March,

of
1892.

Judge

of

Sixth

Judicial

the

Addystone
Sherman

Resigned

"

the

United

law

Co.

and

Court
He

the

for

decided

Phelan

since

art

on

1893.

He

Sculpture

So

of

Artists.

strike-leader, which

of

basis

defence

the

of

1900.

Visited

"

and

became

1901.

the

Secretary

1902.

Conferred

"

committee

made

lands

1903.

with

in

States

Leo

Pope

of cardinals

Left

"

United

of War.

at

settlement

satisfactory

friars'

Dec.,

Visited

"

of the

Civil

Rome,
to

as

the

Philippines.

the

Philippines

to

be

come

Feb., 1904.
Nov.,

1904.

of

Secretary

"

Visited

"

July-Sep., 1905."
a
party of

with

War.

Panama.

Visited

the

Senators

and

Philippines
Congress

men.

became

enforcing

case

law;

Soli

States.

States

Circuit.

anti-trust
IX."

United

became

Resigned

"

Pipe

and

Chicago

Society

the

Brotherhood

and

and

boycott.
Feb.,

formed

March,

Union,
the

in

Art

Railway Trainmen
and
Firemen, successfully resulting in hav
dissolved.
ing the injunction against them

posi
Moore

of

at

Paris,

lecturer

National

against

case

(Resigned

same

Arts,

Chicago

Western

the

on

the

the

case

the

Elm-

student

1879;

the

and

1886;

in

graduated

in

at

of

San

HOWARD

order

Court.

Elected

"

decided

Beaux

of

and

Dec.,

County Solicitor.
Resigned and
appointed

Superior

He

Brothers

of

ciety

July,

1887.

of

des

since

member

1883.)

Judge

Illinois

University

U.

Jan., 1885.---Assistant

since

is

of

instructor

Institute
in the

1860;

29,

president of the Philippine Commission.


first
July 4, 1901." Inaugurated
of the
Governor
Philippines.

Prose

became

Collector.

Ecole

the

born

sculptor;

111., April

in

1891.

21,

LOBADO,

died

He

year.

University

at

His

1880.

Public

Assistant

"

second

1878

in

the

of

Cincinnati.

cutor,

S.

121

Al-

Woodward

Yale

at

1874;
of

class

the

Cin

of

son

at

graduated

School

High

1857;

15,

in

born

HOWARD,

Sept.

Taft,
wood,

WILLIAM

TAFT,

one

Cal., May

1880-83;

same

1877;

Austria

transferred

War

of

Attorney-Gen

March,
to

in

the

of

served

Diego,

1838;

Cincinnati

to

minister

then

was

in
was

Secretary

till

serving

States

of

Court

transferred

was

eralship,
84;

bar

Cincinnati,

He

1866-72.
in

the

Superior

the

year

to

Yale

at

graduated

5, 1810;

admitted

he

Towns-

in

jurist; born

ALPHONSO,

Taft,

Sep.,

1906.

the

awhile

as

the

lishing

peace

the

March-

con-

Cuba,

and

"

Visited

Cuba

Provisional
in

April,
Porto

the

Governor,

and

acted

re-estab

island.

1907.
Rico.

"

Visited

Panama,

TALBOT"

Autumn

of

in Manila,

dent

the

Opened

"

via the

returning

Congress

Siberian

Rail

of

ernor

of

1908.

18,
the

on

first ballot

Chicago

June

in the

Electoral

for William
1909.

at

lie

did

not

Nov.

29, 1727.

President

321

by

College against

SILAS,

Dighton, Mass.,
Rhode

captain in a
the
siege of

was

Island

at

regiment
the
accompanied

Boston;

in

officer; born

naval

in 1751;

American

army

162

Jennings Bryan.

Visited

"

votes

to

Talbot,

-Elected

3, 1908."

votes

702

by

Presi

Resigned as Secretary
by Luke E. Wright.

"

succeeded

Nov.

for

Convention.

19, 1908.

of War;

Nominated

"

Pennsylvania (Keith) complained


the
Lords
of the Privy Seal,
summoned
to England, but
was
N. J.,
He
died
in
Burlington,
go.

him

iuid

way.
June

the

1907.

TALCOTT

Panama

inspect

to

the

canal.
Mr.
sit

Taft's
the

on

of the
dent
of

ambition

United

that

he

Supreme

dent

of

several

for

of

the

States.

He

Bench

told

rather

Court

Justice

United

the

Court

Supreme

would

to

was

years
the

Presi

wear

the

than

be Presi

States.

robe

Although

occasions

offered, he put aside his


ambition
to serve
the country as
so
as
a
diplomatic and politicalrepresentative, as
views
his record
above
His
given shows.
to the tariff were
declared
in his speech
as
at Bath,
"I
be
Maine, in Sept., 1906:
lieve

that

since

the

Bill

there

has

been

conditions

ness

wise

and

the

existent

the

to

tariff."

the

itself

adhesion

the

South
SILAS

from

to any

the

of

trammels

York;

to New
with

party.

one

eighteenth century. He emigrated


colony of Georgia, and, becoming

to

commission

physician;

PATRICK,

with

the

conduct
in

of

the

derson

and

David

Narrative
the

from

Colony

Settlement

Period

Present

Talbot,

Douglass,
the

of

First

1740

JOHN,

dis

affairs, he

and

colony
Charleston, S. C., where, with

to

went

An

Hugh
he

printed

of Georgia
thereof until

colonial

bishop;

born

in

of

tion
off

At

City.

the

freed

other

for

Rhode

bishops.
in

assumed

This

1722

was

he

himself
done

returned

by nonjuring
by two bishops,
to

America

episcopal authority.

The

and
gov-

in

he

the

herself

captured

anchored

manding

in

destruc

lying

war

York

New

of
to

1778.

British

Newport,

injury.
a

of

the

and

the

The

harbor

the

wound

severe

gave

Sullivan

General

in

one

of

Romney

Mifflin, and

Fort

ran

Rom-

crew

the

of

out

received

Talbot

Island

The
and

without
fled

defence
aid

of Wash

and, grappling the

war-vessels

material

for

river

fire-

16th, Talbot

the

on

brig on fire.
brig escaped in a boat,

favored
in his ef
was
by Queen Anne
forts, but failed to obtain the appointment
of a
to
ask
he resolved
suffragan, and
consecration

A.M.

of

of

Heights

of

Street,

set his

ney,

in alarm.

the

vessels

124th

the

summer

the

attempted

British

present

ship

Congress

Harlem

gaining

Talbot

the

the

bot

1704

from

of

ington,
(Sept. 15),

soon

In

received

after

Wymondham,
England,
York, New
clergy of New
Jersey, and
Pennsylvania petitionedfor a bishop. Tal
1645.

operations

British

the

against

In
the
major.
he accepted the command
1776
brig on the Hudson.
By orders

down

(1741).
in

and

TALBOT.

and, for skilful

fire-rafts

ping there,

satisfied

the

has

he

Furthermore,
to persuade

in

left

it
of

schedules

lived

Tailfer,
the

the

decision

by freeing
blind

busi

its proper
place in taking part
of great politicalquestions

resume

in the

Dingley
the

in

country, making

revise

consistentlystriven
to

change

of

just

of the

passage

few

weeks

on

later

floating battery
channels
for

this

com

exploit

TALCOTT"

his

In

captain.

commissioned

was

TALLMADGE

prize

Johnson,
in

served

of

of

construction
in

which,
cruise

Coosa
of

and

the

He

Nov.

raged

Indies.

miles, and

resigned

He

and

of

stars

Yellowstone
method

Talcott

territorial

determining

latitudes
the

near

by

zenith.

in

March,

Mexican

War,

and

chief

Talcott
to

in

declared

the

illegal.Talcott

in

Braintree,

tled

in

Conn.;
in

of

to

granted
I.

He

"

of

army
200
a

Connecticut
in the

and

and

battle

promoted

war.

served

ford.

Indian
of

head

Connecticut,

Mohican

successful

was

as

in 1662

Pequod
at

the

the

for

at the

hostile

the
Coosa

Creeks

1,000 horsemen,

to

his

troops
he
that

attack

at

Coffee, with

sent

them.

He

was

by

assailants, who

of

Every

warrior

dians

perished,

1676

standing

Not

forty-one wounded.

He

during the

town,

evening
3

born

25,

1754;

made

quarter.

five killed

and

Having destroyed

marched

back

Coosa,

followed

to

In

The

prisoners.

was

all

the

Jackson's

by

train

captives.

Tallmadge,
cer;

and

were

the
on
camp
of sorrowful

at

Fully 200
eighty-four women

Americans

Coffee

them
ask

killed.

was

children

loss of the

attacked
would

one

Housatonic.

the

him

joined

assembled

were

Jackson

and

On

to

When
emergency.
informed
he was

Tallasahatchee.

their

23, 1688.
AT.

join
Jackson
country.
and
drilled
afterwards,

points.

of his official papers


are
pre
the State
records
in Hart
among
He
died in Hartford,
Conn., July

BATTLE

in

and
friendly Creeks
Cherokees.
On
the
3
of
Oct.
morning
the Indians
were
decoyed out of the town
and
were
immediately smitten by a volley
of bullets.
The
Creeks
fought valiantly.
Inch
pushed back by
by inch they were

Many

Talladega,

Benton,
Tennesseeans

men
speedi
despatched (Sept.
500
Coffee, with

John

accompanied
by
Indians, fought

lieutenant-colonel

from

mounted
volunteers
many
him
immediately, towards

Charles

by
"

as

inn,

received

thousand

Jackson

Gen.
and

accompanied

Hartford,

War

Five

H.

of

Jack

Nashville

the

to

mas

FOBT,

indignation

Creek

the

and
was
colony in 1660-76;
named
in
the
charter
patentees

served

major,

as

in

field.

1813)

arrived

the

of the

one

later

the

appealed

The

Southwest.

Thomas

of

He

fifteen

MIMS,

bullet

several

lost

the

of the

direc

dusky war
large number

stirred

when

all

for

the

prostrate at

hands

thoroughly

Y.,

of

(see

effects of

could

as

soon

N.

then

the

dragoons

ensign of colonial troops


captain in 1660; treas

became

1650;

urer

and

made

was

26,

unjust

in

pursued

Mims

people

ly responded.

military officer; born


set
1630;
England, about

Boston,
was

son

1848.

Albany,

AT)

whole

sunrise,

general,

minutes,

fled

Americans

Fort

MASSACRE
the

take

April 25, 1862.


Talcott, JOHN,
in

at

the

sentence

died

sacre

colonel

promi

The

at

eighty-five wounded.
BATTLE
AT.
Tallasahatchee,

duel.

Many

fifteen

300

enclose

became

and

were

over

men,

to

as

moved

soon

about

in

of the

mounted
so

slain, besides

and

the

forced

He

battle

broke

were

killed

He

and

circle.

for

wounded.

ob

through

March,

1851.

July 8,

on

men

and

ordnance

court-martialled

was

retire

nent

of

served

1814;

being promoted

800

action

They

riors

from

in Richmond,
Va., April 22, 1883.
Talcott, GEORGE, military officer;born
in Glastonbury, Conn., Dec. 6, 1786; join
ed the army
first lieu
in 1813; promoted
tenant

tions.

for

died

the

Indians

little east

forces, composed

and

for

The

Indians

He

servations

in

9.

and

Missouri
upper
devised
the

the

rivers.

foe

the

York
died
in New
He
Sept. 21, 1801.
City June 30, 1813.
civil engineer; born
Talcott, ANDREW,
in Glastonbury,
Conn., April 20, 1797;
States
Military
graduated at the United
in 1818;
Academy
accompanied Gen. H.
Atkinson, 1819, to establish military posts
on

disposed

of

gathering-

Creek
a

Jackson's

infantry

and

miles

chief

the

hostile

River.

to superintend the
frigate Constitution,
his flag-ship in a

was

West

the

1,200

were

1794
the

1799,
the

to

Assembly,

of

one

of

places

Jackson

Andrew

resting within

were

Talladega county, Ala.,

River;

in 1793-94.

Congress

in

employed

was

York

New

the

member

was

the Mohawk

near

8, 1813, Gen.

troops

Talladega,

1780 he was
captured and confined in the
to
England,
prison-ship Jersey, removed
he
the war
After
and exchanged in 1781.
of
Sir
confiscated
estate
the
purchased
William

of Nov.
his

Eng
(the Pigot) he cruised off the New
land
prizes. In
coast, capturing several

in

military

BENJAMIN,
Brookhaven,

entered

the

N.

patriot

Y.,
army

offi
Feb.
as

TALLMADGE"
of

lieutenant

Connecticut

June, 1776, and

1779-80

In

colonel.

expeditions against
Tories
of

battles

principal

rank

the

of

British

in
and

in

was

of

of

engaged

was

bodies

Island, and

Long

on

the

he

in

regiment
to

rose

soon

TAMMANY

the

some

In

war.

Dutch

Church

N.
in Belleville,

J., in the
pastor of the Central
Presbyterian Church
as
(popularly known
the Tabernacle)
of Brooklyn, in 1869-94,
time
this well-known
during which
place
of worship
was
destroyed by fire three
times.
Feeling himself unable to stand the
of building another
strain
church
edifice,
he
to
removed
His
Washington, D. C.
sermons
were
for
published every week
In
1900
it was
esti
twenty-nine years.
mated
that
their
publication in 3,600
same

was

year;

carried

papers

them

to

less

no

than

30,000,000 people weekly throughout


world.

He

Herald

editor

was

for many

years.

the

Christian

He

died

in Wash

ington, D. C., April 12, 1902.


Talon, PIERRE, explorer;

born

ada

the

after

with

was
1650;
expedition to Illinois in

murder

of

with

the

who

Cenis

had

execution.

He

long in Washington's

was

confidential

his

became

from

1801

to

and,

?,

member

of

officer's

that

military family, and


correspondent. He
merchant,

of

custody

the

after

until

Andre"

Major

had

he

1780

was

to

7, 1835.
field,Conn., March
in
JAMES,
lawyer; born
Tallmadge,
Stamford, N. Y., Jan. 28, 1778; graduated
at

University

Brown

for

was

had

George Clinton;
York
regiment in New

Gen.

1812-15;

was

of

member

introduced

19, and

law
later

but

He

to

time

some

studied

years;

agriculture.
private secretary

attention

his

turned

in 1798;

several

practisedfor

and

an

during the
Congress

to

War

to

of the

in 1835;

and

University

was

of the

one

of the

City

the

early
supposed

who

made

IAM

PENN

the

of

have

to

en

Jean

Ta

Ponchartrain,
Cruz, Sept. 14,

famous

almost
went

young
had

the

title of

was

the

saint

patron
inserted

festival
year.
ation

treaty with
He

like

of

After

the

formed

Tammany

for

counsel.

him
upon
established

was

His

on

May

Revolution

1 of
an

the
as

name

calendars, and

some

by
and

them.
among
admirers
the

America.

celebrated

was

was

in

he

WILL

deity,

him

to

He

those

revered

was

his

saint, and

of

one

equal
Revolutionary War
good chief conferred

of the

the

Pennsylvania.

been

(q. v.).

Delawares

In

York.

ac

work

1700.

settlers

the

of

founders

of New

is

never

restrictingslavery to the region west


of the
member
a
of the Mississippi; was
visited Rus
State legislaturein 1825-26;
American
introduced
sia and
machinery
there

by

and

bill

two

an

ST., a great and good chief


of the Delaware
Indians, called Tamenand

He

the

after

and

Vera

at

died

Subse

and

Tammany,

old

in 1817-

amendment

He

in

Count

of

became

wrote

of Pierre

Order

Arrival

their

of

command

death

'Narrative

1698.

in Litch-

Salle's

titled

La

lon, by the

was

He

of

he

missionaries

sister

Mexico.

count

successful

died

He

Congress.

brothers, to

1817,

with

the
time

village.

the

at

Can
Salle

After
for

Later

Franciscan

went,

in
La

1687.
lived

he

Indians.

arrived
he

quently
fall of

Salle

interpreter to

an

the

La

the

of

his
each

associ

Philadelphia, called
Society. On May 1 they
in

bucktails
in
York, Sept. 29, 1853.
paraded the streets, with
THOMAS
DE
WITT, clergy their hats, and
proceeded to a pleasant
Talmadge,
of town, which
out
in Bound
born
Brook, N. J., Jan. 7, retreat
they called
man;
studied
at the
University of the the "wigwam,"
where, after a long talk,
1832;
York, and graduated at the or Indian
"palaver," had been delivered,
City of New
He

died

New
1856 ;

in New

Brunswick
was

Theological Seminary
pastor of the Reformed

ordained

in

and

the

had

been

calumet

of

peace

and

friendship

duly smoked, they spent

the

SOCIETY"TANNER

TAMMANY

dances

of

wigwam,

the

After

mirth.

festivityand

in

day

Indian

calumet

dinner

in

performed

were

at

was

smoked, and the company


Society, or Columbian
Tammany
a
der,
politicalorganization formed
the exertions
of William
through
ly

organization,and from that


a
politicalsociety. They
first in Martling's Long Room,
on

time

it became

again
separated.

the

the

to

front

of

corner

Or

In

Nassau

and

Frankfort

met

the

streets.

the

1800

to build
society determined
Hall
erect
was
wigwam,
Tammany
ed by them
that spot. Many
on
years af
terwards
the old wigwam
they abandoned

chief

and

Moo-

upholsterer in the city of New


ney,
and
made
their quarters in a fine build
York, at the beginning of the administra
Its first ing on
Fourteenth
tion of President
Street, adjoining the
Washington.
The
held on
May
13, 1789.
Academy of Music.
meeting was
Although the actual
St.
took
its
from
of
the
name
Tammany.
membership
society
society embraced
only
of a
few
officers of the society consisted
hundred
it has
been
The
able
a
men,
inferior
and
thirteen
for many
to control
and
sa
grand sachem
poll many
years
and the
thousand
and
wield
immense
votes
an
chems, representing the President
Besides
States.
of the thirteen
in the politicsboth
of New
York
governors
power
these there was
a
Its connection
grand council, of which
City and of the State.
members.
It was
with
the
sachems
the
Tweed
a
of the
were
gigantic frauds
reaction
and
a
ring led to a natural
it soon
recovered
But
temporary check.
its prestige and
increased
See
power.
an

YORK

NEW

in this volume.
CHRONOLOGY,
city,port of entry, and county
seat of Hillsboro
county, Fla.
During the

Tampa,

Americanof the

Spanish

War

rendezvous

in 1898

for

it

one

was

American

the

army

when

for the invasion


of
being assembled
Cuba.
Population (1900), 15,839.
of Mexico,
a
Tampico,
seaport town
in the State
of Tamaulipas, on
the Pa-

nuco
River,
Mexico; was

miles

from

taken

the

possession

fleet of Commodore

Gulf

of

by

the

of

Conner, Nov.

14, 1846,

in the

with Mexico.
early part of the war
Taney, ROGER
BROOKE, jurist; born in
Calvert
17, 1777; grad
county, Md., March
uated
at Dickinson
College in 1795; ad
mitted

HALL.

land
very popular society and
influence.
Its membership
of the

best

ings.
"

But

when

self-constituted

of the
the
time

violent

secret

of

the

patrioticin
included
York

New

of

men

tolerated

party politicswere

City.
in

WHISKEY

v,), nearly all the

United

by

societies, at

the

law

INSURRECTION
left

members
be

1827.

He

of

was

In

1857

the

DRED

earnest
died

(q.
New
it, be

Catholics

In

him

1831

United
in

Jackson

States

Attorneyappointed

he

1836

the

President

was

Supreme Court of the


Judge Marshall.
his famous
opinion in

States, to succeed

in

he

gave
SCOTT
CASE

upholder of
Washington,

Tanner,

included

ethers

in

of
chief-justice

No

its meet

made

to

lieving their society to


the reproof. Mooney
and

1799.

Roman

General, and

denounced

Washington

Democratic

in

of

appointed

its

most

societies,"in consequence
resistance

bar

who
English
of
settled
in
At
the
Maryland.
age
of the
member
a
twenty-three he was
Senator
State
Maryland Assembly; was
in
1816, and
attorney-general of Mary

family

TAMMANY

the

to

(q. v.), and

was

an

He

the

slave-system.

D.

C., Oct. 12, 1864.

BENJAMIN,

engraver;

born

in

27, 1775; removed


City, March
his
to Philadelphia,Pa., in 1799, and with
brother
a
map-publishing
Henry founded

in

adhered
5

York

TANNER"
He

establishment.

prise

Co., in

"

Kearny

he

draft

and

blank-check-note
His

and

missioner

Vallance.
this

Later

1816.

bank-

the

of Tanner,

abandoned

was

founded

also

house

engraving

note

TAPPAN

enter-

founded

Tanner, JOHN, captive; born in KenHis father laid out


a
tucky about 1780.
farm
of the
mouth
at the
Big Miami

publishing

con-

include

engravings

studied

Western

theology
Theological Seminary; was

of

Christian

Dec.

25,
the

1835;

founded

years;

Episcopal
editor

the

four

He

bishop in 1888.
The
Origin of
Holy Writ; The

the

troit, where
ed

Negro;

Narrative

New

lived

in

Tanoan

tered

What?

then

visit-

employed

the

was

of

author

Indians.

the

among

Indians,
Indians

in

the

He

family of North
widely scat-

that

middle

and

were

of

sixteenth

the

divided

were

which
groups
the
Spanish

City

and

brother

was

1847.

American

in

S., cartographer ; born


of
in 1786; brother

HENRY

York

Net-no-

to

He

AdCaptivity and
Tanner
during Thirty

John

of

tury,

Tanner,

after

the

of

Residence

in

died

his

met

family.
interpreter.He

an

Tears*

etc.

in

he

He

ventures

was

Negro

Solomon:

of

Color

his

as

publications include
The

sold

was

Indian.

old

years

Indian, and

captivity
thirty years, becoming so
life that
to Indian
thoroughly accustomed
he forgot his own
language. He engaged
in warlike
Misexpeditions and married
kwa-bun-o-kwa
("the Red
Sky of the
Morning").
Subsequently he went to De-

ordained

was

Ottawa

an

six

was

for

editor

he

detention

years'

kwa,

Methodist

African

years.
His

two

sixteen

Review, of which

Church

for

for

Recorder

When
John
River, O.
was
captured by an

he

the

in

On resignpension attor-

ney.
a

Apotheosis
Perry's Victory on Lake
of Washington;
Launch
of the
Erie, Sept. 10, 1813; The
Steam
Macdonough's
Frigate Fulton;
Victory on Lake
Champlain, and Defeat of
the British
Army at Plattsburg by General
McComb,
Sept. 11, 1814; The Surrender
America
at
of Cormvallis
Torktown;
Guided
by Wisdom, etc. He died in BaltiMd., Nov. 14, 1848.
more,
TUCKER, clergyman;
Tanner, BENJAMIN
born of African
parents in Pittsburg, Pa.,
cern.

in 1889.

of Pensions

ing this office he became

received

into

distinct

discoverers

cen-

several
from

names

and

conquerors.
the
valley

Benjamin Tanner; settled in Philadelphia They occupied nearly all of


of the Rio Grande
del Norte, a stretch of
York
in
to New
early in life; returned
include
the New
1850.
His maps
Ameri230 miles
approximately
long by
country
Atlas; The World; Map of the United
of Mexico; Map
of Philadelphia;
and
States
Map
of the United
of Amer-

an

States

tending

He

tea.

also

was

the

of

author

United
in
the
Surveys
Missisthe
Valley of
Travelsippi; American
Traveller; Central
Picture
ler; New
of Philadelphia; and
and
Railroads
Description of the Canals
died
in New
States.
He
of the United
the

on

York

listed

private in

Volunteers

Bull

studied
in

the

deputy
was

and

in

took

tax
was

to

law;
New

in

York

collector

legs.

State

in

appointed

was

collector

both

to

under
of

appointed

General

Brooklyn
United

ning

He

of

York, 24
City, and \%

of

New

York

New

River.

Hudson

the

Here,

ANDR"

JOHN

(q. v.)

of

school

education; esin Portland,


subsequently in Montreal, Cancommon

in business

himself

he

the
of

until

remained

War

of

1812.

the

He

College, and

Oberlin

lished

Arthur;

in 1877-85;

professorshipat

logicalSeminary;

Com-

ers

of

the

American

was

one

Tract

Auburn
of

beginthe

was

Lane
Tappan Hall there; endowed
logical Seminary in Cincinnati;

post

became

States

founder

1866;
a

Custom-house;

of

The

hanged as a British spy.


Tappan, ARTHUR, philanthropist; born
Northampton, Mass., May 22, 1786; re

Me., and
ada, where

cor-

battle

village

of

2, 1780, MAJ.

tablished

York

promoted

Oct.

ceived

en-

second

lost

native

New

87th

was

the

there

his

west

in

re-

education;

the

1861;

part
and

Run,

returned

school

common

as

poral;

N.

miles

in

attorney; born
Y., April 4, 1844;

Mexico.

INDIANS.

TANOAN
a

north

was

JAMES,

Richmondville,
ceived

Tappan,

in 1858.

City
Tanner,

See

miles

on

of

ex-

Mexico

of Isleta, in New

Taos.

of the

miles

120

of New

Mexico, contains
about
1,000.
largest population,

the

Recent

States; View

miles, and

100

forty miles

within

within

to

Pueblo

Memoir

of

width

extreme

can

the

erected
TheoestabTheofound-

Society;

and

TAPPAN"
established

his brother

with

of
Emancipator

president
Society,
1840

manifested

by

later years
tile agency
tablished.

his

which

Arthur

and

the

the

became

he

1833

he

suffered

mercantile
in

died

He

Conn.,
of

in

violence.

removed

his brother

He

in

agency

N.

tain

of

in-

for

INCREASE

the
country,
21,
Y., June

graduated at
theology and

the

Conn.,
College in 1839
became
pastor of

later

1844;
American

The

tariff is

levied

tax

of Gibraltar.

in the United

States

Elizabeth

since used

United

as

States

The

before

From

the

the

of

revenue.

tariff is for

im-

this

Madison,

dates

tariff

First

the

April 8,
legislation

States,

first tariff act, to eonpasses


in force until June, 1796, combining

as

Act

collection

twelve

of

duties.

lie within

trict to

on

va-

per
ex-

all articles

months, except dis-

Each

collection

State.

Providing

collectors,deputy collectors,naval

disfor

officers,

weighers, measurers,
gaugers,
surveyors,
and
duties to be
inspectors. Ad valorem
estimated

the

reign of

actual

and

In

of duties,

cent,

ad

8%
drawback,

rate, with

valorem

and
an

than
spirits other
brandy and
signed by Washington
July 4, 1789
of Congress passed to regulate the

geneva,

used

from

ad

tilled

upon

prohibitory,

were
source

word

adopted

was

English tariffs,which
Queen

James

cept
per
exported within

(especially)imports.
duty
at
rulers
early collected by Moslem
the
the
Spanish port Tarifa, whence
modern
on
name,
goods passing through
Strait

taxing

Representatives of

United

was

the

of

House

cent,

or

States

Congress

Race

Tariff.

exports

other
for

for the support of the government,


discharge of debts of the United

the

tinue

the

or

the

the

measure

CHRONOLOGY.

Mass., in
secretary of the

made

general import

studied

Position
Occupied in History
of Ham;
Life of Israel Putin
the
Continental
Major-General
nam,
Army ; Sir Walter
Raleigh and His Colony
in
America, etc. He died in West
Newton,
Mass., May 3, 1888.

by

Congre-

Framingham,

in

was

and

rum

them

articles
College and Education
Society specificduties on some
His
lorem
on
publications include The
others, equivalent to

Boston.

Curse,

"

in the

11, 1815;

on

by

council

except
ot
government

The

enacted

same.

1789.

born

author;

Feb.

Yale

gational church

of

NILES,

Windsor,

East

import tax
unloading

an

forbade

Congress, by

Tarbox,

the

1661

States, and the encouragement and protection of manufactures,"


introduced
in
was

the

1873.

in

the

ports,

after

soon

the

to

codfish

and

In

imposts, provided

did

times

established

and

Brooklyn,

In
the

was

West

1668.
Under
the confedtax, November,
eration, the Continental
Congress made
unsuccessful
numerous
attempts to induce
to join in an
the States
import tax for
the
common
treasury, only succeeding in
securing, in 1786, an agreement from New
States
York, granting to the United
cer-

Later

various

furs

on

appointed ports.

at

im-

on

Dutch

reference

7, 1629.

and

the

provided for
duties, and
specific

import
levied

Virginia laid

sugar,

taxation

of

Netherlands

Massachusetts

consequence

at

and
were

United

American

of

with

New

of June

act

common

1814.

with

in

the firm

from

rates

es-

importing trade.
deeply interested in

personal

withdrew

of

himself

in the crisis of 1837, and

volved

first

cotton;

his brother

and

Company

of the

most

systems

colony

of the

adoption

first acts

India

Northampton,

in

of

anti-slaverymovement,
which

had
The

his

works
calico-print

in 1827, and

in

engaged

in

in

manufacture
York

to New

colonies

the

brother

received

the

Constitution

export

Lewis

Haven,

brother

interested

Before

States

mercan-

established

his

with

became

he

with
brother

born

23, 1788;

education;

business

acter.

in

during

merchant;

Tappan;

school

slavery
$1,000 a

of

July 23, 1865.


LEWIS,
Tappan,
Mass., May

and

in New

died

He

first

towards

members

Union;

connected

was

protection; there are


no
prohibitory
except on chiccory,shoddy, doctored wines, and
few articles of like chara
duties

withdrew

but

and

The

aggressive spirit ports.

the

many

the

and

churches

the

Anti

years,
of

account

on

was

contributed

he

several

for

month

and

American

the

which

to

1828

He

1833.

in

of

York

the New

in

Commerce

Journal

TARIFF

of

Cape

the

and

10

Duties

revenue

by

cost

Good

20

adding

thereof

Hope

if
or

per

cent,

to

the

imported from the


place beyond,
any

per cent, if from any other country.


to be paid in cash if uncjer $50; if

TARIFF

over,

might

four

to

discount

Act

be secured

Island

from

88

cent,

becomes

8, and

Act

Tariff

to

of

act

duties

Additional

5-7, 1794
molasses, and
March
3, 1797

June
sugar,

increased

Duty
by

increased

salt

on

refined

and

particularly tobacco, snuff,


by acts of
"ugar,
Tariff
brown
on

from

12

to

imposed

molasses,

Two

per

duty

sales

per

April 20, 1818


Congress for

in

bills

and

fail to be-

debated, but

1819-22

the auctioneer

gave

by

bonds

they

bill with

the
passes
The
Senate
House

House

by

adds

rejects.

valorem

passes

Senate

immediately
bring, is rembelegislation,which
of

March

1,

of

vote

107

The

25

1823

37

per

weeks,
102.

to

which

amendments

is

difference

of

by

in act

rate
of
average
of ten
debate
a

committee

by

and

would

concluded

and

duties, after

cent,

States, underinvoice, for which

the

deterrent

1818

foreigners

the United

in

what

which

by

system,
to

in

to

importations, to
imports, and to colon

of

shipped goods
valuing them
for

bar

on

ton

drawbacks,

in cash

Auction

13, 1800

ad

cent,

$15

oottons

laws

come

Tariff

have

as

May

per cent
one-half
and

10

on

articles

such

and

and

the

raising

of

auction

tax

lect duties

gan

2, 1799
wines,

March
duties

on

of reduc-

time

woollens

credits

long

edied

20

act of

Additional

by 25 to 7, and
April 27, 1816

introduced

abolition

sold

July 8, 1797
act of Congress for takFirst elaborate
ing possession of arriving merchandise,
and levying and collectingduties

"ents

sugar,

1826, and
from
.$9 to

shorten

Aug. 10, 1790


equal 13%
per
May 2, 1792
levied
on
imports,

raised

rate

ccnt., by

paid

until

the

rate

valorem

tariff

Resolutions

July 4, 1789, repealed,and new


enacted
raising duties to equal an
ad

Senate

passed deferring the


of

iron

to

the

law

14, 1790

June

cent,

54, and

to

tion

of

per

tea

per

Carolina, Feb.

North

Rhode

11

run

10

prompt payment
July 31, 1789
duties
on
importations exlaying
to

law

to

with

for

tended

Act

bond

by

months,

twelve

the

settled

conference, and
to

bill

22, approved

May 22, 1824


importations in American
National
convention, called by the Pennvessels,and 10 per cent, in foreign vessels,
of
in addition
to existing rates, for a fund
sylvania Society for the Promotion
Harat
and
Mechanic
and
Manufactures
Arts
to protect commerce
seamen
against
in favor
of
the Barbary
commonly called the risburg, adopts resolutions
powers,
March
fund"
Mediterranean
more
27, 1804
protectionon iron, steel,glass,wool,
100
All tariff duties increased
July 30, 1827
hemp
per cent., woollens, and
of
recommendation
Tariff bill,based
on
and
10 per cent, additional
on
goods imin ConJuly 1, 1812 Harrisburg convention, introduced
ported in foreign ships
imposed

all

on

'*

Double

duties

war

30, 1816, and

duty
shall
A.

of
be

day

per
formed

13, 1816

on

most

bill

opposed by

of the

and

Calhoun,

and

provisionswas
of

goods.

and

imports

and

tested, and

the
Act

Mr.

supported by
Lowndes.
one

tax

passes

Among
gradual

on

cotton

and

the

House

by

to

the

"

21, and
19, 1828
Tariff

of

North

Alabama
of

Carolina

Carolina
and

Congress

to

also

pro-

Georgia denied
lay duties for

on
coffee, cocoa,
by act of May 20; on

Duties
duced

other

salt

by act.
Secretary

reduc-

vote

26

protested
unconstitutional, oppressive,
South

as

power

Clay,

woollen
a

passed by

15;

as

rate,

debated

is

protection.]

by John

Messrs.

the

for

and

May

known

unjust.

the

12, 1816

Webster

States, and

Eastern

Randolph,

tion

and

March

tonnage
Tariff

ways

on

duties

regulate

to

means

committee

the

to

per

Webster,

91; Senate,

31, 1828

cent,

May

Abominations."

Carolina, reports against it

of South

Lowndes,

bill from

to

[This became

duties
Feb.

Mr.

March

from

the

41

Daniel

by

Treasury, House, 109


subject of a approved

Secretary of
Congress on the
of increased

tariff, with

favored

5, 1816

Feb.

Jan.

gress
New

tariff

new

J. Dallas,

reports to
general tariff

June

additional

an

until

cent,

42

until

continued
that

after

his

of

in
8

the

report, advocates

place

of

"

tea

Treasury
"home"

foreign," the

re-

and

29, 1830

May

.-

of

and

molasses

Ingham,

in

valuation
current

value

TABIFP
of

in

convention
Oct.

York

New

meets

Sept. 30,

Philadelphia
National
protection

the
1830

15,

convention

-trade

free

be

to

Dec.

value

National
in

States

United

the

in

goods

dutiable

1831

meets
1831

26,

McDuffie, representative from


George
committee
on
South
Carolina, from
ways
and
reports a bill proposing ad
means,

"Force
force

bill"

"Bloody bill," to enof duties, passed by

or

collection

the

Congress

March

Nullification

acts

Carolina

March

league formed

Home

to

1833

2,

South

repealed by
18,

agitate for

duties

1833

high
1841

rate
general tariff act, with average
33 per
of duty about
cent., and dropping
the
for
home
duties
revenue
valorem
principle of
valuation," is
only
Feb.
passed
8, 1832
Sept. 11, 1841
Tariff law
John
passed containing the muchreports a bill re
Quincy Adams
controverted
and
similitude
and
act
of
the
1828,
litigated
reducing
pealing
section
20 )
duties on
(sec.
coarse
woollens, iron, etc.
imposing duties on
A

"

"

"

23, 1832

May

retaining the protective feat


of the tariff of 1828, but
reducing
taxes, is reported. It
abolishing many

non-enumerated
similar

articles

which

be

may

in material,

quality,texture, or use
to any
article. .Aug. 30, 1842
enumerated
ures
Tariff bill passes
the House
or
by a vote
of
114
the Senate
increased
to 95, and
tax
reduced
the
that
on
iron,
by the cast
made
wools
woollens,
some
raw
free, ing vote of the Vice-President, George M.
on
Dallas.
Duties
of
and
left cotton
Average rate of duty 25%
unchanged.
per
cent
less than
$200 to be paid in cash without
July 30, 1846
Warehouse
established
to
effect March
take
3,
system
discount, law
by act
of Congress
1833; approved
Aug. 6, 1846
July 14, 1832
Robert
J. Walker
introduces
Carolina
South
the
Representatives from
sys
of private bonded
tem
the subject of the
on
warehouses, which
publish an address
is confirmed
tariff,urging resistance
by act of Congress
July 15, 1832
Tariff

bill

....

Convention

calls

19, and

Nov.
declare

hibit
Feb.

tariff

the

and

null

law

Secretary

President
the

Mr.

reduction

of

requirements

of

years

to

duties

Dec.
from

the

reports

about

11, 1832

bill

in

providing
the

and

its

destruction
to

arrest

of

tranquillityto
for

to

the
war

the

be

"

8,

1833

introduced

12,

1833

Democratic

Tariff

act

passed lowering

nation."

1854

plat

June

about

Cincin

6,

the

1856

average
3, 1857

in the House
one-third, introduced
Merrill, passed and
approved,
2, 1861; goes into effect

Mr.

by
March

tariff

April 1, 1861
raising duties
Aug. 5, 1861

act

passed
Act

passed

coffee, and
Act

de

rarily

to

restore

28,
the
at

party

nati

bill

prevent the
politicalsystem, and
and

in

the

course

Verplanck's
Clay's, which

Mr.

object
civil

Mr.

out

substitutes

clares

bill"
Feb.

strikes

declared

of

Amended
Jan.

House

on

one-half

Tariff

"Compromise
by Mr. Clay

form

policy

duty to about 20 per cent. .March


Convention
at
Republican
Chicago
report,
a
to the
adopts
protective-tariff
platform
5, 1832
May 17, 1860
Tariff
to
bill, raising the tariff of 1857
en

committee

duties

of

pro
after

March
Free-trade

24, 1832
his

....

laws

and
means,
ways
for the reduction

to

intention

proclaims

1828

there

Dec.

revenue

Verplanck,

of two

duties

passed..Nov.
Treasury, in

of the

recommends

and

1824

State, and

of

C..

legislatureto

of

that

collection

S.

Columbia,
the

on

acts

in

void

the

1, 1833;

force

in

meets

Act
frauds

increasing

tariff

sugar

passed raising

tariff

duties

July
passed

"to

prevent
revenue,"

the
upon
provides that all invoices
peace
It provides made
in triplicate,one
to
and

on
tea,
24, 1861

Dec.

tempo

14,

and

1862

punish

etc., which
of
be

goods
given

be
the

in duties, and
for
gradual reduction
producing them, a second filed in
person
valuation," all duties to be paid the office of the consular
officer nearest
in cash.
Passed
third
the
by vote of 118 to 84 in the place of shipment, and
the House, and 29 to 16 in the Senate, and
transmitted
to the collector at the port of

"

home

approved

March

2, 1833

entry

March

3,

1863

TARIFF
resolution

Joint

duties

all

raising

50

al

of

duty

10

cent,

per

goods

on

from

exsixty days, afterwards


Hope )
places west of the Cape of Good
Dec. 23, 1882
ninety days
April 29, 1864
May 4, and amended
revision
of
is
General
Senate
tariff, increasing
reports a tariff bill which
1864
June
for
Jan.
House
duties
called
10;
consideration,
30,
passed
up

for

per cent,
to
tended

Bill

tariff

increasing

passed

rates,

amended..

3, 1865, and

July 28, 1866


of goods desTransportation in bond
tined for Canada
or
Mexico, through the
United
States, provided for by act of
July 28, 1866

March

Convention

woollen

of

manufacturers

reported by

and
means
ways
bills discussed
both

mittee, Jan.

16;

amended

several

for

committee

weeks;
Feb.

meets,

corn-

an^

conference

after

28;

some

reappointments of memMarch
2, accepted in the
bers, reports,
12.30
March
Senate,
3, by 32 to
A.M.,
resignations and

at 5.30
duties.
P.M.,
They 31 votes, and in the House
March
3, by 152 to 116 votes, and signed
wool-growers, and
law
before
tariff which
President
becomes
a
a
adjournment,
by by the
arrange
which
after midnight. .March
of
March
act
3, 1883
2, 1867
was
into
A
bill
reduce
and
ore
import duties and
Duty on
copper
copper
war-tariff
Feb. 24, 1869
creased
taxes," introduced
by Mr. Morby act of
in
is
the
First law distinctlyauthorizing the apHouse, March
rison,
reported
159
to 155
of
defeated
and
vote
treasof
the
of
11,
by
special agents
pointment
in
15, 1884
customs
the
service,
April
passed
ury
at

ask

bill

Syracuse

form

increased

alliance

an

with

"

12, 1870

May

Following

general

internal

to reduce

act

an

on

bill to
Mr.

by

tion

and

and

coffee

the

collection

July 1, 1872, by act of. .May 1, 1872


act
passed reducing duties on
imports and internal taxes. .June 6, 1872
to informers
All provision moieties
repealed, and the proceeds of all fines, penalties,and forfeitures to be paid into the

the

House

removed

Duties

from

tea

after

General

treasury, by
Tariff

of

act

by

of

act

Congress
8, 1875

Feb.
Salts
the

sulphate

and

of

free-list

quinine put on
July 1, 1879

of
creating a tariff commission
civilians
appointed by the President
Act

the

sections

different

visit

interest

of

tariff

of

nine
to

in

the

country
report

revision

measure

by

the

and

ways

bill

April 17,

is

of

by vote

House

and

May

15, 1882

149

Senate

[Referred in the
committee, by whom
failed

pared, and
"

bill
to

to

21, 1888

to

become

equalize duties
the

reduce

by

was

pre-

law.]

imports
upon
of the
gov-

revenue

eminent," introduced
ley, Jr., of Ohio

McKinley
approved
McKinley

finance

the

to

substitute

14

to

July

and

1888

for discussion,
up
until July 19, and

taken

debated

and

the

passes

corn-

means

April 2,

mittee
Mills

to

in
revenue," introduced
Roger Q. Mills, of Texas,

of

of

chairman

taxa-

relation

in

laws

1886

17,

reduce

to

22, 1874

June

amended

law

June
"

simplify the

1870

law

is lost

140

new

July 14,

beeomes

tariff taxes, introduced


by vote of the

reduce

Morrison,

tariff, House, 157 to


Mills
bill, a
protective features,

taxes, etc., a

of the

retaining most

debate

William

McKin-

April 16, 1890


Administration

Customs

June

act

10, 1890

the House,
tariff bill passes
John
committee
to
Senate
21; referred
Oliver, Jr., May
23; reported to the
on
finance, May
Austin
Ambler, Robert
M. Garland, Jacob
June
with
18; passSenate
amendments,
DunH. Underwood,
W.
P. Porter, John

commission,

Tariff

president,Henry

L. Hayes,

William
Ebbitt

H.

Report
Congress

means

A"t

W.

Boetler, and

R.

organizes
Washington, D. C.,
July 6,

at

McMahon,

House,
of

to

Alexander

F. Kenner,

can

consisting of

tariff
and

committee

to

Dec.

passed repealing section


Statutes (levying an

the Revised

1882

submitted

commission
referred

the

ways

4,
2510

and

es

Senate

Sept. 10;

amendments,

with

conference

reported by
House,
Sept. 26;

committee

approved by

the

to

Presi-

dent, Oct. 1, and takes effect Oct. 6, 1890


Tariff (Wilson) bill made
public
Nov. 27, 1893
Internal

1882

come-tax

of

revenue

bill containing the

reported to

the

Jan.

addition10

in-

House

24, 1894

LEGISLATION

TARIFF
Tariff

with

bill

income

passes
Senate

Populists), 34 nays
Populists,
(thirty-one Republicans, two
D.

Democrat,

one

mittee
the

is

House

to the

Becomes

Aug.
Aug.

President
without

law

United

the

1894

since

of

The

13,

The

nation.

has

of

been

1819

in the
The

settled
The

United

States

question

tional

policy

one

37
and

revenue

of
was

of

one

from

in

the

tariff

amend
act

ap
1897

1828

tions.

first and

bitter

the

of

goods,
debate

controversy,

eccentricities, re
Tariff

of the

Opposition
in the

the

act
was

was

was

name

rate

average

goods, cotton
subjects of

various

its

towards

protectionist,but
passed which, on ac-

1824

tariff

of

count

of

in

measure

itself in the

the

early stages

tariff

na-

sufficient
the

amend

reported

movement

22, in which

ceived

given.

raising a

twentyJuly 7, 1897

July 24,

the

1824

Woollen
per cent.
iron
main
were

The

tariff

is here

Senate

attempted

an

By

of May

pobeen

regard to the
struggle

in

history of the

in

higher protection showed

formation
of

invariably
party has almost
by a revision of the tariff. Gradually through all these changes the two
to have
parties have come
great national
rather

nays,

President

the

came

1820.

followed

tariff.

28

ments;

proved by

870

about

LEGISLATION

question

the very
overthrow

31, 1897

with

committee

conference

122

to

ayes

favorably on
majority of Senate
report agreed to; and

17, 1894

litical

Senate

the

passes

ments;

signature
Aug. 27, 1894

States

205

voting

not

March
Bill

his

Legislation.
in

disputed point
the

nays,

1894

TARIFF
Tariff

House,

38
amendments,
com
ayes,
disagreeing, a conference
compels three not voting
appointed; the Senate
non-concurred
House
to adopt its amendments

Bill sent

tariffs

the

passes

twenty-seven

on

19, 1897

March

means

increased

rates

July 5,
House

Bill

with

House

the

amendments;

Senate

633

in

bill received

Tariff

1896

7,

committee

from

reported

and

on

tariff

new

Dec.

ways

1894

July 3,

Hill)

B.

introduces

means,

Measure

two

Democrats,

seven

committee

of the

Dingley,

and

1, 1894
ways
yeas (thirty- bill

.Feb.

tariff bill,39

passes

Chairman

attached

tax

140.

to

204

the House,

this

to

led

South, and

of Abominaact
to

was

very
nulli-

the

discussed
law was
modified
The
by the fication movement.
important matters
in 1832, and
The
further
in 1833
the
tariff,which
was
com
Congress of 1789.
by
nomipassed on July 4 of that year, was
promise tariff promoted by Henry Clay,
to be gradually re
were
nally protective. Specific duties
By this act duties were
Parties
had
placed on
spirits and fermented
liquors, duced to 20 per cent.
again
other articles, crystallized;protection was
a
Whig docsugar, coffee,tea, and some
while the remaining mass
of imports bore
internal
trine, together with
improvead valorem
duties averaging about
See AMERICAN
SYSTEM.
Sy2 per ments.
cent.
This
tariff of
1789
revived
was
largely
High protection was
by the
most

the

work

in the

or

measure,

The

by

and

regime
the

United

of

the

Great

of

States

war

the

was

duties, which
25

per

cent.

restrictive

1812,

in

actions
the

embargo,
was

to

of

Soon

after

the

named

followed

make

dependent

more

of

Napole-

on

the
itself

1842,

case

Shortly

of cotton
after

the

reached

panic

of

33

after

was

about

country

From

which

the

per

cent.

But

the

reduced
to

of

the

enacted
11

Treas-

1857, when,
the
20

rate

per

tariff.

revenue

after

and
means
ways
in 1861, haying

the

was

cent,
was

The

chairman

committee,
a

the

tariff,

rate
average
this law
under

about

to

aver-

1846

1861, accordingly,there

to
a
approach
Morrill
tariff,named
an

The

overflowing revenue,

1846

in

Secretary of the

per cent., and


until
continued

25

duties

Walker

low

the

J. Walker.

the

an

in

passed

Robert

still further

April 27, 1816, was


increase
of manufacturing
in
shown
the
increasing

in the

ury,

with

close of

tariff of

fclopted. The
interests

Britain

for manufactures.
the

tariff

not

was

republic a party aged about


vital question.
Democrats

of the

and

War

Protection

of the

indeed

effect

France
onic

of Madison.

early years

was

protection char-

LEGISLATION

TARIFF

broke
and wool, reducthe Ciril War
out; expenses
provided for free lumber
and
abolition
of specific
government enormously increased ; in tion on -pig-iron,
duties
cottons.
The
1862
Democrats
act was
on
were
a
stringent internal revenue
practicallyunited on this side, and
passed. As the war
developed, all finan- now
of 169
recorded
cial experiments were
votes
were
tried, taxes on in- only 4 out
bill.
the
failed
in
It
the
and
comes
against
corporation receipts,on manuRepub-

acter;
of

inconvertible

factures, also loans, and


in

rency;
which
tion

produced

From

in

purely

revenue

in 1872

tea

1872

internal-

to

1867.

the

mainly
reforming

In

articles
coffee

"

not

was

form

on

received

This

10

per

cent,

introduced

in

1876

the

campaign

made

cans

some

of
of

use

the

1880

and

Republi-

protection,and

claimed, of

President
fixed

duties

coffee, and

hides

laid

ways

of

meas-

tariff,

and

means

act, passed October,


features

to

are

be

influence

the bill

when

was

provisions
by proclamation imthese

By

could

the

on

sugar,
other

from

wool, tea,
countries,

duties

imposed by such counproducts shall be


Duties
were
accordingly

American

on

unjust.
imports

on

McKinley

of the

inserted

pose

deemed
a

this

largely,it is
Secretary Elaine, reciprocity
the

the

whenever

Con-

revision

of the

this

the

As

and

made,

Senate.

the

tries

the

WINFIELD
candidate, GEN.
HANCOCK
(q. v. ), referred to it as

Under

before

Democratic
SCOTT

Republican
was

following

provisionswere

re-

1878.
In

Of

issue, and

successful.

were

also
was
gress
the tariff laws

noted.

main

the

was

1890, the

Party

these measures,
upon
tariffs had
been passed

were

and

committee.

10

reduction.

revoked, but the tariff


generally discussed, although re-

bills

tariff

year the election


with
Cleveland

opposing champions of
protection respectively,

as

reform

admitted

in 1875

was

Harrison

Republicans

drawn

not

and

same

occurred,

bore the name


ure
lowered, and
free, from the chairman

were
were

"

horizontal

The

President

The

tariff

the

Senate.

for

tariff

reve-

duties

the

1870

although the war


by the Republicans.
duction

the

protective duties

per cent.
lines were

of

abolished, but

were

and

lican

cur-

enacted

was

of protec-

towards

movement

failed

bill

high measure
a
large amount

1866

taxes

revenue

and

tariff

accorded

and

nue.

1864

from

Haiti,

Venezuela,

reciprocity treaties were


Republicans took and Colombia;
Brazil, San
negotiated with
Domingo,
seriously; a tariff commisup the matter
sion was
Rico, Jamaica, Barbaappointed, and in 1883 an act Cuba, and Porto
was
was
distinctly does, Trinidad, British Guiana, and sevpassed; this measure
made
in eral States of Central
reductions
were
America; also some
protective;some
with
made
were
wool, iron, etc., and the duty on steel rails reciprocityarrangements
imreduced
from
$28 to $17. Almost
was
Germany and France.
the reOther
important features were
gained control
mediately the Democrats
mission
of the duty on sugar, a general inof the House.
Morrison
bill of 1884
The
in wool
and
horizontal
reduction
of 20
woollen
crease
goods, dress
proposed a
knit
and
with
free
iron
coal,
goods,
goods, linen, plush, velvets,
ore,
per cent.,
lumber.
It was
protected; the toopposed by the Republi- etc. ; tin plates were
local issue.

In

the

1882

"

"

and

cans

defeated,

crats

antagonized

other

low-tariff

fallen to

of

in

bacco

Demo-

1886

an-

crease

fate, but

same

Democrats

crease

had

the

tax

barley,

on

free

It

list.

raised

as

eggs,

On
a

the

was

potatoes,

articles,and

some

169; free wool, salt, regarded

offered.

there

reduced;

was

on

whole

an

in-

de-

additions
the

act

to
was

high protective measure,


Republican opposi-

considerable

A few
tion, especiallyin the Northwest.
protective contest entered
of
met
election
weeks
later
the
The
1884
a
party
Republican
phase.
in the elections throughout the
the tariff; Waterloo
turned
on
distinctively
the

its last

had

not

but

in

the

President

cause

the

message
devoted
his

surplus in

of tariff reform

GBOVEB).
cratic

December

Cleveland

entirelyto
the

the

opposing

out
were

1887

In
on

26

lumber

and

Again

bill met

of

number

the

of 192

out

41

as

it.

House

The

passed

country, and

1887

the

(see CLEVELAND,
Mills

the

tariff.

In

this
1893

result
the

was

ascribed

Democrats,

to

having

and
regained possessionof the executive
both
branches
of Congress, prepared to
Clevedeal with
the question. President
land
elected in 1892
was
largely on this

the treasury and

following year
the

of

attention

Demo-

bill,which
12

LEGISLATION

TABIPP

the

Wilson
of

son,

the

vided

for

reduction

cases,

and

of

the

1893, and

On

list, including wool.

free

worthy:
A
bounty

prosome

additions

notable

some

in

duties

of

authorized

to

Feb.

provisionsof the McKinley


following were
especially note-

other

Among
law, the

to

presented

close of

the

commit-

means

associates, was

at

House

and

ways

his

tee, and
the

molasses, coffee, tea, and


sugar,
upon
hides, the product of or exportedfrom such
designated country.

party platform had conprincipleof protection. The


Wilby Chairman
bill, framed
the

issue, and
demned

1, United

of

cents

for all sugar

pound

per

was

within
grown
not
less than

States, testing

the
90"

all sugars
by the polariscope; and upon
and
90"
less than
less
than
not
Sixteen
Democrats
against testing
to 140.
cents
It
of
a
bill.
pound.
80",
the
bounty
1%
per
estimated
that
this provision would
bill failed to provide sumWilson
was
The
annual
an
cause
the election of Mecient revenue.
After
expenditure of $7,000,000,
a
Republican Congress in based upon the annual production of sugar
Kinley and

1894, it passed the House

by

of 204

vote

voted

1896,

strong effort

at

was

made

once

the time

at

to

bill,

of the

of the passage

packages or boxes containing articles


of
bill
somewhat
This
reimported into
foreign merchandise
Dingley bill.
United
must
marked
the
States
be
the
sembles
the McKinley
plainly
bill, although
excessive,
with
of
the
the
name
not
duties
or
as
were
country
stamped
proposed
The Ding- in which
the articles originated,
restored.
The duty on wool was
When
materials
have
been
opposition, but
foreign raw
ley bill met with much
into finished products in this counwas
passed at the close of July, 1897. made
This was
Senators, try and exported, 99 per cent, of the duchieflydue to Western
pass

another

who

refused

tariff

plans

Wilson

tariff

its free- wool


of

the

law

was

would

provision,while

as

was

Section

follows

3. With
trade

one

to

secure

and

ever

be

often

so

re-

satisfied

the

that

and

government
exporting

country producing
molasses, coffee, tea, and
uncured, or any of such
duties

other

or

cultural

States, which
tion

of

and
deem

in view

sugars,

of the

free introduc-

molasses,
sugar,
States
into the United

he

reciprocallyunequal

and

reasonable, he

about

shall

have

the

power,

On

about

cents

for

courage
States

the

Representativesby
The
from

1893

not

as

lieved
of

un-

was

bill to

of

introduced

was

Maine.

government

industries

the
"

into

Nelson

treasury

in

the

"provide
to

the

United

en-

of

House

Dingley, Jr., of

had

since

suffered
the

finances

the

growing

the

that

system
currency
it should
be.
Many

perfect as
the aggravating

sufficient revenue,

raising all

per
is

and

the

yearly deficits,and
further
deranged by

framed

This

laws,

18, 1897,

March

revenue

may
and

re-

imposed

4 cents

internal-revenue

the agri- had been


upon
conviction
of the United

coffee, tea,

be

to

any

licenses

and

from

tobacco

products

such

hides

of

and
hides, raw
articles, impose

exactions

other

or

shall

President

the

as

was

pound
per pound.
the only important change made

producing

ciprocal
for this purthe following articles, and
after
and
July 1, 1892, whenpose, on

materials

raw

specialtaxes

factured

countries

such

on

of tobacco, cigars,
the manufacture
upon
and snuff, and upon
dealers in them, were
abolished, thus reducing the tax on manuto

view

with

paid

All

for

leading features of the McKinley


its reciprocityclause, the text

of which

ties

funded.

support

chieflynoted

was

(raw)

All

the

Republican tariff

the

that

party
legislation.

free-silver
The

aid

to

unless

entitled

measure,

cause

to

be

and

the

new

produce this
existingduties to
to

was

bewant

tariff

By

revenue.

the

rates

col-

duty, to suspend, by procla- lected under the law of 1890, and by subof artieffect the
provisions of jecting to duties a large number
materials
of
free
the
introduction
to
raw
cles,
industry, imported
relating

it shall be his
mation
this
of

to

act

that

molasses, coffee, tea, and


sugar,
hides, the production of such country, for

free under

such

such

time

such

case

as

he

and

duties shall be

framer

the

of the

laws

of
scheme
just; and in new
revenue
suspension annual
during such
levied,collected,and paid $50,000,000 more
shall

deem

13

of 1890

measure

duties

and

estimated
would

1894, the
that

produce

of $273,500,000,
had
been
than

or

the
an

nearly

obtained

TARIFF
from

in any

customs

The

one

debate, and

without

since

year

1867.

the

House,

almost

the

Senate

finance

passed

measure

LEGISLATION

particularsfrom
ter

of

signature
1897.

This

tailed

the

two

the

bill received

subject

to

Section

of

of

directed

ascertain

article

ported

into

ARTICLKS

de

United

States from
This
section

try."

Con

the

effect

effect.

make

States; but
which

the
offer

the

net

the

on

added

United

WHICH

the

decided

of

contiguous
into

come

such

contiguous

was

believed

that

32

into

such

permits

consideration

which

at

similar

in the United
market

States.
"

value

THK

to

exportation

or

the

coun

have

the

not

was

appraising
dutiable
the

RATES

OF

wholesale
is sold

permits

"

home
where

in

July,

im

1897

act

was

im

1890,

the

imposed by

INCREASED

14

still under

of

the

go back
comparison is made

OVER

to

that

THOSE

The
Presi
amend
discus

1909.

intention

WEBK

15, 1909, to

was

the

from

DOTY

sion

This

of

value,

considered

be

March

met

tariff.

As

duty

to

the

to

merchandise
This

to

which

merchandise
States

Taft

dent

amount

in

which,

or

of

Section

take

price

re

by
to

to

imported

manufacture

ficers,in determining the

and

products

indirect, paid by the

or

articles

OS

be

States,

imposing a discriminating
on
foreign goods brought into the
States through Canada.
The Attor

duty

were

would

merchandise,

or

be

to

such

on

shall
United

"

to

was

posed

which
of the

not

imposed by law,
or
goods, wares,

"all

the

463

limited

too

bounty, direct
foreign government
any

as

duties

on

22

ceni^, iii

value
is in doubt."
foreign market
reciprocalagreements. In
Secretary of the Treasury specialsession of Congress called by

the

amount

merchandise
vessels

enumerate

United

the

of any
a

by

the

on

was

for

scope

was

most

foreign products on
be
made
duty may

of

Section

the

countries

or

States

much

the

10

came

framed

sections

concessions

list of

United

to

imposed

was

of

being the production or


foreign country not
any
July 24, the United
States, shall

classes,of which

and

per

made
in United
was
duty. Provision
for reciprocityagreements with
ney-General

manufactures

duction

bodies

on

of

one
ever

first two

nations

adequate

is

extensive

The
gress.
705 articles

such

President

tariff

and

Af

measure.

the

agreement, and

an

the

House

conferences

many

to

the

St^cion

discriminating duty
addition

bill of its own,


a
as
prepared
substitute, differing in many
important

committee

bounty-paying country. By

framers

of

the

the

law

of

to

with

the

act:

OF

THE

ACT

OP

OCT.

1, 1800.

rates

TARIFF

AjmCLM

ON

WHICH

THK

RATES

OK

DUTY

WSBE

LEGISLATION

ISCRKASED

OTER

THOSE

OF

THB

ACT

OF

OCT.

1, 189ft" Continued,

TARLETON"

WHICH

ON

TOE

BATES

OF

DUTY

WBRB

TA-RON-TEE

INCREASED

Of

SIB BANASTRE,
military offiLiverpool,England, Aug. 21,
in" the
purchased a commission

Tarleton,
cer;

born

1754;

in

THOSE

KR

of

ure

OF

THE

ACT

General

OF

late

Lee

1, 1890"

OCT.

in

Continued.

After

1776.

Philadelphia, 1778, he
called
the
commanded
a
cavalry corps
British
Legion," and accompanied the
in May,
troops that captured Charleston
the

evacuation

of

"

1780.

He

was

officers in

ginia,

in

Buford's
"

of

one

active

most

Colonel
Creek.

Waxhaw

at

Vir

and

destroying

1780-81,

regiment

"

Tarleton's

with

Cornwallis's

Carolinas

the

was
quarter
synonymous
of
wholesale
one
butchery. He was

of Cornprisoners at the surrender


He published a history of his cam
in England,
died
He
paign in 1780-81.
the

wallis.

Jan.

See

23, 1833.

Ta-ron-tee,
SKIRMISH
SIR

BANASTRK

ning

army
of the

to America,

(dragoons).
Revolutionary
and

was

concerned

Gen.

AT.

ABBAHAM.

BUFOBD,
Riviere

At
War

the
he
in the

begin

to

low.

came

party,

capt-

that

16

attack
He
who

Fort

sent

William

Maiden,

forward

returned

Tecumseh,

with

Canards,

aux

Hull

tiously moved, July 13, 1812,

TARLETON.

wich
British

or

with
his

from
18

cau

Sand

miles

be

reconnoitring
information

Indians,

had

TATNALL

TARRYTOWN"
been

lying
far

not

forest

ambush

near
Turkey Creek,
Amherstburg, and that the
full of prowling barbarians.

in

from
was

There

were

armed

vessels

Detroit
be

rumors

placed

Hall

his

shore

land

the

ascend

to

ordered

the

near

British

that

about

were

River.

fortified

also

to

cannon

his

and

side.

the

He

camp
Me-

iams,

and

home

and

Irving;
in

and

contains

the

place of Washington
Philipse manor-house, erected
Dutch
church, erected prior to

and

tionary

Wart;

burial

the

1682;

1699;
in

Van

monument

soldiers

of the

the

to

Revolu

vicinity,dedicated

1894.

born
in
WILLIAM,
Tatham,
author;
Arthur
in pursuit of the Indians
in the
Hutton, England, in 1752; settled in Vir
woods, and Colonel Cass pushed on towards
ginia in 1769; served in the Revolutionary
the Ta-ron-tee, as
the Indians
called it, War
colonel
of Virginia cavalry.
as
a
with
280
It is a broad
and
men.
he studied
law
and
deep After the war
was
stream
into the
admitted
to the
bar
in 1784; settled in
flowing through marshes
Detroit
River
about
4 miles
above
Fort
North
Carolina
in 1786; was
in England
in 1796-1805; then returned
Maiden, at Amherstburg, and
then
to the United
was
States.
and
He
the author
of Memorial
approached by a narrow
was
causeway
on

sent

VIEW

spanned by a bridge. At the


detachment
of the bridge was
a

southern

Cass

Tecumseh.

RIVIERE

end

of British
Indians

militia, and

regulars, Canadian
under

AT

marched

up

the

ford, crossed
it, at sunset
the
dashed
and, after a con
upon
enemy,
flict of a few minutes, dispersed them
and
stream

to

drove

them

mission

point
bis

into

to hold

in the

then

was
nearness

denied.
of the

aware

rison

at

Fort

pared

to

attack

forest.

bridge

march

detachment

peril of such
request was

the
the

asked

He
as

upon

Fort

too

weak

per

important

an

Maiden, but
to

face

the

to the fort, and


the
not
Besides, Hull was
real strength of the gar

and

CANARDS.

AUX

on

the

Civil

Government

Military

and

of

Tennessee; An Analysis of the State of


Tracts
Virginia; Two
Relating to the
Canal
Between
Caro
Norfolk and North
for Insulating the Metropolina; Plan
Us ~by Means
of a Navigable Canal, etc.
died in Richmond,
He
Va., Feb. 22, 1819.
officer; born
Tatnall,
JOSIAH, naval
near
Savannah, Ga., Nov. 9, 1796; entered

the

United

the

States

captain in 1850;
and

Constellation,
of

the

He

British

at

1812;
the

Island

under

frigate
repulse

in

Perry
the

to

rose

in the
in

assisted

Craney

served

afterwards

Porter, and

in
navy
first served

1813.
and

Mexican

engaged
He
against Mexico.
and victory entered
Confederate
the
ron-tee was
the first skirmish
service; impro
in the War
the
vised
flotilla known
of 1812-15.
Mosquito
a
as
a
Fleet, and attempted tc defend Port Royal
Tarrytown,
village in Westchester
at
River
the Hudson
Sound
county, N. Y., where
against Dupont. He commanded
destroyed,
as
was
expands and is locallyknown
Tappan Norfolk when the Merrimac
He
Sea.
It was
of the capture of and the Mosquito Fleet at Savannah.
the scene
Andre"
Major John
by Paulding, Will- died in Savannah, Ga., June 14, 1871.
IX."

Maiden,
it.

The

not

was

affair

at

the

pre
Ta-

coast

17

during

on

was

the

war

TAXES

TATTSSIG"
FRANK
WILLIAM,
educator;
Louis, Dec. 28, 1859; gradu-

Taussig,
born
ated

St.

at

Harvard

College

Harvard

History

Silver

Situation

of

He

is the
United

in

AGAINST.

favor

British

Tyranny,
by Dr.

no

of

See

houses

is

one

all the

most

savagely
day. It was

of the

essays
the angry
threats
arguments of the stubborn
of

minister, and

the

aristocracy,which
minds

of the

Johnson

mad

hatred

only the
grotesque

and

Great
of

Britain

the

upon

of Johnson

names

historian, is the

consciences

for

money;
for

pressed sympathy
that

to

time.

for

Gibbon

had

Johnson

write

made

Gib-

of

their

had

both

ex-

Americans

up
written

even

Gibbon

"

Boston

the
the

of

name

declaration

that

to

Boston."
of

presenre

to

Ameri-

oppresdefiance!

from
To

We

do

wait

The

him

its

avowed

their

their

people

of

"

torted

not

put

till he

is

mechanic

for

to decide."

ox."
lines

concede
for

not

love

of

talk that

selves

the

binding obstinacy
more

obdurate."

ings

of

showed
ceed

the

America

re-

with

think

them-

experiment of
it becomes
yet

sneered
of

num-

rattlesnakes
to

before

He
rule

that

in

they multiply

to hasten

em-

that

freedom, he

own

masters

his

assertion

increasing

were

This

"

whom

the

To

fecundity of their
accustomed
disposes men

the

at

teach-

progression
in the

must

which

end

ex-

in

population, and said in derision, with


no
suspicion that he was
uttering a sure
prophecy: "Then, in a
century and a quarter, let the princes of
in their palaces!" That
the earth tremble
sad spectacleof an
old man
was
a
prostiof
the
a
tuting
great intellect,and
powers
weakening the prop of his morality, by
aiming such a malignant but utterly feeble
in nationality strugshaft at his kindred
gling for freedom.
Europe

In

United

the

Qf the

States

federal

taxes, such

excise.

Constitution

and

The

taxes

government

gupport
mainly indirect

as

for
are

customs

gives

Con-

to collect taxes, duties, impower


posts, and excises, to pay the debts and
defence
and
provide for the common
gen"

gress

eral

of

welfare

United

the

ject to restrictions,no
the

tax

to

census.

000,000)
18

calf

an

these

erase

the

to

liberties

own

the

ribaldry. Johnson
shamelessly
his bargain by comparing himself,
he obeyed the commands
of the min-

Americans

direct
the

that
war,

coarse

the

unpardonable malignity he uttered


and
conscious
ponderous sarcasms
sophistries as arguments.
Pointing at Franklin
(then in England) with a sneer, he spoke
of him
master
of mischief, teaching
a
as
the engine of
Congress to put in motion
and
to give the great
politicalelectricity,
To

"

plough ; we
ministry bade

dumb."

With

stroke

the

into the

Taxes.
made

of

resistance

slaves."

bers, wealth, and

beHe
measures.
against the ministerial
silent
time
the
when
at
came
suddenly
Johnson's
and
inditing his coarse
pen was
ribald paragraphs. To them
of a
a writer
stinging epigram alluded in the line,
"What

claim

of

"

the

with

and

barter

the

isters, to

was

bon, the

to

excluded

their

ployer is

employed by the ministry in


this work
of inflaming the passions of the
British people to divert
their
attention
from
the monstrous
injustice they were
their
inflictingupon
fellow-subjects in
America
and
robby oppressing Boston
of its charter, and enbing Massachusetts
its free people absolute
deavoring to make
slaves to a tyrant's will.
The
one
great
blot

of

houses

"Audacious

themselves

when

Americans,

the

heroes

good

they were
heartless, because
unwilling to
insolent
of that the calf had been spared, and

King and venal


passions of the
then poisoning the

were

people of

unreasoning

the

the

leave

exclaimed:

tions, he retorted

appeared early

of the

intensely bitter, and

of

town

exiles, he

words
of
by
Pennsylvania Farmer
insistingthat
Americans
complained only of innova-

the

Johnson

rich

as

"Alas!

the

right

their

country

indignation of the English is like


Scythians,who, returning from

of the

the

To

the

sion, he

Ex-

title of

schemes

It

government.

1775, and

the
Samuel

taxation

the

men."
to

cans

"

written

into

heartlessly said:
Boston
will
only
wiser

leave

willing to

were

wander

found

PROTEST

Taxation

pamphlet

echo

See

FROM.

SAMUEL.

ADAMS,

in

of

States;
States;

TAXATION.

FROM

Taxation,

in

author

they
and

The

Wages and Capital, etc.


Taxation, EXEMPTIONS
EMPTIONS

Economy

United

the

later

1879;

the

College.

Tariff

in

of Political

Professor

made

was

at

in

was

be

laid
The
levied

States," sub-

capitationor other
in proportion
unless

first direct
upon

the

tax

($2,sixteen

TAXES

retailers, sales at auction, carriages,


vellum, parchment, and
paper
of 1861
That
1815, 1816, and 1861.
($20,- after June 30
April 6, 1802
Act
of 1 per
was
000,000)
passed imposing duties
2, 1891.
refunded, March
of
the
cent,
to
sales
auction
of
at
on
According
rulings
"Supreme
merchandise,
to
no
Court, Congress has
levy and 25 per cent, on ships and vessels, on
power
restriction
the
duties
licenses to distillers of spirituous liquors;
on
exports, and
States,
quently

income

an

tax

taxes

the

assessed

not

direct, and

are

to

and

rates

of

States

value

of

levied

are

real

but

upon

and

estate

per-

property. According to the SINGLETAX


by HENRY
(q. v.) theory, advocated
GEORGE
should
(q. v.) and others, taxation
land
be solely on
exclusive
of imvalue,
ent

system

The
of

presis shown

taxation

below:
Duties
in

the

spiritsdistilled withupon
States
from
foreign and

United

home

by

laid

material, March

ties

further

act

an

and

imposing

Execution

of

3, 1791, followed
these

regulating
tax

passed imposing

counted
of

to

duties

by

and

banks,

1813

licenses

on

certain

on

exchange
Direct

States

of

imposed

by counties

Duties

Aug.

on
carriages and harness,
exclusivelyemployed in hus-

bandry
Fifty

Dec.

sales
Direct

licenses
to
upon
100
etc., and
per cent.

wines,
auction

by

Dec.

23, 1814

of

$6,000,000 laid upon


Jan. 9,
annually

tax

States

Internal-revenue

of

tax

pig-iron;

on

15, 1814

added

cent,

per
retailers of

posed

on

2, 1813

laid

except those

on

$3,000,000

bills

2, 1813

Aug.

tax

United

leads

laws

United

the

July 24,

of wines, spirituous liquors,


foreign merchandise, and on notes of
and
banks, etc., bonds
obligations dis-

8, 1792

May
above

the

within

and

du-

stills

on

refined

sugar

retailers

to

of the

development

federal

on

Act

are

sonal

provements.

stamped

apply

municipal taxation
constantly changing,

and

the

does

to

1813,

and

State, county,
numerous

Subse-

in

systems and

The

tax.

1798.

levied

was

taxation

direct

upon

in

rata,

pro
the

$1

im-

ton

per

cent

the
1815

Ib.

per

on

nails; also tax on


candles, paper,
hats,
1794
umbrellas, playing-cards, boots, tobacco,
Duties
annual
an
imposed on licenses for selling leather, etc., and
duty on
distilled
wines
household
and
and
furniture,
spirituous liqforeign
gold and silver
all watches, by act
Jan.
ors
by retail; 8 cents per Ib. on
18, 1815
the

whiskey

snuff

insurrection

manufactured

for

United

States;

refined

within

the

duties

specific

in

Pennsylvania

within

sale

Ib.

cents

follows:

as

the

on

sugar
States; and

per
United

On

Internal-revenue
and

plated

manufactured

laid

on

property

sold

at

June
Taxes

snuff

on

repealed

snuff-mills

and

United

the

auction

pealed

9, 1794

Act

duty

ed,

of

tax

of

$19,998.40

Columbia

laid

Jan.

18

and

Feb.

of Jan.

9, 1815, and

direct

tax

Duties

Act

on

27,

Feb.

27

seat

of

repeal-

$3,000,000 laid on
direct
tax
of $9,999.20

March

general stamp-office 15 and 23, 1814, repealed.


Act passed allowing States
gorernment.
.April 23, 1800
a

Duty

on

snuff-mills

lands

repealed

April 24,
Repeal

re-

1816

22,

of

at

1815

27, 1815,

carriages increased

establish

to

the

act

the
3, 1795
States, and
laid on
the District
of Columbia
by act
March
May 28, 1796
5,
Duties
laid on
Duties
household
furniture
on
stamped vellum, parchwatches
ment, and paper by act
July 6, 1797
kept for use removed
by act
Direct tax of $2,000,000 laid, proportionApril 9,
ed among
the States
Acts of July 24, 1813, and Aug. 2,
July 14, 1798

on

1815

on

annually, by

Feb.

and

27,

Feb.
of

Acts

5, 1794

laid

States

Feb.

Direct
yearly; chariot, $8; phaeton,
used
in agriculture or transDistrict
portation of goods, exempt by act
Duties

within

every

coach, $10
$6; wagons

June

tax
on
gold and silver
jewelry, and paste-work

ware,

of act

stills and

taxing
distilled spirits, refined

sugar,

1800

sold

domestic
licenses

of

by

Direct
and
19

the
the
tax

United
United
of

.Dec.

to

States

after

States..

Jan.

1816
and

1816
Dec.

23, 1817

tax

public

they are
26, 1847

$20,000,000 laid annually,

apportioned

to

the

States

by

act

of

TAXES"

TAYLOR

levied

Congress (one tax to be


April 1, 1865)
Act
passed to provide

previous
Congress
Aug. 5, 1861 posing taxes

to

internal

in

revenue

and

passes
of

consequence

the

the

support

of articles,

declaration

government
against Spain, which
pay
the President
interest on the public debt, imposing taxes
Congress passes an
on
spirits,ale, beer, and porter, licenses,
to

act, im

war-revenue

large number

on

to

of

war

approved

was

13, 1898
relieving many
tax, to take
July 1, 1901

act

articles from
the war-revenue
products, auc
effect
tion sales, yachts, billiard-tables,slaugh
tered
hogs, railroads,
Taxes, DIRECT.
cattle, sheep, and
Only five times in
railroad
of the country has
bonds,
direct
history
a
steamboats, ferry-boats,
companies, etc., salaries been successfullylevied by Congress
banks, insurance
articles

manufactured

and

"

United

of the

of officers in service

States,

incomes, legacies,business

advertisements,

of all kinds, like bank-checks,

papers

July 1, 1862

mortgages, etc
veyances,
internal
Act to increase

7, 1864

Aug. 5, 1861, repealed

of

Act

passed to

June

Internal-revenue

June

the

and

coun

levied

of 50

slave within
the jurisdic
every
of the United
States.
In 1813, 1815,

tion

and

1861

taxes

levied

were

all

upon

dwelling-houses,lands, and slaves, and ap


the States, as
portioned among
required
by the Constitution, not according to their
wealth, but according to their population.

July 13,
by

1866

The

acts

order

1872

reduced

taxes

of July 14, 1870, and

30, 1864
taxation

internal

reduce

of

the
tax

on

passed 1816,

revenue

March
Act

all the property


upon
try. In 1798 a direct tax was

never

cents

con

by

June

of

tax

1861

made

was

in

necessary

of the war
.defray the expenses
all the
just then beginning, and
loyal
to

States, except Delaware, assumed


its pay
specialtaxes imposed by law accru
ment.
Thirty years afterwards, in 1891,
ing after April 30, 1873, including taxes
on
atills,to be paid by stamps denoting Congress passed an act providing that the
Dec. 24, 1872
taxes thus contributed
for the prosecution
of tax, by act
the amount
All

tax

Internal-revenue

tobacco, snuff, of the

on

cigars increased, and


70
cents
gallon on
per
raised to 90 cents, by act.
Internal-revenue

tax

on

distilled

tobacco

reduced

March

1, 1879
Poverty,

and

Henry George's Progress


Single-tax
advocating the

"

"

theory, pub

passed reducing
repealing tax

Act

taxes, and

and

etc., matches,

internal-revenue

dealers

in

medicinal

on

per

on

Special
tobacco
snuff

Act
States

tax

and

rect tax

Territories

paid

under

the

act of

on

Income

tax

appended
passed with

law
Declared
ed States

unconstitutional

Supreme

Court

total

to

this New

largest share, nearly $3,000,000.

on

incomes

Taxes
lected

in 1895

1894.

This

to

the tax

was

several

comment,

2, 1891
Wilson

it, becoming a
Aug. 27, 1894

by

the

Unit

May 20,

1895

collected

and

Taylor,
Kennet
came

years
wrote

volume
20

declared

under

the

about

the

income

tax

$75,000 had

law, and

decision

caused

poorer

this

aroused

was

much

great dissatisfaction

classes.

in

traveller; born

BAYARD,

Square, Pa., Jan. 11, 1825; be


printer'sapprentice at seventeen

of age,

rhymes

York,

internal-

from

Only

The

the

among

the

collectingthe tax.
of
constitutionality
affirmed.
made
to
Appeal was
States
Supreme Court, which,

United

the

1861

12,
great opposi
and
bankers,

restrain

to

April 8, 1895,

on

Dec.

23, 1895, the

returned.

the

suit

col

were

passed

merchants,
G. Moore, of New

collector

Jan.

been

Aug. 5,

aroused

re

course,

$4,000

law

of

John

unconstitutional.

di

above

measure

among

revenue

On

York,

under

dealers

of

to the

nearly $15,000,-

Of

1, 1890

amount

refunded

amount
reached

sev

Under

the

the

1886

the

to

them.

000.

tobacco

on

March

tariff bill and

paid

ceived

Oct.

tax

reduced

tax

manufact

Aug. 2,

internal-revenue

repealed, and
by act
passed to refund

in
and

and

stamp

the

article

ured

returned

had

treasuries

tion

3, 1883

manufacturers

Ib. laid

be

which

the

act

preparations brought

oleomargarine, and

cents

laid

tax

should

banks, checks, brokers, and

on

March

Special

war

States

State

1879

lished

of

eral

spiritsthis
3, 1875

.March
.

act

by

of

tax

former

and

verses
were

and
with

about

at

much

collected

in 1844, entitled

and

the

time

same

facility.
published

Ximena.

In

His
in

1844-

TAYLOR
he

46

which

made

tour

in

foot

on

Europe,

the age
of twenty
good education, rose

of
in

but, having

years,
from

position of
he
went
to New
a
iron foundry to the
In 1847
day laborer in an
Afoot.
of clerk, and
station
wrote
for the Literary World
his
and
finallymarried
1848
widow
in
and
handfor the
and
a
Tribune,
acquired
pub- employer's
he

Views
York
and
lished

published (1846)

Rhymes

of

account

an

In

Travel.

1849

he

be-

fortune.

some

he

For

the

five consecutive

prominent member
sylvania Assembly, and in
judge

of

court.

He

the

1770

made

was

Northumberland
elected

was

1776, and

20,

years
Penn

of the

was

Congress July

to

the

signed

county

Declaration

of

died

in

Aug.
Independence
Easton, Pa., Feb. 23, 1781.
Taylor, JAMES
author; born
WICKES,
in Starkey, N. Y., Nov. 6, 1819; graduated
Hamilton

at

the

to

56;

bar

He

2.

on

College in 1838;
practised in Ohio

and

special United

States

admitted
in

1842-

treasury agent

in

BAYARD

came

at

Commodore
of

he

he

went

minister

at

the

there, Dec.
Taylor,

to
to

was

at

FEED

He

in

1892-94;

and

The

Want
Elastic
We
Curan
Be; Do
rencyf The Object and Methods
of CurReform in the United States, etc.
rency;
Taylor, GEORGE, a signer of the Decla-

of

in 1716;

Independence;
arrived

in

the

born
United

in

an

Missouri,

when

himself.

at

the latter
shot

for

He

to

in

avoid

in

March,
he

arrest

July 25, 1887.


"

of Caroline

county, Va.,

in

born

graduated

1750;

and
Mary in 1770; United
Senator, 1792-94, 1803, and 1822-

He

Resolutions
VIRGINIA
eral

Church.

polygamy

died
"

head

became

Mormon

William

States
24.

1880

order

Taylor, JOHN,

works

the

was

of

Caroline

of

mover

1798

on

the
United

the

Virginia

(see KENTUCKY

RESOLUTIONS).

policy of the

He

Constitution
States.

AND

wrote
and
He

died

sev-

the
in

county, Va., Aug. 20, 1824.


in
born
W.,
lawyer;
Taylor, JOHN
Charlton, N. Y., March
1784;
26,
grad-

Ireland

States

in

in
the

of

indicted
and

Orange

University
junior Pro-

to

ration

in

himself

was

and

prophet

exiled

of Politi-

and
Finance
Economy
Right of the State

wrote

made

was

settled
Smith

Joseph

Church,

He
was
educator; born
11, 1855; grad- 1885,

Universityin 1876;
History in Albion College

Political
He

1836;

and

1838

killed, and

and

MANVILLE,

of

in

Pratt

with

was

the

died

Northwestern

Michigan
of

as

was

court, and

German

1879-92; assistant Professor


cal Economy
in the
and Finance

in 1895.

apostle in

19, 1878.

Professor

fessor

months

D.

of

four
legation
He
Territory in
represented Utah
expedition of times.
Japan. In the spring Congress. In 1877, on the death of Brigham
elected
Berlin
American
Young, he was
as
president of

in

of

time

the

in Northville, Mich., July


uated

two

the

American

joined

Perry

1878

Parley

Tribune, and
at

serving
the

of

secretary

Shanghai,

in the

shareholders

After

death.

the

TAYLOR.

share

of the

one

his

of

owner

was

States
at
consul
1860-70; and United
in
1870-93.
His
Canada,
Winnipeg,
publi
cations include History of Ohio; First Pe
riod,1620-1787; Manual
of the Ohio School
System; Reports to Treasury Department
Commercial
on
Relations
with
Canada;
Alleghania, or the Strength of the Union
and the Weakness
of Slavery in the High
lands of the South, etc.
died in Win
He
nipeg. Manitoba, Canada, April 28, 1893.
born
in WinTaylor, JOHN, Mormon;
to
throp, England, Nov.
1, 1808; went
there con
Toronto, Canada, in 1832; was
verted
to Mormonism
by the preaching of

at

21

TAYLOR

Collegein 1803;

at Union

Uftted

admitted

practised in Ballston;
succeed
of Congress in 1813-33;
member
in
ed Henry
as
1820, and
Clay
speaker
held that place till the close of the second
session; was
again speaker in 1825-27;
of slavery
was
opposed to the extension
during the prolonged agitation of that
question in Congress. He died in Cleve
land, O., Sept. 8, 1854.
Taylor, RICHARD, military officer;born
the

to

in 1807;

bar

in

New

of

President

at

Yale

Orleans, La., Jan.

Mexican
he

War

became

with

his

son

in
in

was

October

the

he

was

in

9th

the

"

eral ; served
under
in Virginia; was

eral; and

In

father.

ed

the

to

"

Stonewall

promoted

Jackson

abandoned

under

Brashear

troops. By

into

the wilds

and

and

Opelousas,

and

New

he
part of his command
City (June 24, 1863),

immense
the

in

General

struggle
the

on

Mis

in command

was

May 4, 1865,
Canby. He died

went

1842;

surren

in New

California

to

amount

small-arms

of public prop
of 4,000 National

this movement

about

of

William

Capt.
the

as

Years'

Street

Taylor;
engaged

Vigeron

in 1828;

navy
Mexican

the

on

he

was

during

coast

the

war

(1846-48), and in the Atlantic blockading


squadron in 1862-63; was
flag-captainin
Forts

operations against
Sumter

in

Atlantic

and

1863;

Wagner
in

was

in both

attacks

In

he

promoted

1871

in 1873

was

retired.

was

He

on

and
North

the
in

1864-65,

Fort

Fisher.

blockading squadron

engaging

rear-admiral;

died

in

Washing

ton, D. C., April 14, 1889.

5,000 ref

Greene, operating in the vi


Missis
the
Donaldsonville, on

of Seven

author

the

was

WILLIAM

Taylor,

remanded
into slavery. cer; born
were
ugee negroes
Another
ing been
portion of the Confederates, un
der

he

the

City, April 12, 1879.


Taylor, WILLIAM,
clergyman; born in
Rockbridge county, Va., May 2, 1821 ; was
educated
in Lexington, Va. ; entered
the
Methodist
ministry of the
Episcopal

entered

returned, occupied

Mississippi River

captured
an

foothold

of

last

York

son

Russy. Then he swept


the
country in the di

With

erty and

march
General

De

Orleans.

with

the

was

on

General

to

eastward

country

Preaching in San
Francisco; California
Life Illustrated, etc. He died at Palo
Alto, Cal., May
18, 1902.
ROGERS, naval officer ;
Taylor, WILLIAM
born
in Newport, R. I., Nov.
7, 1811;

E.

Hudson

driven

city

of the

dered

He

River, and

Port

he had

garrisoned Fort
vigorously over
rection

of

Louisiana,

western

that

Red

the

siege

Taylor, whom
of

the

Mobile, and

at

Church

1861

major-gen

to

served

1863-64

on

from

Louisiana

in the trans-MississippiDe
Kirby Smith
Red
in
his
partment, opposing Banks
Banks
left
River
expedition. When

Alexandria,

forces

Atchafalaya. This
of Taylor to gain
sissippi. Afterwards

missionary in 1849; spent several months


the
Confederate
in
the
service, in
evangelistic work
Englishbattle of Bull
In
Run.
speaking countries of the world; and was
made
a
brigadier-gen made missionary bishop of Africa in 1884.
of

colonel

Volunteers
and

27, 1826;

Zachary Taylor; graduated


College in 1845; and entered the

Banks'*
forces were
released
city. When
of Port
Huron
by the surrender
(July
9) they proceeded to expel Taylor and his

marine

in

VIGERON,

Newport,

for

R.

time

some

naval

offi

I.,in 1781; hav


in

the

merchant-

appointed sailingin April, 1813, and


in the navy
master
cinity of
driven
out
of that
district. ably assisted
in fittingout
sippi, was
Perry's fleet
New
Orleans
then garrisoned by only at Erie.
He
was
navigated Perry's flag-ship
when
about
700 men,
into and
a
was
opened for (Lawrence)
during the battle.
way
cruise in the
His
last service was
a
on
Taylor to Algiers,opposite; but the Con
federate

leader

was

unable

to

cross

the

Mississippi, for Farragut's vessels were


and
patrolling its waters
guarding the

Taylor, ZACHARY,
United

twelfth

States; from

July 9, 1850; Whig; born


county, Va., Sept. 24, 1784.
to

President

March

of

4, 1849,
in
His

was

of the

Pacific, in command
four
R.

in

guns,
I., Feb.

1847.

He

Ohio, seventy-

died

in

Newport,

11, 1858.

ZACHARY

TAYLOR,

the

service,

Orange

soldier

Virginia
had

22

extensive

an

father, ville.

from
Revolution, removed
he
in
where
1785,
Kentucky

of the
to

On

that

farm

Louisplantation near
engaged
Zachary was

ZACHARY

TAYLOR,
until 1808, when

place of

the

he

He

in the army.
and after

tenant

in

1812,

which

against

attack

an

in

active

was

the

In

war.

but

major;
in 1815,
he
near

in

the

and

in

and

promoted
he

1832

in

From

(q. v.).
Florida

the

to

5,000
Ana

(see SEMINOLE

appointed
Department of
was

to

reinstated

In
-

the

at

the

While
he

men,

with

Buena

to

the

on

with

confronted

was

Taylor

20,000.
Mexicans

the

act

doing,

so

in

by

defeated
a

severe

Dur

Vista, Feb. 23, 1847.

remainder

of the

the

war

he

the

In

In his cam
possession of the Americans.
nickname
in
Mexico
he
the
acquired
paign
Old Rough and Ready," in allusion
of
the plainness of his personal appearance
and
deportment.

he

and

command
of

in

in 1840

of the

1st

South

in

his return

On

home,

in

November,

to

1847,

greeted everywhere with demonstra


the
rank
of brevet
west, with
brigadier- tions of warmest
popular applause. In
general. At that time he purchased an
Convention,
June, 1848, the Whig National
estate
Baton
he re
him
for Presi
near
at Philadelphia,nominated
Rouge, to which
moved
his family.
Millard
dent
of the United
States, with
After
when

the

war

Mexico

annexation

between

seemed

the

Grande

"

WAR

served

Rio

remained

valley oi
the
quiet

1819

HAWK

1840

en

after

soon

colonel.

colonel, and

Army

ing

ordered

was

dispersed

battle

years
northwestern

WAR),

the

and

engaged

BLACK
to

the

soon

South.

1836

he

only.

Santa

lieutenant

the

defensive
about

the

on

troops, and

farm

to

commissioned

was

engaged

was

Being

frontier
was

to

returned

life

of

end

army,
captaincy,when

for several

was

Taylor

the

18, 1846, and

May

captured the stronghold of Mon


He
occupied strong positions,but
remained
time, awaiting
quiet for some
instructions
from
his government.
Early
in 1847
Scott
a
requisitionfrom General
of a
deprived him
large portion of his

of the

reduction

he

military

terey.

commissioned

was

Louisville.

major,

as

he

put back

was

until

West

1814

resigned,

wards

of war,
of Fort
defended

bravely

Mexico

major-general. He

to

promoted

tered

captain

by the Indians.

the

on

command

he

lieu

as

declaration

in

placed

was

Harrison,

made

was

the

in 1810;

fill then

to

appointed

was

brother, deceased,

his

of TEXAS

the

United

imminent, he

considerable

the

force

into

of

the

movements

sent

TAYLOR'S

GENERAL

(q. v.)
States

was

Texas

1846,

the

Rio

Grande, opposite Matamoras,

in

May

with

the

engaged
Mexicans

moved

in
on

to

the

sharp

Texas

soil.

New

He

with

March

5, 1849.

RESIDENCE

AT

seized

was

BATON

with

ROUGE.

violent
attended

fever, and

of

by his wife; his daughter


Bliss)

was

and

her

died

on

the

in his last moments

9th.

and

He

York, for Vice-Presielected, and


inaugurated
On
July 4, 1850, he was

In

husband;

(Mrs. Colonel

his

son,

Colonel

Taylor, and family ; his son-in-law, Jefferson


Davis, and
family; and by Vice-

battles
He

of

Fillmore,

dent.

banks

two

was

and

watch

to

Mexicans.

Mar"h,

he

he

was

23

ZACHABY

TAYLOR,
Fillmore, other

President

mons

His

etc.

corps,
"I
am

about

last

the

words

discharge
faithfully. I regret

am
sorry that I am
friends."
The
funeral

about

leave

occurred

and

Saturday, July 13,

on

by

vast

pageant
kind, in order

thing

of

cence,

that

tional

capital.

The

exceeded

The

strangers.
the

had

taken

ever

and

the

na-

Leon

at

of

American

States.

18, 1850, President

of San

State

Juan

allies

the

de

of

the

to
following message
treaties
cerning new

with

the
con-

Central

the

govern-

Buchanan,
United

the

of

the

The

then

con-

authorities

Mosquito King.

translation

letter, a

Nicaragua

British

the

templated by

On

"

Taylor sent
Congress

the

Mr.

do-

supreme
Nicara-

of

from
to

affairs
and

the

state

letter

Secretary

town

magnifi-

place at

house

then

the
a

the

States, asking the friendlyoffices of this


government to prevent an attack upon the

every-

and

of

of

of which

sent, distinctlycharges that

Central

March

citizens

of

relations

administration

ment

to

attended

was

of

concourse

foreign

addressed

gua,

and

state

and

war

government

sum-

to

nothing, but
my

of

mestic

were:

expect the

of

secretary

diplomatic

endeavored

official duties

all my

the

audible

die.

to

I have

soon.

officers of

of

members

government,

as

That

is herewith

"

the

British

in

taking

key of the continent

is not

to

protect the

object of

small

tribe

tablish

of

their

this

the

Mosquitos, but to csempire over the Atlantic

own

American

canal
a
States, the American
political extremity of the line, by which
is most
oceans
them, and the pretensions connecting the two
pracBritain
in Nicaragua:
of Great
the preponder
ticable, insuring to them
of the American
ance
continent, as well
with
their
direct
relations
March
as
Asia, the
WASHINGTON,
19, 1850.
East
other
To
the Senate
of the United
Indies, and
States,
important counto
I herewith
transmit
the
Senate, for tries in the world.
No
to
have
been
their advice
in regard to its ratification,
reanswer
appears
a
general treaty of amity, navigation, turned to this letter.

policy towards

"

"

and

"

of

commerce

America

between

and

concluded

Leon

at

United

the

E.

by

charge d'affaires of the United


their part, and
Sefior Zepeda
of the
I

republic of

also
in

Senate

States,
the

on

Nicaragua.

transmit, for

the

advice

of

to

received

was

Jose

States,

the

to

this

In

establish

of

the

relations
United

the

of which
the

my

15, 1847,

Dec.

with

commerce

translation

enclosed.

is herewith

President

of

Nica-

says:

ragua
"

desire

by

Guerrero,

Director

dated

Nicaragua,

part expressing his


of amity and
"

its

of

state

on

ratification, a
general treaty of amity, navigation, and
"
commerce
negotiated by Mr. Squier with

regard

communication

States

Don
Nicaragua, predecessor from
and
Supreme
George Squier, President
of

State

the

desire

My

carried

was

to

the

utmost

the

opening
seeing
message
reI also transmit
to the Senate
a
copy of of the Twenty-ninth Congress of your
sincere
of
instructions
to
the
and
a
political
public
profession
correspondence
with
the
with the said chargS d'affaires relating to faith in all respects conformable
those treaties.
principles professed by these States, dewith
I also transmit, for the
advice
of the
termined, as
they are, to sustain
the
continental
the
in regard to its ratification, a
firmness
Senate
rights
cause,
the
in general, and
nonof Americans
general treaty of peace, amity, commerce,
in
their
of
interference
and
European powers
navigation
negotiated by Elijah
the

republic of San

Salvador.

at

in your

on

"

"

late

charg" d'affaires,with

Hise,

our

State

of Guatemala.

concerns."

the

This

letter

the

announces

critical situa-

of tion in which
placed, and
Nicaragua was
transmit, for the information
James
of
a
St.
the Court
the Senate, a copy
of a treaty negotiated charges upon
"
colonies
establish
to
well-known
Mr.
with
of
NicaHise
the government
design
by
21
June
on
last, accompanied by on the coast of Nicaragua and to render
ragua
interoceanic
of the
canal,
itself master
from
and
corcopies of his instructions
I

also

reapondence

with

the

Department

of

for

On

which

sented

State.
Nov.

12,

1847,

Sefior

reply was

Buetrago,
24

so

facilities

many

by the isthmus
made

to

this

in that
letter.

are

state."

preNo

ZACHARY

TAYLOR,
The

British

Vixen

arrived

of

de

the

on

and

Alarm

war

Juan

San

8, 1848, and

Feb.

on

ships
at

would

of that

12th

In

forces, consisting of
and
attacked
260
officers and
captmen,
ured
the post of Serapaquid, garrisoned,
statements,
by
according to the British
the

month

200

hour

one

letter, dated

Livingston

states

minister

Juan

de

April 8, 1848,
"

that
for

the

at

re-

foreign affairs
a
package of

of

Nicaragua he transmits
containing the correspondence relathe occupation of the port of San
Juan
forces
in the
of
name
by British
the Mosquito nation."
On June
3, 1848, Elijah Hise, being appointed charge d'affaires of the United
papers
tive to

action

sharp

San

possession of
January, 1848.

quest of the

forty minutes.

and

in

another

Mr.

British

soldiers, after

about
of

take

Nicaragua

Nicaragua

7, 1848, articles of agreement


by Captain Locke, on the
Britain, with the commispart of Great
in the
sioners
of the
state of Nicaragua
States to Guatemala,
received
his instrucisland
of Nicaragua, tions, a
of Cuba, in the Lake
of
which
is
herewith
subcopy
March

On

concluded

were

of which

copy

will

found

be

respondence relating to
ritory presented to and
of

House

Commons

of

the

accompanying the
for foreign affairs
Secretary of State
under

date

disturb

Nicaragua

of

of

hostilities."

open
it is

article

the

from
sioner

to

"hinder

her

Salinas, the

fairs

of

the

be

declara-

articles

these

from

of

Sebas-

Nicaragua,

to

of

which

is herewith

States

Mr.

submit-

been

dissolution

On
ston

Oct.

of

San

1847, Joseph

28,

of

the

Juan

selves
their

this

States

United

and

the

weaken

civil

war,

of

by di-

themselves

the

Central

also

the

state

American

re-

Living- public, formerly composed of the five


states of Nicaragua, Costa
government
Rica, Hondu-

for

the

port

ras,

San

vador, but

Buchanan,

Secre-

the

republics of

treaties

advisable

to

Nicaragua, Honduras,
25

Hise

to

San

saying

Mr.

government

deemed

and

conclude

Mr.
with

commerce

with

informed

not

of

Guatemala

conclude

is herewith
tary of State, a copy of which
submitted, representing that he had been

was

and

Salvador, and
Guatemala,
separation, authorize

dressed

English

themselves
and

and

instructions, which

to conclude

the

the

can

such

deprive themwar,
abilityof doing anything for
protection.

Hise

that

impressed

European
Spanish-American

weaken

to

continued

Mr.

be
what

to

civil

their

to

to

in-

everywhere

W,

de

letter

ought

their

the

Nicaragua. On Dec. 16,


1847, after having received his exequatur
the
from
Nicaraguan government, he ada

ruin

to

jeopard

to

of the

These

letter.

appointed by

was

consul

this

colonies

new

be

resist

to

while

lies continue
vision

to

do

of

ted, recites the aggressions of Great Britain and the seizure of a part of the Nicaof the Mosterritory in the name
raguan
to have
No
answer
quito King.
appears

given

and

truths

domestic

republics, and

deprive
ability of doing anything for their own
protection."
This last significant
inquiry seems
plainthe
that
United
States
ly to intimate
could do nothing to arrest British
aggression
while
the
Spanish-American repub-

the Secretary of State


of the
Buchanan,
March
United
States, dated
17, 1848, a
translation

These

part of the
the

establish

to

independence

themselves

Senor

American

republics continue
and
by division

final

with

continent, would

interference

commis-

Majesty

the

them

this

re-

the Amer-

the

on

governments

permit

United

Nicaragua
a

maintain

interference

of

inter-

continent

policy entirely distinct


prevails in Europe. To

which

any

follow-

the

as

this

should

of

well

as

on

throughout this continent


the public mind.
But
on

sixth

the

secretary of foreign af-

state

that

terests.

affairs."

communication

The

tian

Britannic

system

upon
their

un-

will

of

means

of these

arrangement

as

By

will

not

ican

to

not

Juan,

act

that

solicitingby

shall

instructionsthe

nations

from

European

agreement
"

San

provided

of agreement

the

concerns

Nicaragua
of

of

suffer

States

1848.

such
derstanding that any
considered
by Great Britain
tion

the

to

United

these

quire that they

minister

the

inhabitants

the

"

In

occur
:
passages
The independence

ests

on

copy
found

be

the

of

article
that

provided

also

of

of

17,

third

the

By
it is

will
note

March

ing

the

Britain

submitted.

document

same

Great

mitted.

cor-

Ter-

Mosquito
published by

of

herewith

July 3, 1848,

in the

the

that

Salit

empower
a
treaty with either
Costa
Rica until
or

ZACHABY

TAYLOR,
full

more

should
the

to

and

have

The

ican

states

would

in

whose

of

plated

between

oceans

by

the

pursuance
of

authorities

ship-canal
Pacific

March

of

for

necessary
and

7,

of the

article

between

1848,

and

the

l^caragua, Sefior FranCastillon


was
appointed commisfrom
Nicaragua to Great Britain,

cisco
sioner

of

Washat
5, 1848, while
to
adLondon,
way

Nov.

on

ington,

on

his

dressed

letter

State, a translation
submitted,
asking
instruct

the

to

of which
this

of

Secretary
is herewith

to

government

minister

its

plenipotentiary rethe right of


siding
Nicaragua to her territory claimed
by
Mosquito, and especiallyto the port of
San
Juan, expressing the hope of Nicain London

"that

ragua

sustain

to

the

of

government

the

On

of

ment
"

at

Belize

him

to

his

be

things
no

To

tions

of the

United

this

letter

been

given

were

in pursuance
in it.
March

stead
and
for
in

be

added

of

their

in which
States

the

inter-

would

prove

was
an

his

also

no

answer

to

our

of the

minister

in

consul

Mr.

Bancroft.

then
our

then

"

them

of

the

have

under

subjects";
the

I have

not

this

doubt

British

but

officers

the

here

governto

San

letter,

designsof

and

to obtain

are

and

success

possession of the

from

Majesty's
Mosquito shore

the

on

territoryon

continent."

The

receiptof this letter was


acknowledged on Aug. 29, 1848.
When

British

force

into

came

of

after

of

it had
had

we

California, and

in the

cession

it, and

had

been

the

taken

while

that

we

poswere

treaty for

official

no

made

by

taken

negotiationof

of

found

possession of the

Juan, which

arms

regularly

office I

in

government

port of San

this

by

re-

gov-

eminent
against the aggression, nor
any
then
attempt to resist it. Efforts were
being made
by certain private citizens of
United

States

the

river

San

Juan

the

Ocean.

to

from

procure

the

Nicaragua by contract the right


the proposed ship-canalby the
way
and

Pacific
citizens

can

to

of

Nicaragua

the

minister

take

event

application

her

with

made

in the

coast

dated

of

Belize,

at

and

British

as

Cape Conte
Nicaragua." In another
July 29, 1848, he wrote:

"

had

de

to cut

3, 1847, Christopher Hemp-

Indians

entire

state

Lon-

the

Majesty's superintendent

would

the

appears
instruc-

request contained

appointed
application was
exequatur through

London,

no

consul, and

ment

Juan

Hon-

protection, and had desired


possession of the territory

that

monstrance

before

letter
that

they occupied

he

steps the

such

effective

returned, and

don

On

to order

might
point

avail."

have

to

as

reached

vention
of

hesitate

not

taken

for

protection

session

to

1848,

her

to

take

engaged

ica, would

in

the

to

one

State

applied

resistingall

in Amer-

col-

supply his place.


Mr.
Hempstead
to
the
Depart-

appointed no
26,
May

Union, firmly adhering to its principleof

foreign intervention

British

have

which

Nicaragua.

Britain

Great

contem-

Atlantic

of

territoryof

represented

the

existence

the
ony at Belize, within
duras.
I have
recalled

Rica,
Amer-

co-operation

or

of Lake
way
of the sixth

agreement

forces

be

the

the

those

Central

only

consent

event

construction

and

the

are

any

to

regard

it possesses.
Nicaragua, Costa

of

states

Honduras

the

in

recognized the

him

by

which

that

and

information

communicated

Department
than

states

In

statistical

been

the
canal

the

Managua

state
as

entered

of

matter

and
to

company
into such

the

lakes

Realejo,

of
on

of Ameria

contract

Nicaragua. Viewing
of great importance

people of the United


States, I rereferred
merston
to Mr.
Bancroft's
appli- solved to adopt the policy of protecting
the work
cation
for an
and
binding the government of
exequatur for Mr. Hempstead to the Colonial Office.
The exequatur
Nicaragua, through whose
territory it
inwas
granted, and Mr. Hempstead, in a would
pass, also to protect it. The
structions
to E. George Squier, appointed
to
letter
the
State
of
Department
bearing date of Feb. 12, 1848, a copy by me
chargS d'affairesto Guatemala
of
which
is
herewith
herewith
on
subacsubmitted,
April 2, 1849, are
as
fully indicating the views
knowledged the receipt of his exequatur mitted
from
her Britannic
in directing a treaty
Majesty, by virtue of which
governed me
which
he
has
with
to be made
discharged his consular
Nicaragua. I considered
the interference of the British government
Thus
far this government has
functions.
Lord

Pal-

80

ZACHARY

TAYLOR,
this

on

continent

believed
canal

when

moment

the

that

inference

by

United

ests of the

Seeing

that

treaty of
Costa
Kica,

been

Honduras,

or

inter-

last

formed

that

treaties

two

the

for

was

had

he
with

the

had

him

his

on

and

of

he

home.

which

that

he

of

State,

herewith

is

"only

was

ratifications

with

em-

of

the

Squier,

Mr.

special convention
by Mr. Hise, the

Guatemala

other

of

these
full

pro-

and

concluded

at

charg" d'afSefior
States, and

He

have
no
precedent
justify such a treaty
ated
by Mr. Hise since

also

New

The

ada

of

in

that

recited

of his
that

he

guarantees

American

poswith

12, 1846, did

sovereignty

whole

I have

But

successor.

Hise, whose

Mr.

letter

evidence

no

recall

which

date

of

which

(a

great that

so

is

had

not

edge

have

with

received

it.

did

He

him

not

Gran-

New

article

of

the

treaty

give

nego-

convinced

This

limits

to
of

cut

the

treaty

authorizes

canal

United

outside

States,

and

of

If the

that

just, and

opening
to

in

canal

the

Senate

doubt

the

gives
27

not

States

require
from

to

intended

any
in the

and

commerce

our

Pacific

our
duty
justice.

treaty is

United

elusive
Its

the

it is

their

This
the

govof the

with

as

to

judgment is
of Nicaragua

own

claims

the
that

able

been

have

of this communication

ocean,

assert

subject,my

intercourse

this

corporation by

line

the

over

which

the

to

are

by Mr. Hise in effect guarantees


perfect independence of the state of
her
Nicaragua and her sovereignty over
Sea to
alleged limits from the Caribbean
the Pacific Ocean, pledging the naval
and
to
of the United
States
military power
it.

advice

your

to
subject, it will be clearlywrong
in a controversy with
England
by adopting the treaty; but after the best

tiated

ehartering of

for

us

the

ernment

and

consideration

twelfth

support

submitted

providedfor.

involve

it.

The

her

the

that

on

he

acknowl-

not

in

sesses

therein

was

to believe

reason

is

of

of

regard to its ratification, distinctlyrecognizes the rights of sovereigntyand propstate


of Nicaragua posthe
erty which

May

of communicating
difficulty

"

over

herewith
submitted)
2, 1849, had received
he negothat
letter on
June
21, when
tiated
the
Nicaragua. The
treaty with
of

copy
bears

on

for

of

the

the

negotiated

Dec.

on

the

history
negoti-

our

that

as

her

treaty

Granada

guarantee

it

France

to

gave
sessions.

Hon-

treaties

We

to

we

brought

with

commerce

had

each

of

territory,but
only
single province of the
powers
such
had
isthmus
the
He
of
no
Panama,"
immediately adjoinpowers,
purpose.
his
whole
and
the
proceeding on
part ing the line of the railroad, the neutrality
not
states
those
to
with
reference
of which
deemed
was
was
by the
necessary
Senate
and
to the construction
only unauthorized
by instructions, but in President
and securityof the work,
opposition to those he had received from
of
the
date
after
The
predecessor and
thirty-fiftharticle of the treaty
my
the appointment with
his letter of recall and
Nicaragua negotiated by Mr. Squier,
duras;

is

in

Secretary

concluded

the

Nicaragua

the

exchange

to

being
charge

as

of

state

last

on

in

act

the

of

treaties

return

negotiated a treaty

declared

31

Carcache,
government

the

to

already

Dec.

on

sus-

no

the

one
a
treaty of commerce,
treaty for the construction

with

translation

that

actually negotiated
state
of Nicaragua,

posed ship-canal,which

because

ratification;
facts

faires of the United


of Nicaragua, had
Selva, the commissioner
in Sep- been, as
was
publicly and
universally
in- known, disapproved by his government."
first time

the
a

note

positive- treaty

attempt to
picion that he would
opposition to his instructions, and
tember

the

of

this

to

in

sent,

treaty, not even


with
Nicaragua,

no

commerce,

designs
the

but

d'affaires from

to

it for

because

Edwardo

powered

had

Hise

make

to

with

have

submitted

now

accredited

States.

Mr.

instructed

ly

entertained

she

harmony

in

means

no

lead

to

merely

Senor

were

purunfortunate

an

as

have
not

right to fortify and


not
approved it, nor

exclusive
it.

mentioned,

the

calculated

one

we

for

negotiation

coincidence, and

known,

was

that

Britain

California,

of

chase

the

in

engaged

it

the

us

command

eligiblefor the
occupying

most

I believe,to Great

as

to

route

isthmus, and

the

the very

it at

of

port

the

commanded

the

be

to

across

seizing the

in

which

Juan,

San

ourselves

to

secure

monopoly

the

ocean

or

to

to
ex-

of the canal,
use
advantage
is
to
object
guarantee protection to

TAYLOR,
and

citizens

American

others

canal, and

the

construct

who

to defend

ZACHABY

shall

have

it when

completed against unjust confiscations or


to deny the advantages
of navigation through it to those nations
obstructions, and

shall refuse to enter


into the
only which
same
guarantees. A copy of the contract
of

canal

the

is herewith

company

mitted, from
which, as well as
treaty, it will be perceived that
benefits

offered

are

the

all nations

to

the

in

of
message
of
Feb.

The

the

Senate

predecessor to

my

having

for

New

Granada,
the

in

I have

been

The
only difference
ragua.
consists
two
in this:
cases

Nicaragua

British

the

In

treaties

Both

protect. The instructions


d'affaires,it will be seen,

to

limitation

continuance

for the

Nicaragua. Should
of the
principle of

treaty with

deemed

the

negotiator
abrogated on

be

to

course.

from

the

years.

approve
treaty, an amendment

has

that

taken

perpetual or limited only


of the improvements they

Senate

of

government

been

chargS

of the

the

that

it liable

intended
our

is

Granada,

duration

the

shall advise

twenty

prescribeno

Nica

between

have

to

actuated

with

negotiation

should

were

the

general

after

in

Juan

defect

New

made

notice

by

the

contains
which

principlesby
directing

in

the

1847, transmit
treaty with

10,

ratification

ting

the Senate

principal

treaty with

terms.

same

British

the

port of San

case

Its

same

that

pretension
right of the
Mosquito King is without
just foundation
in any public law ever
before recognized in
or
by Americans
Eng
any other instance
lishmen
as
applicable to Indian titles on
this continent, I shall ratify this treaty
in

trans

from

doubt

no

the

to

in
and

advisable;

the
the

respect is

this

it will

well

be

to

seized

invite by another
amendment
the protec
part of her territory,and was
upon
in possessionof it when
we
negotiated the tion of other nations, by expressly of
in the treaty what
is now
treaty with her. But that possessionwas
fering them
taken
after our
ad
occupation of California, offered by implication only the same
"

when

the

control

effect of

the

by

us

Granada,
at

the

Pacific.

her

In

of

the

possession in
then
Mosquito King was
claimed

del

Boca

of both

the

cations

across

treaties

terms.

territory
the

of

to

with

the
New

Nicaragua,

power
of any

which

As

there

will

will

a-

United

guar
nation
in
have

not

to

for

of
purpose
able treaty

any

in

common

the

is

the

jealousy

nation.

illiberal, or

is

nothing

as

set

forth

views

in this

of

the

28

tions
tolls

and

as

the
may

Pacific

the

Cen

for

the

of

ship

between

canal

and

the
the

across

North

connects

by

oceans

South

of securing forever
free
a

canal

payment
be

and

of

established

capitalistswho
may
undertaking and complete

the

of

Granada

communication

which

on

of

governments
New

and

stipulationsthe
treaty, navigating such

successful

without

President

the

the

the

indispensable
completion of the contemplated canal to
secure
protection to it from the local au
this government, and
I
thorities
and
as
as

to

Senate

effectuallyprotecting by suit
stipulationswith them, such
under
or
companies as may

construction

selfish, America,

narrow,

in the

the

respectfully requested
expediency of opening ne

and

to
open
Atlantic

isthmus

exclusive

States
is

America

individuals
take

to

adopted

was

be

the

tral

Granada,

excite

consider

Neither

purely commer
navigating
a

that

States

gotiations with

all the
have

Granada,

"Resolved,

same

to

nation.

like New
not

the

alliance

for

division

all nations

to

relative

Senate

session by the

in executive

communi

open

that

cial purpose,
in which
nations
of the world

it

to

with

foreign

an

politicalobject, but

United

message

professed objects treaty

States

constitutes

them

terest.

referred

far

to

United

interest

common

March

isthmus

policy of
it orig

suggestion either of my
any
myself. On
predecessor or
3, 1835, the following resolution,
in his
to by the
late President

the

as

does

nor

from

the

Granada

novel,

not

of

their guarantees on
of them
proposes

antee

inate

The

them.

acquired

treaty is

into

right

Neither

which

same

have

immediate

extended

are

the

to invite

and

undisturbed

the

The

shall
this

of New

case

the

on

we

the

by New

Toro.

ship
acquired
a

for ourselves
propose
which
conditions
we
upon

which

vantages

or

treaty, though

British

as

the

possession was

time

territories

for

territories

to the

the

on

obstruct

to

was

eligibleroute

most

communication

it

by such
equal rights of

to

all

such
to

such

na

reasonable

compensate

in
engage
the work."

such

ZACHARY

TAYLOR,

in

agent

as

it

sent

Charles

Biddle

the

governGra-

negotiate

to

of

nada.

The

report of
a

resolution, and

and

America

Central

ments

of

this

with

result

is

select

committee

of

of the

or

Pacific

and
in

sible

House

Butler

The

policy

March

of

sanction

and

of

the

So

Senate.

knowledge extends, such

my
the

liberal

policy of

country, and by no
earnestly recommended

lamented

has

far

has

one

of

by

same

my

Mexico, and
of California, New
June, 23, 1850, President
Tay-

Senate

the

heads
the

of

of the

Executive

in

asked

for

tions,
the

by

iary commandant
California

office I found
of

the

while

civil governor
I was, to

as

in that
act under

mili-

authorize

or

in mak-

the

of

On

of

executive

of

in

functions

of

time

its

the

orders
my
domestic

to

to

disturb

that

California

the

United

be

them

at

therefore,did
of

the

tinued

not

governor

exercise

sation

have

in

with

to

the

no

the powers
who
con-

functions

the

I
no

made
such

increased

commandant

for

of
no

the

republican
the

Congress, yet

proper
it was

plan
same

deliberthemof

the

executive.

Congress should
subject. I,

interfere

conferred

allowed

under

that

on

before; but

as

appointment,
and

made

military commandant,
to

that
States

that the
Territory, and left, to be distinctlyunderstood
of such
at the
must
a
treaty of Guadagovernment

arrangement,

action

some

must

the

predecessor,until

my
take

were

policy

themselves;

protect

any

their

contrary,

government

character,

submitted

of

of

to

of

institu-

provisions

given by

desirous

or

any
election
of

the

over

measures

the

agent
exercise

or

lupe-Hidalgo,without the aid of any legis- time be the result of their own
lative provision establishinga government
ate
choice, and
originate with
in that
the
interference
Territory, I thought it best not selves, without
to

ad-

convention
any
their domestic

any
constitution.

formation

Department

the

exercising

the

the

for

State, but

as

with

control

of

or

all

was

into

coming

submit

prayer

government

any
interfere

instructions

that

resolu-

Union

adopted by the people


possession originate solely with

the

and

with

all

contain

them

to

of any such government


did
assent
of Congress, nor

or

proposed

tion.
On

the

the

authorize

influence

"

the

are

accompanying

addressed

constitution

delegates or over
ing or modifying

States,

which

departments,

official information

duties

anticipate,suggest,

officer to

the

to

not

without

23, 1850.

United

the

the

establishment

to
Senate, in answer
resolution
of that
the
a
body passed on
17th
inst., the accompanying
reports of

transmit

of

in

to

Cali-

to

the

into

I did

transmitted
to the Congress the following special message
concerning complications that had arisen in newly acquired territory:
Jan.

officers

Mexico, whose

Congress

to

the

lor

To

State

mission

WASHINGTON,

certain

despatches

Territory should, if prepared to


comply with the requisitionsof the Constitution of the United
States, form a plan

On

"

Thomas

Hon.
of

each

as

it been

than

the

posthese

in

departments,
proper
to express
I did not hesitate
to the peothat
desire
pie of those Territories
my

been

ever

interest

bearer

instruction

of

difficultyas

of

sent
as

New

severallyby

predecessor.

Status
Texas.

then

leading statesmen

the

of this
more

letters

consideration

the

and

little

as

particularly defined

Senate, is

and

adopted by the President


that
now
proposed for

King

fornia

indicated

3, 1835,

execution

faithful

the

matters

California, and

Atlantic

the

all

on

Territories, I

for

routes

between

oceans.

resolution

the

certain

of
survey
railroad

the

canal

to

and

knowledge

Representatives of Feb. 20, 1849, upon


of Congress to authorjoint resolution

ize

view

the

treaty so far as lay in the power


of the executive, and
to enable
Congress
to act at the present session
full
with
as

in the

forth

set

fully

New

With

the

in

of

pursuance

with

accorded

Jackson

President

policy suggested

unable

am

in

ernment
taken

to give any
information
passed by any supposed gov-

laws

to

as

in

California

either

civil

tioned

in

the

such

information

on

authority,

As
the

compenhis
ser-

isted

vices.

In
29

of

of

or

the

resolution,
those

census

any

Territories
as

have

menno

subjects,

already stated, I have not disturbed


had
I found
exarrangements which
under

my

advising

predecessor,
early application by

an

"J?
AYLOB,
the

of

people

mission

cipally by
the

Territories

these

States, I

as

earnest

an

desire

to

and

wisdom

patriotism
opportunity of avoiding

the

people
Under
has

of

Constitution

the

ad-

stitution

prin-

afford

be

Congress
of
the

among

submitted
in

to

be

State

to

it may
The

receive

part of California
State

proposed

lieved

sanction

to be

of

of
not

that

with

of the

States, I earnestly recommend


the

Con-

compliance

Constitution

United

the
every

shall, when
found

gress,
the requisitionsof the

to

occasions

and
dissensions
angry
of the United
States.

bitter

for

actuated

was

ZACHABY

that

Congress,
included

in

is be-

name

uninhabited, except in

set-

tlement
of our
right of establishing and from
countrymen in the vicinity
time
of Salt Lake.
to time
altering its municipal laws
and
domestic
institutions
A claim has been advanced
independently
by the State
of
other
State
and
the
to a
general of Texas
large portion of the
every
very
government, subject only to the prohibi- most
populous district of the Territory
tions and guarantees expressly set forth in commonly designated by the name
of New
Constitution
of the
United
the
States.
Mexico.
If the people of New
Mexico
had
The
a
subjects thus left exclusively to the formed
plan of a State government for
not
respective States were
designed or that Territory as ceded by the treaty of
to
become
had
been
adexpected
topics of national agi- Guadalupe-Hidalgo, and
tation.
the Constitution
mitted
ConStill, as under
by Congress as a State, our
to
make
all needstitution
would
have
afforded
the means
Congress has power
ful rules and
regulations respecting the of obtaining an adjustment of the quesTerritories
of the
United
tion of boundary with
Texas
States, every
by a judiAt
new
acquisition of territory has led to cial decision.
present, however, no
discussions
the question whether
the
of decidon
judicial tribunal has the power
of
servitude
which
that
and
remains
for Conit
involuntary
question,
system
ing
of the
States
should
to
devise
mode
for
its
some
prevails in many
adjust
gress
should
ment.
Meanwhile
not be prohibited in that TerriI submit
to Congress
er
from this
the question whether
it would
be expetory. The periods of excitement
which
have heretofore
occurred
have
such
before
dient
cause
adjustment to estabbeen
safely passed, but during the inter- lish a Territorial government, which, by
val, of whatever
length which may elapse including the district so claimed, would
before
the
admission
of the
Territories
practically decide the question adversely
ceded
of Texas, or by excluding it
to the State
as
by Mexico
States, it appears
will prewould
decide
it in her
favor.
In
probable that similar excitement
my
vail to an
undue
not
extent.
be expewould
opinion such a course
Under
these
the
circumstances, I thought, dient, especially as
people of this
and
still think, that it was
and
the
benefit
still
to
enjoy
duty
Territory
my
proendeavor
to put it in the power
of Contection of their municipal laws originally
miliof California
have
and
derived
from
a
Mexico, and
gress, by the admission
the

Mexico

New

casions
the

for

States,

as

the

part
of

soon

submit

the

Congress,

and

State.

that

State

This

to

same

apply

course

accordance

on

with,

was

of my

consequence
wishes, inasmuch

ing

this

to

were

tion

end

already
btfore

had

there

of

of the

formed

been

by

my

for

the

will

judgment

admission

as

are

before

the

that

the

Indians.

It

to

protect them

is

the

treaty of cession,

California
shall
Congress, when
present herself for incorporation into the
Should

condition
to her admisa
though Union, annex
in
not adopted exsion as a State affectingher domestic
of her
of any expression stitutions
contrary to the wishes
tendas
compel her temporarily
measures
people, and even
promoted by the to comply with it, yet the State could
at any
time after
predecessor,and
change her constitution

progress
communication

reaohe* California,

and

there

undoubtedly
property, lives, liberties,
Mexico
religionof the people of New
better protected than
were
they ever

against

their part,

in active

any

people
have

constitution, and

clusivelyin

officers sent

the

of California

plan

in

tary force stationed

oc-

agitation

true

It is understood

all

remove

public mind.

western

of

to

unnecessary

If the

of

admission

execu-

from

proposed

when

pedient. Any
people of the

me

COB-

30

it should

to her

attempt
State

the

to

deny

right

seem

to

of

ex-

the
self-

TAYLOR"

government
affects

in

garded by them
rights,and, upon

will

invasion

an

as

POLITICS

which
devotion
peculiarly spire fidelity and
us
infalliblybe re- admonish
cautiously to

matter

themselves

IN

TEA

of

their

which

controversy

necessary

it, and

to

avoid
can

any
either

principleslaid down
endanger it or impair its strength, the
of Independence, chief element
of which
in
is to be found
they will certainly be sustained
by the the regard and affection of the people for
of the American
great mass
people. To each other.
assert
that
LITTLETON
Tazewell,
they are a conquered people
WALLER,
legisto the will
must
State
submit
and
a
lator; born in Williamsburg, Va., Dec. 17,
as
of their
in this regard will
and
1774; graduated at William
conquerors
Mary
meet
cordial
with
no
in
to the bar
College in 1792; admitted
response
among
American
Great
numbers
of
freemen.
of
1796; member
Congress in 1800-2;
in

our

them

native

are

them

of

citizens

inferior

States, not
countrymen
and

the

Declaration

own

to

the

and
in intelligence
language of menace

no

the

in

exercise

of

the
rest

United

member

of

of

Spain

for the

member

of

our

patriotism,
to

restrain

purchase

the

and

1824-33;

commission

the

United

States

chosen

was

undoubted

to

of Florida

with

treat

in 1819;
Senate

ia

of Virgovernor
he was
the candi-

In 1840
ginia in 1834.
date for the Vice-Presidency on
the ticket
right, substantially guaranteed to them
with
James
G. Birney. He
died in Norby the treaty of cession itself,shall ever
be uttered
or
by me
encouraged and susfolk, Va., March
6, 1860.
tained by persons
Tea.
The
acting under my authortea-plant,which
played such
ity. It is to be expected that in the a conspicuous part in American
higtory
residue
to
of the territory ceded
us
by just previous to the Revolutionary War,
Mexico
the people residing there will at
was
brought to Europe by the Dutch
the time
of their incorporation into the
East
India
Company, and first appeared
Union
State
settle all questions of in
as
a
Holland.
It was
nearly 100 years
domestic
before
the
policy to suit themselves.
exports were
large or
very
No
inconvenience
result
material
will
its use
became
extensive
in England and
from
the want
for a short
period of a in the English American
colonies.
As
established
government
by Congress over
of the teaearly as 1770 the cultivation
the part of the territorywhich
lies eastundertaken
in
plant was
Georgia, and
ward
of the new
State of California; and
from
time
to time
the attempt has been
the reasons
for my
renewed.
The
opinion that New Meximports of tea into the
ico will at no
distant
ask
for
United
States
in the year
period
very
ending June
admission
into the Union
founded
are
on
30, 1904, aggregated 112,898,016 Ibs.,valan

unofficial

information
to all who

which, I suppose,
have

cared

to make

is
in-

ued

at

Tea

$18,229,310.

quiries on that subject.


Seeing, then, that the question which
excites such painful sensations
in the
now
country will in the end certainly be settied by the silent effect of causes
independent of the action of Congress, I again
submit
wisdom
the policy recomto your

Politics.
Among other articles
imported into the colonies upon which
a
laid, in 1767, was
tea, the furduty was
nishing of which, for England and her
a
colonies, was
monopoly of the East
India
of the
In
Company.
consequence
riolent
manifestation
of
opposition to
this method
of taxation, and
especially

mended

of

common

in

my

annual

message

of

await-

the

in

serious

effects

upon

British

trade

ing the salutary operation of those causes,


by the operations of the non-importation
shall
thus
the
avoid
believing that we
league, Lord North, then prime minister,
creation
of geographical parties, and
offered a bill in Parliament, in the spring
sethe harmony
of feeling so necessary
of 1770, for the repeal of the duties upon
cure
to the
beneficial
action
of our
political every article enumerated, excepting te*.
He
system. Connected, as the Union
is, with
thought, unwisely, that tea, being a
the remembrance
of past happiness, the
not object to
luxury, the colonists would
of present blessings,and
the hope paying the very small
sense
duty imposed upon
of future
and prosperity,every die- it,and he retained
that simply as a standpeace
tate of wisdom, every
feelingof duty, and
ing assertion of the right of Parliament
fatal
of patriotism tend
emotion
to
in- to
the
colonist*.
It was
tax
a
every
II

IN

TEA
mistake.

ter

and

bill

The
The

2, 1770.

became

minister

temper

of the

law

mistook

the

Americans.
of

POLITICS

April
characIt

Six

of

Snyder's
nearly
procession. The
coffin,and

was

duties

school
500

bells

mates

bore

school-boys led
of

Boston

the
the
were

those
of the neighimposed, tolled; so, also, were
of this species of taxation
for none
towns.
was
boring
the principleinvolved,
it was
burdensome;
By smuggling, non-importation, and nonof their liber- consumption agreements, the tax
which
lay at the foundation
on
tea,
ties. They regarded the imposition of ever
retained
for the
of vindicating
purpose
small
the
virtuso
a
duty upon one article as much
authority of Parliament, was
violation
sacred
of their
a
rights as if ally nullified at the opening of 1773. Then
taxation
occurred
a
heavy duty on tea was
thought upon
imposed. The a new
and
to
would
Lord
North.
the
India
not
The
East
ministry
point,
yield
Company
Merchants
series of troubles
followed.
a
severely felt the effects of these causes,
in Boston, New
and
York, Philadelphia, Anrequested the government to take off
napolis, and other places agreed not to the duty of 3d. a pound on their tea levied
in America.
combinations
import tea, and there were
Already 17,000,000 Ibs. had
in
accumulated
in
its
various
Before
their warehouses
in Enguse
against
places.
introduced
North
his repeal bill into Parland, and they offered to allow the govliament
in ernment
to
retain
the
the mistresses
of 300 families
6d. upon
pound
subscribed
to
Boston
a
exportation tariff if they would
league, Feb. 9, as an
take
off the 3d. duty.
not
Here
to drink
was
an
1770, binding themselves
any
optea
act
should
be reuntil
the
revenue
portunity for conciliation; but the min(Feb. 12) istry, deluded
pealed. Three days afterwards
by false views of national
maidens
not
accede
to
the proposithe young
followed
the example
would
honor,
favored
India
of the
multitudes
but
East
and
the
tion,
matrons,
signed
stupidly
the following document
:
We, the daugh- Company, and utterly neglected the prin
ters of those
have, and do ciplesand feelingsof the Americans.
They
patriots who
for the public interest, and
proposed a bill for the exportation of tea
now,
appear
their own
in that principallyregard their posterity to America
on
account, without
with
as
such, do with pleasure engage
paying export duty, and it passed May
in denying ourselves
them
the
consignees were
drinking 10, 1773.
Agents and
of foreign tea, in hopes to frustrate
a
appointed in the several colonies to retends
ceive the tea, and
to deprive a whole
the ministry congratucomplan which
with
in life." lated
themselves
munity of all that is valuable
outwitting the paof the
Violators
perfected the nulnon-importation agree- triots. This movement
sometimes
handled
ments
were
roughly, lification of the tea tax, for universal
manifested.
A Boston
was
merchant, Theophilus Lillie, of opposition to its use
who
the
office of conThose
to
sell
tea
continued
tendencies,
accepted
Tory
of the
East
openly, which excited popular indignation, signees of the tea cargoes
held
in equal disIndia
of half-grown boys placed an
A company
were
Company
his door
with
a
repute with the stamp-distributers. They
effigynear
finger upon
his store.
While
were
it, pointing towards
a
requested to refrain from receiving
to
the
The
he
man
remove
was
it,
attempting
request of a
proscribed article.
with
dirt
and
in
Runstones.
was
pelted
public meeting
Philadelphia, Oct. 2,
should
Wharton
not
ning into the store, he seized a gun, and
1773, that Messrs.
the crowd,
act, was
discharged its contents
complied with, and their answer
among
A
received
with
of
shouts
a
killed, and
was
boy named
Snyder was
applause,
lad
named
Samuel
Gore
wounded.
firm
Another
was
refused, and
they were
and
The
affair
hisses.
A public
excitement, greeted with groans
produced intense
not
in
in
but
the
Boston
(Nov. 5) appointed a
only
Boston,
meeting
throughout
colonies.
funeral
The
of Snyder was
committee
to wait
the consignees in
a
upon
most
and
to
impressive pageant. His coffin,in- that town
request them
resign,
scribed
Innocence
itself is not
of Govall friends
safe," These consignees were
borne
Hutchinson
his
two
to
of them
was
an
ernor
were
Liberty Tree, where
immense
and
third
his nephew.
a
concourse
were
sons
assembled, who
They had
thence
followed
the remains
to the grave,
to attend
been summoned
a
meeting of the
not

the

petty

amount

"

"

"

"

32

POLITICS"

IN

TEA

their

resign

the

of

presence

the

answer

ingly
appointed for the
ing on the 18th,
plied: "It is out
with

the

same

the

of

power
town."

of

request

the

with

at

purpose

when
our

in

West
for

they

was

consignees

re

comply

to

The

meet

The
silence.
ing
up
alarmed
and
asked
became
consignees
leave
to
resign their appointments into
broke

the

hands

of

ominous

the

governor

refused, and

The

was
prayer
signees fled to the

At

and

held

in

the

then

(Nov.

protectionof

meeting
29),

first in
South

letter

was

refused

the
the

the

on

tea

by

allowed

When

it

she

no

harbor,
tea

on

report soon
spread that she had
com
board, and the captain was

on

and

the

had

Hall

the

an

York

New

enter

to

that

assurance

board.

castle.

from

the

York

meanwhile

and

commanded

pelled to acknowledge
Meeting-house teen chests,belonging

received

An
to

New

at

afterwards.

interfere;

to

ship,
captain, was

con

Faneuil

Boston.

of weather

arrive

not

months

other

council.

and

Indies, did
several

in

tea

stress

(April 21, 1774) at Sandy Hook,


the
instructions
from
the
pilots, under
refused
to
committee,
city
bring her up,
and
committee
of vigilance soon
a
took
the captain was
possession of her. When
he was
ordered
to take
brought to town
his ship and
back
The
consignees
cargo.

meet

the

by

arrived

dar

committee

Another

affrontive."

of

other, driven

con

voted

the

meeting
unsatisfactory and

"

their

committee,

town

that

equivocated

so

destruction

and

Liberty (under Liberty Tree)


appointments. They
temptuously refused to comply; now,
of

Sons

TECHNOLOGY

not

to

the

East

that
to

India

he had
eigh
private parties,
The
Company.

consignees,offeringto store the tea until


they could write to England and receive
instructions.
offer was
The
rejectedwith
disdain.
sheriff then
read
The
a
procla
mation
from
the governor,
ordering the
received with
meeting to disperse. It was
the meeting ordered
hisses. Then
that two
tea
vessels
hourly expected at Boston

indignant people poured the tea into the


harbor, and the captain of the East India
of
tea-ship with grand parade, a band
music
God
the King," the
save
playing
city bells ringing, and colors flying from
escorted
from
the cus
liberty-poles was
tom-house
to a pilot-boat,
which
took him

should

direction

"

"

"

to

the

be

moored

demand

York

of

at
a

(Nov. 25)

there

declined

Tryon

issued

to

At

his vessel
of

at

the

Hook, when, under

vigilance committee,
started
for England.
A
the

vessel was
popular meeting in New
the
appointed consignees ship (the Dartmouth)

act, whereupon
order

an

Griffin's Wharf.

tea-shipthat might

Governor

late

in the barracks.

same

arrived

November,

1773, and
town-meeting (Nov. 29)

by a
cargo of any
to be deposited at Griffin's

for the
arrive

in

Wharf.

meeting

that

It
the

was
"

owner

at

the
tea-

Boston

ordered

was

to

the

be moored

voted
be

by the
directed

When
reached
America
that
news
tea- not
the tea-ship at his peril";
to enter
not
to suffer
warned
ships were
loading for colonial ports, the and the captain was
for preventing the
of the tea to be landed.
other
Two
patriots took measures
any
here.
their
The
served
unloading of
tea-ships that arrived there were
cargoes
first in the matter.
in the same
and suffered outrage. A
Philadelphians moved
way,
At a public meeting held Oct. 2, 1773, in fourth
for Boston,
was
tea-vessel, bound
the
on
eight resolutions
people protested wrecked
Cape Cod, and a few chests of
her tea, saved, were
against taxation
by Parliament, and de
placed in the castle
nounced
to his
as
an
About
country
twenty
by the governor's orders.
enemy
whoever
should
aid or abet in unloading, chests brought in another
vessel, on
pri
A
into
townseized
cast
and
vate
receiving,or vending the tea."
account, were
held in Boston
Charleston
the water.
In
a
(Nov. 5), at
was
meeting was
cargo
which
John
Hancock
landed, but, being stored in damp cellars,
presided, which
PARTY.
TEA
was
adopted the Philadelphia resolutions, with
spoiled. See BOSTON
a
in ob
supplement concerning remissness
OF, a notewor
Technology, INSTITUTES
of the educational
serving non-importation and non-consump
thy feature
progress
tion
is
in recent
but
in
United
States
the
a
insisting upon
agreements,
years
strict compliance with them
is
in the future.
that
the
attention
paid
being
great
A tea-vessel,bound
in technical
for Philadelphia,was
to the education
of the young
stopped (Dec. 25) 4 miles below that city, lines. The institutes of technology are in
information
having been received of the stitutions wholly distinct from the agri"
"

"

"

IK.

"

33

TECTJMSEH
mechanical

and

cultural
have

been

established

and

Territories

States

colleges
in

two

exercises

institutes

nical
known

of

usual

The

from

what

in

course

in

making,

wood

and

metal

drawing,

French

German

At

career.

1902

alleged

secret

with

of

the

brothers

traders

and

agents, had

the
drawn

in

turning,
addition

to

and
the

languages, chemistry,
necessities
for a
professional

and
other

year

These

sports.
an

includes

mechanical

and

warlike

work.

civil,mechanical, and
engineering,foundry work, model-

technical

military
religious

technical

purely

the

electrical

institutions

British

attracted

few branch
hand

on

Prophet

interspersed with
and

intercourse

are

Wabash),
upper
Miamis.
There

Indians, when

military exercises, and

training-schools,the

affordinginstruction
industry dependent

latter
es

differ

also

manual

as

of

were

mummeries

and
the

1809

The

while

the

Delawares

provisions throughout
latter, large numbers

under

of

Congress.
in
providing special instruction
to
also
courses
a
give
agriculture,
in manual
limited
extent
training. Techof

acts

the

among

of

branch

northern

that

various

the

there

the

of the school-

end

in the

were

United

States

forty-threeinstitutes of technology,having
total of 1,434 professors and
instruc
a
in all departments;
tors; 18,990 students
12
fellowships; 1,193 scholarships; 494,981 bound
volumes, and 140,312 pamphlets
in

their

libraries; scientific apparatus


$3,510,219; grounds and build
at
$24,001,683; productive
ings valued
funds
aggregating $14,454,783; and total
income, $4,796,613.
In 1905
of an
much
extraordinary de

valued

at

mand

for

graduates of the leading insti


technology was
directlytraceable
to the remarkable
development of the man
ufacturing interests of the country.
of

tutes

Indian
Tecumseh,
an
warrior, chief of
in Old
born
Shawnees;
Piqua, near
of
Springfield,O., about
1768; was
one

the

boldest

and

most

active

of the

fche Prophet and

upor

the

braves

Harrison,

his brother

picions

of

Indian

Territory

and

Indian

affairs.

With

the

the

sus-

of

governor

the

superintendent

of

du-

consummate

at
plicity,the Prophet, visitingHarrison
his
asVincennes, allayed
suspicions by
as
1804
friend of peace, his
a
suming to be a warm
the Indians
with
his brother, sole object being to reform
scheme, in connection
The
Prophet," for confederating the and to put a stop to their use of whiskey.
with
Western
Indians
for the purpose
Not
of exlong afterwards, a treaty made
denounced
several tribes by Harrison
was
terminating the white people. He made
of the popularity of his brother
threats
and
serious
were
use
as
a
by Tecumseh,
invited
the
Harrison
influence
him.
whose
made
or
medicine-man,
prophet
by
Vincennes
at
had been very great over
interview
brothers
of
to
an
large portions
the
the latter appeared
Delawares,
Shawnees,
Wyandottes, (August, 1810), when

who
at

opposed Wayne

the

(1794-95),

and

was

As
treaty of Greenville.
early
he
had
the
execution
of
begun

"

Miamis,
was

Ottawas,

Pottawattomies,

Winnebagoes,

poos,

the

among

more

greater part of his


In

the

moved

summer

his

of

and

1808

with

It

tribes

remote
converts

Kicka-

Chippewas.

the

that

obtained.

were

Prophet

villageto Tippecanoe

Creek

many

followers

and

showed

so

much

him
ordered
hostility that the governor
and his people to quit the neighborhood,
Tecumseh
in

re-

(a* Georgia, and


34

went

Florida, the

Seminoles
the
among
and
Creeks
in Alabama

tribes

in

Missouri

in

the

TECTTMSEH

spring of 1811, trying to


join his confederacy. He
ilar

mission
his

him

in

the

brother,

induce
went

them
on

to

the

to

sim-

had

taking with
Prophet, partly

war-path. The wily Prophet, who


told by the British when
a comet

been

autumn,

would

the

that

told

appear,

the

excited

they would see the


pale fire,stretched

multitude

of Tecumseh,
in the vault

arm

like
out
employ him as a cunning instrument
the
at
certain
a
superstitious Indians, of heaven
managing
thus
time, and
and
they would know
partly to prevent his doing mischief
by that sign when to be
absence.
About
at
home
in Tecumseh's
The people looked
gin the war.
him
upon
His
with
for
the
fame
thirty warriors
accompanied them.
of
Tecumseh
awe,
the Indians
to engage
and
the Prophet had
mission, then, was
Te
preceded them.
allies
the
British
and
for
continued
his mission
as
against the cumseh
with
sucto

in

Americans.

Seminoles

for

whose

and

Creeks

first time

the

in

him

but

the

Creeks

part of
(the present) Autauga county, Ala., late
in October.
Soon
afterwards, having addressed

Creeks

the

the

different

at

approached a great
nel Hawkins, United

lower

council
States

points, he
called by ColoIndian

Creek
Toockabatcha, the ancient
ital, where
fully 5,000 of the nation
at

cap-

here

opponents

and

"

Tecumseh
to

tried

his

to

every
At

art

have

taken

there.

them

was

Warrior."
him

convert

length he said, angrily: "Tustinuggee-Thlucco, your blood


purposes.

is white.
and

You

talk, but

my

fight.

believe

agent, You
were

found

Among the most


conspicuous of
Tustinuggee-Thlucco, the
Big

willing

assembled

but

cess,

Tecumseh

him

to

lent

the

Chicka-

and

country

listen

not

addressed

He

ears.

Choctaws

The

through
saws,
passed, would

know

and

go

there, I

to

mean

not

you
has
sent

Spirit
it.

believe

redsticks

do

reason;

Great

the

shall

the

my
not

do

you

I will

leave

me.

directly

When
straight to Detroit.
will
foot
stamp my
upon

I get
the

marched
down
with
house
in
gathered. Tecumseh
dig- ground and shake
every
with
his train
of Toockabatcha."
nity into the square
the
time
thirty followers, entirelynaked, excepting
Strangely enough, at about
their
their
faces
Tecumseh
have
arrived
at
must
ornaments,
flaps and
Detroit,
adorned
with
there was
heard
painted black, their heads
a
deep rumbling underthe Alabama
eagles'feathers,while buffalo tails dragged ground all over
region, and
there
around
their
behind, suspended by bands
was
a
heaving of the earth that
waists.
Like
made
attached
the houses
of Toockabatcha
reel and
appendages were
to their
was

as

arms,

and

hideous

as

their

whole

possible,and

appearance
their bear-

and
ceremoniing uncommonly
pompous
round
round
in
and
ous.
They marched
the
and
then, approaching the
square,

totter

if about

as
ran

savages
is at Detroit!
We

to

fall.

The

startled

out, exclaiming: "Tecumseh


is at

Tecumseh

Detroit!

feel the

It was
stamp of his foot!"
the shock
of an
felt
earthquake that was
Creek
all over
the Gulf region in December, 1812.
the Indian
saluchiefs, gave them
tation of a hand-shake
at arm's-length and
time
At the same
the comet
the blazing
of Tecumseh
exchanged tobacco in token of friendship, arm
appeared in the sky.
So they made
their appearance
each
a
powerful impression
day These events made
until Hawkins
Creek
on
nation, but
departed.
nearly the whole
That
held
from
in the
it did not move
the
night a council was
Big Warrior
round-house.
It
with
his
the
United
States.
The
to
was
great
allegiance
packed
listeners.
Tecumseh
Creeks
in
in
less
made
and
than
two
a
rose
fiery
arms,
eager
and vengeful speech, exhorting the Creeks
nation
ruined,
their
was
years
to abandon
of 1812-15
the customs
of the pale faces
In the War
Tecumseh
was
and
active
to those
of their fathers; to
the
return
ally of the British, and re
cast away
the plough and loom
ceived the commission
ef brigadier-general
and cease
the cultivation
of the soil, for it was
in the British
an
Assisting General
army.
for
noble
in
the
of
he
hunters
battle
and
Proctor
the Thames,
unworthy
pursuit
warriors.
killed
He warned
slain there, Oct. 5, 1813.
them
that the AmerWho
was
icans
Tecumseh?
them
were
an
was
unsettled, and, at one
seeking to exterminate
and possess their country; and told them
time, excitingquestion. It was
supposed,
"

"

"

that
him

their

from

friends, the
the

Great

British, had

Lakes

to invite

sent

them

at

the

that

3*

he

time

of the

was

slain

"

battle

by

the

on

the

Thames,

pistol of

CoL

TEHTJANTEPEC

TEEDYUSCTTNG"
Richard

an

as

asserted

Johnson

when

politicalcampaign
for

didate

States, the

United

discussion.

warm

ranted

was

warriors

has

his

body

exasperated
supposed body

the

believed

by his
away
Kentuckians

have

Kentuckians

of

Tecumseh,
recorded, by

who

PURCHASE
In

Valley.

he

while

November,

asleep, and

was

he

death, April 16, 1763.


Indian
STEPHEN,
Teganakoa,

naked.
that

warriors.

his

with

went

for

Sault

St.

tized.

In

family

Louis,

where

fall

the

they

of

other

later

he

Indian,

band

of Cayugas

N.

Y.

he

owed

One

will with

"

the

fires.
your
God
who

He

was

then

an

him

to

that

left his

of Christians

coun

the

at

what

"Do

neither

you

outrages

your

life

willingly give
his

shed

my
for

blood

with

me."

death,

to

tortured

slowly

his

enduring
praying for

on

and

prisoner by a
to Onondaga.

having

dogs

I fear

me,

wife

party said
to

answered:

He

for

taken
carried

of the

for

Sault."

nor

was

and

his death

trymen

while

his

of

bap

were

1790,

and

convert;

mission

the

to

hunting expedition with

sculpt-

was

to

mutilated

1754, and
allies

WALKING

the

Wyoming

in
their

enemy
burned

be

to

Tecumseh,

of

that

was

carried

was

The

Indian

Two

was

Ind
war

were

stripped
They were
pretty clearly shown

been

neither

much
an

and

con
treaty of pacificationwas
at Easton, Pa.,
with
cluded
Teedyuscung
town
laid
a
and in the following year
was
his
in Wyoming
and
out
Valley for him
house
set
His
afire by an
tribe.
was

1757,

the

spot after the

the

upon
whom

of

Tecumseh.
It

which

denied.

never

one

killed

he

dead

lay

battle,

That

circumstances

under

ian

of

Moravians

the

Delawares
within

(q. v.)

can

was

the

resided

the

during

he

deserted

He

positively led

Presidency
question caused

Vice

the

it

and

fact;

undoubted

friends

Indeed, the

Johnson.

M.

Colonel

of

BAILWAY

SHIP

fortitude

agony
his torturers.

and

Indian
an
Iroquois
Teganissorens,
chief; born in Onondaga, N. Y. ; became
a

to

strong ally of the French

Christianity in
visited

lowing

year
whom
to
governor,
habilitation
of Fort

converted

; was

in

and

1693;
he

fol

the

French

the

Frontenac,

the

proposed

re

(Kings

Catarocouy

which

as
appeared to Frontenac
policy. He accordingly raised an
pedition to carry out the plan which
to
forced
was
abandon,
soon
owing

ton),
wise

and

clared

French

that

thereafter
tacks

MONUMKNT.

JOHNSOX

he

in

marble
in

monument,

Colonel
upon
the cemetery at

conviction

their

that

he

killed

Johnson's

Frankfort,
the

would

Boston,

and

Canada.
Sault

chief

Teedyuscung,
Indians; born
1700;

removed

ware

in

and

the

merhoff,

near

to

N.

forks

of

the

Gideon

Moravian

the

Trenton,

1730; received
name

of

Christian

Delaware

the

Dela

baptism
from
Bishop Cammissionary, in 1750.

being
Albany
died

He

St.

1881

Capt.

James

French
in

made
for
in

Louis, after

Tehuantepec

J., about

de

neutral, and

remain

to the

Ship
B.

to

Eng
he

strongly protested against


English settlers. In 1711

were

chief.

both
whom

to

he

Court.

the

on

gave
rations

great

received

agents,

information

ure

French

the

Teganissorens

Later
lish

from

received

orders

a
ex

the

that

at

he

prepa

York,

New

of

invasion

Caughnawaga,

or

1711.

Railway.
Eads,

who

Early
had

in

won

considerable
reputation as an engineer in
the Mis
building the great bridge over
at
St.
in
and
also
construct
Louis,
sissippi
of
ing the system of jettiesat the mouth
36

TEHUANTEPEC

SHIP

BAILWAY"

TELEPHONE

of legislationbefore adjournment, and


Mexican
at
died
8
March
ship rail- Captain Eads
following,
of Tehuantepec. nothing
with
his
the isthmus
was
across
accomplished
way
also
scheme.
That
a
promised him
government
and
A
imland, and he
Telegraph.
an
telegraph on
large grant of money
invented
Jonathan
application to Conproved plan was
immediately made
by
the carryaid to secure
for further
Grant, of Belchertown, Mass., as early as
gress
The
inventor
1799.
reset up
of his
was
one
ing-out of the plan. The matter
Boston
of Representatives to
lines between
ferred in the House
and
Martha's
Vinedisa
committee, and this body, Feb. 12, 1881, yard, places 90 miles apart, at which
tance
made
he asked
a
report endorsing the project, and
question and received an
in less than
ten
minutes.
Until
recommending the passage of a bill pledg- answer
States
the perfectingof the electro-magneticteleing the protection of the United
and
in 1844, telegto the railway company
Morse
guarantee- graph by Professor
of concarried
$50,000,000 of its raphy was
on
ing the interest on
by means

river, obtained

that

the

government

bonds.
upon
and

This
the

thus

eration

the

from

build

right to

table

report, however, was


by an
overwhelming

for

the

the

of

time

the

being
of

merits

the

in

length,

claimed

that

be

built

of

half

the

of

the

the

Tehuantepec

in

cost

Panama
In
corps

the

He
could

the
of

fall

of

canal.

engineers

this

obtained

to

the

from

in

the

all

he

alto-

was

struggle

in

Forty-ninth Congress partially consented


to incorporate his company.
A bill was
passed by the Senate Feb. 17, 1887, which

York

New

miles

miles

1,155,405

telegraph
from

States

200,000

were

three

1846

In

busi-

dingy

City; in 1904
of poles and
wire;

of

23,458

offices; 67,909,973 messages


handled; $29,$21,361,915
249,390
receipts; and
gross

expenditures.
latest

telegraphy.
cation

development
On

Feb.

established

was

West

and

steamer

New

York.

and
200

commiini-

Key West,
Key

between
miles
See

SUBMARINE.

Telegraph,

wireless

in

between

Chicago,

is

26, 1905,

Florida, and

of

east
ATLANTIC

TELEGRAPH.

Chronology
conveyed sounds

THE.

Telephone,
Hook

Robert
tance

to

recognition for his scheme, the

United

the

cables;

favorable

was

the

in

sur-

Captain
Forty-sixth or the

with

out

worn

due

1882,

employed

However,

subsequent congresses
committee
When
reports.

gether

in

and

were

route.

ness

The

for

selected

He

preference

1881,

men

trans-

built

be

two

obtain

112

route.

veying
Eads

of the

route,

for

could

ships

cost

visible to the eye.


the entire

conducted

there

canal

trivances

basement

was

$75,000,000.

at

wherever

strong railway

portation

vote,

consid-

project

prevented.
the
Captain Eads estimated
the Tehuantepec
railway over
miles

laid

distended

by

Alexander

reproduction
Bell

to

dis^
1667

wire
Bell

Graham

vestigation of

of:

electrical

his

begins

transmission

inand

speech
July, 1874
electrical telephone,

of articulate

constructs

an

skin,
diaphragm of gold-beater's
named
as
July, 1875
a
eighty other
body which transmits
speech
persons
title of the
the name
and
Thomas
A. Edison, furnished
by Willpolitic under
Union
Atlantic
of
the
Western
and
Pacific Ship Railway Comiam Orton, president
of
with
The
not
to
a
stock
exceed
description
was
$100,- Telegraph Company,
pany.
with
of
10
cent,
when
the
Reis's
experiments
000,000, and
telephone,begins
per
stock
had
10 per
to producing an
been subscribed
for and
view
articulating telea
cent,
thereon
July, 1875
paid in cash, a meeting of phone
infor an
stockholders
to
held
Elisha
be
in Washwas
Gray files his caveat
the
of
tones
transmit
the
to
of
vention
York
for the election
ington or New
directors.
If $10,000,000 of stock was
not
voice
human
through a telegraphic circonstituted

James

Eads

B.

and

some

with

"

subscribed

paid
"

so

thereon

the

limitation.

for

and

within
bill

10

declared

This

per

two

years,
"

must

bill did

the House, however,

cent,

being

not

the

in

cash

cuit,"

expire by
get through

lost in the

Feb.

etc

Bell

Professor

charter

before

method
Arts

and

the

Science*

American
of

Academy

37

his
of

Boston

May

rush

14, 1876

publicly explains

10, 187"

TEMPERANCE

TELESCOPE"
Bell's
tennial

telephone
Exhibition

exhibited
at

Cen

the

at

diaphragm

first used

they ground the 36-inch


Lick
Observatory, in

tele

the

fornia, and
40-inch

Bell

by

for

scope

1876

June,
Iron

till

ments,

Philadelphia, Pa.

the

Alvan

son,

G., made

telescope for

Yerkes

Cali

the

the

observa

30, 1876
tory of the University of Chicago, erected
The
movable
carbon, loud-speaking telephone at Williams
Bay, Wis.
part
invented
turns
of the latter, which
the polar
on
January, 1877
12
the
Professor
Bell
exhibits
at
Essex
the
axis, weighs about
tons, and
tons.
The
Institute, Salem,
Mass., his telephone, clock
weighs 1%
refracting
using a powerful horseshoe
Observatory, at
magnet, by telescopes of the Naval
June

Edison's

which

speech, shouted
16
telephone in Boston,
to
distant, is distinctly audible
short

into

similar

dience

of

600

in

persons

office of

telephone

Charles

Boston, and

line

Williams,

his house

an

au

12, 1877
the

connects

electrician, in

in Somerville

First

in

established

telephone exchange
Mass

1877
.

One

form

of

invented

microphone

Edison

April 1,

Experiments
sity by Prof.

in

begun
Eli

W.

Brown

the

by
1877

Univer
Prof.

Blake,

Pierce, and
others, result
struction
by Dr. William
of

1877

in
F.

con

Channing

first

portable telephone
April, 1877
Handle
telephone, now
generally in use,
made
and
Edson
S.
by Dr. Channing
Jones, at Providence, R. I
1877
May,
Glass-plate telephone invented
by Hen
Providence,
ry W. Vaughan, State assayer,
R. I
June, 1877
Bell telephone patent expires
March

7, 1893

Telephone

in opposition to the
company
Bell Telephone Company
organ

American
ized

1901

Statistics:

Miles

circuits, 798,901;
struments

in

use

daily

average

of

wire, 2,983,719;
stations, 1,525,167; in
under
lease, 3,779,517;

connections

of

9,876,402; capital of American

phone

structed
In

Bell

Tele

Company,

Telescope.
in

1853

Mass.,

exchanges,

the

Alvan

$154,179,300.
Report of Jan. 1,
first
Telescopes were
Netherlands

Clark, of

about

con

1608.

the
Uni

of

Virginia, both made


by Alvan
26-inch
a
Sons, have
aperture.
largest reflecting telescope in the

The

States

28-inch

mirror.

is at

Princeton

at

Harvard

Other

University,
telescopes

notable

University (Clark,

23-

inch) ; Rochester, N. Y.
Wis.
Madison,
(Clark,

(Clark, 16-inch) ;
15.5-inch) ; Dud
ley, at Albany, N. Y. (Fitz, 13-inch) ;
University of Michigan (Fitz, 12.5-inch) ;
and
Middletown
University (Clark, 12inch )

Telfair, EDWARD,
in 1735;

land

agent for

in

1766.

on

the
of

one

zine

came

An

house:

in

North

resided

in Savannah

active

Savannah
in

powder

He
in

Congress
and

Georgia.

1790-93
He

broke

served

was

in the

Conti
in

1778, 1780-83, and


he

of

was

governor
in Savannah,
Ga.,

died

was

the maga
the gun

open
removed

and

1775.

as

first

Carolina, and

merchant

party which

at

1786

in 1758

patriot there, he
revolutionary committees, and

nental

America

mercantile

in Scot

patriot; born
to

in Virginia, then
finallysettled as

Sept.

17, 1807.
in

Teller, HENRY
Granger, N.

cated

Colorado

to

the
in

Colorado
States

He

was

1861;

militia

Interior

cratic

United
then

23,

University,
bar

Senator

legislator;born

MOORE,
Y., May

Alfred

at

mitted

the
1905

at
long, and
Observatory,

"

United

John

the

feet

33

McCormick

versity

are

April,
Boston,

Washington,
Leander

Clark

Salem
Feb.

First-known

miles

in

1830;
N.

ad

settled

1858;

in

of

major-general
in

edu

Y.;

the

United

1862-64;

in
in

1876-82; Secretary of
1882-85; again a Demo

States

Senator

re-elected

Republican, but in 1896


Cambridgeport, National
Republican

to

the

in

1885-91.

Senate

withdrew
Convention

from
on

as

the
ac

comparatively unknown
portrait- count
of its financial policy; and
was
re
painter, after having experimented from
turned
to
the
Senate
in 1897
in
an
as
in
1846
grinding lenses, succeeded
in dependent Silver Republican.
turning out a glass superior to any made
ORDER
SONS
Temperance,
OF
THE
elsewhere
in the world.
He
and
his sons
See SONS
OF.
OF
TEMPERANCE, ORDER
OF
went
on
making large and larger instru
THE.
a

REFORM"

TEMPERANCE

TEMPERANCE

the
Reform.
Maurice,
Temperance
order
of
an
landgrave of Hesse, founded
total-aba
25, 1600;
temperance, Dec.
stinence society existed at Skibbereen, Ire-

land, in

Society

Sober

the

1817;

at

Y., April 3,
Society for the

Hector,
chusetts

Intemperance
Feb.

organized
motion

movement

of

Park

the
Drs.

Street

Justin

Wayland,
S. V.

S. Wilder

The
chief

Church,

following
in

events

is the

the

at

Jenks, and

John

and

Tappan
in

prominent

were

Pro-

it.

chronology

of

the

First

women's

ganized

in Ohio, close of
York

New

society

temperance

State

First
meets

national

of

Sons

Union

1880

May

24-27,

John

for

Frances
Women's
founder

1833

of

Temperance organized
Sept. 29, 1842
Gough signs the pledge at Wor-

B.

Father

Oct.
visits the United

Mathew

arriving in

York

New

he is welcomed

at the

the

on

Irving

Maine

House

of Good

State

Father

Mathew

the

sails from

Pacific for
tour

Ireland
the

throughout

Hall, London

the

Willard.

District

of

Columbia

See

two

the

World's
dies

Christian

in

PRESIDENTIAL

eating liquors to
Jesuit

with

2, 1851

New

8, 1851

text
secure

first address

in

2,

was

that

National

Temperance

of the

United

went

the

the
asserted

sordid

navy

the
and

Tern-

York

City
18, 1898

ELECTIONS

for

Indians

the

missionaries

all their

aginary

after

the
1886

Pro-

in

opposed
it

as

power,

Canada.

the traffic
not

was

only

in New

however,

abolished

eduCon-

candidates, 1880-1904.
Societies.
French
traders
Temperance
engaged extensively in the sale of intoxi-

years' tour

Aug.
.

1886

and

Feb.

1853

in the

17,

17,
May
E. Willard, president of
Christian
Temperance Union,

of

in Mettemperance convention
ropolitan Hall, N. Y.
Sept. 6-10, 1853

Spirit rations

.1883
.

Philadelphia

compulsory temperance
public schools passed by

Union,

perance

The

1849

World's

States

E.
in

injurious to the Indians, but interfered


1851
seriously with the labors of the missionThe
Philadelphia aries.
wealthy traders managed to
after
interest the governor-general in their beexan
United
States
half, also the King's counsel, on the preNov.

a
Gough makes
England, deliveringhis

B.

Exeter

as

July 2,

liquor law passed. .June


Templars formed

Order

States

Union

Temperance

hibition

31, 1842

Ashburton;

guest of the city

John

in

Territories

delegatesfrom

cester, Mass

tended

Christian

for

gress

26, 1833

1873

Woman's

York

New

York

December,

Christian
Temperorganized. .Nov. 18-20, 1874
Women's
international
temperance con12, 1876
gress in Philadelphia, Pa. .June
International
in
temperance congress
June
13-14, 1876
Philadelphia,Pa
of
scientific
Department
temperance
in public schools
in connection
created
with
the Women's
Christian
Temperance

convention

temperance

States

twenty-two
in

Feb.

Philadelphia; 440

at

Order

in

begins

Union

ance

cation

D.

1873
crusade

Feb.

societies

Washington,

Maine

temperance

Hillsboro, O

1829
organized
CongressionalTemperance Society organat

of

Murphy,

Law

ized

of

cis

State

temperance

on

..

1828

Connecticut

and

Prohibition

organized by Frances
B. Gough dies
John

or-

organized
Sept. 1-2, 1869

party

111

Black

World's

in America:

New

party nominates
and
(Pa.) for President
John
Russell
(Mich.) for Vice-President,
receive
who
.1872
5,608 popular votes.
Blue-ribbon
movement
begun by FranJames

movement

temperance

at

1865

Prohibition

Chicago,

National

Mass.

Boston,

Woods,

Messrs.

the

organized

was

Edwards,
and

of

Boston,

for

Society

Temperance

National
at

headquarters

organized

Woman's

temperance reform as an
began Feb. 13, 1826,

American

the

at

house, with

York,

Massa-

Suppression

instituted

was

but

5, 1813;

when

The

1818.

N.

lication

National

was

Allentown, N. J., in 1805, and


sociefollowed
this was
by temperance
at
ties organized, one
Moreau,
Saratoga
at
Y., April 30, 1808; another
co., N.
at
Greenfleld, N. Y., in 1809; and another
formed

SOCIETIES

to

traffic

good-will
that

the

was

of

the

evils of it

were

to

Tt
im-

much
exaggerated. For once,
philanthropy triumphed over
interest.
The
Bishop of Quebec
or

France

in

1678,

and

Sept 1, 1862
royal decree prohibiting the
Society and pub- heavy penalties.
39

necessary
Indians.

'obtained

traffic u*vJer

TENNESSEE

TEMPLE"
first modern

The

ia

formed

farmers

200

Union

Litch-

of

delivered

He

1846.

societywas

temperance

by

1789

in

made

the

first speech for the

Tennessee

after

the

first

chan
election
of Abraham
Lincoln;
was
agreed not to use
in 1866-78;
cellor of Tennessee
retired
doing their farmin 1881;
the practice of law
was
work
the
Organized from
ensuing season."
be
in
in 1881to
kind
similar
Tenn.,
Knoxville,
societies of a
postmaster
began
He
is the
85.
author
of The
the first pub
in 1811, and in 1826
Covenanter,
formed
lic temperance
society was
organized in the Cavalier, and the Puritan; and East

ficld county, Conn., who


any distilled liquor in

"

The

States.

United

the

principlewas

adopted

not

abstinence

Tennessee

1836, when

Ten

held

convention

national

total
until

higher
ingtonian Society, the first
total-abstinence
principles,was
N.

Y., took

that

in Baltimore

first

the

organized

chairman

of intem

rated

men

in

walked

drunkards

1,000 reformed

and

PERRY, lawyer; born in


Temple, OLIVER
Green
county, Tenn., Jan. 27, 1820; grad

the

uated
in

1844, and

admitted

was

the

to

in

bar

STATE

OF,

originallya

was

Carolina, and
a
as
hunting-ground by the
and
even
Choctaws, Shawnees,
Nations.

tribe

No

tion

it

made

claimed

was

outbreak

1776.

Revolution

the

at

Bemis's

was

mayor
in Albap^

forces

and

in Ulster

brigade in
Heights in October,
of Albany in 1779a

N.

Y., Jan.

10,

1810.

and

over

and

one

tlement

Six

the

inaugu
in

of the

counties,

died

that

of
and

appointed colonel of
brigadier-general in

was

made

OF
the

Clinch

while

others

intervening ridges to
or

two

other

penetrated Powell

Chickasaws,

by

He

He

1775;

government

commanded

STATE

TENNESSEE,
Tennessee,
part of North

1777.

member

in

convention

the
State

action

1753;

Congress

Dutchess

83.

College, Tennessee,

Washington

at

of
the

1778, and

pro

cession.

War.

in

merchant

Provincial

the

on

who

totally abstain
At

formed

signed a pledge to Soon after the


he
from
intoxicating drinks. ary War
anniversary of the society militia; was

habits

perate

by six

in 1840

became

Wash-

The

Civil

the

ABRAHAM,
military officer;
13, 1734;
Albany, N. Y., May

in

born

Saratoga,

at

stand.

and

Broeck,

in

the

streams,

Valley

and

southwest

began

set'

of

corner

Vir-

fixed habita

dwelt
Cherokees, who
excepting
in the extreme
southeast
part. Earl Lon
of Virginia, sent
Andrew
don, governor
the

Lewis

thither

in

ment,

and

built

he

of

Knoxville.
in 1760

Indians

being

to

murdered

Armed

men

lina

retook

from

miles

the

fort

1768.

Cherokees, from

tained

to

in
sue

It

1761, and

by

Others
tlements

soon

individual

the

on

Watauof the

streams
on

the
in

lands

settlers
1771.

into

of

the

STATB

SEAL

OF

TKNNESSKK.

ginia. These early settlers


Watauga Association
signed the
body

"

known

were
"

from

1769

a*

to

colony. 1777.

extended
the

of
ob

They

of laws

joined them and


the valley of

down

com

Carolina, led

was

whom

an

adult

the

for peace.

eight-year lease
there
organized themselves
and adopted a code
politic,
each

the

from

besieged by
and captured, the inmates
to
reduced
or
captivity.
Virginia and North Caro

the

in

on

was

from
North
Immigrants
James
settled
Robinson,
by
of the head
ga River, one

Tennessee,

settle

Loudon,

30

It

Indians

pelled the

plant

Fort

River, about

Tennessee
site

1756

set-

The
North

Holston,
40

territory was
Carolina

represented

as
legislature

the

in

the

District

of

(q. v.)
and

1788,
that

State

tory

to

OF

but

would
to

in

have

been

undertake
and

mounted,

impolitic and

by open
leading

force.
a

mare

hazardous

They
of

went

Sevier's

year
terri

the

national

the

Carolina

North

next

the
ceded

STATE

organized,

was

with

reunited

was

the

1785

In

Washington.

FRANKLAND

OP

STATE

TENNESSEE,

gov

ernment.

SEVIEK

JOHN

(q. v.),
Frankland,

of

first

governor
out
stands

as

of

one

and

prominent

most

the

pict

figures in the early


uresque
formative
history of

and

He

Tennessee.
"

the

called

was

of

greatest

Indian

fighters," having

fought

against the savage


Creeks,
Cherokees
Choctaws, and
the
bravest, most
warlike,
"

and

blood-thirsty of

most

all

the

of the
tlers
aced

ing

native

tribes

east

Mississippi. The set


were
constantly men
and
noth
by them,

had

saved

hearted

extermination
rude

log

less

and

of such

the

stout

pioneers from
except

forts and

the

total
their

sleep

untiring vigilance
men

as

Sevier, whose

sterling honesty, captivat


and
ing manners,
generous
public spirit,great personal
bravery, and high soldierly
for him
qualities had won
the
of
out

admiration
every
the wide

man,

and

JOHN

SEVIER.

affection
and

woman,

of the

child

through
territory.

which
animal

was

in

known

"

"

41

the

as

the

swiftest-footed

rescuers
territory. The
An
well serves
to illus
halted on
the outskirts
of Morganton, and,
their devotion
trate
to
him, as well as
concealing their horses in a clump of un
life of those
a typicalphase of the arduous
derbrush, left them there in charge of the
in the story of the trial young
times, is recorded
Seviers.
Then
Cosby and Evans,
of Sevier by the State authorities
of North
disguised as countrymen, entered the town.
and
at
Carolina, for high treason
the
court-house,
outlawry, When
they arrived
and
his ingenious and dramatic
rescue
by Evans dismounted, and, throwing the bridle
a
the neck of the animal, stood
party headed
by one of his lieutenants, looselyover
James
in progress
her
with
door
Cosby. The trial was
directly before the open
at Morganton, and
thousands
had
and
of the
in plain view
of the interior
many
deemed
come
the court
together to witness what was
Cosby entered
building. Then
the
most
by them
important politicalroom, and, elbowing his way up the crowd
event
occurred
that
had
since the
ed aisle, halted
directly in front of the
proc
lamation
of peace
with
Great
Britain.
judge's bench, and only a few feet from
With
three
others
Major Evans, and where his beloved leader stood encompass
James
and
John
of ed by the
officials.
court
Sevier, the two sons
Catching his
the general
to
the
to
Cosby proposed
go
eye, Cosby, by a significantgesture, di
to
effect
what
rected
Sevier's attention
it
to his horse, that
rescue,
by stratagem

expanse
incident
which

TENNESSEE,

WARNING

SETTLERS

STATE

OF

THK

stood

impatiently pawing the ground at


At
one
glance, the quick eye of
Sevier took in the situation.
Seeing that
he was
understood, Cosby pressed closer
to the bench, and
in quick, energetictones
said to the judge: "Are
about
not
you
that man?"
The question, and
done with
of the speaker, drew
the tone and manner

OF

APPROACH

OF

INDIANS.

all eyes upon


few moments

the door.

was

him

confusion.

Taking

of this, Sevier
cers,

and

42

and, the
left,with

back

of

his

away

in the

sprang
crowd

intended

instant

from

among
to

parting

two

bounds

horse

and

mountains.

For

amazement.

in

Cosby had

as

"

he
in
He

was

two
was

"

all

advantage
the

offi

the

right

upon
hours

the

far

followed

STATE

TENNESSEE,
by

cheers

the

of State
and

them
his

to

to

Sevier's

and

soon

of

the

people

general, with
of

mand

was

and
gave

the

supreme
district
now

the

him
to

"

within
him

the

1790

Kentucky,
Ohio."

it

1796

(June
The

The

distinct

granted

State.

was
"

took

to

1) it entered
constitution

in
the
then

1794, and
Union

THE

it

in

part

was

Tennes
of

War

the

reached

of

age,

Andrew

services
division

Madison

in

the

of

of

received

as

Blount

and
a

OF

RESCUE

43

SEVIER.

United

2,500

after

that

Jackson's

to

States

for

the

of

men

of

the

generous
accepted it
The

he

tender

to

major-general
volunteers

gratitude, and
peculiar satisfaction."

with

was

Hermit

the

day (June 26)

the

himself

(he was
militia)

at

week

same

Governor

President

nessee

as

on

authorized

in

Jackson

Nashville,

near

event, and

government

framed

active

an

1826, when
Nashville.

twelve
rank

organized, together with


Territory South of the

Tennessee

at

Senate

military com
comprised

territorial

until

fixed

1812-15,

the

as

Knoxville,

at

especially in the operations in


the Gulf region.
declaration
of
war
Tidings of the

branded

"

the

was

Murfreesboro

see

illuminations,

elected

he

out

The
again in 1853.
migratory, having
Kingston, Nashville,

1835, and

of government

permanently

Tennessee.

In

was

as

Washington

months

hamlet

from

and

seat

and

the

As

in

amended

safety been

in

escape
whole
territory broke

Carolina,

North

east

flew

outlaw

and

rebel

rider

Nolichucky.

of bonfires

blaze

by a posse
outstripped

mare

brave

the

on

hamlet, the

into

the

her

bore

home
of

news

crowd, and

of the

but
officials,

OF

his
Ten
war.

offer
"with

Secretary

of

TENNESSEE,
War

(July 11)

wrote

for the

volunteers
State

before
called

were

Blount
sent

kinson, and
Jackson

he

for

the

ground,

at Nashville,
and

bearing

men

Hall

and

of

troops

and

troops
Jan

social

led
at

the
the

across

Natchez,

to join
Mississippi.

went

boats,
Coffee
others

the
In

best
State.

whom

men,

country
the

on

Coffee,
the

army
in

River

mounted

number,

of the

little

Cumberland

the

of

materials
the

Benton,

John

composed

were

7, 1813,

excepting

in

670

These

physical and

H.

Thomas

cavalry,
corps
of Col.
the command

down

cold

for both

clothes

under

On

lay upon
assembled

snow

When

Cols. William
a

famous,

in Tennessee

letter

JackSecretary of War, General


Pennof some
pon, alluding to the conduct
the
York
New
sylvania and
troops on
constitutional
had
Niagara frontier who
objectionsto going into a foreign country
I am
now
by invading Canada, said :
to

the

"

at

head

the

choicest

of

of

2,070

citizens

our

volunteers
who

"

go

"

at

of

Jackson
The
ed
met

and

coasts

then

was

after

troops,
Natchez
an

and

order

await

from
further

instructions
nor

had

medation.

directed

all

ed

orders,

concerning
he

quarters
There

their
for

Jackson

to

halt
he

as

their

the

tender

Wilkin-

that

formal

letter,which

miles

their

from

without

pay,

and

fiercely

was

anger
cruel

500

army

without

and
Jackson

to

of this

was

have been
may
letter conclud-

cold

hero's

The

his

General

The
of

would

they

He

President

the

because

homes,

sufficient

of
clothing,without
provisions,or means
in
wilderness
transportation through a
which
Indians
wrote
roamed.
He
only
fieryletters to the President, Secretary of

War,

Governor

and

took

Blount, and

the

responsibilityof disobeying his orders and


before
taking the troops back to Nashville
he would
dismiss
them.
The Secretary apolthat Jackogized, saying he did not know
son

had

he

wrote

moved
the

his

gan

of

far

from

Nashville

letter.

Late

in March

homeward

when
he

It

movement.

month

miles

18

befull

was

it took

peril and fatigue,and


accomplish it, moving

to

day.

The

the privations of his


general shared
admired
his wonderful
soldiers, who
en-

They said
he
hickory," and
which

name,
"

Old

teers

of

at

their

about
44

of

but

cause

the

an

ladies

Tennessee
like

"

the

governor,
had
been

public
volun-

elegant stand
of

Knoxville,
22, 1813.

the

"

of

those

Union

daughter
the

G.

months

HARRIS
in

in

correspondence
the

Gulf

with

States

par-

supremely;

ISHAM
for

nick-

life, of

up in the
Tennessee

disbanded, May

State, loved

Carolina

men

the

tough

as

through

Drawn

the

ent

erates

no

bore

Carolina

fidential

there

from

people

of North

(q. v.)

was

received

Nashville,

there

were

The

"

he

presented with

were

colors

and

he

Hickory."

square

aceoni-

his

hands.

troops.

as

had

his

to

that

service.

to

over

march

to

letter

that

public

turn

of

dismissed

employment;
and

with

kindled

forty-sixyears of age.
hardships, reachmany
disembarked, when
they
Wilkinson

to

wrote

exist, and

to

public property

thanks
his

ceased

from

to

put into

the

influence."

British

all

son

their

Southern

had

receipt of

the

durance.

'

he

volunteers

Tennessee

dismissed

be

the

the
will
country to execute
constituof the government,
who
have
no
tional
scruples,'and, if the government
orders, will rejoice at the opportunity of
placing the American
eagle on the ramFort
parts of Mobile, Pensacola, and
Augustine, effectuallybanishing from the

call

1, when

March

Orleans

on

im-

organized, these
of two
regiments of infantry of
respectivelyby
each, commanded

consisted

New

military

name

deep

2,000

weather.

warm

700

that

weather

and

about

Wil-

latter

The

the

out

to

reinforce

requisition upon

the

10, when

Governor

21

to

number.

intenselycold

was

Oct.

upon
his
rendered

which
Dec.

made

that

volunteers

1,500 volunteers

entered

mediately
career

for

Orleans

New

to

past mid-

was

Tennessee
On

upon.
asked

was

it

that

the

until

little
Secretary of War, saying he gaw
chance
for the
employment of his amall
in
the
South, and
suggested that
army
the
used
in
North,
be
they might
anxiously for
Day after day he waited
from
John
At length one
an
came
answer.
Secretary of War, who
Armstrong, the new
of calling
wrote
simply that the causes
the

his

and

OF

waited

honor

River

Tennessee

autumn

On

Jackson

of

that

they had done the


their
of Tennessee
by
patrioticmoveso
quiet below
Everything seemed

ment.

be

letter

Blount, and

publicly thanked

official

the

cordial

Governor

to

acceptance

STATE

and

con-

Confed-

the

in

South

this
Virginia. To further
labored
incessantly to brine;

and
he

the

secession

of Tennessee.

He

call"

ed

he

sage
had

recited

suffered

and

7, 1861,
the

State

the
of

rule

the

mes

so-called

of
of

people

under

his

in

list

long

grievances which

legislatureat

the

of

special session

Nashville, Jan.

the

He
appealed to their
government.
passions and prejudices, and recommended
favorable
tion

the

to

of the

slave

for

provided
that

the

to

the

when

gates they

"No

people

should

valid

ratification
Feb.

jeld
dates

Federal

until
or

there

propriety

no

was

the

revolution

W.

Henry
the

of

"

for

OF

"

to

the

any

by

con-

not

people

election

for

was

candi-

HOME

IN

true-hearted

founded

ernment

just

been

of

established
that

government

gratified,and

believed

erate

ments

State
Harris

the

would
called

secession
cease.

the

move-

into

rule

The

South
to

the

be

could

(May

65,000;

1)

legislature jected

the
to

commonwealth

the

will

would

who

"Abolition

system

of govhad

of

which

of
in

maintained

was

sympathizers

the

States, by which
of

the

in
legislature,

military league

ex

not

was

slavery which
the only form
as

on

thorized

about

there

in the

man

submission
spurn
North," and considered

raajorityof nearly 12,000, decided not to


-e
a
The
convention.
loyal people were

Governor

com

legislature. He

not

of Confederate

the

States

TENNESSEE.

majority

an

in

Hilliard,

that

belief

his

America.

of

mes

with

aggregate
and,
by a

majority

wasting time in
the people, for
A
few
days

Confederate

the

address

to

pressed

MOUNTAINEER'S

that

Union

lowed
"

should

the

rejection. The
elected

convention

relations

submitted

dele

Convention

also,
the

9, 1861, and

were

to

imminent.

was

afterwards

in

question

clothed

elect the

should

vote

adopted by
'

be

in

and

America,
authority to
perpetuation
protec
alliance
Ten
of
with
The
a
legislature negotiate
treaty
system.
al
and
was
decreed
30)
convention, but
(April
appeared
nessee,

convention";

iinance

April 25, 1861,

on

and

INTERIOR

or

meet

he strongly urged the imme


sage to them
diate secession
of the State. He urged that

missioner

Constitution

national

to

submitting

na

tional

amendments

OF

STATE

TENNESSEE,

au-

to enter
governor
with
the Confed-

the

whole
was

Jefferson

military
to

be

Davis.

subIt

OF

STATE

TENNESSEE,

and

Washington

for

the

with

the

7th

the

on

treaty

mitted

the

legislat

"all

States

erate

"turn
Confed

the

to

of

munitions

and
of

war

the
naval

public property,
stores,

the

Tennes

to

were

over"

copy
sub

treaty
of

authorities
see

was

the

to

By

ure.

the

States,
Hilliard,

W.

Henry
the

of

agent

Confederate

and

They
treaty

purpose.

negotiated

of

Bar

commissioners

row,

which

she

might

J;h.enbe in pos
session, acquired from
the
United
States, on

;
.

the

same

the

other

in

and

terms

same

the

manner

as

States

of

the

Confederacy." Already
Governor

Harris

ordered
the

1861)
Tennessee

of
in

$5,000
IN

CORN-MILL

TENNKSSKK.

EAST

done

was

bers

from

7.

May

on

East

not

the

mem-

at

Jefferson

Nashville.

act
to sublegislaturepassed an
vote
of the people of Tennessee
a
ordiof independence and an
declaration

"

to

true

and

to

there

the
"

United
hands

the
At

and

belong

about

of
that

the
Davis, disgusted with
Magoffin, of Ken-

timidity of Governor
tucky, recommended

vote.

The

mit

collector

time

section

(which

Tennessee

loyal ) did

remained

eighteen

The

$66,000
the

in

of
the

to

cash

to

ing
States

29,

seizure
bonds

amount

had

(April

South

the
"

to

go

Kentuckians
into

Tennessee

rally and

organize."
for
East
ordinance
of secession; also an
Tennessee, where
nance
loyalty to the
of the
Union
was
the
strongly predominant, was
kept
adoption of the constitution
in submission
The
of America.
to the Confederacy by the
States
Confederate
govof military power.
raise
to
The
50,000
ernor
was
strong arm
empowered
peoof the State," pie longed for deliverance, which
for the defence
seemed
volunteers
a

"

to

and, if necessary,
be under

to

weath,
thorized

to

bear

to

authorizing

the

annex

federacy,
A.

the

whole

immediate

He

also

of

was

the

annual

at hand
near
when, in January,
Mitchel
made
energetic General

common-

State

to

small

au-

for

interest

seize
to

watching

of

federate

the

Henry,

the

act

of

the

effect
that

1862, the
effort

an

force

was

it, for E. Kirby Smith

region

force.

Negley,
Confederates

with

strong
Buell

denied.

was

after

asked

Mitchel

successful

too
was

Confor

Finally
attack

Jasper, having
his way
Conthe rugged ranges
the
to
of
over
the Cumberland
Mountains, suddenly apappointed GusO. W.
Totten, peared opposite Chattanooga
(June 7).

governor
State
that
governor
Archibald

legislature General
take

His

Chattanooga.

reinforcements, but

8 per cent.
Pursuant

to

an

the

out

absolute

governor.
issue bonds

to

$5,000,000,

tarus

the

of the

control

ures

call

military strength of

available

to

meas-

upon
made

46

near

STATE

TENNESSEE,
Towards

evening
and

position,
nonaded
works

the

The

fled from

federates

heavy
hours

two

and

town

near.

had

he

for

Negley might have


held the place, and Mitchel

ured

and

have

marched

Buell

would

into

east

allow

not

Con

and
With

town.

regiments

more

entered

can

Confederate

the

inhabitants
the

the
magnificent valley of east
stores
car
Tennessee, their baggage and
ried, in many
places,by pack-mules. On

in

guns
he

his

few

could
But

joined by
mand.

Cumberland
Gap
already evacuated
inhabitants
of east
and
the
voluntarily,
Tennessea
were
jubilant with hope of de
liverance.
But
again disap
they were
The
cau
pointed and compelled to wait.
tious Buell
and
did not
the fiery Mitchel
work
well
together, and the latter was
of the De
soon
assigned to the command
of the

the

Ohio,

and

was

co-operation with

ordered

Burnside
of

the

of

on

to

take

over

the

Cumberland

Mountains,

ates, under
and
land

Colonel

the
and

from

Shackelford

At

skir

feet
of

CUMBERLAND

was

Cleveland

GAP.

long.

Confeder

Frazer, holding Cum


to the Nationals,

surrendered

the

the

Cumber

(of which

metropolis), extending
to

Bristol, seemed

permanently rid of armed


of
ates.
The loyal inhabitants

47

Loudon

had

2,000
force

great valley between


Alleghany Mountains

be

AT

by

Minty's cavalry,
left.

extreme

General

Gap,

Knoxville

and

com

with

berland

active

ARMY

with

General

across

the

his

swelled

troops. At the mouth


River
com
they first had

magnificent structure,
Early in September a

of

and

were

them
Confederates, and drove
the
stream,
they
burning the

mish

Army of the Cum


berland.
He
had
gathered 20,000 men
near
Richmond,
Ky., well disciplinedand
equipped. They left camp
Aug. 21, climb
ed

SIMON

other

Rosecrans's

bridge

Hartsuff

numbers

Clinch

the

munication

was

Army

General

Their

junction with

South.

In August, 1863, General


assigned to the command

GEN.

B.
by
to
fled
and
v],
(q.
Georgia
Burnside
had been
joined Bragg. General

had

partment

Confed

valley 20,000

commanded

BUCKNER

Confederates

it. The

the

entering

erates,

capt

Tennessee.

OP

to

Confeder
that

region

TENNESSEE,

LOOKOUT

received

the

National

MOUNTAIN

with

troops

IN

After the battle of Stone


River, or Murof Rosecrans
and
freesboro, the armies
Bragg
other, the
lay confronting each
at

latter

below

main
In

base

the

scene

the

of

of the
Duck

battle

continued
Meanwhile

at

was

detached

parties were
parts of Tennessee.

of

""eginning
February
vVheeler, Bragg's chief

18G3

severe

P.M.

the

nearly

the

whom

of

600

(1863),

Gen.

1863.

very
At

600

ac-

force, was
Nashville.
Colonel

Van

A.

There

C.
was

and

at

fled with

men.

loss

of

Harding lost 156,


prisoners. Late

of

made

fiftywere

Earl

Col.

by gunboats.
(Feb. 3 )
engagement
Confederates

the

General

under

men

assisted

Bragg's January, Gen. J.


Chattanooga, considerable
space
armies
two
captured 141 of

supplies
position the
from
January until June,

Sive in various

SEPTEMBER,

River.

relative

that

and

OF

garrison
Harding,

open

arms.

former

STATE

Davis

C.
in

swept

thirteen

Wheeler's

Dorn, with

hovering
Sheridan,
Colburn, at

near

at

days,

men.

in

over

and

Later,

large mounted
Franklin, below

Murfreesboro,

Franklin,

and

marched

him.
Van
artillery,with
simultaneously to confront
Forrest.
Colwith
Dorn
4,500 mounted
was
Brigadier-Genaccompanied by
men,
Van
moved
erals Forrest
and
to
with
burn,
Wharton,
against
2,700
attempted
men,
failed to form
chief object Dorn
The
at Spring Hill, but
recapture Fort Donelson.
After
Sheridan.
of the Confederates
there was
to interrupt a junction with
a
sharp
surrender
to
forced
the navigation of the Cumberland
he
was
River, encounter
and

thus

tion

of

interfere

the

supplies for Rosecrans's


failed

Confederates

the

with

of

tort

was

well

in

their

defended

transportaarmy.

The

1,300 of his infantry,


5) about
(March
with
the cavalry, escaped.
remainder,
with
about
1,800 cavalry, skirSheridan,

The

project, for
by a little
48

mished

in several

places with

the

Confed-

finallyat Thompson's Station,


sharp engagement, captured some

(q. v.)

erates, and
after
of

his

antagonists

beyond

Murfreesboro
with

with

loss of ten

and

River.

Duck

the

killed

his

to

and

wounded.

raid

extensive

an

in

resulted

in

the

and

April

of

capture

in

Alabama

May,
the

which

leader

and

men.

Late

prisoners,

100

nearly
men

returned

He

on

Georgia

and

Dorn

Van

drove

OF

STATE

TENNESSEE,

MAN

in November,
SHER
1863, GENERAL
(q. v.) arrived in the neighborhood of

imperative that he
1,400 Chattanooga. It was
18, Col. A. S. Hall with
by Morgan, the guerilla, should get his array over the river without
draw
To
the attention
from
at Milton, 12 miles
and
2,000 men
being discovered.
to
another
Confederates
Murfreesboro.
of the
With
the aid of Harris's
quarter,
On

March

men

attacked

was

hours'

battery, in a three
repulsed Morgan, who
killed

and

struggle

lost 300

wounded.

Early

Gordon

in

in

fort

near.

about

Van

Dorn

him

there

erates.

troops.

(April 10)

The

latter

push on and
repulsed with
to

Rosecrans

sent

seize
a

of

if

had

He

Confed

ABDEL

D.

force

consisted

of

men.

The

Confederate

encamped

in

the

main
a

hollow

summit

on

the
His

approximately
half-way

of which

was

force
up

the
held

began the at
brigades. Hooker
24.
morning of November
Geary, supported by Cruft, proceeded to
Creek
Wauhatchie, crossing Lookout
there,
the rest of the troops crossing in front of

by

several

tack

was
men.

STBEIGHT

OF

of

10,000

mountain,

successful

300

side

entire

was

attacked

BATTLE

IX."

at

to engage
them
Lookout
Mountain.

ordered

was

northern

April, Gen.

9,000

about

Hooker

men

Nashville, but he

loss
COL.

with

intended

Hall

command

Granger was
Franklin, building a
5,000

400

or

LOOKOUT

49

on

MOUNTAIN.

the

STATE

TENNESSEE,

OF

on
temporary bridges. nulled, and the payment of any debts con
eight o'clock,and, seizing tracted by that government was
prohibited.
his
These
ratified
a
proceedings were
by tha
picket-guardof forty men, extended
of the
mountain.
WILLIAM
G.
base
BROWNLOW
line to the
By people, and
chosen
In April
eleven o'clock Hooker
was
(q. v.) was
strivingto drive
governor.
all the
from
the mountain;
the
Thirteenth
the Confederates
legislature ratified
Amendment
to the national
the breast
his guns
Constitution,
opened at once
upon
and
works
and
reorganized the State
government,
along the steep wood
rifle-pits
elected
Senators
and T. J. Wood's
to Congress. The
Four
ed acclivity,and Gross's
Con
to the national
brigades,sweeping everything before them, teenth Amendment
stitution
been
ratified
time
State
the
the
At
the
same
having
by
captured
rifle-pits.
in 1866, it was
afterwards
admitted
the troops scaled the heights, driving the
soon
The
to a plateau to representation in Congress.
Confederates
from
the hollow
con
of the State
around
revised
and
crest
stitution,
was
towards
the
well
early
up
in 1870.
towards
the Chattanooga
Population in 1890, 1,767,518; in
Valley. At con
UNITED
clear
1900, 2,02.0,616. See
the plateau was
STATES,
siderably past noon
in
this
volume.
Confederates
TENNESSEE,
were
retreating
ed, and the
towards
the Chattanooga Val
in confusion
the
established
his line on
Hooker
ley.
TERRITORIAL
GOVERNOR
easterly face of the mountain; so that, by William Blount, appointed governor of the
of the Ohio
territorysouthwest
Aug. 7, 1790
an
enfiladingfire,he completely command
Confederate
ed
the
defences, stretching
STATE
GOVERNORS.
the
across
valley to Missionary Ridge. John Sevier
office
March
assumes
30, 1796
See CHATTANOOGA
CAMPAIGN, THE; LOOK

Confederates

the

crossed

Geary

at

MISSIONARY
BATTLE
MOUNTAIN,
ON;
OF.
RIDGE, BATTLE
of
General
the
Burnside, with
Army
the
Ohio, had
occupied Knoxville, Sept.
OUT

Confederate

The

23, 1863.

his

upon
Tennessee
ner,

advance,

Buck-

General
evacuated

east

Chat
at
joined Bragg
General
in
tanooga.
Early
November,
advanced
16,000 men,
Livingstone, with
the 14th he cross
On
against Knoxville.
ed the Tennessee.
Burnside
repulsed him
the 16th at Campbell's Station, thereby
on
hie army
in
gaining time to concentrate
Knoxville.
laid
advanced,
Longstreet
siege
the

to

town, and
29), but

and

18

and

Grant

had

Sherman,

way

to

the

up

was

defeated

and

leave

with

25,000 men,

River, but
eastern

spring, when
Virginia.
next

On

Jan.

sembled

at

ments

to

(Nov.

was

on

the

Livingstone, com
siege,therefore, retired

the

Holston

tirely abandon

it twice

repulsed. Meantime
Bragg at Chattanooga,

Knoxville.

raise

pelled to

assaulted

9, 1865,
Nashville

he

did

Tennessee

not

until

again joined
State

Lee

convention

en

the
in

as

and

proposed amend
the
constitution
abolishing
prohibiting the legislative

slavery and
The mili
recognition of property in man.
the
tary league with
Confederacy, the
ordinance
of secession,and
all acts of the
Confederate
States
an
government were

UNITED

STATES

SENATORS.

TENURE-OF-OFFICE

UNITED

STATES

ACT"

Continued.

SENATORS"

TERRAPIN

WAI*

terrapin. Squibs, epigrams,

and

songs

Newspapers
demned

and
"

the

otf trade

Tenure-of

-office

1867,

ary,

limiting

bill

the

Act.

in

Late

acts.

"

"

Canada.
into

in

caricatures,

against the

speakers especially con


the cuttingembargo

land

with

denly thrown
represented
dered

levelled

were

The

caricature

trade

sud

so

confusion

serpent which

had

by it wa"
by a bewil
been
suddenly

Febru

passed by Congress

was

removals

from

of the President
powers
office.
It took
from

President

the

power

in

FAC-SIHILK

OP

NEWSPAPER

CUT.

the

to

members
of
remove
stopped in its movements
by two trees,
excepting by permission of the marked,
and
respectively, Embargo
hold
Senate, declaring that they should
The
"Non-Importation Act."
wondering
office
for and
of the
during the term
snake
is puzzled to know
what
has
hap
President
have
been
by whom
they may
pened, and the head cries out, "What's
month
appointed, and for one
thereafter, the matter, tail?"
The
latter
answers,
subject to removal
by and with the consent
"I
can't get out."
A
cock, representing
his cabinet

"

"

"

of the

Senate."

this

bill

over

his veto

President

(March

became

and

Ternay,

Johnson

2), when

CHABLES

it

vetoed

France, stands

passed

was

law.

Louis

D'ARSAC,

by, crowing joyfully. In


of 1812
spring and early summer
a
at all gath
very popular song was
sung
The
erings of the Federalists.
following
the

is
officer;born in Ter
in
Castle,
near
Laudun, France,
1722;
nay
entered
the French
service in 1738; com
manded
in the
a
invasion
of
squadron
Newfoundland
in
June, 1762; resigned
in 1772; and
in 1779
of
was
governor

CHEVALIER

DE,

Bourbon

and

naval

"

the

at

"

and

died

there, Dec. 15, 1780.


War.
The
Terrapin
opponents

War
in

of

denounced

unmeasured

cule.
War

1812

They
"

merce,

"

the

terms
called

the
of

the

conflict

of

and

within

its

the

own

for

liberty, boys,
days of our
glory
The
days of true national
joys,
When
terrapins gallop before
ye !
There's
and
Porter
and
Grundy
Rhea,
In Congress
who
manfully
vapor,
Who
draw
their
six dollars
a
day,
And
fight bloody battles
on
paper!
is true
Ah ! this
war.
Terrapin
Poor

Too

acts

In

"

shell

the

on

to
"

tremors

retract, he
and

up
attitude

he

got,

the

nation

loses

cannot
his

station.

regulars,* lads,
nothing ye lack, sirs.

your
'

has

arming

same

bring
4

"

the

this

far
Go

our

are

Madison

Then

ridi

Terrapin
nation, by extinguishing com

drawing

Huzza

'Bout

embargo

scorn

copy:

These

He
adjacent islands.
Newport, R. I., as commander
of the fleet that brought troops
to Amer
ica
under
Rochambeau,
July 10, 1780,
arrived

late

Ye'll frighten to death


the
Danads,
With
fire-coals blazing aback, sirs !
Oh, this is true
Terrapin war!

like
61

TERRITORIES
As

OF

and
bullet
powder
as
never
they were

to

For,

THE

UNITED
in

swords,
intended,

and

'

In
Then
And

'

Territories

the

of
of

States

United

States.

the

All
first

Republic
Territories, excepting the
organized as
States; Texas, received
original thirteen
diCalifornia, admitted
by annexation;
the

and

rect;

'Virginia,formed

West

There

Virginia.

of

part

were

from
in

were

1905:

in the

afterwards
its

Fort

Wagner(

of the

Army

James,

operations against Petersburg

Richmond.

rascals
frighten the
away,
their
on
rapid descent
quarters ;
the
Plunder dJvi^as
?e
"ay"
them
in the
drive
waters.
headlong
I"
war
Oh, this is great Terrapin

must

TESLA

operations against

the

and
in

Ye

STATES"

From

May

December,

to

and
1864,

he
commanded
the
10th
in
Corps; and
January, 1865, aided by the fleet of Porter,
he captured Fort
Fisher.
For
this act he
made
and
was
major-general of volunteers
He
brigadier-general,United States army.
afterwards
captured Wilmington, N. C.,
and
brevetted
was
major-general. After
the

surrender

of

Richmond.

of

he

Lee
He

in

was

command

promoted

was

general in 1886, and was


in New
died
He
Haven,

retired

majorin

1888.

Conn., Dec.

16,

1890.

SILAS

Terry,
born
ed

WRIGHT,

officer;

naval

in

Kentucky, Dec. 28, 1842; appoint


Acad
acting midshipman in the Naval
in 1858;
was
engaged in blockading

emy
service

the

on

Atlantic

in

coast

1861-63

the
Mississippi squadron and on
Red
River
expedition in 1863-64; and was
The
had
been
Territory of Alaska
par
naval
present during the
operations at
Indian
tially organized; the
Territory forts Fisher and Anderson, at the capture
still without
central
a
was
organization; of Wilmington, and at the fall of Rich
District
of Columbia
and
the
was
gov
in com
mond.
In January, 1882, while
erned by commissioners
direct legis mand
under
of the Marion, he rescued
the crew
in

lation

of

in

other

and

Pacific

islands

in

Tutuila,
are

1900;
Wake,

administered

of

bark

the

wrecked

in

Ocean,
at

Cape

from

Poonah

Island, in
and

1880;
total

educated

Yale

at

in

and

1848,

College; admitted
practised from

entered

1860.

He

colonel

of the

2d

the

National

Connecticut

to the

command

to

tached

as

to

1854
army

the

Volunteers;

the

of

in

ington,

D.

February, while
English ship
by hauling her off

he received
of

both

He
the

of the

C., March

was

Iowa

September,

command

been
Indian

the

loss

the beach, for which

the

in

saved

Town,

had

which

Trinity,
Heard

on

military officer; of the government


HOWE,
Great
in Hartford, Conn., Nov.
and
Britain.
10, 1827;

born

led

Rico

Porto

Guam,

pos
civil

given

ALFRED

Terry,

bar

1902;

1900;

insular

were

officers.

naval

by

the

Philippines
in

government
Hawaii

Of

Congress.

sessions, the

the

the thanks

Cape Colony
assigned to
in

de

1898;

appointed

1899;

navy-yard

at Wash

24, 1900,

and

pro

rear-admiral
the 27th following.
on
regiment in the battle of Bull moted
in
defeat
electrician; born
Run, retiring in good order when
Tesla, NICOLA,
in
of the
certain, hurrying up the rear
was
Smiljan, Croatia, Austria-Hungary,
of
retreat, and
1857; graduated at the Polytechnic School
saving a large amount
in
home
Gratz; later studied
philosophy and
government
property.
Returning
and
Volun
raising the 7th Connecticut
languages at Prague and Budapest; came
and
attached
to
States
the expedition to the United
was
teers, he was
employed
to

the

the
T.

coast

of South

Sherman,

Carolina, under

Gen.

in

the

Edison

works;
Electric

became

electrician

Light Company, and


Head.
in the capture of Port
He
assisted
established
the Tesla
Laboratory in New
and
Fort
for
and
York
was
Pulaski,
Royal
independent electrical research.
placed
in command
of the latter; and
invented
the
the
He
rotary magnetic field
during
had command
in the
of 1862
of the posts embodied
summer
apparatus used in the
and
forts on
from Niagara Falls ;
coast
the eastern
of Florida, transmission
of power
made
of dynamos, transformers, in
forms
having been
brigadier-generalof new
in March.
rolunteers
and
He
duction
led a division
meancoils,condensers, arc

W.

and

occupied

Hilton

of the

Tesla

OATH

TEST

Test

See

Oath.

met

the

by

by him

as

trol of about

chief;

Indian

and

in

first

Texas

was

STATE

men

and
built

Spanish

he

year

sent

ince

them

on

established

FATHER

was

of

CLAUDE
his

him.

DABLON

3,000 Miamis

in

converts.

1765

there

part

of

Spanish

had

prov
itself

declared

In

Spain.

when

1824,

of

number

more

in Texas.

of the

which

not

were

inhabitants

Mexico

considerable

the

and
no

white

independent

colonists

from

the United
States were
there, the Mexican
united
Coahuila, previously a
government
Texas, and
separate state, with
placed

Mata-

Spanish mission.
troops, was

with

governor,

750

Texas

returned

La

by

in

sions, and
than

friars,and
Salle, on

some

that

was

dele-

OF

European
by La
1689
Cap

found

He

next

fort

gorda Bay,
A

French.

the

is said

day by forty (q. v.) met him


personal 1672, but made
any

had

The

OF.

the

scattered, and
a

go
all

It

made

110

of Lake

con-

was

In
Salle, in 1685, by accident.
De Leon, a Spanish officer,was

site of

mouth

con

He

tain

with

He

old

great chief, having had

STATE

out

subordinates.
of

age to
Superior, where

account

on

the

Rer-

is described

TEXAS,

to drive

people,but issued

4,000 warriors.

stantly guarded night


and
scarcely ever

Texas,

his

through

the
lakes
country bordering on
formally claimed by the French, but
to act for
gated the Pottawattomies

Nicolas

1671, and

in

men,

settlement

to the

was

with

them

to

unable

was

traveller

French

Chicago,

rot, at

orders

OATHS.

Miami

Tetinehoua,

communication

combin-

descent
lamps, and the oscillator
ing steam-engine and dynamo, etc.

TEXAS

"

Mexican

as

great injustice,and
engaged in a revolution,
into

In

Bustamente, who
self dictator
of Mexico,
Texas

enter

States

settlers

in

20,000, and

Texas

they

in

made

issued

of the

then

in 1833

determined

had

United

colonists.

as

numbered
a

1827.
him
decree
States

American

The

held

them,

compelled

were

1830

forbidding the people


to

there
of

some

United

the

united

Americans

with

to retreat

the

over

governor
treated
the

He

states.

about

convention,

from
Coa
separate Texas
huila, prepared a State constitution, and
requested Santa Ana, then at the head of
the government
of Mexico, to admit
them
State
of the republic. COL.
a
as
separate
STEPHEN
F. AUSTIN
(q. v.), representing
the American
to
colonists, went
Mexico,
where
STATE

SEAL

OP

TEXAS.

to

Santa

Ana

which

during

detained

time

"

quiet by promises of
sent thither
and
ment
the

menaces

to

be

abandoned

French

settlements

hostilities

in 1691, but Indian


of famine
caused

again
in

in

the
In

1693.

attempted

Texas, under

of Crozat, of Louisiana.

to

the

Soon

desires

settle

with

1714

was

plant

direction

afterwards

1835;

he

prepared to occupy the country


of safety
troops. A committee
created in Texas, which
assumed
gov
"

skirmish

cans,

until

his

ernmental
A

him

keeping the Texans


compliance with their

near

powers.
took

The

place

people
with

some

Gonzales, Oct. 2, 1835, and

armed.
Mexi
other

On Nov.
9 a provisional
were
Spanish missions
planted at battles followed.
various
of government
formed
in a delegate con
was
points in the present domain
of "New
Texas; the name
Consultation/' and a
Philippines" vention, called the
and
was
given to the country, and a governorlieutenant-governor were
governor
The
Indians
chosen.
general was
appointed.
of the mis
At
the
time
SAMUEL
HOUSTON
same
slaughteredthe people at some

(1715)

"

53

STATE

TEXAS,

OF

laration

On

independence, and

of

provisional

Burnet)

command

the

27th

the

G.

(David

president

chosen.

was

of

Fan

Colonel

massacred
in cold
ning, at Goliad, were
blood, and successive defeats of the Texans
meanwhile,
produced a panic. Houston,
in order to scatter
the Mexican
forces, con
San
tinually fell back, until he reached
Jacinto.
There, at the head of a force of
800
battle
troops, he gave
(April 21,

1836)

about

to

Mexicans,
ed

twice

in

and

630, wounded

day,

President

was

ward

in

took

730

kill

prison

latter, captured the next


Santa

annihilated.

was

of

number

that

pursuit of them

208, and

the

Among

ers.

the

The
The

terror.

Ana.

His

survivors

force

fled west

practically
not
again
invade
Texas.
elected presi
Houston
was
dent
of the republic (September, 1836).
acknowl
The
was
independence of Texas
in March,
States
edged by the United
not
Mexico
did
1837, but
give up her
at

end.

an

The

claim

to

TORY;

BENTON,

it.

See

of
and
SAM

HOUSTON.

Austin

forces, and

missioner
San

Antonio

Bexar

de

sent

was

in

cause

of

area

com

as

But

was

United

annexation

would

and
the

lead

matter

to
was

the

war

increase
of
with

driven

was

declara

adopted, and
independence was
at Goliad, by Capt. Philip Dimitt
issued
Santa
and
others.
Ana, with a well-pro
for the
set out
of 7,500 men,
army
the ALAMO
He invested
of Texas.

vided

recovery

(q.
with

v.

San

strong fort near


and, after
men,
days, carried it by
a

eleven

about

garrisoned by
W.

B.

170

It

storm.

men,

whole

The

Travis.

Antonio,

bombarding

4,000

it

was

"apt.
garrison was
under

_M

EXT

A"S

(March

massacred
Ana

only

"

servant
mo!"
The

saved.
a

Texan

order

by
a

woman,

one

were
was

6)
"

war-cry
the

Santa

child, and

Remember

lost, in

Mexicans

of

the
after

Ala
that.

attack, 1,600

men.

On

March

convention

issued

dec

MAP

54

OF

THE

BATTLE

the

the
slave

Mexico.

persisted in by the
approbation of Presi-

of

tion

State

States,

prevailing feel

politicalstrength

South, and, with

captured (Dec.

was

force
10), the entire Mexican
the 20th
out of Texas, and
on

the
and

power,

After

States.

United

the

to

desire

the

have

the

to

Southern

The

"

to

The
ing in that sovereign State.
prop
osition, when
formally made, was
op
posed by the people of the North, be

settled
had
(q. v.), of Tennessee, who
commander-in-chief
chosen
Texas, was
the

such

TERRI

OF

HART.

Texas.

of
annexed

Texas

did

ACQUISITION

anxious

were

was

THOMAS

Annexation

people

war

Mexicans

OF

SAN

JACINTO.

STATE

TEXAS,

THE

ALAMO.

dent

Tyler, a treaty to that effect was


signed in Washington, D. C., April 12,
1844. by Mr.
Calhoun, Secretary of State,

and

Messrs.

the

Van

Zandt

part of Texas.

Senate

in June

presented
in the
been

at

form

Mr.

election
K.

Van

Polk

the

assent

On

the

March

sent

with

1, 1845,

to

message
of

copy
Congress in

of

day

Tyler the
his

the

the

the

Texas

joint

Convention

and

of

the

July 4" 1845.

President
the

was

of

of

the

commit

his

Excellency
republic, together

the

documents, have
consideration, and
report the following

accompanying

the

have

instructed

under

same

and

to

me

recommend

its

adoption by

convention.
S.

ABNEB

day.

next

of

President

whom

to

communication

had

the

Rusk,

committee

the

ordinance,

received

of

term

Congress

ROOM,

J.

The

with

joint resolution
and

the

Thomas

Hon.

of

in fa

was

of

ordinance:
COMMITTEE

at

nominated

he

Texas

ted

had

autumn

been

The

of President

last

the

Buren, because

adopted

was

in

had

of the annexation.

vor

It

leading politicalquestion

James

over

was

joint resolution.

Presidential

1844.

It

resolution

on

rejected by the
following. The project was
session
of Congress
the next

of

made

the

Henderson

and

OF

LIPSCOMB,

Chairman.

office he

Whereas,

government,
resolutions

States

of

of

the
America

Congress of the United


has
passed resolutions

forming a State
constitution.
body approved the
measure
(July 4, 1845), and on that day

of Texas
providing for the annexation
resolutions
that Union, which
were
ap
of the
United
proved by the President
States
the first day of March, 1845 ; and
on
of the United
Whereas, the President

Texas

States

were

called

favor

considered
for

the

became

by

of
a

annexation.
convention

to

Texas,

of

purpose
That

one

These
in

of

the

States

of

the

Union.
The

second

followingis

the

text

of

the

joint
55

the

has

submitted

sections

basis

upon

of

to Texas

the

which

said
Texas

the first and


resolutions
may

be

as

ad-

mitted

States

of the

one

as

Union,

of said

and

existinggovernment

the

Whereas,

republicof

has

Texas

posals thus made,


of which

to

and

the terms

of the

the

proconditions

hereafter, bj the consent of said State, b"


out of the territory thereof, which
formed
shall

States

such

as

the
and

Constitution;
formed

be

may

said

of

under

admission

to

provisionsof the federal

of that

out

territory lying

south

of

the
known
as
lat., commonly
of Missouri
States
line, shall be adCompromise
Representatives of the United
without
into the Union, with
mitted
or
in Congress assembled, that ConAmerica
State
the
of
each
the
that
territory
as
doth
consent
asking
slavery,
people
gress
rightfully admission
desire; and in such State
within, and
may
properly included
States
shall be formed
out of said
or
as
belonging to, the republic of Texas, may
be
into
erected
new
State, to
Comprobe
a
territory north of said Missouri
with
mise line slavery or involuntary servitude
of Texas,
rea
State
called
the
publican form of government, adopted by (except for crime) shall be prohibited,
manifest
the assent
to
the people of said republic, by deputies
Now, in order
of of the people of the republic, as
is rein convention
assembled, with consent
Resolved

the
same

of

by

the

and

Senate

existing government, in order


be admitted
may
this Union.

And

be

it

further

as

one

of

entitled

be

portion

follows:

as

are

assented

OF

STATE

TEXAS,

House

that

of the

the

States

36"

30'

quired
said

the

in

of

in their

the

we,

assembled,

convention

in

Texas

name

portions of
deputies of the

above-recited

the

resolution,

people
resolved, that

N.

and

by

their

authority, do

assent
that
of Congres'sis given ordain
and declare
we
to, and
wit:
and
to
the
conditions,
conditions,
accept
following
proposals,
guarupon
second
contained
in the first and
First, said State to be formed, subject to antees
of ail sections of the resolutions
of the Congres?
the adjustment by this government
aforesaid,
States
of the United
questions of boundary that may arise with
others
Adopted by a vote of 56 to 1, July 4.
governments, and the constitution
of
its
evidence
with
the
thereof,
1845, in the tenth year of the republic,
proper
President,
J. RUSK,
THOMAS
adoption by the people of said republic
to the Presiof Texas, shall be transmitted
JAMES
H. RAYMOND,
Secretary,

foregoing

consent

the

States, to be laid before


action, on or before
first day of January, 1846;
the
second,
admitted
into the Union,
said State, when

rient of the

Congress

United

for

its final

After
United

the
States

cession
a

of

Louisiana

controversy

arose

to

tlu

about

amicably
boundary, which was
and
States
all pub- settled,in 1806, by General
Wilkinson
after ceding to the United
lie edifices,fortifications,barracks, forts
the Spanish commander,
establishing the
and
and
and
Sabine
River
the
harbors, navy
navy-yards, docks, territory between
1806
and
other
and
all
In
neutral
armaments,
magazines,
as
ground.
Arroya Honda
means
pertaining to the public defence
revolutionary movements, incited by those
BURR
of AARON
belonging to the said republic,shall retain
began in that
(q. v.)
and
battles
all its public funds, debts, taxes, and dues
skirmishes
region, and many
which
of every
kind
of Amerbelong to or be occurred, chiefly by invasions
may
due
and
the Spanish
icans.
owing to the said republic,and
In conflicts in 1813
its western

shall

also

retain

all the

vacant

and

unap-

lost about

1,000

men;

and

in

conflict the

propriated lands lying within its limits, to same


2,500 Ameriyear, a force of about
of the debts and
be applied to the payment
Mexicans
was
and revolted
nearly decans
liabilities of said republic of Texas, and
100
escaped. The
stroyed. Only about
of said lands, after discharg- Spaniards murdered
the residue
700 of the peaceable
said
debts
and
the
After
Antonio.
liabilities,to be dis- inhabitants
of San
ing
said
made
of
State
but
in
Lafitte
as
of
1812-15
direct;
War
close
of
the
posed
may
said debts and
liabilities to
event
no
are
his headquarters, estabIsland
Galveston
named
become
a
Campeachy,
charge upon the government of lished there a town
the
the United
there nntil 1821, when
States; third, new
States, of and remained
States
convenient
in settlement
broken
size, not
was
exceeding four
up by United
number, in addition to said State of Texas,
and
having sufficient population, may

forces.
lipped

CM

Tn
as

the

1819

the

eastern

Sabine

was

estab

'boundary of Texas,

STATE

TEXAS,

to

continue,

was

almost

turbances

territory
In

deserted.

in Missouri, received

ing
Spanish
his

families

were

rule

ish

United

States

there.

soon

Span

towards

harsh

was

thousand

Texas.

into

flocked

the

from

Emigrants

dying,

grant in 1823.

the

of

the

F., received

Stephen

son,

confirmation

liv

from

and

Texas,

in

grant of land

then

Mexico

of

authorities

the

and

Austin,

Moses

1820

dis

caused

dissatisfaction

but

the

colonists, and they were


oppressed that, in 1833, they

American
so

took

the

measures

independence
of Texas

to

the

area

1850

embraced

States

its

miles.

square
ceded

State

in

treaty

by

376,163

the

United

al

annexation

It then

1848.

of

an

the

State

led
States
United
Mexico
(see
in
WITH),
begun

WAR
MEXICO,
ended
1846, and

In

obtain

with

war

February,

to

the
The

described.

ready
to

of

the

to

claims

all

to

its present limits

territory beyond
miles),
(274,356 square
sideration
of $10,000,000
with

the

State

debt

In

1860

secession.

proceeds of
was
paid.

OF

venerable
the

opposed
might; but members

THE

con

bonds,

which

politicians began
The

Houston,
his

in
in

CIRCLE

GOLDEN

ing secretly
Knights were

and

the

to

for

move

governor,
the

(q. v.)

to

Samuel
all

with

movement

of

TEXAS

effectively.Among

CLAIMED

assist.
in

Feb.

1, 1861,

work-

Glared
failed

the

of the legismembers
many
the
lature, and active politiciansall over
of
these
State.
Sixty
irresponsiblepersons, early in January, 1861, called a State
the 28th
at Austin
on
convention, to meet

"to

an

the

122

coun-

represented.

were

of secession

of 166

against

national

accomplish

of union

compact

of

ordinance

vote

the

STATES.

UNITED

one-half

State

the

that

THE

BY

Not

ties

adopted by

KNIGHTS

were

AS

the

between

7.

government

On
was

It dehad

of the
purpose
the States," and

grievance complained of was


national
that
the
no
government would
They
longer uphold the slave system.
of the
therefore
abrogated, in the name
of that month
of the
of ana
single member
; and
people of Texas, the ordinance
legislatureissued a call for the assembling nexation adopted July 4, 1845.
They talkof that body at the same
time
and
of
ed
of
a
sovereign powers
place,
resumption
When
the
for Texas
was
they met, the legislature,
by a joint with some
plausibility,
resolution,
declared
the convention
had
Union
in the
that
ever
a legal- only State
Governor
Houston
ly constituted
body.
possessed them, as an absolutely independent
State.
protested against the assumption of any
They decreed that the ordishould
be submitted
to the people,
by the convention, except to refer nance
power
the matter
of secession to the people. The
but the day named
so
early
(Feb. 23) was
convention
afforded
the peoassembled
in the hall of the
that no
opportunity was
House
of Representatives,on
the appoint- pie for discussion.
ed day, under
the chairmanship of JUDGE
convention
The
appointed a committee
JOHN
H. REAGAN
before
of safety to carry
out its decision
(q. v.). A commissioner
from South Carolina
(McQueen) was there the people could think or act upon tk$
the

chief

"

67

"

secession.

of

ordinance

committee

Federal
the
from
troops to be removed
appointed posts in the country exposed to Indian
(Devine and Maverdepredations, and had them located, with
The

was

immediately organized, and

two

of their

number

commissioners

ick)
David

his

there

seemed

jority

in

is

it

of

asserted

ed

on

Feb.

23

from

of

secession

really a
people of

the

large
were

in his
address
to
Houston,
people of his State, early in March,

1861, revealed
tions.
as

He

what

denounced

had

violence.

and

"To

usurpations,"
sible, as

ings

in secret.

revealed:

"

It

This

withdrawn
2d

the

from

the

of

March,

day

themselves

until

the

of March

4th
had

the

people
portion of
senting Texas
federate

ing

to

in the

States,

continued

of

two

United

be

States

Senate, under
Lincoln

the

people

and

not

exposed
the
of
one

of

obloquy

in the

attempting

to

United

of the

time, claim

and

Texas
forced

attitude, before

ridiculous

to

still claim-

maintain

her

United

one

of

the

has

been

(adjourned session),

been

to

sent

devastated

convention

The

upon

convention,

has

assumed

to

to

been

States, and,

petty tyranny,"
and

other

bar

at

had

assumed

put

the

ing

occupy

the

proceedings. It has deprived the people


its doings. It has apa
right to know
its asand
pointed officers,
agents under
sumed
It
has
he
declared,"
authority."
the
said, that the people of Texas
ratify
provisionalgovernment of the Confederate
States, requiring all persons then in office
to take an
oath of allegianceto the same
suffer the penalty of 'removal."
It had
or
the
State
constitution
and
estabchanged
lished a test-oath of allegianceto the Con-

certain

"

had

in

officers to
time

to create

to take

of

the

govat its

appear
the oath.

organic laws,

into execution.

same

exercise

the

required

"

and

It has

It
to

over-

he
thrown,"
said, " the theory of free
government
by combining in itself all the
exercisand
departments of government

odious
has

world,

the

governor
refused

position as

States, and, at the


be

has

come

the

in its power,

weeks

appoint agents

ernor

which

declared

Yet

to

its

administration

have

Texas

means

two

federate

repreof the Con-

Senators, have

the

to be borne.
to

While

administration

an

"

all the

De-

"

were

them,

to represent Texas

of

Mr.

secession.

States

with

thus

though

and

women

border.

"

had

Texas

constituted

delegates
Congress

and

of
the

of

the

Confederate

and

for

voted
these

been

it
Congress, when
by the convention
that a majority of

known
officially

not

was

has

also, on
; and
annexed
Texas
to

of

pos-

created

Union

members

troops
in

though

foreign States, and


c
ivil
and
offices,
military,unknown
imposits
its proceed- to the laws, at its will, keeping secret

before

States

Confederate

people;

its

delegates to
the

the

succor

wail

upon
ruin
have

and

frontier.

be

much

elected

has

of
provisional council
States
at
Montgomery

the

would

great portion of

were

the
consequence,
children
is heard

no

fraud

all

enumerate

said,

he

these

of

in session

its usurpathe convention

called

he

illegalbody, gathered through

an

to
withdraw
power
the
frontier; but

vastation

it.

Governor
the

the

is to maintain

of war,
ample stores, munitions
and
transportation,have failed to supply
As
a
troops in place of those removed.

ma-

very
Texas

the

session

when

ordinance,

the

that

of

proportion
opposed to

of
In

fully 23,000

be

to

favor

field-batteries, on

a
position in the country, they cannot
only do so successfully,but destroy the
of the State.
commerce
They have usurp-

act.

ordinance

and

arms

coast, where, if their desire

surren-

that

cast

votes

the

authorities

performed

Twiggs
counting the
concerning the
Texas.

their

Gen.
of the

public property

and
the
army
control
to the

his

of

under

with

treat

in command

troops in Texas, for

National
der

to
then

Twiggs,

E.

OP

STATE

TEXAS,

same

Confederate

to

recognize

believe

it has

received

it has

assumed

either

this

convention.

none

of the

from

the

powers

people
guilty of

or

a
legislature. I believe it
assumed
has
suffer
usurpation which the people cannot
safety, a portion of which
of the
executive
the
tamely and preserve their liberties. I am
government,
power
life to maintain
executive
the
to
authority, ready to lay down
and,
supplant
my
fed- the rights and
I am
liberties of Texas.
into negotiations with
entered
have
office rather
than
This
eral officers.
comcommittee, and
ready to lay down
yield
caused
to usurpation and
missioners
it, hare
degradation."
acting under

States.

It

has

created

committee

of

belonging to each.'* The


powers
concluded
by saying: "I have

the

68

In

General

1863

Franklin, with
four

by

Banks

4,000

Alexandria
and
Shreveport
upon
to
again begun. When, in obedience
sud
orders, he began fallingback, he was
denly and furiously struck by Confeder
ates under
Gen. Richard
Taylor, and a reg

General

sent

was

Lieutenant

under

march

troops, accompanied

gunboats,

OF

STATE

TEXAS,

Crocker, to seize the Confederate


post at
Sabine
the
boundary-line be
Pass, on
tween
Louisiana
and
Texas, preparatory
the
latter State
to an
attempt to recover

iment
fell

(23d Wisconsin)
reduced

was

from

which

on

226

blow

the

ninetyprisoners.Mean
to

men

The
expedition eight,most of them made
while
about
6,000 National
Sept. 5. A pre
troops, under
mature
attack
made
was
by the gunboats General
Dana, with some
war-vessels, had
sailed for the Rio Grande.
Pass
the garrison at Sabine
( Sept. 8 )
on
Banks, in per
disastrous
fail
the expedition was
and
a
accompanied the expedition. Th$,
son,
Santi
of the gunboats were
Two
ure.
(Nov. 2) at Brazos
captured, troops debarked
and the transports, with Franklin's
small
Confederate
a
troops, ago, drove
cavalry
fled back
to
to New
force stationed
them
there, and followed
Orleans, the Nationals
from

control.

Confederate

sailed

from

Orleans

New

CAPITOL

STATE

having lost
fiftykilled

and

boats

fifteen

200

and

The

garrison

200

and

men,

Banks

the

Red

doned

TION),
to

C.
of
to

for

consisted

it

and
To

was

hold
mask

present,

forces

design

was

RIVER

determined

this

about

the

on

penepurpose
of Shreveport, on

(see RED

coast

Banks
the

of

way
this

the

of

to

aban-

Nov.

on

the

work

which

opposite Matamoras,

entered

year

dable

At

6.

the

the

at

and

the

doned

all

Texas

close

of

troops occupied all

National

River,

of

mouth

coast
a

the

west

of

Brazos

had

Confederates
the

ex-

formi-

aban-

Colorado

River.

Notwithstanding
and
military

civil

attempt
Gen.

TEXAS.

the strong positionson the Texan


Island
and
cepting Galveston

EXPEDI-

harbors

movement,

AUSTIN,

Brownsville,

gun-

cannon,

were

his

the

by

two

rifled

only forty

time

and

seize

Texas.

attacked

River; but
for

also

heavy

concentrated

now

Atchafalaya,
trating Texas

prisoners and

made

men

wounded;

AT

east

of

of

eracy

C.

surgents west

the
of

the

downfall

power

of

the

of

Mississippi, the

it, under

the

the

Confedin-

command

influence
of Gen.
considerable
E. Kirby
with
Smith,
body and
a
conflict
the
from
Brashear
disposed to continue
City were
troops, advanced
Opelousas, to give the impressionthat longer. He addressed his soldiers on April

Washburne,

59

TEXAS"TEXAS
that
telling them
the hopes
depended

1865,

21,

"

prowess

federate] nation."
there
"

hopes
the
struggle," he

were

Protract
will

you
who

[Con

them

that

from

succor

surely receive

STATE

"

Edward

continue

adopted.

To

Sheridan

this

meet
sent

was

the

contest

danger,
Orleans

with

fi.

exhibited

26), but
in
of

most

his
his

discriminate
So

erty."

"

of

"

S. Ross,...
Lawrence
S. Hogg
James
S. Hogg
James
Charles A. Culberson.

"

first

Civil

the

in

War

the

Hamilton

was
appointed by
in the
provisional governor

J.

Andrew

President

of 1865, and

summer

for the

reorganization of

there.

Under

taken

were

measures

civil

Sheridan.

General

.]

1879

""

1887

"

1891
1893

"'

"*

"

""

"

"

1895
1897
1899
1901

"

"
"

1903

"

"

1907

T. Lanham.

W.
M.

Campbell.
UNITED

SENATORS.

STATES

of

No.

Houston

29th

Thomas

J. Rusk

29th

J. Pinckney Henderson.
Matthias Ward
John
Hemphill

Term.

Congress.
to

3(Jth

"35th

1846

to

1846

"

35th

35th

to

36th

1859
1857

1858
36th

"37th

1858

to

1859

"'

1859

1861
1861

Wigfall
37th, 38th,39tb, and 40th Congresses vacant.
41st
to 44th
1870
to
J.W.Flanagan
C. Hamilton

Morgan
Sam

36th

T.

Bell Maxey
Coke

uei

Charles

A.

Joseph

W.

"37th

1860

"

41st

"45th

1870

"

44th

"

1875

"

18H8

45th

"

1895

50th

1877
1888
1891
1892

"

"

"

1891

"

1892

"

1899
1901

50th
54th
62d

52d
52d

to

66th

54th

"

1895

"

Culberson

56th

"

1899

"

Bailey

57th

"

1901

"

Chilton

Horace

made
a
1867, Texas, with Louisiana, was
military district, and subjected to mili

tary rule under

Say ere....
Sayers

John
H. Reagan
Chilton
Horace
Roger Q. Mills

of

acts

1877

"f

....

Richard

government

reconstruction

the

1874

"

Samuel

Louis

field.

the

D.
D.

"

""

""

Culberson.

A.

1863

"

"

Name.

disbanding
and
permitting an in
army,
plunder of the public prop

ended

1853

20, 1861
Dec.,1861

July 21, 1865


Aug. 13,1866
July 30,1867
Jan., 1870

""

rease

M.

faith," said

bad

"the

report,

March

"

E.J.Davis
Coke
Richard
R. B. Hubbard
Oran
M. Roberts

preparations for a
large force, and made
His appear
vigorous campaign in Texas.
ance
dismayed the trans-Mississippi in Charles
Joseph
to longer fol
surgents, and they refused
Joseph
low their leaders
in the hopeless struggle. Samuel
Thomas
his
General
Smith
formally surrendered
whole
command
to General
Canby (May
Grant

"

"

were

General

New

to

Clark

A.J.Hamilton

already deeply sympathize with you."


held in Texas, where
meetings were
to

Continued

and

of nations

Public

resolutions

GOVERNORS"

"

abroad.

said,

aid

the

their

upon
of the

assured

He
of

BANGERS

57th

1875
1877

con

assembled
Dec.
7, 1868, adopted
ratified at an
was
constitution, which
election
(Nov. 30 to Dec. 3) in 1869, and

vention
a

and

governor
the same

at

Constitution
and

on

State

were

March

Congress.

On

transferred

was

Population

in

April
to

government

civil

authorities.

2,235,523;

1890,

in

the

16

the

up

of

representation

to

in

in existence

1900,

H. ; UNIT
3,048,740. See BENTON, THOMAS
STATES
OF
TEXAS, in this
ED
AMEBICA,

from

pressing

..........

....

..........

.....

Henderson

......

..........

Oct.
Dec.
Dec.
Dec.

22, 1836 ft

10^1838

9,1841
13, 1841

GOVERNORS.
assumes

Mexico,

riots

and

of this

functions
.........

.....

STATE

is made

and

at

others

supof

disturbances

other

RFPTTRTTP

Samuel
Houston
inaugurated.
Lamar
B
M
"
Jones'.'.'."..
Anson
Dr.
Samuel
Houston
.....

years;

of

thieves

volume.
OF

for many

and
has
carefully selected men;
deeds of extraordinary daring creditmany
ed to its memory.
As
the name
implies,
in the
this body ranges
State
the
over
performance of its unique work, at one
time
assisting the officers of the law in
their duties, at others
defending the Rio
Grande
border
against raiding cattle

national

(Feb. 23, 1870),


Congress, the

ratified

30, by act
entitled

was

the

to

been

and

Fourteenth

The

Amendments

Fifteenth

chosen

legislature were

time.

and
Bangers, a body of armed
combined
men
constituting a
It has
military and constabulary force.
Texas

mounted

report
month
^
were

office
.......

Feb.

made
sent

assisted

19, 1846

body

is obtained

from

\,
the
operations in
single
of December, 1897, when
the mem.

...

..

of

its

forty ^^
on

^.^

^.^

seventy scouting expeditions;


forty-seventimes; guard-

sheriffs

times

""

attended

E. M. Pease

"

thirty-fourtimes;

1853

60

made

nine

attempts

to

RANGERS.

TEXAS

that

arrest

United

miles.
Textile

ing

for

Fabrics.

imported goods

about

1640, stimulated

kinds

of
and

ured.

The

and,

woollen

cultivation

sent
at

shire

clothiers

fabrication
cloth

the

to

was

people

West

had

of

hemp

and

on

for

citizen

C.

new

he

flax

Indies

for

cotton,

The

spinning

Lowell,
the

the

weaving

It

yarn.
United

of the
merchant

invented
and

But

of
of

remained

States, Francis
Boston, to intro-

cotton

power
S. Jackson

Francis

here,

cloth

loom, and

erected

in
a

1812
mill

machinery was
After
constructed
by Paul Moody.
many
failures
and
alterations, they succeeded
that worked
in perfecting looms
well, and
also
had
in 1813
a
spinning-wheel,
they
Rhode
Slater's
with
1,300 spindles.
mill
had
then
Island
only 144 spindles,
in

colony of Yorkrecently settled, the

foot.

duce
He

Vessels

linen, woollen, and

set

in

manufact-

were

of

to

States.

only

things,

other

undertaken.

where

Rowley,

pay-

Massachusetts,

the

cloths

successfully

were

in

industry. Among

cotton

was

of
difficulty

The

manufacturing in the
his operations were

of cotton

father

4,843 the

travelled

failed; and

THACHEB

FABRICS"

TEXTILE

cotton

first cotton

The

Mass.

Waltham,

started
States
was
factory in the United
See COTTON.
Beverly, Mass., in 1789, by a company
in
in introducing that
who
JAMES,
Thacher,
physician; born
only succeeded
Feb.
with
14, 1754; joined
imperfect machinery. Barnstable, Mass.,
industry,
very
in operation in the
Continental
at
A
woollen
Cambridge in
factory was
army
as
surHartford, Conn., in 1789, and in 1794 one
1775, and served through the war
of the promiestablished
in Byfield, Mass.
The
was
geon, being present at many
battles
in the
He
North.
nent
was
kept a
same
year a carding-machine for wool
first put into
operation in the United
diary, and in 1824 published a Military
in

States.

It

was

direction

of

John

SAMUEL

SLATER

constructed
and

under

Arthur

(q. v.) may

the

Journal

Schofield.

of

historical

be considered

several
61

the

of great
a work
author, also, of
works, scientific,philosophi-

Revolution,

value.

other

He

was

THACHEE,
historical.

cal, and

died

He

in

Plymouth,

26, 1844.
Mass., May
JOHN
Thacker,
BOYD, author; born in
Ballston, N. Y., Sept. 11, 1847; gradu
ated
in

Williams

at

State

the

introduced
in

the

College
in

Senate

of

and

struction

the

management;

was

and

ber

Columbian

of

of

the

World's

Commission,

its bureau

of

he

resulted

later

tenement-house

Albany in 1886-87
appointed by President
tion

served

1869;

1884-85, where

which

measures

reform

in

and

of

mayor

1896-97;

He

chairman
wrote

to

did

at

The

There

was

held.

were

feasible

Only
one

"

other

fugitives.

he

by Lake
by land

Detroit;

River, where, it

BATTLE

OF

When

THE.

his

landed

Gen

invading

army
1813, Gen

Maiden, Canada, in
of the British
Proctor, in command
troops there, fled northward, leaving the
in
fort, navy
buildings, and store-houses
Fort

near

eral

flames.

all

to

facilitate

to

the

as

have

the

his

has
not

into

impressed

horses

Secretary

will pursue
there is no
he

had

Proctor

service

of

the

his

inhabitants

flight.

Harrison

of

( Sept. 27 ): "I

War

wrote

the enemy

to-morrow, although
probability of overtaking him,
upwards of 1,000 horses and we
one

in the

army.

I shall

think

encamped.

OF

THK

was

ascertained,

General

Cass

ac

aide.
volunteer
as
companied Harrison
small
vessels
con
Learning that some
taining the enemy's artilleryand baggage
St. Clair towards
were
escaping on Lake
the

mouth

of

the

Thames,

Commodore

Perry despatched a portion of his fleet,


under
Captain Elliott, in pursuit. Perry
followed
in the Ariel, accompanied
soon
little squadron
The
Caledonia.
by the
reached
with

munition
the
that

of the Thames,
(Oct. 2) the mouth
am
baggage, provisions, and
of the
Americans, but
wagons

the

vessels

of

stream.

rapidly, along

the

enemy
Harrison

the

.4

APPKARANCB

of

chosen.

his

had

Harrison

rear

Cass's

Proctor

Thames,

the
was

officers

pursuit
to Long

left to
brigade were
brigade and Ball's
left at Sandwich, and
3,500
regiment were
mostly Kentucky volunteers, start
men,
the
ed in pursuit towards
on
Chatham,
and

McArthur

Thames

eral

Erie
to

latter

its
etc.

of
of

lines

Continent

of America, its Discovery and


The
Cabotian
Discovery,
Baptism;

Harrison

joined by
his cavalry,

was

council

two

The

sufficiency

officers."

Johnson, with

M.

Sandwich.

the

Oct.

On

pursue.
Col. Richard

collect

to

general

the

mount

hold

Exposi

became

awards.

was
mem

fortunate

myself

Point, the

con

Harrison

THAMES

"

BATTLB-GROCND

THAMKS

62

IN

I860.

border

had

escaped up
pressed forward
of

the

lake

and

BATTLE

THAMES,
up the
vessels
to

Thames.
also

Dolsen's

Indians

but

"

white

700

"

ice.

for

former

The

armed

and

Ms
for
men
by honorable
in Amercruelty and cowardice
ica, Proctor sank into merited
obscurity,
Harrison's
victory was
complete. The
whole
with
his praises.
country resounded
Congress gave him and Shelby the thanks

encamped
and

men

THE

scorned
of

career

convoys

1,200

approach of Harrison
their
flight, Tecumseh

Proctor

cursing

as

the

on

continued

they

Perry's

up the river
British
had
The

transports.

at

of

Three

went

OF

coward

his

boasted

the

of

victory he should win, but kept


on
retreating,destroying bridges
and
other
property in his flight,
vessels
and
burning his own
behind.
last
At
leaving arms
the
so
pursuit was
sharp and
close that Proctor
was
compelled
make

to

stand

the

on

bank

of

the

the
Moravian
Thames, near
town, his left on the river, where

the

bank

and

on

is

high and precipitous,


right a marsh, run
the
parallel with

his
almost

ning
river

for

space

between

about

with

woods,

miles.

The

covered

with

2
was

little

very

under

growth.
The

British

formed

in

smaller

the

near

The

between

so

disposed

manded

two

as

left.

chief.

was

little

now

gades
ernor

and

easily to
They were

flank
com

Tecumseh

lowers, who
and

had

quished,

and

prisoners.

Harrison

of

num-

his

of the

force

the

ensued.

West

Proctor

escaped

the

Thames,
September,

carriage,

grand
peared

personal staff, a few dragoons,


i
iT
mounted
Indians,
hotly pursued some

by

made

his

Johnson

Ontario,
was

to

way
and

his
western

there

ended.

superiors,rebuked

and
the

by

his

his

horsemen,
end

..

ure.

also

of

military

Censured

by

the

Regent,

Prince

battle

is not

be

now

may
loss

The

were

engraved
by Burgoyne at
were

Surrendered
These

brass

Detroit

in

this

at

seen

short

but

known.

exactly

It

*:%%#""?$""?$$?""%

van-

his

distance

"

six

at

of which

medal,

gold

Thames

Hull

two

Point.

decisive

made

were

in

from

on

words,

each
the

The

swamp.

them

of

taken

Saratoga."

fol-

amazed

and

battle

regi- recovered,

speedily

was

of

most

the

cannon

attacked

battle

nation

the

At

fought desperately,broke
shelter

British

Johnson's

severe

slain, and

fled to the

whole

Colonel

was

in

regulars, five brivolunteers, under Gov-

men.

and

3,000

120

Kentucky
Shelby, and
5),

OSHAWAHXAH.*

force

than

more

of

of

(Oct.

career

post

were

swamps,

of mounted

ment

Lake

in

that

Harrison's

ber, composed

He

of

by

pewa

,"

river,

assisted
Tecumseh,
brave
Oshawahnah,
a
Chip-

by

and /,

bank

Indians

the

Harrison's

with

the

artillerybeing planted
road,

stream.
ed

were

between

and

swamp

their
the

regulars
lines

two

taken

council
with
stars

at

1858,

there,
all

his

and

Around

displayed

Brantford,

when

he
in

testimonials

garters
his

hat

silver

""as
was

about

63

famous

ninety

of
seen

silver

gorget,

?*2"3K1S^"

his

council

that

in

he

ap-

bravery"
the
pict-

band.

medals,

'WS

He

etc.,

lS!

of
had
been
He
years
age.
the hero
warrior
of fifteen battles.
"

in

Canada,
attending

was

THANKSGIVING
lasted

only

about

Americans

lost about

wounded;

the

fifteen

British

DAY"

minutes.

The

THATCHER

reciting the

forty-fivekilled and
forty-four,besides

observance.

occasion
With

which

prompted the
exception,
the r"sya
on

only

one

Congress suspended business


appointed for thanksgiving.
ered all that Hull had lost. He had gained
Washington issued a proclamation for
much.
He
had
subdued
western
a
Canada,
general thanksgiving by the Continental
broken
Indian
the
on
Confederacy, and
Thursday, Dec. 18, 1777; and
army
up
ended
the war
the northwestern
border
As
on
again, at Valley Forge, May 7, 1778.
of the Union.
frontier
The
being secured, President, Washington appointed ThursHarrison
dismissed
a
26, 1789, a day for general
greater portion of day, Nov.
the
volunteers.
General
Cass
thanksgiving
throughout the Union; also
Leaving
Feb.
Successive
(whom he had appointed civil and military Thursday,
19, 1795.
Presidents
of
the
United
States
of Michigan) in command
of a
were
governor
to do likewise, from
time
to time,
garrison at Detroit, composed of 1,000 moved
Book
of Common
Prayer ", revised
regulars,he proceeded (Oct. 23) with the The
for
the
of
the
Protestant
(1789)
remainder
to
use
of his troops to Niagara,
Church
in
directed
the
the
of
Centre.
For
Episcopal
America,
the
some
join
Army
first
of
November
General
Thursday
an(unless
reason
unexplained
Armstrong,
other
the Secretary of War, treated
Harrison
day be appointed by the civil auso
be observed
thorities) "to
and
as
a
day of
badly that the latter left the army,
for
the
the country was
thanksgiving to Almighty God
deprived of his valuable
fruits of the earth/' etc. In New
services at a most
critical time.
See HABEngland,
WILLIAM
HENRY.
a
especially,
day of thanksgiving has been
RISON,
for
The
first record
a
annually celebrated
Day.
century and
Thanksgiving
and
made
the occasion
ed public thanksgiving appointed by au
for familv
more,
The
custom
thority, in America, was
gradually extendea
proclaimed in reunions.
Massachusetts
Bay in 1631.
Owing to the to other States, and for several years the
President
of the United
States
has issued
of
congreat scarcity
provisions and
a proclamation for a day of public thanksof starvation, Feb. 22 was
sequent menace
as
a
usually the
appointed to be observed
fast-day, giving throughout the Union
and the State
Before
time
that
a
long-expected vessel last Thursday in November
have
chosen
the same
with
arrived, laden
day, so
provisions, and the executives
that
the
is now
custom
general. Thanks
fast-day was
changed into one of thankssometimes
a
giving Day is now
oblegal holiday,
giving. The practice was
ROBERT
SEYMOUR
served
in
New
Netherland.
Governor
Tharin,
SYMMES,
Kieft
proclaimed a public thanksgiving, lawyer; born in Magnolia, S. C., Jan. 10,
to be held in February, 1644, on
1830; graduated at the College of Charlesaccount
of a victory over
the Indians; and
again, ton in 1857 and at the Law Department of
in 1645, because
the
York
in
of the conclusion
of peace,
1859 ;
University of New
in
favor
of
the
Union
was
Thanksgivings and fasts,sometimes
strongly
general
prior
and
sometimes
partial,were
appointed in to the Civil War, and owing to his opinions
the several colonies,and early in the Revoattacked
fled
He
was
by a mob in 1861.
the Continental
settled in Richlutionary War
Congress to Cincinnati; afterwards
in the
served
Union
adopted the practice. The days appoint- mond,
Ind.; and
ed during the war
in
follows
In
he
declined
1861-62.
1888
were
as
: Thursarmy
Conday, July 20, 1775; Friday, May 17, 1776; a nomination, by the Industrial
and
ference
in Washington, for President
of
another, to be fixed by the several
States, ordered
later engaged
States; and was
by resolution, Dec.
11, the United
in
the
auditor's
1776; Wednesday, April 22, 1778; Thursoffice in
Washington,
day, May 6, 1779; Wednesday, April 6, His
publications include
Arbitrary Ar1780; Thursday, May 3, 1781; Thursday, rests in the South; and Letters
the
on
These
April 25, 1782.
eight several ap- Political Situation.
BENJAMIN
pointments of thanksgiving days were
Thatcher,
BUSSEY, author;
made
by the Continental
Congress, in the born in Warren, Me., Oct. 8, 1809; graduform
of recommendations
to the executive
at Bowdoin
a ted
College in 1826; studied
heads of the several
State
law
and
admitted
to the
was
governments,
bar, but
600

made

prisoners. Harrison

had

recov-

"

"

64

THAYEB,

THATCHER"

the

to

of

author

her

He
literarywork.
Biography of North

his attention

turned
was

of

1863-67
; judge of the
Philadelphia in 1867-96.

in

Congress

district

of

court

Duties
He
of The
is the author
of Citizenof Phillis
Civil
the
Great
The
[of
Victory
ship;
of 8. Osgood Wright;
Wheatley; Memoir
Batand
its
The
its
Cost
Traits
the
Boston
War],
Value;
Traits
Tea-party;
of
The
the
Tales
tie
and
Philippines:
Indian
of
Germantoum;
of
of
Manners, etc.;
States
is Demanded
He died in Boston, What
Revolution.
American
of the United
by the Obligations of Duty and National
Mass., July 14, 1840.
HENRY
KNOX, naval officer; Honor, etc.
Thatcher,
born
in Thomaston,
Thayer, SIMEON, military officer; born
Me., May 26, 1806:
entered
in
of
Gen.
Knox;
Mendon,
Mass., April 30, 1737; he
Henry
grandson
Island troops in the
made
in
Rhode
served
with
the
in 1823;
the navy
was
captain
In
commodore
in July, 1862.
and Indian
French
War, and in 1757 in the
1831, and
Colonel
the Mediterranean
Massachusetts
1862-63
he commanded
Frye
line, under
taken
He
in command
of the
was
and
Rogers the Ranger.
Squadron, and was
AtHenry,
steam-frigate Colorado, of the North
prisoner in 1757 at Fort William
American

lantic

eral
On

Fort

on

commanded

afterwards

He

of the
and

Mobile

Confederate
the

on

naval

forces

River.

Alabama

in his famous
exaccompanied Arnold
made
to
Quebec (1775), and was
pedition
prisoner; but was exchanged in July, 1777,
and
was
prominent in the defence of Red
He

the

Gulf
Squadron, and assisted Genof Mobile,
Canby in the reduction
the
received
May 10, 1865, Thatcher

surrender
at

attacks

in both

Squadron,

Fisher.
West

Memoir

Indians;

In

Bank

and

jor.

He

wounded
in

served

Monmouth;

he

Mifflin,where

Fort
was

ma-

was

of

battle

the

in

Jersey in 1780,

New

he
He
made
rear-admiral, and in 1781 retired from the service.
was
died
in left a Journal
He
the
Canada
Invasion
May, 1868, retired.
of
of
Boston, Mass., April 5, 1880.
in 1775, which
was
published in 1867.
died
in Cumberland,
R. I., Oct.
Thayer, ELT, educator ; born in Mendon,
He
14,
1800.
Mass., June 11, 1819; graduated at Brown
the
Oread
College in 1845; established
SYLVANUS,
military officer;
Thayer,
Institute,Worcester, Mass., in 1848; memborn
in Braintree, Mass., June
9, 1785;
ber of the legislaturein 1853-54, during graduated at Dartmouth
College in 1807

July,

1866,

in

and

which
the

period
Emigrant

ored

settlers.

His

Lawrence,

would

into

places

have

the

would

have

never

society was
Thayer." Mr.
Congress in

born

and

of

Thayer
1857-61.

favor

of

his

Point

West

at

of

Ossawatomie,

Charles

corps
of Dearborn's

State

Aid

McRae

Kansas
without

Society

these

existed; and

that

the
was

He

brain

of

member

invented

Eli
of
an

in

engineers.

in 1814.

Robinson

settlements

slave

struggle; without
towns

and

endeav-

In
to

He
in

army
in

anti-slavery ton's division


founded
Topeka, engineer in the

GOT.

these

been

founded

and

Kansas

company

"Without

and

in

North

Manhattan,

which

said:

the

send

to

organized
Company

Aid

unite

to

scheme

of

he

entering the
engineer
1812, and of Hamp1808,

He

1813.
of

defence
he

1815

chief

was

France

there;

and

1833

superintendent at
the academy on
established

basis.

was

In

he

1838

colonel, and

from

ton

Harbor,

and

to

1833

structing engineer

of the

its

present

lieutenant-

1857

con-

was

defences

temporary

to

Point,

West

made

was

1817

from

fortifications

and

examine

to

the

he

Colonel

sent with

was

and

Belgium

chief

was

Norfolk, Va.,

chief

of Bosof

the

He
hydraulic engineer corps
colonel in March, 1863;
commissioned
was
safety steamboiler.
and
His publicationsinclude a history brevetted
in May;
brigadier-general
of the Emigrant
Aid
several
Company;
resigned June 1. He died in South Brainof his speeches in Conlectures; a rolume
tree, Mass., Sept. 7, 1872.

automatic

boiler

elevator, and

cleaner,

from

an

1857

to

1859.

sectional

and the Kansas


author;
Crusade.
died
He
MAKEPEACE,
Thayer, WILLIAM
Worcester, Mass., April 15, 1899.
in Franklin, Mass., Feb.
born
23, 1820;
Thayer, MARTIN
University in 1843;
RUSSELL, jurist; born
graduated at Brown
in Petersburg, Va., Jan.
in charge of
27, 1819; grad- later studied theology; was
uated at the Universityof Pennsylvania in the
Orthodox
Congregational Church,
Emitted
to the bar in 1842; memAshland, Mass., in 1849-57; and subae-

gress;

iu

"

65

THE

THEKAKISQTTI"

quently appliedhimself
returned

Franklin

to

legislature in

the

literarywork

to

in

and

1857

Alliance

in

1860-76.

Character

and

Lincoln;

Marvels

He

Public

author

of

Service

of Abraham
West;
Youth's
History of the Rebellion; From
Tannery to the White
House; From
Log
Cabin
to the White
House, etc. He died
in Franklin, Mass., April 7, 1898.
Thekakisqui, Iroquois chief; born in
York
in 1756; was
central
New
made
a
chief in 1776; gave considerable
aid to the
British
in the Revolutionary War;
comof

New

the

of

the

Even

and

Catholic

denounced,

Th"

other
and

and

holi-

English
be

to

came

idolatrous.
by the people as
eating of mince-pies on Christ-

the

mas

Christmas

Roman

was

regarded

cloae of autumn.

at the

of

churches

Temperance
was

thanksgiving
observance

days

and

1863;

secretary of the Massachusetts

of

1858; member

0 SO PHY

discontinued.

was

This

tyrannous

with
theocracy prevailed in Massachusetts
increasing strength for fully fiftyyears,
until the chain
was
gradually removed
by
It seemed
like an
atenlightenment.
"

tempt to establish
tery, with freedom

vast

only

Puritan
in

monas-

marrying

and

See ARISTOCRACY.
money-making.
Indian
conJOSEPH,
Theondechoren,
embraced
in
manded
band
of
Indians
who
laid
waste
vert;
a
1641, and
Christianity
became
fervent preacher; took part with
with fire and sword,
a
parts of the Carolinas
In
1794
he
turned
the Iroquois in an attack on Quebec, where
United
to the
over
States
a
wounded, but escaped to the woods,
government
part of the lands of he was
his tribe.
Under
his leadership his people He
was
captured by hostile Indians, who
made
in the science of agricult- were
influenced
so
by his preaching that
progress
and
civilization.
He
died in 1802.
In 1649,
ure
they nursed him back to health.
their
to
In
the
when
forced
leave
of
the
Hurons
1631
were
Theocracy.
government
Massachusetts
made
was
a
theocracy. In country, he went to live on St. Joseph's
Court
de- Island, but
May of that year the General
subsequently, with a number
creed
"

that

no

citizen

member

of
such

come

rigid

tests

and

and

voter

General

unless

"

he

were

To
the

to

purity of
religion. The

freeman

church.

his

Court

"

submit

to

was

of

be

colonial

some

in

orthodoxy

should

man

magistrates
by the

a
suthey jointly exercised
in temporal as
well
as
The clergy were
spiritualmatters.
always
consulted
in
matters
purely temporal,
maintained
at
the public exThey were
for which
the people were
taxed;
pense,
and
by the joint influence of the clergy
laws were
and magistrates many
severe
en-

control

their

otherwise.

and

acted, sumptuary

Men

were

cropped, or they
for
the govbanished,
slandering
,were
for writing
the churches, or
eminent
or
letters in disparagement of the authoriwhipped,

ears

were
"

ties
of
nous

in

manners

Church

and

during

theocracy

was

State."
the

The

reign of

very

austere.

settled
near
countrymen,
near
Tadoussac, Canada,

Theosophy,

clergy, and
preme

died

Greek

his

aided

were

his

He

Quebec.
June

26,

1652.

bemost

life and

of

from
self.
truths

system

this tyran-

Gravity

from

derived

name

the

wisdom,
theosophia, divine
The
object of theosophical study is proof
the
nature
fessedly to understand
divine
things. It differs,however, from
both
when
philosophy and theology, even
investiof
these
have
the
same
object
gation. For in seeking to learn the divine
nature
and attributes, philosophy employs
the methods
and principlesof natural
reathese, adding to
soning; theology uses
them
certain
principlesderived from revelation.
Theosophy, on the other hand,
professesto exclude all reasoning processes
as
imperfect, and to derive its knowledge
word

direct
It

communication

does

of

able, but
later direct

recorded
as

and

with

God

him-

not, therefore, accept the


revelation

as

immut-

modification

subject
personal revelations.
to

by
The

theosophical idea has had followers from


sign of holiness; all amusements
to be reearliest
times.
the
Since
the
Christian
proscribed; gayety seemed
class among
era
we
theosophistssuch
garded as sin; religiouslectures on weekmay
sects
as
so
Neoplatonists, the Hesychasts
frequent that their attenddays were
Greek
the in- of
the
the
on
Church,
ance
Mystics of
imposed a heavy burden
mediaeval
times, and, in later
times,
dustry of the people,who went from town
There
them.
to hear
was
a
to town
rigid the disciples of Paracelsus, Thalhauser,
fast in spring, answering to Lent, and
a
Bohme, and others.
Recently a sect ha"
was

were

66

THfeOSbPHY"

leader

Its

theosophists.
gentleman who

had

been

prosecuting

tain

individuals

attention
lt need

by
hardly
.a

far, without

Taking

India, they have


studies
there, cerconsiderable

to miraculous

claimed

have

fascinated

attracting

be said

they

mittee, G.

English Main,

to

their

claim

thus

Harter, Chicago; William


Ludlow,
York; Gen. William
Rhode
Fort
P.
Island; A.
Buchman,
York;
Wayne, Ind.; W. P. Phelps, New
and J. D. Bood, Fort Wayne, Ind.
ALLEN
Thomas,
CLAPP, historian; born
in Baltimore, Md., Dec.
26, 1846; grad-

of

name
an

become

of his followers

few

the
was

Buddhism.

of

doctrines

the

with

taken

has

arisen, which

THOMAS

that

receive

to

uated

powers,
revelations

the

have

Haverford

at

Professor

came

been, of Haverford

benefit

noteworthy

E.

New

of A

author

to

College in
History, and
College in 1878.

1865 ; be
librarian

of

History of

He

is the

United

the

States

and
for Schools
Academies; An Elementary History of the United
States; Hisfor the benefit of the
versal Brotherhood
in Amertory of the Society of Friends
creatures
etc.
the
earth
and
all
of
was
ica,
people
A. Tingley, Jan. 13,
in
founded
Thomas,
CYRUS, ethnologist; born
by Katherine
York
adKingsport, Tenn., July 27, 1825; was
1898, in New
City. This organhuman

the

race.

Universal

The

Brotherhood.

The

"

Uni-

ization

mitted

to the

the

became

assistant

is the outgrowth and expansion of


by H.
Theosophical Society founded
P. Blavatsky. W.
Q. Judge, and others in
York
New
in 1875, and reorganized under
convention
William
Q. Judge at its annual
in

Boston,
of

tion

Mass.,

the

adopted by
America

in

1895.

the

tories

are

over

Brotherhood

150

lodges
the

in

of

central

Point

Loma,

The
leader

San

officers

are:

Katherine

secretary-general;E.

Frank

Aug.

in

Point

Loma,

President,

American

Eclectic

dependent

Theosophical

Society.
"

An

in-

body, with headYork


quarters in New
City.
John
M.
Pryse, president, 17 West
York
Ninety-eighth Street, New
City.
American

in

Pre-

artillery.
War

with

war

Seminoles
1851

to

He

with

was

Mexico;
in Florida

1854

he

was

of

artilleryat West Point, and


major of cavalry in May, 1855.

1856

to

1860

fight with

River

the

the

the

From

1849-50.

he

the

in Texas,

served
Indians

wounded.

near

and

Brazos

He

was
promoted
Cavalry (Col. Robert E.
Lee's old regiment) in May,
1861; and,
in the vicinity of
having served awhile
the upper
made
Potomac,
was
brigadierin August.
From
general of volunteers
was

colonel

San

E.
Aug. Neresheadquarters, 11 East
York
Fifty-ninth Street, New
City.

Diego,

Cal.

at

in

Taylor

Pierce, instructor
made
was
Neresheimer,
From

are

Illinois

Shawnees

Seminole

again fought

in

Tingley,

"

America

and

.entered

the

M.

The
Theosophical Society in America.
headquarters of the Theosophical Society

heimer.

in

General

at

and

1840,

and
A.

of

chair

Southern

the

at

Cherokees

served

treasurer.

in

The

in

Diego, Cal.

official head;

and

Sciences

Times; Mound
Explorations of
the
Bureau
Prehistoric
of Ethnology;
Works
East
Inof the Rocky Mountains;
troduction
to American
etc.
Archaeology,
GEORGE
Thomas,
HENRY,
military offiin Southampton
born
cer;
county, Va.,
Point
July 31, 1816; graduated at West

States

organization is

office of the

geoof Terri-

Columbian

and
Canada, also lodges in England, Ireland, Sweden, Holland, France, Germany,
Zealand,
Greece, India, Australia, and New
The

States

of

Uni-

the

United

United

geographical surveys
1869;
accepted the

in

Brotherhood.
There

practised till 1865;

the

in

act
the
Chicago, Feb. 18, 1898, by which
became
Theosophical Society in America
the literarydepartment of the Universal

versal

and
on

Normal
University in 1873; appointed
States
Bureau
archaeologistto the United
of Ethnology in 1882.
He
is the author

was

held

convention

in

Natural

constitu-

Theosophical Society

its annual

at

The

Brotherhood

Universal

logicaland

bar

international

of the

November.
manded

1861, till March,


division

defeating
of MILL

5th

the

SPRING

of the

1862, he

Army

Confederates

in

corn-

of the Ohio,
the

battle

(q. v.) in January.

At

Association.
the right
Corinth, Miss., he commanded
Theosophical
President, Dr. J. D. Buck, of Cincinnati; wing of the Army of the Tennessee, and
second in command
of the Army of the
vice-president,secretary, and
treasurer, was
Dr. Stewart, of New
Ohio at Perryvillein October.
For nearly
York; executive com"

67

THOMAS

repulsed the

Norember, 1862, he comCorps of the Army of


service in
Cumberland,
doing eminent

from

year
manded

the

STONE

of

battles

the

and

RIVER
In

(qq. v.).

MAUGUA

he

14th

the

October,

led

the

of

assault

Oconosta.

invaded

party that

Later

the

Indian

guide to General
country. He was
all
in almost
twenty years

CHICKA-

for

1863, he

numerous

and

Cherokees.

He

died

Tenn., in 1819.
Thomas,
ISAIAH,
Boston, Mass., Jan.

prenticed
started

to

port, Mass.,

in

born

printer;

for

his

Creeks

Sevierville,

19, 1749;

printer

business

the

against

movements

Sevier
of

seven

in

was

ap
and

years,

himself

in

Newburyeighteen years
he transferred
his print
to Boston, and
on
July

when

he

of age.
In 1770
ing establishment

was

of
17, 1771, began the publication
became
Spy, which

the

Massachusetts

champion
right and

of

the

colonies

justice.

The

it, but

in

vain.

to suppress
skirmish
at

Lexington (April 19, 1775)

transferred

his

from

son
HENRY

He

in

the

Atlanta

against

the

service

he

from

the

the

medal.

land

Almanac

defended

thanks

of

General

tion

by

J.

Q. A.

For

this

For

the

major general,
Congress, and

Thomas,

in

equestrian
design and

Ward,

several

statue

handsome

execu-

of

unveiled

was

had

as

ISAAC,

very

quarto

imposing

founded

been

never

Indians
Sevier

in
and

on

tack

by
July
the

scout

in

born

1755.
James

the

forty-two years

MagaEng-

from
and

1775.
school
in

English colonies, and

afterwards,

press
editions

New

"

Bibles

the

their

places,

Massachusetts

to 1796, and

years
in the

of

various

issued

were

Worcester.

at

of the

Bible.

from

He

printed

In

1791

he

May

30, 1776, of

at
an

Virginia 8,000

edition.
the

In

Mr.

1812

Thomas

books

American

and

most

valuable

and
newspapers;
which
the hall
on

bequeathed

provision for
library and museum

the

Watauga,

intended

edition
very correct octavo
Collins
also
printed a

and
Bible."

Antiquarian Soin
Worcester;
ciety
provided a building
for its use
his grounds; gave it nearly
on

seen

the Cherokee
among
warned
Gen.
John
He

Robertson

the

at

settled

1735;

about

States

Thomas's

before.

there

many
used

books

Tennessee

of

capital,with

ceremonies, such

Va.,

took

branches
in

book

Andrews,

Mr.

He

Thomas,

national

the

he

Hood.

of

exquisitelywrought

an

in

signal service
when

with

in 1797
in duodecimo.
another
Thomas
Johnson, but he declined
Collins
Isaac
died in San
Francisco, says
printed, at Trenton,
State
On
Nov.
printer), "a
28, 1870.
19, 1879, N. J. (where he was

it.

Cal., March

of

did

1789

publish the Spy


by his
1819.
Enterpris

continued

President

by

receive

to

from

he

issued
folio edition, with
a
a
copper-plates,
legislature of Tennessee
and
concordhe
In
a
another, in quarto, with
February, 1868,
edition
in
in 1793
of lieutenant-gen- ance;
the brevet
an
octavo; and

offered

eral

zine

made

was

received

was

and

invasion

and

gold

of MISSION-

the

Worces

to

established

in 1788

they established
publishing business
They published the

battle

campaign,

Nashville

at

post

the

(q. v.), and

RIDGE

AKY

in

was

to

until

and

was

and

army.

time

business, he

in Boston

store
of the Department
placed in command
and
of the
was
Cumberland,
Army
United
States
promoted brigadier-general,

that

in

ing

THOMAS.

After

establishment

for

tried

government

ter, where he continued


until 1801, when
it was
GBORGE

the

contending

at-

was

built.

series

also made

He

maintenance

equal

of

to it the land

to

about

of

the

$24,-

and
published
joined the small force of forty (1810) a valuable History of Printing. He
and
died in Worcester, Mass., April 4, 1831.
with
them
fort at Watauga,
the

Indians.

About

the

middle

000.

he

68

Mr.

Thomas

wrote

T aOMPSON

THOMAS"

tary of the Treasury, 1860-61;

JANE, heroine; born in Chescounty, Pa., in the eighteenth cenThomas, of the


tury; wife of Col. John

Thomas,

Congress,

ter

Carolina

to the

to seize the ammunition


way
John
Rutledge had left in his

Gov.

fled, carrying with

powder.

Two

of

was

whom

attacked
the

the

gun

It

troops of

the

around

In

Sumter

1747

1760

he

in

in

in

1725;

Sons

to

was

on

he

in

He

removed

bian

till 1888.

Cincinnati

He

College

conductor

of

of

Gin-

the

festivals,1873-98;

director

and

came

organin New

of

and

in 1885-87.
Opera Company
to Chicago, 111.,in 1891, to
Chicago orchestra; and was

the

Fair.

the

of

died

World's

Colum-

in

Chicago, 111.,Jan.

ALEXANDER

miliRAMSEY,
graduated at

He

Thompson,
the

down

and

Haviland

of

Montreal,

and

Canada.

He

before

joined

Quebec May
Chambly, June 2, 1776.
LORENZO,
Thomas,

with

war

killed

Dec.

25, 1837.

in

born

1840; studied

defence

the

of

operations
captain of inmajor in 1832,
on

promoted
became
in

1837; served in
Indians; and
battle
of Okeechobee,

Seminole

ALFRED

in

WORDSWORTH,

art-

Baltimore, Md., May


26,
art in Paris, France; settled

in New

York

of

National

the

in

other

the

Thompson,

army
died in

in

the

was

ist ;

the

1, 1776, and

James

St. Lawrence,

lieutenant-colonel

the

of the American

command

the

1790;

in
Military Academy
War
of 1812, taking
Wilkinson's
expedition

in the

Plattsburg, and
Lake
Champlain;
fantry in 1814;

active

in

States

served

part in Gen.

colonel

commanded

He

United

1812;

Shirley'smedi-

of the most

one

tary officer; born

was
Liberty in Massachusetts;
appointed brigadier-general by Congress
in 1775; commanded
a
brigade during the
siege of Boston, and after the evacuation

troops

musical

musical

was

became

capture

was

sent to take

the

during

of

was

of

conduct

in
surgeon
Scotia
Nova

was

1759

the

Thomas

the

orchestra

conducted

1878-81;

American

he
He

4, 1905.

provincial regiment.
regiment under Amherst

Colonel

in

the

military officer; born

in

ot

principal-

whom
1845.

he

director

cinnati

in

world-famed

main

Rock

Hanging

Mass.,

staff, and

that

member

in Baltimore,

education

States

which

Music

while

the

was

United
the

was

firingtill the
said

was

saved

practising physician, and


the
sent
provincial army
cal

in

the

Marshfield,

in 1746.

women,

loaded

Rocky Mount.
JOHN,
Thomas,
in

York,

place was

skirmishes

the

ized

the

thus

for

supply

the

remained

incessant

father, with

one

When

an

musical

his

of

house.

up
withdrew.

his

from

to the

Thomas,

woman

enemy
ammunition

part

two

died

received

ly

charge,

Mrs.

kept

men

him
and

men

of the

charge

of

that

the

on

He

Md., Oct. 2, 1890.


Thomas,
THEODORE, musician; born in
Esens, Hanover, Germany, Oct. 11, 1835;

Prior

Spartan Regiment.
Revolutionary War Colonel Thomas,
learning that a large party of Tories was
South

1875-77.

in 1863;

became

associate

an

of

Academy

in

Design

member
of the
a
officer; 1873, and
Society of
American
in Newcastle, Del., Oct. 26, 1804;
Artists
in 1878.
born
His paintings
Point
in 1823; served
include, Desolation; Annapolis in 1776;
graduated at West
in the

Seminole

War

and

Mexico;

in

military

and

in the

May,

1861,

adjutant-general,with the
dier-general,which office he
gaged

in

South.

War.

In

army,
died in

in

Review

made

brigathrough-

he

was

2, 1875.

major-general,
retired

mitted
State
ber

to

the

See

bar,

1831;

1838
legislature,

of

Congress.

Maryland, 1848-51;

and

1839-41

United

member

1843-45;
;

of

the

mem-

of
governor
SecreStates

SIR

Thompson,

1777 ;

The
He

Ad-

The

Departure for
in Summit,

died

See

BENJAMIN.

RUM-X

FORD.

DANIEL
PIERCE,
Thompson,
in Charlestown, Mass., Oct.

born

Washington, D. C.,
JOHNSON, ANDREW.
PHILIP
;
FRANCIS, statesman
Thomas,
in Easton,
born
Md., Sept. 12, 1810; adHe

1869.

March

of
Enemy;
War, 1776, etc.
N. J., Aug. 28, 1896.
the

the

en-

troops in the

1865, and

Philadelphia,

at

vance

of

held

1863

brevetted

was

States

rank

colored

organizing
He

United
in

Civil

the

out

with

war
was

Middlebury College in 1820;


bar in 1823, and practised
registerof probate
Montpelier, Vt. ; was
clerk of the legislaturein 18301824;
was
appointed to compile the Laws
; and

graduated
admitted
in
in
33

at

to

of Vermont
eluding the

probate
69

author;
1, 1795;

in

the

1824 down
1834. He
clerk
1837-40;

from
year

to
was

of

in*

and

judge
the

of

Su-

THOMPSON
and

preme

lecturer

popular

in

edited

mont, at the foot of the Rocky Mountains,

1843-45, and
He

1853-55.

the

was

Green

and

in 1849-56;

Freeman

tain

in

courts

county

Secretary of State

author

History
Boys;
of Montpelier, 1781-1860, etc. He died in
Montpelier, Vt., June ^, 1868.
in
DAVID, explorer; born
Thompson,
St. John, England, April 30, 1770; entered
of The

the

Green

of

employ

in

peditions.
ered

On

Turtle

takes

Gulf.

the

of

shore

Lake

the

Rocky

the

whole

the

Mis-

Columbia

of

length
employed by Great
surveying and laying out the

of his Cabinet, and

for

the

floor.

freedom

of

large

sociation

for

and

made

was

the

the

in

the

Britain

in

to

largeCollege

also

con-

American

the

Advancement

As-

of Science,
She

died

H., July 20, 1899.


born
GEORGE, reformer;
June

States

18, 1804;
aid

to

in

came

request of

the

at

Garrison

Lloyd

lition

granted

was

She

its first patron.

United

William

this

to

sums

Thompson,
Liverpool, England,

River

$300

and

contributed

the Signing of the Emancipation


Proclamation by President
Lincoln
in the Presence

explored to

in 1807, and

Mountains

land

She

ly to the purchase of the Vassar


telescope;purchased and presented to ConFrancis
B. Carpenter's painting of
gress

in Littleton, N.

southerly course
He
explored the southern
Superior in 1798; crossed
its

of

640 acres
gave
colonist there.

tributed

discov-

he

which

from

Lake,

sissippi River
to

Bay Company
exploring ex-

engaged in
April 27, 1798,

later

1789;

The

Hudson

the

and
each

Moun-

was

Mountain

the

abo-

large meetings in
States, and through his efboundary- the Northern
forts 150 anti-slaverysocieties were
line between
the United
States
and
Canforinof ed.
He
threatened
ada
in 1816-26.
several
He
the author
was
was
by mobs
in Boston, escaped
Map
of the Northwest
Territory of the times, and once, when
death
Province
boat to an
made
in
small
the
Northof Canada,
by fleeing a
for
Engdied
in 1813-14He
in lish vessel, on which
he sailed to England.
west
Company
His visit created much
excitement
and was
Longueil, Canada, Feb. 16, 1857.
denounced
in a mesEGBEBT, naval officer;born
Thompson,
by President Jackson
in New
York
City, July 6, 1820; entered
sage to Congress. He revisited the United
States in 1851, and again during the Civil
the navy
in 1837; was
the
to
attached
South
Sea Exploring Expedition, and was
War, when
a public receptionwas
given in
his
honor
in all the operations of the home
at
which
President
Lincoln
and
squadron
1811;

was

in

the

on

Fort

he

commanded

Donelson

boats; also
rams

the

steamer
South

in

In

Island

of

one

in

Pillow.

monial

Ten

gunConfederate

niirers

in

land.

He

He

commanded

7, 1878.

iron-clad

born

1874.

in

died

He

in

States

HENRY

and

at

studied

1870

for him

testi-

by

his adin

and

Eng-

Leeds, England,
ADAMS,

in Stormstown,

graduated

Washington,

United

died

Thompson,

in
Macdonough
in
1866-67;
Squadron
captain in 1867, and re-

Commodore

raised

was

the

In

present.

were

fund

on

the

attack

the

his cabinet

attacks

the
Number

Pacific

promoted

tired

and

Fort

near

the
was

Mexico.

with

war

addressed

cause;

clergyman;

Pa., March

Jefferson

theology at

College
the

Oct.

23, 1837;
in 1858,

Western

Theo-

Professor
of MathlogicalSeminary; was
C., Jan. 5, 1881.
in Otterbein
Thompson,
ELIZABETH, philanthropist;ematics
University, O., in
born
in Lyndon, Vt., Feb. 21, 1821; was
for Vice-President
1872-86; candidate
on
the
Prohibition
the daughter of Samuel
with
ticket
Neal
in
Dow
a
farmer,
Rowell,
D.

and
Her

the age
education

at

While

on

markable
of Thomas

of nine

large

out

visit to Boston

to

service.

1880.

in 1843

her

Caswell

re-

beauty so attracted the attention


Thompson, a millionaire, that

married
they were
Thompson's death
immense

went

estate

within
the

was

of money

sums

At Mr.
year.
entire income
of his

to

1834,

left to
the

her.
cause

at

he

Chickasaw
elected

She

gave
of tern-

in

and

70

the

in 1831.

Carolina

began

born

lawyer;

C., May

N.

county,

graduated

charity; provided $10,000 for


a
thorough investigationof yellow fever
in the South; founded
the town
of Longperance

JACOB,

chiefly self-acquired. Thompson,

was

of

University
Admitted

the

to

practice

that

he
years
Indian
on

adopted

Congress in 1839,
body until 1851.
chairman

was

of

of

affairs,and
State

when

she

and

he

in

law
He

in
was

remained

For
the

North
bar

the

county, Miss., in 1835.


to

in

15, 1810;

several

committee

defended

his

repudiated

her

THOMSON

THOMPSON"

bonds.

Vermont

his

He was
vehemently pro-slaveryin
of the
most
one
was
feelings,and

of

active

retary of
Buchanan,

Memphis,

He

died

24, 1885.

See

in Canada.
March

Tenn.,

COMMISSION.

PEACE

Thompson,
He

Mississippi in
appointed Con

was

commissioner

federate
in

Confed

the

author

in 1777.

author; born

JOHN,

the

was

of articles

published in
signed Cas-

"
Petersburg Gazette, and
and
ca
Gracchus," in which he attacked
President
Adams's
administration, and of
letters signed
ad
Curtiss," which
were

the

"

"

"

dressed

Chief-Justice

to

and

1798,

John

later

Marshall

in

in

form.

book

published
Petersburg, Va., in 1799.
Thompson,
LAUNT,
sculptor; born in
Abbeyleix, Queen's County, Ireland, Feb.
in

He

died

8,

1833;

1847;

medicine

and

modelling;

New

York

works

the

to

came

studied

and

in 1858.
statues

are

United
and

of

General

author

Vermont

of

in

Gazetteer

1851.

He

of the

History of the
1832;
History

was

of

State

State

of Ver
Vermont,

to
of
to
Natural, Civil,and Statistical;Guide
Lake
George, Lake
Champlain,
Montreal,
and
and
Quebec; Geography
Geology of
died
in Burlington,
He
etc.
Vermont,
Vt., Jan. 19, 1856.
CHARLES,
Thomson,
patriot; born in
Nov.
to
Ireland,
29,
1729; came
Maghera,
America
in 1741; educated
by the famous
mont

Dr.

Allison,

Friends'
wards
he

his

Franklin,
labors

the

and, taking

in

behalf

of

in

the

Indians

interest

by

the

attended

Indian

an

the

Friendly Association,

the

After

in Philadelphia,
friendship of Dr.

home

with

favored

in

teacher

Newcastle, Del.

at

making

was

became

and

school

he

in

States

drawing

later

opened a
Among his

the

chair
in the

History

Natural

and

the

accepted

1845-48;

of

University
Vermont;

of

governor
then

was

and

1862-64,

President

7, 1861, and

of

services

the

many
Sec

was

under

resigned,Jan.

but

He

eracy.

State
He

War.

Interior

the

into

entered

Civil

the

his

in

disunionists
before

years

in

Chemistry

studio

in

best-known

Sedgwick,

Winfield

Scott, and Abraham


Pierce, and
of Edwin
Booth, Bryant, and Gen

busts

Dix.

eral

He

National
died

Academy

Thompson,
9,

in

1809;

WIGGINTON,

Culpeper
admitted

states

Va.,

county,
to

the

bar

in

began

1834;

practice in Bedford, Ind. :


of Congress in 1841-43
and
in
and
of
the
in
Secretary
Navy
He
resigned in the latter year

member
1847-49,
1877-81.

became

?ommittee
pany.
of the

chairman
of

the

of

the

Panama

American

Canal

Com

His

publications include
History
of Sixteen
Tariff and Recollections

Presidents.

He

died

in Terre

Stanford, N.
Princeton

Navy,

CHARLES

Haute, Ind., treaties.

9, 1900.

Thompson,
at

RICHARD

born

June

Feb.

of

in Middletown,

man;

and

vice-presidentof the
He
Design in 1874.
N. Y., Sept. 26, 1894.

was

SMITH,

in
jurist; born
Y., Jan. 17, 1768; graduated
in 1788;
Secretary of the

justice of the United


States
died
He
Supreme Court, 1823-43.
in Poughkeepsie, N. Y., Dec. 18, 1843.
1818-23;

ZODOC,
Thompson,
geologist; born in
23, 1796;
Bridgewater, Vt., May
gradu
ated
at
the
in
University of Vermont
1823; was
appointed State geologist of

The

the

truth."

carriage
bride
une

Delawares

which

name

in

the

"

THOMSON1.

adopted him with


signified one who speaks
he was
alighting from a
"

As

Philadelphiawith
of

possessor

came
messenger
Continental
Congress,
"

ing, "They
to keep the
as
you
Thomson

are

capacity

want

you
minutes

very

almost

to

his

Quaker

handsome

fort

him

from

the

just assembled, say


at Carpenter's Hall
of their proceedings,

expert

complied,

at

a-nd he

fifteen

that

business."

served

years.

He

in
was

that
a

THOMSON"
held

thorough patriot,and
of

confidence

the

married, at
Karrison,
Thomson

all

made

New

Testaments.

for

He

destroyed it.
Merion, Pa., Aug. 16,
Thomson,
Manchester,
graduated

ed

the

with

oral

in

29,

High
of

Professor
in

companies

in

for

in

ment

in

See

1889.

Thoreau,

with

DAVID,

The
to

WalMaine

Various

in

sail
men
were

driven

is

probably

and

and

Gen-

reached

the

past

the

and

women

Green-

to

In

1006.

of

the

vessels.

for

looking
are

supof
coast

along the
passing Cape

After

Cod
three

who

landed,
spent
country to the southreturned, bringing some

the

and

wheat

whore

Vineyard,
land

the

during

a"d

booths,

cultivated

grapes.
is either

what

at

Martha's

constructed

of

bunches

winter

or

next

They
in

(q. v.)

sailed

They
what

to

current

THOBVALD

spent the

they
spring

and

Scotia, and

of

Nantucket

Concord, Mass., July 12, 1817; graduat Harvard


College in 1837; became

in

Newfoundland.

Nova

They

ated

Norway

three

wind

by

grave

ears

born

from

vessels

he organized an
expedition to
year
for Vinland, which
of 160
consisted

Chemistry

author;

Woods;
Letters

two

in

ELECTRICITY.

HENRY

the

sailed

Norway;

patented posed to have


bearing New
England.
electric welding, lighting, heating, two
scouts
were
upon
and
He was
made
officer of the
an
days searching
power.
then
Legion of Honor
west, and
by the French
governmany

on

Rivers;

Cod;

Yankee

Mr. Thomson
has
years.
hundreds
of
inventions

twenty

Merrimac

Re-

Week

in

same

1870; connect-

Thomson-Houston

Electric

in

1853;

School

He
Canada, etc.
1862.
Concord, Mass., May 6,
Thorfinn, Scandinavian
navigator ; born

Lower

born

include

Government;

in

Life
Cape

or

land

March

School

and

died

Revolution,

died

Concord

Persons:

much

gathered
the

Civil

den,

and

publications

to

scholar, Woods;
Old

the

electrician;

Central

appointed
Central
High

the

1824.

England,
at

of

He

ELIHU,

1870;
in

of

had

but

sistance

Harrison,

classical

His

Emerson.

had

He

President

history

respect and

Hannah
forty-five,

translation

and

material

of

excellent

an

the

associates.

age
of

aunt

was

his

THORNTON

and

the

expired

then sailed for what


country. Thorfinn
is probably Mount
Hope Bay and there
founded
settlement.
Here
a
they first
then
inhabited
met
who
the
Eskimos,
considcarried
the
on
a
country, and

the

___

Jfk

^^

MBK

J^V

crable

with

trade

them.

In

to

Thorfinn,

of

fall

the

1009

son

in all

probability the

pean

parents

tile, and

after

Thorfinn

arrived

1840;
ed

the

THORiAtr.

can

the

writer, and

slavery;

opposed

to

friend of

Bronson

Alcot

was

and

was
an

in

In

to

1011, and

was

the
hos

became
for

them

combating

some

where

Norway,
received

claims
board

with

73

in

to

of

member

in

commission

St.

London,

Unit
of

the

on

of the American

arrange
in 1878.
He

Washington
died

1871

the

to

1867; member

commission

the

to

intimate

He

in

board

Ontario

Waldo

minister

December,

claims

strongly

Ralph

present

States.

returned

joint high

bama

and

of Euro

the

natives

the

appointed

was

States

bitration

lecturer

in

United

was

died
in Gloemboeland,
He
great honors.
Ireland, after 1016.
SIR
Thornton,
EDWARD,
diplomatist;
in London, England, July 17, 1817;
born
at
graduated
Cambridge University in

""

the

winter

he

TA.VID

of

who

first child
within

born

boundary
following
time

HENRY

born

was

was

the

and

1873;

transferred
in

26, 1006,

ar

Mexi-

and

boundaries

Petersburg
Jan.

Ala

of
of

from

1881,

THORNTON"

he

signed

Declaration.

the

chief -justice of

25,

and

as
midshipman
navy
Adams
in the sloop John

the

served

1841;

H., Feb.

N.

in Merrimac,

entered

1826;
in

naval

SHEPARD,

JAMES

Thornton,
officer; born

THORVALD

of

judge

State.

He

the

the

both

Hillsboro,

Court

of

the

branches

of

the

became
in the
a
council
War;
passed legislature,and
during the Mexican
He
died in Newburyport, Mass.,
midshipman in 1846; and resigned from
the

in

navy

promoted

1854;

in

tenant

in

War

He

1850.

master

1855;

the

reinstated

was

in 1855;

and

during

the

served

in

commander

SETH

Thornton,

lieu-

officer; born

Civil

in

execubrig Bainbridge; was


flag-shipHartford; pro-

lieutenant

in

1785.

June

24,

1803.

in

1862;

in the
charge of the gunboat Winona
engagements at Mobile; executive officer of
in the fight with
the Kearsarge
the Alahad

BARTON,
military
Fredericksburg, Va.,

near

served

1814;

second

tive officer of the


moted

made

was

of

Supreme
in

was

He

county

in

lieutenant

the

of

Seminole

United

becoming first
captain in 1841;

goons,

lieutenant

and

had

in

squadron

changed

the

the

in

command
War

Mexican

first shots

War

States

with

the

as

Dra1837
of

and
enemy

ex-

at

La

Rosia, April 25, 1846, in which


enCherbourg,
gallantry
in this action was
he was
and
gagement
given a vote of thanks
severely wounded
and advanced
the
in his rank,
captured with
greater part of his
thirty numbers
He served in the navy-yard at Portsmouth,
force.
At
the close of Scott's campaign,
N. H., in 1866-67;
in while
of
leading his squadron in advance
promoted commander
off

lama

captain

and

1866;

for his

and

Germantown,

in

1872.

Pa., May

died

He

Worth's

in

division

Augustin,

14, 1875.

he

at

the

shot

was

village of

San

dead.

Thornton,

JOHN
Thorpe, FRANCIS
historian;
NEWTON,
WINGATE,
author; born
Saco, Me., Aug. 12, 1818; gradu- in Swampscott, Mass., April 16, 1857;
ated at the Harvard
studied
at Syracuse University and
in 1840;
School
Law
at the
admitted
to the bar
and
was
School;
practised in University of Pennsylvania Law
born

in

Boston;
New

ciety.
Isaac

Rev.

fellow
Professor
of American
Conoriginatorsof the was
stitutional
Soat
the
History
Historic-Genealogical
University of
He is the author
publications include Lives of Pennsylvania in 1885-98.

was

of

one

the

England
His
Heath
John

and

John

Eliot, Jr.;

Landing

at

of

of

and

Bowles,

The

Anne,

the Charter
or
of the First PermaColony on the Territory of the Massachusetts
Discovered
and
now
Company,
First Published
from the Original Manuand
Historic
script; Ancient
Pemaquid
Peter
Oliver's
"Puritan
ComReview;
rnonwealth
Reviewed; The Pulpit of the
American
Revolution, or the Political Sermons
of the Period of 1776, with an IntroAuction, Notes, and Illustrations; Colonial
Schemes
and
of Popham
Gorges; The Historical
Relation
to the
of Neio England
died in
etc.
He
English Commonwealth,
Saco, Me., June 6, 1878.
a
Thornton, MATTHEW,
signer of the
"

land

in

life;

was

over

the

of

1714;

Independence ;

born

America

to

Government

of the People of the


and
the
UniStates; Franklin
versity of Pennsylvania; The Story of the
The
Government
Constitution;
of the
State
The
Constitution
of Pennsylvania;
of the United
States, with
Bibliography;
A Constitutional
History of the American
The
Constitutional
People, 1776-1850;
History of the United States in 1765-1895;
A
and
States
History of the United
for

nent

Declaration

The

United

Gape

Junior

Classes.

THOMAS
Thorpe,
BANGS, author; born
in Westfield, Mass., March
1, 1815; received
a
collegiateeducation; settled in
Louisiana

1836

and
in

and

in Ire-

in

literature; served
was

services.

devoted

himself

Mexican

the

to

War

promoted colonel for meritorious


His
The
publications include

in

Our
early Big Bear
of Arkansas;
Army
of the
beRio
A
at Monterey;
Grande; Our
Army
a
came
physician in New
Hampshire. Voice to America; Scenes in Arkansaw;
He
in PepperelFs expedition against Reminiscences
was
L. Elliott, etc.
of Charles
Louisburg in 1745 as a surgeon;
York
presided He died in New
City in October,

vention

came

educated

New

in

at

Worcester, and

Hampshire

1775; and

was

Provincial
a

Continental
delegate to the
Baking his seat in November,

short

Contime

1878.

Thorvald,

Congress,

in

1776, when

1002

73

ERICSSON,

Scandinavia
he

selected

in

the

a, crew

navigator; born
century. In

tenth
of

thirty men

and

THREE
sailed

westward.

reached

what

Island, and
of 1003

he

is

coast

sailed

anchored

to have

the

Rhode

took

near

the
sent
General
van
Thompson with Penn
spring sylvania troops, led by St. Clair, Wayne,

wintered

of Providence.

In

southward

the

and

westward

is

what

THTJRSTON

of

supposed

the

now

have

to

present site
and

He
is

RIVERS"

mouth

of the

and

Sorel.

Three

at

post

Irvine,

attack

to

British

Rivers.

force

General

the

Sulli

British

there.

be

to

supposed
Thompson was
badly beaten, and he and
Here
150
were
Cape Alderton.
sighted three Irvine, with
private soldiers, were
canoes
This disaster discouraged
containing nine savages, eight of made prisoners.
whom
slain.
The ninth escaped, and
were
Sullivan, and he was
compelled to aban
the
on
following night brought back a don Canada.
of Eskimos,
who
ALLEN
large number
appeared
states
Thurxnan,
GRANBEBY,
born
in Lynchburg,
man;
near

Va., Nov.
tised

13, 1813; prac.


in Chfllicothe,

law

O., and became


bar; was

eminent

the

Democrat.

In

national

1845-47

Ohio

represented

House

a
judge of
Supreme Court.

the

the

Repre

in

was

was

he

in
of

sentatives, and

he

at

life-long

1851-55

the

State

In

1867

candidate

for

in

opposition to
B. Hayes, and
the
close
was
campaign
and
exciting,
though
Hayes won.
During two
governor
Rutherford

terms, 1869

to 1881, Thur-

man

member

was

United

p:-

where

he

judiciary
the

on

sion

served

of the

lived

have

south

farther

in

the

tenth

in later

than

of

him

at

Rhode

to

which

he

Cape Alderton
Island, and

died.

ond
with

Grover

large
arrive

the

British
in

the

Americans

and
St.

an

crew

German

retreated

Cleveland.
Thurman

In

arrow

returned
sailed

for

in 1884;

river

to

member
98 ; and

in

was

of the
House

chairman

in 1893

legislaturein 1886;

reform

the

of the

appointed
74

to the

elected

1887; minister

began to
(May, 1776)
the

were

defeated

force

up

and

Thurman

burying

When

OF.

Lawrence

Cleveland

and Morton.
Senator
by Harrison
died in Columbus,O.,Dec. 12, 1895.
LOBBIN
A., diplomatist;
Thurston,
studied
in Hawaii;
law in Columbia
born
in
1880-81
College
; practisedin Honolulu,
he also published the Daily Bulletin
where

1005

BATTLE

in

accepted the sec


the
ticket
place on

These

prominent
Rivers,

been
Presi

times.

Greenland.
Three

the

century

After

his
in

had

He

for

the

received

Thorvald

attack

wound

constitution

much

of ar
natives, after discharging a shower
the Scandinavians, fled.
on
rows
During
the

election

a
an

he

1888

to

was

nomination, and

dential

THURMAN.

commis

party and

authority on
questions.

G.

and

1877, and

candidate

the

on

committee

al

ALLEN

Senate,

electoral

of

leader

of the

States

to

of

of

movement

interior

in 1887-90;

Nobles

of the

presentto

in

1892-

commission
the Uniteq

THWAITES"
States

of

projectfor

the

government

nexation

the

Islands.

Sandwich

the

TICONDEROGA
4

country

historian;

GOLD,
in Dorchester,
15, 1853;
Mass., May
at Yale
educated
College; served as

Thwaites,
born

of

editor

REUBEN

Wisconsin

the

1876-86;

then

intendent

of

The

He

etc.

Ohio,

also

was

Historical

Wisconsin

the

(volumes

( 73

Clark

and

with

whole

dense

forest,

of
tangled morasses
lay in the way
English. Led by incompetent guides,
in
soon
bewildered; and while
they were
condition
that
the
right column, led by
Lord
Howe, was
suddenly attacked
by i
small
A
French
force.
en
sharp skirmish
sued.
The
French
were
repulsed with a
loss of 148
made
men
prisoners. At the
the

first fire Lord

confusion

to

Abercrombie

the

THOMAS
Tibbies,
in Washington

joined

in

the

was

make

it

itinerant

free

settle

to

Kansas

became

State;

Methodist

subsequently
Presbyterian minister, and
journalistand editor of the Independent
of Lincoln, Neb.
He
early affiliated with
its candidate
the Populist party and
was
for vice-presidentin 1904.

at

Dartmouth

to

the

and

languages
College in

in

graduated

admitted

1807;

modern

professor of

1813;

literature
His

1819-35.

in

born

author;

College
in

bar

Harvard

at

publications in

OPERATIONS

In

AT.

his

the

the

The

crombie

the

manned.

of

flict of

four

fall

compelled
leaving about
in the

back

2,000

forest.

at the
camp
loss of the French

Pitt

conceived

campaign
of

ure

and
in

France
had
Gen.

head

fire
in
con

assailants

were

Lake

George,

dead

men

the

enemy's
met
by
bloody

wounded

or

hastened

then
of the

lake.

The

inconsiderable.

was

magnificent plan for


1759, the principal feat
a

of

which

Canada,

to

Abercrombie

his

the

the

hours,

to

Aber
scale

to

the

(July 8), when


they were
After
superable obstacles.

fort
fatal

easily
guarded by

troops

face

forward

were

were

his

the
and

the

was

works

thoroughly

in

works

This

re

of
false

to
press
attack
on

others

ordered

the

condition

him

approach
strength of

information,

outer

the

and

abatis

of

artillery.

taken, but

to

clude
History of Spanish Literature; the
Life of General
Lafayette; Report of the
Board
the
United
on
States
of Visitors
Point
Military Academy at West
for 1826;
died in
He
Life of W. H. Prescott; etc.
Boston, Mass., Jan. 26, 1871.

Ticonderoga,

told

and

the

that

was

immediate

an

mistake.

an

1, 1791

make

to

without

then

preacher,

Ticknor,
GEORGE,
Boston, Mass., Aug.

Montcalm

the

but

learned

also

garrison

From

landing-place.

politician; deceptive, induced

HENRY,

county, O., in 1840;

movement

the

for

He

the
killed, when
in
troops fell back

was

the

prisoners

fortress;

born

Howe
of

greater part

ing.

( 1903) ;

etc.

and

The

Ticonderoga.
covered

inforcement

Warfare;
volumes
) ; (M-

Border

of

of Lewis

Journals

of

editor

Collections

ix.-xv. ) ; Chronicles
The
Jesuit
Relations

ginal

His

Story of Wisconsin;
in 1492-1750;
Afloat on the

Colonies

The

of

author

is the

He

Society.
Waterways;

super
State
His

Wisconsin

the

in

Journal

State

secretary and

became

torical
toric

from
was

and

HAWAII.

was

miles

an

See

the

was
so

conquest

ending

America.

the

Abercrombie,

been

unsuccessful,

Sir

Jeffrey Amherst

of

all

puissance

of

who

superseded by

was

in the

command

British
of the
forces
in America
in the
Marquis de Montcalm
found
commander
occupied the fortress of Ticonderoga, spring of 1759. The new
Lake
on
20,000 provincial troops at his disposal.
Champlain, with about 4,000 men,
of

summer

French

1758

Indians.

and

the

General

Abercrombie

competent

land

and

naval

force

was

sent

from
to
the expedition de
the
personally commanded
England
co-operate with
Americans.
The plan of operations against
at
signed to capture this fortress, and
the beginning of July he had
Canada
similar
assembled
to that of Phipps and
was
at
1690.
the
head
of
Lake
in
A powerful land
and
about
Winthrop
George
7,000
Wolfe, were
regulars, nearly 9,000 provincials, naval force, under Gen. James
and
to
ascend
attack
the
St. Lawrence
and
a
heavy train of artillery. The army
moved
lake
in 900
the
Another
Quebec.
force, under
Amherst,
(July 5) down
bateaux
the

and

night

named)

they

as

landed

whale-boats, and
spent
(as then
place yet known

125

at

Sabbath-day
at the

foot

Point.
of the

At

dawn

lake, about

was

drive

to

plain,

seize

Quebec;
General

and

the

French

Montreal,
a

third

Prideaux,

was

from

Lake

Cham-

at
join Wolfe
under
expedition,
to
capture Fort

and

TICONDEROGA,

TICONDEROGA

Niagara,

and

then

hasten

AND

down

Lake

OPERATIONS

THE

LAKE,

On-

AT

MOUNT

FROM

was

talked

ure

after

DEFIANCE.

legislatLexington, and
Amherst
the bold design
appeared before
Ticonderoga several gentlemen formed
of attempting their capture by surprise.
11,000 men.
(July 22, 1759) with about
The
French
commander
had
this view, about
just heard. With
forty volunteers
of the arrival of Wolfe
set out
the color
by Indian runners,
Bennington to engage
before
immediQuebec
(June 27), and
Allen, a native of Conoperation of Ethan
GREEN
to surof the
the
leader
ately prepared to obey a summons
necticut, and
render.
The garrison left their outer
lines MOUNTAIN
He
BOYS
readily see(q. v.)
the 23d
and
retired
within
on
the fort, ended
their views.
They had been joined
and
three days afterwards, without
offer- at Pittsfield,Mass., by Colonels
Easton
that
and
with
about
ing any resistance, they abandoned
Brown,
forty followers,
after
the
leader
chosen
the
also, partially demolished
it, and fled to Allen
was
Point.
Crown
That, too, they abandoned, whole
Castleton, at twiparty reached
fled down
and
the lake to the Isle aux
Colonel
Easton
was
7.
light, on
May
in
Sorel.
the
Amherst
to be Allen's
chosen
Noix,
lieutenant, and Seth
pursued them
Point.
only to Crown
Warner, of the Green Mountain
Boys, was
tario

and

the

St.

Lawrence

to

Montreal,

of in the

the

affair

Connecticut
at

When,
war

was

in

1775, it became
apparent that
inevitable, the importance of the

fortresses

made
Colonel

of

third
Arnold

in

command.

At

joined the nartv.

Castleton
He

had

Ticonderoga and heard the project spoken of in Connecticut


Crown
for Camabout
to start
Point, on Lake Champlain, and their just as he was
conpossession,became
subjectsof earnest
bridge. He proposed the enterpriseto the
sultation
committee
of safety,and
patriots. The
subject Massachusetts
among
strong

76

was

commissioned

colonel

by

Congress,and furnished
authority to raise not more

vincial
and
men

in

western

Pro

the

with

400

than

place),
handle

means

lead

and

Massachusetts

AT

OPERATIONS

TICONDEBOGA,

loud

and
of

voice,

render!"
followed

"

sword, cried
I

demand

with

door

the

beating
his

an

his

instant

The

captain rushed to
trembling wife.
recognized him.

his

by

the

with

out

sur

the

door,

He

knew

reaching
against
Your
er
Allen, and
disappointed in learn
Stockbridge,he was
Point
demanded
the commander.
rand?"
the
on
expedition was
ing that another
I order
Allen
claimed
He
to join it, and
said,
hastened
ing to his men,
way.
surrender."
what
virtue
to
authority
the right to the chief command
By
by
you
it?" inquired Delaplace.
demand
It was
of his commission.
emphatically do you
refused.
He
By the authority of the Great Jehovah
acquiesced, but with a bad
the
Continental
and
Congress!" answer
grace.
time
ed Allen, with emphasis, at the same
On the evening of the 9th they were
on
the head
the
shore
of Lake
over
Champlain, opposite nourishing his broadsword
terrified
commander.
of
the
the next
morn
Delaplace
Ticonderoga, and at dawn
surrendered
fort
and
its dependen
the
officers
the
and
men
on
were
eighty
ing
the
the
beach
few
rods
from
a
fortress, cies, and- a large quantity of precisely
colonists
of war
the
sheltered
such
munitions
as
by a bluff. A lad familiar with
120
iron
the fort was
their guide. Following him, needed
fifty swivels,
cannon,
they ascended
stealthilyto the sally-portytwo mortars, a howitzer, a coehorn, a large
and
other stores,
and
where
sentinel snapped his musket
a
quantity of ammunition
naval
retreated
full
of
into the
followed
warehouse
and
a
munitions,
fort, closely
and
chil
the
who
with
invaders,
by
quickly penetrated
forty-eight men,
women,
Two
to the parade. With
tremendous
shout
sent to Hartford.
were
a
dren, who
made
the New-Englanders
awakened
Col. Seth Warner
the sleep days afterwards
an
Point.
Allen
ascended
the
ing garrison, while
easy conquest of Crown
the

them

forts.

On

"

"

"

"

"

outer

chamber

staircase

of

the

of the commander

barracks

to

(Captain

RUINS

In

the

Dela-

OF

TICOXDEROGA.

FORT

77

1777, with

June,

'Lieutenant

General

about

Burgoyne

7,000
left

men,

St.

TICO

Johns,

His

Champlain.
of

posed

Sorel, in vessels, and

the

on

Lake

up

NDE

and

British

TILDEN

moved

distant.

He

took

com-

Defiance

and

Mount

was

army
German

B,0 G A"

regulars, lines,

possession of
Hope, the old
several

bateaux,

200

Gemans

The

were

with

gunboats,

an

sloop
prisoners, besides
American
de Riedesel, and
led by Maj.-Gen. Baron
releasing 100
prisoners. He
were
Major- then
proceeded to attempt the capture
Burgoyne's chief lieutenants
of Ticonderoga and
Mount
General
Independence
Brigadier General
Phillips and
found
The
Fraser.
(a part of opposite,but it was
impracticable,
invading army
the enterpriseand rejoined
Crown
it on land) reached
Point, June 26, and abandoned
Lincoln.
General
where
and
menaced
Ticonderoga,
The
born
St. Clair was
in command.
Tiebout, CORNELIUS,
garrison
;
engraver
York
in 1777; was
at
Mount
apprenticed
there, and
Independence op- in New
in
in the
aggregate to a silversmith; studied art in London
posite,did not number
settled
in
not
than
and
1795-97;
than
more
3,500 men,
Philadelphia, Pa.,
more
he engraved portraits of Washingin ten had
a
one
bayonet; while the in- where
Indians.

and

Canadians

armed

Mount
French

290

vaders

numbered

including
Tories, and
There

Horatio
Gates, John
9,000, ton, Gen.
Jay,
Jefferson, and
Indians, Thomas
Bishop White.
he removed
of artillery. Later
to Kentucky, where
he

8,000 and

between

of

reinforcement

splendid

strong

were

train

outposts

around

died

Ti-

in

1830.

CHRISTOPHER
Tiedeman,
GUSTAVUS,
born
in Charleston, S. C.r
them.
On
the 29th
Burlegal writer;
issued
a
grandiloquent proclama- July 16, 1857; graduated at the College
goyne
of Charleston
in 1876, and
at
tion to the people, and
the New
on
July 1 moved
School
in 1879; was
Professor
important York Law
against the fort. He secured
in the University of Missouri
for
it, and finallyplanted a bat- of Law
points near
York
Univertery on a hill 700 feet above the fort, since ten years, and in the New
but

conderoga,
enough to man

known

Clair

had

not

men

Defiance.
The
battery sity for six years.
Limitations
Ticonderoga absolutely untenof Police

Mount

as

there

St.

made

is the

He

author

of

Univritten

Powers;
of the United
States; Uuevacuate
it.
On
the evening of July 5, nicipal Corporations;
Federal
State
and
sent
invalids, stores, and
and Property, etc.
Control
baggage were
of Persons
to
off in boats
Skenesboro
(afterwards
Tiffin, EDWARD, legislator;born in Carthe 6th the
on
Whitehall) ; and at 2 A.M.
lisle,England, June. 19, 1766; emigrated
and withdrew
to
in
United
States
and
the
settled
troops left the fort silently,
able, and

council

of

war

determined

to

Constitution

a
bridge Charlestown, Va., in 1784; studied med
Independence across
Thence
Methodist
they began a flight icine; became
a
preacher; re
southwards
Ohio
to
moved
in 1798; was
first gov
through the forests of Ver
mont
before daylight. The movement
was
of the State
in 1803-7;
served
an
ernor
discovered
States
Senby the British by the light of unexpired term in the United
a
of the
commissioner
building set on fire on Mount
Indepen- ate in 1807-9; was
States
and
dence, and
land office in 1812-15;
immediately be- United
pursuit was
The
Americans
lost at Ticonderoga subsequently surveyor
gun.
general of the
of military stores
and
Northwest
a
large amount
Territory. The
city of Tiffin,
named
in his honor.
died in
He
provisions,and nearly 200 pieces of artil O., was
lery.
Chillicothe, O., Aug. 9, 1829.
While
the
Burgoyne was
pressing down
statesman;
JONES,
Tilden, SAMUEL
Hudson
towards
Al
born in New
valley of the upper
Lebanon, N. Y., Feb. 9, 1814;
of entered
Yale College,but his health failed,
Lincoln, in command
bany, General
eastward
of
that
He
home.
finished
his
troops
river, attempted and he returned
to recover
York:
Ticonderoga and other posts in studies at the University of New
invaders.
the rear
of the
On
Sept. 13, studied law with Benjamin F. Butler, and
Brown
with
entered
its practice; became
1777, he detailed Col. John
a
jourupon

to

Mount

of

boats.

500
at

men

the

for
foot

the purpose.
Brown
landed
of Lake
George, and by quick

movements

surprised all

that

and

point

Fort

the

posts between

Ticonderoga,4

nalist, and
News
turned

miles

fession
78

in
to

in

New
the

with

1844

established

York
bar

great

City.
and

the

He

Daily

soon

re-

practised his pro-

success.

In

1874

ho

LV
fw

TILGHMAN"
elected

was

TILLMAN

of

governor

York, and broke


up
the corrupt "canal
ring";
New

in

and

1876

Democratic

the

was

for

candidate

after

Presidency,

the
which

retired

he

in

influence

great
councils

of his

died

his

at

pri

to

exercised

life, but

vate

the

party. He
country seat,

"

YonGreystone," near
kers, Aug. 4, 1886, leaving
fortune

ion

several

of

which

desired

he

mill
of

bulk

dollars, the

be

to

in

used

founding a great
New
public library in
York
City, but his will
successfully

was

See

tested.
COMMISSION
PUBLIC

con

ELECTORAL

YORK

NEW

LIBRARY.

MATTHEW,

Tilghman,
Feb.

tage, Md.,
member

in

born

patriot;

of the
of

sembly
1751-77;

King

General

Maryland
to

As

in

on

the

protest

to the

served

committee

Hermi

17, 1718;

against

the

Stamp
president of
the
Revolutionary Con
which
vention
managed the
province in 1774-77; was
called from
his seat in Congress
become
to
1776,
president of
Act.

He

vention

was

which

drew

up

the

SAMUEL

concerned.

in June,
the

con-

first

con-

to

He

TILDEN.

was

chosen

Congress
spatches announcing
to

Cornwallis.

elected
Maryland-, and was
and
in
1777
Senate
Maryland
He
died in Hermitage, Md., May

stitution

bear

J.

of

In

at

by Washington
Philadelphia de-

the

letter

to

surrender
General

of
Sulli-

in Congress (May
van
11, 1781), he had
highly commended
Tilghman as deservin
died
He
4, 1700.
ing of great consideration.
1786.
TENCH,
Tilghman,
military officer; Baltimore, Md., April 18,
born
in Baltimore, Md., Dec.
BENJAMIN
Tillman,
25, 1744;
RYAN,
legislator;
a
merchant
was
before
the
Revolution; born in Edgefield county, S. C., Aug. 11,
became
of Mercer's
one
academic
received
an
education;
Flying Camp as 1847;
of
of South
Carolina
in 1890-92;
captain of a company
Philadelphia governor
in
Senate
States
light infantry. In August, 1776, he be- elected to the United
and
interested
came
1894
has
been
1900.
He
Washington's aide and confidential
in that post until
in
estabsecretary, and remained
agriculture for many
years;
the close of the war,
with
and
Methe rank
of lished the Clemson
Agricultural
lieutenant-colonel after April, 1777.
chanical
He
College in Fort Hill, S. C.; origwas
inated
of the
the
thoroughly patriotic,and much
dispensary system of selling
time while with Washington for five
State
control
(see SOUTH
liquor under
years

to

the

1781.

he refused

He

every

army

pay for his services.


action in which
the main

in

was
was

79

He became
known
as
CAROLINA).
fork Tillman," on
of his
account

"

Pitchsavage

TILTON"
the

in

speech

Senate

against

TIPPECANOE
all.

President

York

City, Oct.
College of the
employed for a year
the

at

editor

the

retired

two

it after

in

York

New

was
poem
Memorial
Day.

for

short

died

He

Columbia, S. C., Oct. 6, 1867.


naval
officer;born in
Tingey, THOMAS,
London, England, Sept. 11, 1750; served
the

British

Independent
Age, but

In
years.
excitement

pointed captain

Golden

India

and

He

trader.
in

America

to

Revolutionary War,

East

an

1874

the

came

navy;

before

in

the

Observer;
1856-71; established
from

the

on

of

known

best

written

in

journalist; born in
2, 1835; graduated
York;
City of New

THEODORE,

Tilton,
New

His

ode

Cleveland.

became
was

ap-

Continental

the

navy

the Ganges in 1799,


created
wide-spread
by in 1798; commanded
He
and
French
vessels.
with
Beecher
uncaptured many
charging Henry Ward
the
in
service
naval
A
was
lawful
comfifty years,
intimacy with his wife.
in cornhe
mittee
the
was
of Plymouth Church, to whom
twenty-eight of which
at
of
the
mand
that
navy-yard
Washington.
they
referred, reported
charges were
were
groundless, but Mr. Tilton's civil He died in Washington, D. C., Feb. 23,
suit
Beecher
for
$100,000 1829.
against Mr.
In the summer
trial
OF.
sensational
Tippecanoe, BATTLE
damages led to a most
and
of Tecumseh
of 1811, the followers
in the disagreement of the
resulted
and
the
his brother
to Paris,
jury. In 1883 Mr. Tilton went
showing signs of hostility,
For
he
of Indiana
a
was
suggested to the govpopular and
many
years
governor
successful
the propriety of establishing a
lecturer; was
an
opponent of ernment
The
slavery and an advocate of woman's
rights-,military post high up the Wabash.
He
died in Paris, May
of
Teseizure
the
25, 1907.
proposed
government
his brother
and
THEODORE
as
hostages for
RTJGGLES, inventor; cumseh
Timby,
Col. John
born
in Dover, N. Y., April 5, 1822.
He
A regiment under
Boyd,
peace.
to reconceived
ordered
stationed
the idea of a revolving turret
at Pittsburg, was
Harhe was
for military purposes
lad. pair to Vincennes
when
to be placed under
a
he

At

the

and

United

obtained

other

rison's command,
and
the latter was
auIndians
the
thorized, should
begin hosHarrison
Office, tilities,to call out the militia.

model,

filed his first

States

Patent
for

patents

received

improve*- agreed

invention

his

decisive

of the national
governbefore
when
the time
years
Coles, of the British navy, claims
invented
When
the
the turret.

Tecumseh

for

official sanction
several

ment

Captain
have

to

Civil
his
"

broke

War

out, Mr.
obtained
and

invention
broad

one

for

tower
whether

for it

"

offensive
used

affray with
validity of
a

the
Mr.

liberal

invention.
turbine

for the

water-wheel

and

of

University
taught for several
and

magazines;
city was

the

use

his

American

the

method

born
was

was

at

during which
years,
to
Southern
papers
editor of the South
1864
he

to

Wabash
and

Haute,

post called

Prophet,

chiefs

there

on

treated

who

companies,
to

miles

60

Harrison.

Fort

Delaware

sent

was

strong, and
inKentucky,

about
near

evi-

was

Harrison.

war.

300

mounted

three

or

the

it

once.

established
he

Thence

mission

to

with

them

the

scorn.

troops pressed forward, and on Nov.


1811,
6,
they encamped within 3 miles of

The

For

than

more

hanging

savages

day
on

Prophet had become


of their approach.
aware
Harrison
arranged his camp in the form
of an
irregular parallelogram, having on

in Charles-

Columbia, from
burned
in 1865, when

two

up

their

educated

Indians

the

at

Prophet,

the

brother,

the Prophet's town.


they had discerned

of

Georgia; practised law;

contributed

Carolinian, in
the

The

by electricity.

the

he

right to

invented

Timrod,
HENRY, poet;
ton, S. C., Dec. 8, 1829;

time

water."

or

went

Terre

after
the
monitors,"
Merrimac, recognized the
Timby's claim, and paid

also

firingordnance

warfare,

be taken

South, and

gone

his

that

of Vincennes

Boyd's regiment,
militia, partly from

500

eluding

revolving

people
should

had

stirringup

perfected

"

the

measures

that

with

fifth patent

defensive

land

dent

"

sum

He

Timby
for

was

or

on

of

constructors

him

with

the

and

ments,

made

he

of 1843

beginning

in the

caveat

He

of nineteen

age
the

at

flanks, for the

its front

fantry
on

till
lost

battalion

Maj.

left by

the

right by
under

80

under

two

Col.

one

of United

G. R.

C.

States

Floyd,

and
company,
Indiana

companies, of
J.

Bartholomew.

In

in-

flanked
on

the

militia
the

rear

OF

BATTLE

TIPPECANOE,

infantry crept through the prairie grass, and with


Harrison's
yells fell upon
major, horrid
camp.
whole
C. Barton, of the regulars, The
with
was
soon
awakened, and
camp
These
their fires were
in immediate
command.
were
extinguished. A desperate
sup
of
ensued.
four
the
Nineteen-twentieths
of the
on
fight
companies
right by
ported
battle.
The
Indiana
seen
a
troops had never
com
militia, led respectivelyby Cap
bat
Warextended
to
almost
the
tains
whole
soon
Snelling, Posey, Scott, and
Capt. W.
Capt. R.

rick,

the

wide,

with

filled

150

riflemen

mounted

80

right flank,

composed
j.-Gen.

under

Ma

Wells, and

led

by

Robb.

under

Col.

in the

rear

J.

Parke.

H.

of the

angle with
of cavalry
In

Cols.

F.

those
as

the

companies
reserve,
centre

was

under
were

the

field.

of

of

excepting the sentinels


soundly slumbering. There

of

drizzle

of

rain, and

the

on
was

darkness

duty, were
a
slight
was

in

of

the

all

left
The

deemed

many

it

He

fell

Vincennes.

to

of

the
the

to

the

entirely de

much

that

was

burned,

was

prudent

encumbered

wounded.

back

it

town

to

make

to
he

as

destroyed
to

army

afford
and

wounded,
This

was

much

battle

Harrison
de
a
Tippecanoe gave
battle
military reputation. The
a
Ground,
ground is close by Battle
cided

Prophet
camp
his
orders,
prepared to execute
after midnight (Nov. 7) the warriors
were

ana.

and

the

81

town

Albany,

awake,

IX.-

had

behind.

the

little
the

as

rode

men

found

and

the
baggage
transportation

tense.
In

mounted

speedy retreat,

with

wagons,

baggage, officers' tents, etc. Having sup


instructions
to the
ped, Harrison
gave
several
the whole
officers,and very soon
camp,

The

Harrison

and

twice

and

1860.

IN

valuable

righta
troop
Capt. B.

re

dispersed by the
leaving forty of their dead
Harrison's loss was
upward

Prophet's town
serted.
They

and

until, after daylight,


and

sixty killed,

wounded.

stationed
at

the

on

8.

Geiger and
dragoons

troops
Daviess, were
first line,and

men,

of

of

Two

attacked

vere

advanced

times

several

mounted

BATTLE-GROUND

TIPPECANOE

David

they

left, about

The

Indians

The

square.
treated

yards

riflemen

mounted

Captain Spencer.
yards in extent, was

under

as

by Lieut.-Col.

commanded

The

was

acting

C. Bean,

whole

Decker.

L.

States

of United

battalion

was

under

The
same

the

near

and

Louisville, New

Chicago Railway,
battle-field,yet

oaks

as

at

the

in

covered

time

of

the

Indi
with
con-

TOD

TOBACCO"

enclosed

has

Tobacco,
natives

about

plant

of

State

the

test, belongs to
which

Haiti,

of

by
Domingo.

the

an

carried

bacco
Walter
the

with

in

seen

them

that

introduced

nobility.

it

When

chief

less than

ard

price

For

the

from

Ibs.

and

use,

and

Tobacco;

passed
no

the

66

vated
and
there

bill for

tobacco

and

became

Within

United

England

that

stand-

pound.

Isles

(Bermudas

allowed

to

be

planted

also

subject to
pound. In 1624

lamation

its

crown

the

King

cultivation

to

and

and

or

promore

to be
culti-

England

to

in

three

about

one-

forbade

except

Qd.

snuff.

year

1899:

286,453,738
106,855,524
346,823,677
1,847,637

741,980,576
17,107,839

imports

724,872,73
CHARLES

ALEXIS

Tocqueville,

in

Beaumont

de

Gustave

with

HENRI

1831

to

Return-

study the penitentiary system.


the
advocated
there
he
ing to France
in
the
method
penias
practised
solitary
tentiary of Cherry Hill, Philadelphia,and
in entirely rewas
largely instrumental
modelling not only the penitentiarysys-

was

per

by

procin Vir-

it had

calendar

in the

States

in
born
statesman;
CLEBEL, COUNT
DE,
a
Paris, France, July 29, 1805; became
States
lawyer in 1827; visited the United

was

It

was

the

none

England.
duty of

$775,000. In 1680

exported

40,000,000 Ibs.,of which

Isles.
ginia and the Somers
Finally, by
relaxing restrictions, it became
a
source
of large revenue
to
England, amounting
in 1676

eight

of any kind
afterwards

the

for

English-American colonies,
middle
of the
last century

the

were

Less

Parliament

Virginia
in

but

which

act

of

for

not

"

Total

by which
purpose,
to be imported into

from

except

Somers

assembling

and
smoking"
Cnewlng"
cigars and
cigarettes
domestic
Exports,
Exports, foreign

Counter-Hast

May, 1621,

allowed

was

up

in other
at

years
half

The

cents

wrote

in

the

colonial

to destroy crops
persons
It was
high treason.

seven
ending in 1621, the
years
exportation of tobacco to England
Virginia averaged about
143,000
its
tried
to suppress
King James

inordinate
to

about

executed

were

of

nounced

to-

revenue.

regulated.

were

was

as-

cut

manner

cutting the plants alone,

violation

ten years it became


the standard
of the colonies, by the price of

currency
which
values

annual

of

source

riotous

re-exported and the remainder


in England,
its cul- consumed
The
the staple
following shows the production in
in the
tobacco
and
pounds of manufactured
colony,

became
of

of

Sir

English
they began

agricultural product

act

first

Queen

the

the

seated
at Jamestown,
it soon
tivation, and
their

country,
to

of them

some

and

the

in

tobacco-plantsextensively. They were


of them
found
It prosecuted. Several
were
advice
under
from
England,
early guilty, and,

of

Drake,

disappointed planters

The

the

important part in the


found
there
Virginia, and was
under
cultivation
by the natives by the
first adventurers
sent
by Raleigh, and
introduced
into England, where
by them
its use
rapidly increased.
Ralph Lane and
his companions, who
back
to Engwent
land
from
Sir
Francis
Virginia- with
played
history

Carolina.

sembled, and

called

so

Santo

or

Indiana,

acres.

tern
He

fallen

of
was

France,
the

of the
plication in
System

of

but

author
United

of

the

The

States

continent,

Penitentiary
and
its Ap

de
France
(with Gustave
pound, and the
On
in
America;
buy common
Democracy
Beaumont)
;
Unitnecessaries.
the
in
They petitioned for permis- the Penitentiary System
sion to resort to an
old plan for reducing ed States
the
and
Confidential Mission
production and so raising the price by a for the Minister
of the Interior of MM.
cessation
of crops for a year or two.
de
The
and
Tocqueville, etc.
de
Beaumont
inhabitants
of several
counties
April 16,
in
died
He
France,
a
Cannes,
signed
the
to
to
call
1859.
a
special
petition
governor
in
session of the Assembly for that purpose.
DAVID,
diplomatist; born
Tod,
admitted
The
alarmed
of Youngstown, O., Feb. 21, 1805;
by symptoms
governor,
a
new
rebellion, did so
(April 18) ; but to the bar in 1827 and practisedin Warof the
further
for fifteen years ; was
a member
than
to ren
that body proceeded no
Brazil
minister
to
in
Senate
order
State
the
1838;
to
"stint,"
or
a
King
petition
in 1847-52;
delegate to the Charleston
cftsation," in Virginia,Maryland, and
ia

price

colonists

to

were

penny

not

able

to

"

82

TODD"
convention

in 1860; and

in

He

1861.

Xov.

of Ohio

governor

in

died

TOHOPEKA
schools

13, 1868.

Todd,

Supreme

CHARLES

school

several

fer

born

in

received

9, 1849;

education;

commission

admitted

Normal
the

to

of California

School,
of

bar

in 1881;

the
and

for
several
She
practised there
years.
Smith
and His
SatelProf. Goldwin
lites in Congress;
Protective
Tariff De

wrote

school

taught

Ypsilanti

at

Court

lusion;
appointed secreto print the early Railroads
His
Todd,
City in 1895.

was

years;

the

tary of

author;

BURR,
Jan.

Redding, Conn.,
public

and

O., in Michigan;

Youngstown,

Pizarro

and

John

Sherman;

and

of Europe and America.


records
of New
York
THOMAS,
jurist; born in King
and
Queen
county, Va., Jan.
publications include History of the Burr
23, 1765;
Family ; History of Redding, Conn.; Life served in the latter part of the Revolution
and
the
Continental
Letters
became
of Joel Barlow; Story of the with
a
army;
in
New
of
1786; was
City
York; Story of Washington,
lawyer
appointed clerk of
the
and
the United
National
States
court
Cross
for the district
Capital; Lance
Canoe
in the
it became
State
Valley of the Mississippi of Kentucky, and when
a
W.
made
H.
clerk of the court
of
(with Rev.
Milburn) ; A Brief in 1799 was
chief -justiceof the court
History of New
York, etc.
appeals; became
He
Todd, CHARLES
was
SCOTT, military officer; in 1806.
appointed an associate
born
United
States
near
Danville, Ky., Jan. 22, 1791; justice of the
Supreme
and
graduated at William
Mary
subaltern
a
College in 1809; was
of Winches
judge advocate
ter's division
of Kentucky volun
teers
in
made
1812;
captain of
infantry in May, 1813; and was
and

aide

General

to

battle

of the

Harrison

the

in

(q. v.). In

THAMES

made
in
was
March,
1815, he
of
spector-general, with the rank
colonel; and in 1817 was
secretary
of

State

he

was

of

lombia, and
ed

in

in Baton

1820

Co

to

agent

1841-45

minister

States

died

In

Kentucky.

confidential

Unit

was

Russia.

to

He

Rouge, La., May

17,

1871.

JOHN,
military officer;
Montgomery
county, Pa.,
1750; was
adjutant-general to

Todd,
born
in

in

Gen.
of

Andrew
Point

Lewis

(q. v.)

on

an

Bowling

as

1775; settled
in

1776;

county

the

action

Pleasant, Va., in

accompanied
far

in

in

near

1774;

DANIEL

BOONE

exploring

tour

as

Green, Ky., in
Lexington, Ky.,

CHARLES

represented Kentucky
Virginia legislaturein

Court, Feb.

the

the

Ky.,

commissioned
colonel
in
was
year;
of
commandant
1777; for two years was
the civil government
of that county, which
same

subsequently
linois.

He

was

was

made
killed

the
while

forces

against the Indians


Licks, Ky., Aug. 19, 1782.
Todd, MARION, lawyer;
outh, N.

Y.;

educated

State

in

of

leading
at

the

his

In

Eaton

in

PlymRapids

Tennessee
Jackson

towards

83

Horseshoe

or

were

for

on

the

finishingblow

died

in Frankfort,

Bend,

similar

at

About
the

the

march

to

east

reinforce

of striking a
purpose
of the Creek
the power
2,000 of them
pressed

Coosa, and
number

BATTLE

from

February, 1814, troops

Indians.
born

TODD.

7, 1826, but
same
day.

the

Tohopeka,
AT.

II-

Blue

on

SCOTT

from

at

the
west

same

time

Tennessee

TOHOPEKA,
their

making

were

Colonel
reached

Fort

Strother

soon

United

States.

At

peninsula,near
regulars, log-huts, where

Feb.
and
the

MAP

Jackson

5,000
at

from

to

himself

Supplies

middle

the

ready
of

found
men.

of

forces

the

bend

head

100

sacola
States

and

half-bloods

aided

in

from

men

hostile

them

to the

building

PenUnited

strong

breastwork

of logs across
the neck
of the
peninsula. They pierced it with two rows
of port-holes,
arranged in such a manner
as

to

from

expose
within.

logs

and

the

assailants

Back

brush;

to

of this
and

at

canoes

were

TOHOPEKA.

There

their

concentrated

White

AT

was

the

being

the

Indians

his

premonitions sending

such

of the

of land.

acres

villageof

of

the

that

so

one-fourth

of
and

boats; and

Tallapoosa River,
in the northeast
part of Tallapoosa county,
Ala., at a place called Tohopeka, or Horseshoe
Bend, a peninsula containing about
at

river,was

hundreds

and

women

children.

determined

defend

to

themselves
to the last extremity,
troops were
this
the
To
Creeks,
marched,
stronghold Jackson

Meanwhile

move.

moored,

BATTLE

THE

gathered,
the

experience, had
disaster
that
they

OP

the

at

were

March

Other

6.

the

garrison might have


the Choctaw
the means
of escape if hard
pushed. They
of the
had
cause
an
ample supply of food for a long
of February, siege. They were
about
1,200 in number,

close

the

AT

Alabama.

600

on

joined them,
openly espoused

troops
Indians

into

way
with

Williams,

BATTLE

cross-fire

a
a

foot

mass

of

of
the

he halted
works

He

the

within

him

the

down

the

Coosa
of

morning
few

miles

men

and

river

two

in flat-

March

27

of the breast-

His
Tohopeka.
spies
of the position of the
General

sent

mounted
cross

on

at

formed

stores

soon

in-

Indians,

all the
Coffee, with
to
Indians,
friendly
miles

below

and

take

position opposite the village at the foot


he pressed forward
of the peninsula. Then
within
80 yards
and
planted two cannon
and
the
of the breastworks
neck,
on
opened
balls were
As the small
fire upon
them.
earth
the Indians
buried
in the logs and
sent up

84

shout

of derision

and

defied their

assailants.

Coffee, with

which

with

enabled

quite

to

Indian

the
enemy

their

with

neck

the

ceeded

Meanwhile

works

cannon-balls, and

on

he

which

in

time

Lady

of

the

whites

proof a

face

the

In

them.

storm

to

to

Jackson

the

vainly battering

been

had

the

few

too

were

The
L.

bullets

breastworks

his

settled

upon

here

the

Miami

became

the

Fallen

Timbers

whites

He

etc.), who
barbed

tigers. Their
the

flee in

wild

covered

the

dexterous

the

of the

use

to

bayonet
line and

their

woods

the

torture

awaited

of them

would

ask

or

to

for

shot

were

across

Tennessee

by

secreted

sharp-shooters. Others

themselves

driven
out
in
thickets, and
were
considerable
number
slain; and
a
under

and

felled

sent

was

bear

the

to

storm

was

the

as

flames
mercy.
in the
Creek
Of

the

To

latter

called

they

May
ince

lives

acts

surrender,

it, and

inent

until

Ensign Houston
Nothing could
step
the torch
was
applied;
out.

Indians

they

rushed

carnage
evening; and
warriors

1,000 who
not

from

out

down

shot

were

The

morning,

it

that

was

pos-

Popu-

continued
when
on

it ended

Ohio

interfere, where-

to

the

called

the

out

of

governor

Michi-

were

Acts.

557

was

General

the

colonie

decreed

all

concern

by

for

These

and

of

prov-

the

throughout
than

may

God."

broad

and

laws
the

are

ratified

are

the

whole

This

walk

act

absolute

is herein
their

as

every

and

colony;

thus, what

persuade them,

of his

these

transgression thereof,
consent

men

the

are

and

men,

common

otherwise

so

"

that

include

the

Court

beginning

Providence," after adopting many


and
orders
concerning the governfor the punishment of crimes,
and

sciences
name

"

19, 1647, for

established

late

of

which

and

At

Portsmouth,

at

Christian, Jew,
lay
peninsula,
went
into the battle in the
Parsee, Buddhist, or pagan.
General
The
200
than
more
alive,
were
Assembly
dead

of

took

matters

as

forbidden, all

the

without
until

the

regarding
State

of Ohio

and

Territory

penalties

volunteers

wounded

first to

the

for

militia

Elections, held

Jackson

their

refused

governor

Toleration

part of the breastworks

general

effected

and

and
took

fired upon.
A cannon
brought to it was
the stronghold effected little, that
upon

Then

be

trees.

tellingthem
messenger,
be spared if they would

should
He

by

bluffs,where

river

the

covered

were

Sub-

trading-post. It
victory of General

possession of Toledo.
assuming a threatto
admit
ening phase, Congress decided
a
as
Michigan into the Union
State, June
conditions
15, 1836, on
regarding the
were
boundary-line which
formally aocepted.

gan
Just

Some

quarter.

the

upon
State

every
capsuffer himself

by swimming

escape

river, but

refuge

He, however,

that

peninsula.

one

attempted

companions
fought like

and

break

to

confusion

taken

be

to

upon
did so,

Indians

Believing
tive, not

noted

settle here.

to

the
the

and the Territory of Michigan in 1835-37.


Owing to both the State and the Territory taking possession of a disputed seetion of land, each
appealed to President
Jackson
for a settlement
of the difficulty.

the

among

his

called

They

caused

down

leaped

and

thigh by

in the

wounded

was

follow.

to

of

before

was

arrow,

Indians

any-

Indians.

Houston

President

that

place was

of the

till after
at

sible for the

to

men

stand

shot dead, when


Ensign lation (1900) 131,822.
and
Toledo
(afterwards conqueror
War, a contest
States Senator, boundary-line between
of Texas, United
the

follow.
Sam

called

and

make

to

to
gave
way
Lakes.
Long

fishingresort
sequently it

they pressed forward,


not
of the storming-party (Maj. was
leader
the
P.
Wayne
leaped upon
Montgomery)
of

tempest

heart

no

else.

Toledo, a city and county seat of Lucag


the
county, O., near
junction of the
Maumee
River
and
Maumee
Its
Bay.
the Miami
of the Lakes,
was
early name

were

burned

approached

but

rear,

troops

These

and

Indians.

dislodge the

of

once.

village

in

had

they

seized the boats, where

body

at

cross

Cherokees,

some

the river and

across

swam

ACTS

TOLERATION

TOHOPEKA"

con-

in

one

the

of toleration
that

it would

Mohammedan,

of
Maryland,
Mary's, April 2, 1649,
severe
punishments for
of
declarblasphemy, and
certain
be
should
penalties

convened
at
St.
of these were
severelywounded,
many
Jackson
lost thirty-two killed and ninety- after
enacting
and

nine

wounded.

Jtilled and

The

Cherokees

thirty-sixwounded.

broke the proud spiritof the

lost

eighteen

This

Creeks,

blow

the

crime

ing

that

inflicted

and
85

upon

any

one

who

should

call

TOM"
another

sectarian

of

name

that
adopted the declaration
in
the enforcing of conscience
religion hath frequently fallen
of dangerous
wealths
for

where

the

and

mutual
preserve
the inhabitants,

His

matters
out

the

and

love
no

to

better

unity

of

wonderful
memory

islands, posts, harbors, creeks,

belonging, professing to

in Jesus

Christ, shall from

anyways
tenanced

troubled
for

religion,nor

in
the

free

province
belonging, nor
the

made

to

an

On

Oct.

Commons

"

ordered

of the

hawk

be

and

in

the

God's

of

Parliament

passed

all

to

and

Washington

for

in

fit

public peace was


Maryland toleration
joint work of Roman
The

estants.
time

olics and

act

disturbed.

(1649)

Assembly
eight Roman

of

Protestants

sixteen

The

Protthat

at

three

"

th"

was

and

Catholics

General

composed

was

act, allowing
religious duties
place, provided

not

the

1647

In

of

an

tobacco-pipe,

stem,

returned
tised

then

was

the

Mail

few

He

Company,
and

Panama
United

was

and
pracyears, and
a vessel for

was

journals

to

He
and

of Panama

author

and
San

consul

States

France, in 1865-67.

largely
and

on

surgeon
Steamboat

between

trips

tributed
zines

States

for

appointed

Pacific

made

York

New

in

United

the

to

in

Trinity)

medicine

later at the

and

plant-

toma-

College in
Philadelphia
University of Edinburgh ;

(now

studied

1835;

Ameri-

the

of

features

ROBERT, physician; born in New


27, 1817; graduated at
City, March

or

worship."
another

meet

persons
ordinances

with

forming

Indians, the
form

of warfare

had

Tomes,
York

of

Europeans

new

the

handle

Ameri-

apthe Indians

the

combined

trouble, Francisco.
at Rheims,
of
conscience
liberty

the

enjoy

matters

which

implement

her

House

hereafter

or

molestation

the

inhabitants

the

After

introduced

there-

of all other

now

ed, should, without


have

that

and

Bermudas,

plantations

can

the

27, 1645,

of stone.

former

statutes,

English
English

of

outgrowth

was

and

generally

which

believe

belief

the

the war-hatchet

with

or

from

North

more

alliances

compelled
way
any
exercise
of any
other
reor
This
conscience."
his
her
or
ligionagainst
unto

originallya
war-club,

formed

islands

the

or

Indian

plied to

thereof,

exercise

selections

Chopin, Thalberg, Bach,

havens

respect of his

or

in

difficult

most

Tomahawk,
can

discoun-

or

sounds,

the

on

Gottschalk.

to

henceforth

molested

or

inarticulate

by

piano were
he could
reproduce from
5,000 compositions, includ-

and

Beethoven,

among

or

wants

over

the

ing

persons
province, or the

this

his

performances

be

or

person

...

within

thereunto

within

known

peaceable govern-

quiet
province, and

this

whatsoever

reproach,
"whereas

in those commonconsequence
it has been practised,and

more

of

ment

TO-MO-CHI-CHI

con-

magain 1855;

The
Battles
of
Japan;
with
America
by Sea and Land; The War
AmeriA History of the Great
the South:
in
died
etc.
He
Brooklyn,
can
Rebellion,
N. Y., Aug. 28, 1882.
in
Creek
chief; born
To-mo-chi-chi,

The

American

in

Cath-

Georgia

about

coun-

Savannah

in

met
1642;
Oglethorpe
early
friendly conference

in
in

then ninety-one years


old,
He
1733.
Roman
was
five burgesses were
cillors, and
deand
of
commanding
the
grave
(William
person
Catholics, and
governor
he
for
and
reason
some
nine
though
burgess- meaner,
Stone), six councillors, and
Lower
from
the
banished
Creeks,
been
not
had
act
did
The
Protestants.
eswere
es
tablish

passed two
for it applied only to orthodox
so-called, who
accepted the
the Trinity.
as
Tom,
popularly known
Island

musician;

born

blind, and
Columbus,

parents, near
1849.
During infancy
intelligenceexcepting
sound

; was

ing words,
conversations
had

no

that

he
to

act

er.

BLIND

Ga., May

TOM,

ship

slave

word.

25,

sign of
gave no
he
heard
when
a

he

had

him,

he had

great

influence

the

throughout

con-

before, federacy as a brave chief and wise sachem.


years
wife of a
Musgrave, the half-breed
Christians, Mary
acted
as
Carolina
of South
interprettrader,
doctrine

of negro

he could

while

meaning

the

precociousin

afterwards
but

did

toleration, as

absolute

of Rhode

learn-

repeat whole
heard, words
and

he

made

He
for

pledged his unwavering friendthe


English, and he kept his

made,
A
satisfactory treaty was
the English obtained
sovereignby which
the Savannah
between
the domain
ty over
and
far

Altamaha
as

the

rivers,
extent

of

Oglethorpe distributed
In
friendly Indians.
To-mo-chi-chi
86

went

westward

and
their

tide

presents among
the
with

as

waters,

the

spring of 1734
Oglethorpe to

TOOMBS

TOMPKINS"
He

adopted

five chiefs.

Tonikan

accompanied by his
and
nephew, and
were
cordiallyreceived

England.
wife, their

was

They
and

England,

English
his

costume

in

queen

speech

bunch

scarlet

and

monarch

and

French

small-pox.
the place
and

$2,000;

the

To-mo-chi-chi's

heir

injunction
morning
every
They
ber,
1739.

his
the

musketry

He

discharged.

the

centre

thorpe

ordered

of

the
"

was

town,

pyramid

are

CHEVALIER

explor-

DE,

Italy,

about

1650;
the
the

inventor

Tonti;

service

he

lost

accompanied

La

Salle

naval
he

in his

him

the

hand.

In

Canada,

to

Western

Ogle"

went

explora-

La

of

the

to

down

of Western

Senecas.
Gulf

to

Mis-

in Arkansas.

to

Indians

and

in

he

1699

remain-

Iberville,and

meet

went

Salle, and

La

meet

In

he

Again

again disappointed;

was

went

1682.

Salle, and attempted

force

the

in

of the

mouth

Europeans

he incited

Salle

La

the

to

meet

attack

down

with

its mouth
he

1684

1685

buried

stone

living

system of association; entered


in his youth, and
in
army

assisted

to

and

and
of

skilful

were
now

of

sissippito

were

Savannah,

at

them

was

French

Avoyelles reservation,

Gaeta,

Lorenzo

5, settlement

Oct.

old

in

sippi to

Decem-

minute-guns

funeral

battery

was

in

died

To-mo-chi-chi

At
at

late

Savannah

1734.

fired

in

when

reached

of

it. In

at

of

the

tions, building a fort on the site of Peoria,


descended
He
the Missis111.,in 1680.

Christ

looked

he

son

and

gave
with

Jesus

upon

born

1678

at

gold watch,

call

to

an

con-

Wales

of

er;

French

in the
valued

presents

Prince

queen

were

company
of embarkation

with

royal coaches,

Indian

The

to

veyed

of the

brother

tribes

these

Tonikans

the

on

of

all

Tonti, HENRI,

which

time

North

Marksville, La.

near

Tontine

of

of

friendship with

The

located

to

second

its

colonists, and

made
assuring the
gracious reply was
Indians
of English protection. They remained"four
months
in England, during
died

The
for

warriors.

made

him
gave
which

eagle's feathers,

rivers.
noted

and

He

gold.

King George

to

of

Creek

the

"

stock

belonging politicallyto
Chicasa
1700
the
Confederacy. About
three tribes living respectively
there were
in Avoyelles parish, La., at Tonica
Bluffs,
the
the
near
on
Mississippi River, and
and
junction of the Yazoo
Mississippi

were
objects of great curibeen
not
in
had
seen
osity, for Indians
Peter
that
since
was
Schuyler
country
in
Anne's
Mohawks
there
with
Queen
taken
in coaches, each
reign. They were
drawn
by six horses, to have an interview
with
the King, arrayed in brilliant

in

Indians,
Indians

American

son

ed in the Gulf
The
region, dying in Fort St.
magistrates Louis, Mobile, in September, 1704.
in
of
and
train
and
ROBERT,
Toombs,
a
legislator; born
people of Savannah
Indians.
Washington, Wilkes co., Ga,, July 2, 1810;
D., statesman
graduated at Union
College,Schenectady,
Tompkins, DANIEL
; born
be

to

erected

funeral

attended

was

his

over

grave.

the

by

(now
Scarsdale), N. Y.,
1774; graduated at Columbia
to the bar
in
College in 1795; admitted
in 1807-16;
of New
York
1797; governor
Fox

in

June

Meadows

21,

elected

Vice-President

in 1816
the

and

dated

message

Prior

1820.

governorship

of the United
to

Jan.

he

sent

died

set

Staten

on

Island, N.

Y., June

1825.
Toms

colonial

days; formerly

in the

by

the

was

Revolutionary War
British, March

contained

retreat
;

for
and

24, 1782.

the

at

Uni-

Scott

in the

Creek
of

member

years

became

United
in

re-elected

was

Georgia
Congress

in

remained
he

War;
the

States

1859.

In

the

of

large
privateers

was

law

Jan.
7, 1861, following
Senate, on
a
Crittenden,
patrioticspeech by Senator
of Kentucky, he said: "The
abolitionists
11, have for long years been sowing dragons'
teeth, and
they have finallygot a crop

Biver, a village and county seat


in early
county, N. J.; founded

works;

General

1853, when
Senator.
He
was

of Ocean

salt

der

legislature; and

17, 1817, urging that

for

studied

until

declaring the abolition


of slavery in that State.
Acting upon his
wish the legislature set July 4, 1827.
He
be

day

Y., in 1828;

several

States

retiringfrom

York

of New

N.

versity of Virginia; practised until elected to Congress in 1845; was


a captain un-

armed

The

men.

solved.

That

the

of this

as

burned

way
well hear

(South

is

it.

One

Carolina)
met

sir, is dis-

fact

discussion,and

bravely, boldly,
87

Union,
fixed

lying

in

men

may
confederates
of your
has
already wisely,
the

public danger

OMBS"

TO

it.

She

her

sisters

confronted

and

beyond

of

any

is

of

sister

those

circumstances

consider

cause."

then

He
"

South
of the

"

sword.

The

great

States
her

under

her of the Confederate

her

gomery

like

ernment,

the

and

became

in

the

Confederate

He

died

in

"

you

States

charter

obtained
model

town

hundred

the

land

to

the

and

the

Torbert,

of the

TOOMBS.

He

uttered

before

cepting

that

ed

"

said,
lican

for

position.

all the
call

party

them

as

slaves

of water.
THOMAS

"

the

You

and

rebellion

good

that

national

tion

there

price of
you

is

"

from
the
with

and

sprung
rather

up
see

obedience.

get my

philosophy

of
in
the

the

armed

to

this

on

He

Marcl?

was

that
and

had
my
that

one

hour

such

expelled from

14, 1861

became

in the

1st New

Jersey

battle

Bull

of

Run.

wounded),
(where he was
In November,
1862, he was

wreck

the

menced

in

Probably
the

1871
He

of the

of

sentiment

freedom

1775

and

Cruz

Vera

1880.

Sept. 30,
in

was

the

as

drown-

was

steamer

Loyalists. There

or

sent

was

colonies
during the
mother-country before

American
with

in

Havana.

of Florida,

coast

Tories,
diversity

have
I

for

ed

off the

is the

of my
own,
the
sod
than

country;

land, beneath
should
support
they

government."

men

second

Mountain

consul-generalto

it, and

There

a
or

in October, 1866, and

the

It is the

population

native

Senate

of No!

of the

promoted brigadier-generalof volunteers ;


engaged at Gettysburg ; and commanded a division of cavalry in the Army of the
He
from
Potomac
May to July, 1864.
chief of cavalry in the Shenandoah
was
campaign from August to October, 1864.
and
brevetted
was
major-general, United
States army,
1865.
in March,
He resigned

government,

allegiance. Withhold

my

can't

shout

one

ARCHIMEDES.

in

was

traitor

property

the

Antietam.

and

Repub-

Territories

No," he said ;
say
say No; the House

South

passthen

demanded

He
all

the

in

Groveton,

you
and
says No;
throughout the length and breadth of your
whole
conspiracy against the ConstituSenate

at

of the

September, 1861, and was


Peninsular
He
campaign.
brigade in the battles of

in

commanded

ex-

descended

ever

active

was

Toombs

as

property, and

as

protected by

being

character

lack

colonel

became

Volunteers

I believe," he

"

treason

before

and
your

This

which

acts

good a rebel as
Revolutionary loins."
right of going into
be

from

men

Grande."

of secession.

own

stands

there
and

his

bayonet

State
convention
any
of South
Carolina
had

ordinance

an

defined

the

of armed
Rio

the

nearly
United

Georgetown, Del.,
Point
July 1, 1833; graduated at West
in 1855,
in 1856-57.
serving in Florida

glitter of

tramp

Sub

the

scheme

ALFRED

of

the

to

year.
divided, and

unsuitable

military officer;born

to

went

company
members
returned

to

laws

planned;

was

that

States, the failure

colony.

the

of

tributed

the

15, 1885.

new

colonists

sequently the
all

under

bay in the latter part

capital

Dec.

site for

as

was

several

and

may
hear

brigadier-general
in
September,

army

Washington, Ga.,

California;

the

provisional gov-

H.
STEPHENS, ALEXANDER
Constitution.
See KANSAS.
Topeka
the name
of a bay of tin
Topolobampo,
of California, belonging to the State
Gulf
of Sinaloa, Mexico; selected in 1886 by a
of conspicuous
number
socialists in the
United

see

made

was

See

ROBERT

1861

of the

State

at Mont-

convention

February,

Secretary of

arbitrament

sir," he said,

in

ma-

"

that

for the

Now,

and

their

as

cause

declared

prepared

was

of

because

greater facilityof action.

jority

ahead

only

TOBIES

great

Englishdisputes
war

corn-

its progress,
citizen desired

during

American
every
which
the

most

zealous

pa-

sought; they differed only in their


to be emopinions as to the best method
ployed for obtaining it. The Whigs, or
the
radicals; tAe
popular party, were
triot

the
mem-

88

TOBIES
of the
Tories, or the adherents
conservatives.
Parliament, were
defended

ter

condoned

or

and

crown

lat

The

oppressive

the

de

Skinner, of
loyalists of

New

in

numerous

embodied

Jersey.

the

still the

Later

were
Carolinas, who
western
districts, were

the

under

Maj. Patrick
Ferguson,
in 1781.
Alto
tyrannical killed at King's Mountain
endured.
The
not
be
to
and
question, gether, there were
twenty-nine or thirty
vital one.
Which
a
regiments, regularly officered and
en
party is right? was
most
rolled.
The
noted
The
loyalistcorps in
imperial government settled it in fa
the war
that of the Queen's Rangers,
was
of the Whigs
vor
by rescinding their op
and
led by Major Simcoe, afterwards
after another;
one
pressive measures
governor
of Canada.
this decision has been ratified by the judg
The
kinds.
of two
sides
of the
Some
of posterity on
both
ment
loyalistswere
Declaration
of
Atlantic.
The
honorable, conscientious
Indepen were
men,
gov
of opposite opinions erned
friends
of the
dence
by principle, and
compelled men
British
im
to
the
them
avow
by conviction; others
government
publicly. Then
selfish and unscrupulous, siding with
concerning the pol were
portant question arose
of
icy of tolerating the Tories, or loyalists the supposed stronger side for purposes
be restrained
their acts must
a
as
gain, spite, or opportunities for plunder
pru
and rapine under
The
dential
ma
measure
legal sanction.
against injury to the pa
of
the
latter
class
filled
mili
the
and
be
triot cause.
the
jority
Having
power,
their
to
be
in
the
oppressions and
lieving themselves
right, tary ranks, and
cruelties
excited
fiercest animosities
the
decisive measures
to that
the Whigs took
of the
suffered
end.
dreadfully.
re
Whigs, who
Imprisonment or other odious
to hate the name
made
straint
of Tory,
at home,
the
or
They were
banishment, was
instances
in many
and
the aversion
alternative
was
presented. To a large pro
portion of the loyalists the latter horn of felt for at least two generations in Whig
of Tories.
the descendants
the dilemma
appeared the least affliction,families towards
Banishments
confiscations
and
and many
hundreds
abandoned
their coun
by the
to
Scotia
were
or
WThig authorities
try and fled to Nova
popular; but when
Eng
of

measures

nounced

Parliament;

them

former

the

absolutely

as

"

land;

while

considerable

ciallyof the young


men,
military corps, and took
their
Whig countrymen.
This

embodiment

He

of

of

by

New

New

Skinner, of New

and

York,

Jersey.

Oourtlandt

But

in America

had

1777.

three

caused

of

1.200

anticipated. The

of the

not

leaders

late

as

Afterwards

the

creased, though

there

the

many
estimates

during

field

the

the

as

number

at

whole

time.

one

over

spring of
greatly in

not

were

named
of

number

great
Sabine

enrolled

the

at 20,000.
Revolutionary War
The
first organization was
under
Lord
Dunmore
in Virginia and Martin
in North
Carolina, in 1775. Later there were
loyal

ists under

Sir

Butler

New

and

De

in

for

denied

was

the

John

Lancey

Johnson

York;
in

the

also
same

claim

the

was

losses

of the loyalists.
ground that the Whigs
really suffered greater

the

on

had
the

acts

not

allowed.

of the

Tories, and

above

enrolment

an

them

in

indemnity
It

At the close of the war


the military or
loyal
dis
long ganizations of the loyalists were
and
of
the
officers
trans
some
were
parti banded,
in
and continued
greatest ferred to the royal army

numbered
far less, for
corps
the
time, than
ministry or their

exertions

subsided,

animosities

to do
and
justice combined
right.
mercy
In the negotiation of the treaty of peace
claimed
(1782), the British commissioners

tht^e

ist

sans

the

York.

and

came

peace

by Oliver De Lancey, during the war


lieutenant-governor of the losses through

of

province

against

arms

undertaken

Tryon,

espe
in

seconded

ably

was

brother

embodied

up

was

Governor

deposed

number,

were

and
under

Colonel

Tryon
State, and

service

life.

for
with

less

Others,
of

civil

fortunate,

and

military
ones
companions into exile, the northern
Brunswick,
Scotia, New
chiefly to Nova

went

host

to the
ones
Canada, and the southern
and
British
West
the
Florida,
Bahamas,

and

Indies.
for
for

years
relief

The

Towards
liament
to

were

from

officers

the

cision

the

went
to England, and
importunate petitioners

also

Many

of the

(June, 1783)

government.
half

received

close of 1782

appointed
claims

British

the

generally

the

British

committee

to

loyalists.By
the

sum

of

pay.
Par

attend

their

de

$216,000

TORNADO"
to be distributed

was

that

numerous

so

commissioners

board

of

which

continued

March

25, 1784, the


claimed

property

On

seven

have

to

settled

Parliament

the

were

whole

the

War

1790

ceived

plan

ada.

new

on

instead

ton,

York

act

in

not

attack

to

posed

generous

by

York

became

the

Armstrong)

an

invasion

think

the

for

frontier

the northern

the

most

which

1834,

(John

did

He

strong

in

formed,

was

name

of government
for Ontario,
the American
winter
of 1812-13

Secretary of

matter

Ontario

seat

permanent

1841, when
(now

legislativeunion,

since

they

the American
among
It
British
government.

as

the

known

distributed

loyalistsby
was
regarded

formed

Toronto,
been

In

until

Canada

confederation

the

Altogether,nearly $15,000,- troops

enactment.

by
000

the

W'hen

destroyed

been

confiscated, besides debts which


about
had
$35,000,000. In
lost, was
or

Lower

Quebec)

had
of

amount

aggregate

and

1867,

years.
of claimants

number

the

permanent
appointed,

a
was

about

2,063, and

was

remained

687
government
among
claimants
finally Upper and

annually
The

loyalistpensioners.
became

TORONTO

to attack

American

sufficiently

and

Montreal,

he

pro-

successivelyKingsand

Toronto),

(now

con-

of Can-

Fort

of the Niagara
the mouth
expended nearly $100,- George, near
and
000,000 in the war,
by it lost a vast River, thus cutting off the communication
As
Montreal
and Upper Canada.
between
domain.
and valuable
the
of
had
British
on
the
a
sloop-of-war
high veTornado, a violent storm
of stocks at York, another
from
the Spanish because
fittingout there,
locity;named
and
third
air-current,
and
a
the turning and twisting of an
repairing, Dearborn
is quite Cbauncey were
of opinion that the surest
States
the tornado
In the United
which

nation

had

in

occurrence

common

sections

east

great plains; in the spring in


the Southern
States, and in both

most

the

and

in

summer

States.

roneously given
a
cyclone

miles

score

feet

hundred

in

feet

spring

Northern

frequently and erof cyclone,but


name

the

is

life of

several

days, while the


generally limited to an

hour

or

tornado

to

the

secure
so

make

is

was

and

at

the

cey

and

two.

of

middle

force.

It

York,

and

George.
the

was

to

cross

At

the

matured

the lake

same

Niagara

to

plan

and

of

naval

and

land

proceed

then

Chaun-

April (1813)

combined

propo-

President,

the

by

had

Dearborn

first. This

York

sanctioned

sition

cross

Onof Lake
supremacy
invasion
an
successful,

be to attack

would

operations with

hundred

several

be

may
and

tornado

tario, and

only a mile or two


usually only a few
diameter
and
only several
last
high. The cyclone may

in diameter

deep,

the

way

of

is

tornado

while

of

some

of

capture
Fort

attack

to
troops were
and capture Fort

time

River

Erie, opposite Buffalo, and Fort Chippewa,


below, join the victors at Fort George, and
all

proceed to
Kings

capture
ton.

With

the

1,700
under

troops

immediate
of

command

Brig.-Gen.
ulon

Pike,

M.

sailed

Dearborn
in

Zeb-

Chauncey's

fleet from

Sack-

Harbor,

ett's

April 25, and


the morning
the
(TORONTO)

YORK

1813, PROM

IN

THE

BLOCK-HOUSE

EAST

OF

THE

DON.

27th

armament

peared
Toronto,
when
of

Upper

York.

the

Simcoe

Canada

There

of

name

Governor

the

in

an

made

Indian
it the

1794, and

seat

of

the

village
capital

named

it

provincial
90

York.
new

guns,
armed

on

of
the

ap
before

Chauncey's fleet consisted of the


sloop-of-war Madison,
twenty-four
the
and
eleven
brig Oneida,
schooners.

TORONTO
York

then the headquarters of Gen-

was

Sheaffe,

eral

It

Indians.

head

the

at

of

regulars

intended

was

to

land

and
at

old Fort
Toronto, but a
clearing near
in
drove
the boats
strong easterly wind
which
the troops had left the fleet farther
westward, and beyond any effectual coverof the
Major
ing by the guns
navy.
in
Forsyth and his riflemen led the van
within
half rifle-shot of
landing. When
assailed by a deadly
the shore
they were
a

volley of bullets
and

men

gary

of

party

from

retired

too,
his

a
soon

and

the town.

battery nearer
abandoned,

and

Sheaffe

That,
and

fled to the

men

nor's house, and

of Glen-

company

to

was

grape

shot

garrison,near the gover*


then opened a fire of round

upon

the

Americans,

Indians
the

concealed

in

woods.

Pike,

from

about to storm
were
pounders. Pike's men
were
it,and Chauncey's round-shot
poundthe wooden
ing it, when
magazine of the
had
been
battery, which
carelessly left
of the garexploded, killing some
open,
rison and
seriously damaging the works,
The dismayed enemy
and
spiked the cannon

the

deck

of

the

Madison, saw
this, and, jump

ing

into

ordered
to

he

the

midst

Very

tween
men

and

party

on

back

in

was

of

fight be
Forsyth's

sharp

The

staff

follow.

soon

soon

boat,

his

the
shore.

main

their

BLOWN

POWDER-MAGAZINE

UP

BY

THE

BRITISH

body

followed, and
to

THE

works

the

British

near

the

The

driven

were

great

silenced,and

The

town.

soon
of the British were
guns
the Americans
expected every

to see a white
flagdisplayedfrom
led by Pike, followed
closely moment
and awful
sudden
the block-house, when
a
at the
redoubts, and
captured two
sitPike
General
occurred.
was
time
deadly vol- calamity
same
Chauncey hurled
with
a
huge
his
from
a
stump conversing
ting upon
leys of grape-shot on the foe
guns,
taken
had
been
British
had been landed, and these
sergeant who
Heavy ordnance
around
staff
his
with
him,
and
with
forward
fatigue
were
prisoner,
pressed
great
of the ground was
tremor
allies when
sudden
Indian
The
a
ravines.
the many
over
explosion
of the British, frightened by the cannon,
felt, followed
by a tremendous
British
the
deserted
near
garrison. The
enemy,
Sheaffe, and the latter fell back
24to
the
Western
despairing of holding the place,had blown
Battery, mounting

Americans,
and

REMAINS

OF

THE

WESTERN

91

BATTERY

IN

1860.

TORONTO
their powder-magazine, situated
up
the edge of the lake, at the mouth

upon
of a

victory when

and

huge

hours.

were

was

timber

of

Fragments

ravine.

the magazine walls


stones, of which
scattered
in every direction
were
built,
hundred
feet.
of
several
By
a
space

OLD

explosion fifty-two Americans


180
wounded.
and
Forty of
lost

also

their

General

lives.

British

before
to

pullensign was
lingered several
expired that flatj

He
he

made

He

him.

sign for

be

TORONTO

slain

were

the

the

York.

placed under his head, and in that


position he died. The port and village of

that

AT

Just

brought

it to

over

PORT

at

down

ed

IN

York

British

for

Pike, two

abandoned

were

they

were

by

Americans,

the

of little value

of the

Sheaffe, taking advantage

eral

Gen

them.

to

con

explosion, and the time


terrified Americans
The
in the
capitulation,
mortally hurt.
purposely consumed
vessels on the stocks
scattered
in dismay, but were
soon
rallied, after destroying some
the
the column
and
was
reformed, and Col. Crom
storehouses, escaped with
some
the
to
the
well Pearce, of Pennsylvania, assumed
of
Kingston.
regulars
larger portion

of his aides, and

the

captive sergeant were

command.
The

Americans

village, where
authorities

of

pressed forward
met
by
they were
the

the

place, together

the

militia.

town,
with

With

them

who
290

the

civil

risoned

surrendered

also

After
Toronto

regulars

were

after

the

to
the

fusion

kept

and

ever

repaired, and
since, only the

has

been

barracks

at

gar

being

order.

When

taken

fort

left, the

Americans

was

in

the

the

York, the

took

Americans

possession of
other pub

and

Parliament-house

by an unknown
incendiary was
loss of the Americans
in the
The
stores.
instigated by the indignation of the Amer
the wall
found
hanging upon
icans, who
capture of York, in killed and wounded
"human
and
the
chamber
of
the
a
269;
on
fleet,seven
on
land, was
legislative
had
which
Proctor
British loss, besides the prison
for
teen.
The
commodity
scalp,"
at Fort
Maiden.
It is
149.
General
Pike
crushed
was
paid bounties when
ers, was
carried
two
not
between
stones, and
was
on
pleasant to relate a fact so discredit
historian
board
the Pert, then Chauncey's flag-ship.able; but, as a British
(Auehinintimated
that
the
heard
benumbed
the
shout
of
has
His
ears
leck),
scalp in

the

war-vessel

and

(the

large quantity

Duke

of Gloucester)

of naval

and

lic

military

buildings were

hand.

92

It

was

burned

said that

the

TORPEDOES

"

sent

the

to

from

the

while

in

Secretary

Chauncey

of War

taken

was

"

of

revelation

the

the

that

from

to

the

city he wrote
the Secretary of

honor

to

at

Dudley,
York

"

Navy

the

on

Sackett's
:

you, by the
the British

to

present

Lieutenant
taken

on

of

shower

deck

the

of the

pitch

and
The

Ramillies.

27th

of

followed
fatally injured. This was
attempt to explode a torpedo under

were

not
shore
at
on
was
Chauncey
A
few
days after the capture of

York.

height, and

fell

"

Indian

British

demands

man

truth.

feet in
tar

and ten men


shot, Eagle and the first lieutenant
the
of the Ramillies
blown
into atoms,
were
tree," by that officer when
of a
and
of the occupants of boats
some
near
advanced, the fair fame
of

head

Americans
dead

Commodore

which

question

by

an

the

Harbor

Ramillies.

I have

the

hands

of

citizen

with

standard

marine

at

Three

the

times

Conn., acquainted

torpedo,

boat, in which

water

April last,

of Norwich,

Bushnell's

of

rate

he

invented

he

miles

under

went

sub-

tinder

voyaged

hour,

an

the

Ramillies,

accompanied by the mace, over which hung and on the third occasion had nearly fastened
human
taken
the
scalp. These articles were
torpedo to the ship's bottom,
from
the Parliament-house
when
the breaking of a screw
baffled the
by one of my
to
officers and
me."
General
He
but
was
presented
discovered,
attempt.
escaped.
wrote
Dearborn
A scalp was
found
in A fisherman
of Long Island, named
:
Penny,
the legislative
with
a
council-chamber, suspended made
attempts on the Ramillies
the speaker's chair, accompanied by torpedo in a whale-boat, and
near
Hardy was
the mace."
He
kept continually on the alert.
kept
The
the
of
the Ramillies
Torpedoes.
in
and
government
motion,
constantly
a

"

United

States, like that

refused

to

in

make

warfare, but

dividuals

squadron.
schooner
a

it

against
In

of Great

torpedoes
attempted by inBritish
blockading

was

the

New

named

Britain, caused

of Fulton's

use

the

torpedo-vessel. In

York

Eagle
her

Harbor

hold

John

warfare

In

Scud-

der, Jr., originator of the plot,placed ten

to

kegs of gunpowder, with


with
it, in
sulphur mixed

guns,

and

surrounded

it with

of

quantity

strong cask,

huge

stones

and

other

of an
missiles, which, in the event
explosion,might inflict great injury. At
the head
of the cask, in the inside, were
fixed two
to
gunlocks with cords, attached
their triggersat one
end, and two barrels
of flour at the other
end, so that, when
the
flour
should
be
lock
the
removed,
would
be sprung,
the powder ignited,and
the
terrible
mine
exploded. The Eagle,
commanded
by Captain Riker, sailed for
New
London
late in June, 1813, where, as
was
intended, she was
captured by armed
in boats
sent
from
the
men
Ramillieft,
Commodore
of

the

watched

tempt
side

Hardy's flag-ship. The crew


escaped to the shore and
the
result.
An
unavailing atmade
to get the Eagle along-

Eagle
was

the

Ramillies, for

transferring
Finally boats

her

and

first barrel

moved

when
the

the

cargo

were

sent

explosion took

fcf fire shot

up

from

the

the
to

purpose
that

of

the

inhabitants

to

burn

the

if

that

discontinued

not

he
The

town.

such

would

warning

effectual.

was

as

to be swept with
bottom
cable
a
hours, night and day. Finally

was

proceed

used

was

her

two
every
he warned

July, Mr. Mix,

blow

the

up
with

torpedo.

Cape Henry,

of the navy,

Plantagenet,

Va.

She

Under

attempted
seventy-four
was
lying off
of

cover

carried
darkness, the torpedo was
boat called the Chesapeake
open
and

dropped so as to float
ship'sbow. It exploded a
A

soon.

column

of

down
few

water

diameter, half-luminous

in

an

Avenger,
under

the

seconds

too

feet

25

with

intense

out

lurid

in

light,

thrown
up at least 40 feet high, with
explosion as terrific as thunder, prolike the shock
of an
ducing a concussion
and
earthquake. It burst at the crown,
fell in profusion on
water
the deck of the
was
an

At

Plantagenet.
rolled

into

the

the

made

by

plosion,and nearly upset.


also placed
Torpedoes were
across

the

The
navy

the

Narrows,

entrance

to

the

at

New

that

the

United

the

of
in

States

ex-

intervals

at

York, and

harbor

impression prevailed

she

moment

some

chasm

at

Portland,

the

British

government

ship, had adopted Fulton's torpedoes, and this


out
as
coast
lighters,made the British commanders
on
our
of flour was
recircumspect. No doubt the fear of
very
place. A volume
coast-towna
torpedoes saved the American
from
Eagle fully 200
plunder and the torch. Torpedo war93

TORPEDOES
Others
given.
arranged

were

No.
James

as

In

the

River

the

2.

were
torpedoes
chiefly galvanic.
Some
were
cylin
one
drical, with
end
conical, but
a
greater portion
were

pearThese

shaped.

anchored

were

the
in

in

channels
shallow

by

or

water,
of

means

of

segment
iron

low

sphere,
"

called

mush

room," which

TORPEDOES.

to

buoyant

mine

chain.

A, vessel

at anchor

sunk

the

by

These

generally
opposite

were

Lower
cut
A, platform; B, torpedo ; C, water-tightpine-box ; D, pin to be drawn.
B, her cable ; E, F, two torpedoes; C, D, the couplingline*.

was

attached

hol

batteries, where
fare

much

was

used

torpedoes

The

in

various

were

The
and

with

wire

and

the

former

connected

were
a

One

of

these, containing nearly

powder,

of

made

used

were

the
vanic

battery on the shore, by


might be exploded at any
sensitive
The
percussion or
ploded by the act of forcible

which

mine

Some
a

of

these

were

made

co'ne, with

double

the

made

Cape

moment.

in

ones

the

percussion

As

ex-

TORPEDO"

NO.

palmetto-wood,and

up
River.

soon

as

the

After

Harbor.

Fisher, vessels

Fort

Fear

torpedoes

Richmond

was

sunk

were

in the

evacuated

Confederates, in April, 1865,

the

form

in search
undertaken
expedition was
known
it was
which
torpedoes, with
The
abounded.
river
portion of that
300
about
of
men
consisted
pedition

tubes

of
ar-

several

tugs

under

the

2.

and

thirty small

command
U.

S.

N.

of
On

the

by

notable

contact,

Chandler,
PERCUSSION

of

Charleston

of

solid

barrel, with

common

in

capture
to pick

sent

"

"

ton

was

pointed ends,
NO.

on

"

was

TORPEDO"

bomb-proofs

of
planted in the centre
On acat Drury's Bluff.
the deep channel
proat
of the depth of water, it was
gal- count
tached
to
a
long rod, and that to the
anchor
mushroom
by a chain, as it was
the
to
desirable
have
torpedo only the
No. 1
surface.
the
vessel
below
of
a
depth
of

"

PERCUSSION

with

connected

shore.

galvanic

with

wires

the

construction.

were

ones

The

percussion.

vided

by

War.

Confederates

the

form

efficient

most

Civil

practised in the

of
a

ex

Capt. Ralph
morning of

started
from
April 3, Captain Chandler
Gap, with a flotilla and his flaghe
before sunset
and
ship the Sangamon,
had so cleared the river of these dangerous
Dutch

ranged
at the
cenea,

around

point
as

the

cylinder thus

of contact

seen

in

the

of the

formed,

bases

illustration

of the

in

boats, all

obstructions

here
94

that

the passage

to Richmond

LAND

TORRENS'S

SYSTEM"

the
made
comparatively safe, and
Lincoln
went
up
morning President
from
to Richmond
City Point in the Maifish
Porter's flag-ship.The
vern, Admiral
steamin
wise
The
this
carried
on
:
ing was
vessels
were
protected by torpedo-nets
of ropes weighted with iron or lead,
formed

TOTTEN

was

absolute

next

title must

hooks

with

furnished

and

little submarine

catch

to

These

mines.

the

nets
the

that

at

along

and

was

the

bow

was
placed
dragged after the
drags his net. No

fisherman

Torture.
torture

in

the

the

witch

officer in the

fused

as

and

pressed

was

only known

of
or

1*1*1}U

Its

for

"

"

transfer
and
It is

up by Sir Robert
put in operation in Australia.

used

now

in all the

inces, in Tasmania
in

British

been

^and

Columbia

attempted
States.

Its

transfer

of land

as

stock, and

render

thereof

free

as

bank
land

as

is to

an

registered.

New

danger

title
the

of

shares

established

all land
title may

make

to

that

title of

officer known

titles,by whom

prov
Zealand, and

object is
simple as

from

registryis

trol of

it

ing

obligationsgrowing out
are
scrupulously re
those hav
Intermarriage among
All
such, of what
tribe,friendlyor hostile,have

criminal.
or

in dis
rights of hospitality,of succor
of friendship as blood-relations.
The totem
is never
changed.
A. L., military offi
Totten, CHARLES
the

tress, and

born

cer;

in

New

or

holder

of

he

holds.

as

the

the
master

transactions
be

4th

he

was

had

his

existed, and

Yale
was

that

registeredas
95

University
he

would

time

while

chronological
speculations

that

prophecy,

the

earth

which
the

he

world

in 1895, along with


him
teachings, made
ridicule and
subjected

end

an

similar

therefore

of Daniel, that

the book
to

as

eccentric

many
the object of much

of

lieutenant

School, and

Scientific

of

come

and

1873;

States

gained notoriety

on

States

Artillery. In
appointed military instruc

other

are

second

investigator. His
to the
length

would

con

June,

United

as

difficulty based

the

under

there

holder

the

in

commissioned
the

United

the

Feb.

Conn.,

London,
at

3, 1851;

1889

the

to
appear
totems
among

The

tor at the Yale

of bank

in

it. The

totem

was

clan

ever

or
an

wolf

the

honored

and

tribes.
common

garded.

of

Australian

Ontario, and has


various
parts of the

the

ordinarily the
stock

many
of a

was

and

in

United

bear, and

favored

that

notion

lineage from

graduated
Torrens, Military Academy

drawn

by him

be

token

the

clan; usually

or

their

trace

turtle, the

qualifiedfor performing
navy
this task
than
Captain Chandler, requir
and
rare
ing as it did cool courage
judg
ment.
The
knowledge that a simple
touch
will lay your
ship a helpless,sink
water
wreck
the
without
even
ing
upon
the satisfaction
of firing one
shot in re
calls for
turn," wrote
Captain Chandler,
than can
be expressed,and a
more
courage
short
cruise
torpedoes will sober
among
the most
intrepid disposition."
Torrens's
Land
System, a plan of land
better

was

Indians,

lies in the

importance

dividuals

TORPEDO-NET.

sort

as

object selected for


superstitious regard. It
of the family.
of surname

and

serves

in

of the
in French

natural

some

reverence

re

his trial,

or

family

1692,

pressing to death.
tribes, especially
savage

among
American

North

supposed

in America

dure,

animal

in

peine forte

symbol

who,

penalty,known

Totem,

Corey,

fliction of the

the

such

to

death, this being the

to

instance

et

had

questions on

any

in

exceed

was

was

Mass.,

answer

such

exception is found

Giles

of

of

use

it

resort

notable

Salem,

to

the

of

Great

and

legally recognized

that

case

in

ages,

colonies, and
A

kinds

Europe

never

British

regis

be

TORTUGAS.

in

use

many

ingly seldom
punishment.

stern, in

vessel

DRY

of

master

can

various

Although

were

bow

like

See

DRY.

Tortugas,

for

net

off the

tered

was

sometimes

its sides.

titles

cruelty

manner

the

approved by
before
the ownership
in fee-simple.

Britain

in like

absolute, the

if

possessory;
be

were

spars placed athwart


in
of the vessel,and
front
sprit
from

hung

or

to

be

criticism.

severe

notified
relieved

in

He

April, 1892,
of his

instruc-

TOWN-MEETINGS

TOTTEN"

he founded
the Musical
Institute,
He, however, where
torship on Aug. 1, 1892.
He
and
studied
in Europe
in the army
in
1863-67; reresigned his commission
moved
the Musical
Institute
to literarywork.
to
devoted
himself
Boston,
and
to the New
JOSEPH
offiGILBERT, military
changed its name
Totten,
England
in New
born
Patrick
S.
Haven, Conn., Aug. 23, Conservatory of Music; with
cer;
World's
Point
in 1805, Gilmore
Peace
organized the
1788; graduated at West
Jubilee
in 1872; and
the
chief engineer of the army
and was
on
organized and conducted
the large chorus
meriof the Music
For
Hall
Niagara frontier in 1812-13.
died
He
in
torious
services
in the
Society in 1876.
Boston,
capture of Fort
brevetted
George he was
major in June, Mass., April 12, 1891.
Touro,
JUDAH, philanthropist;
1813.
He
chief
born
in
was
engineer of Generals
Erie in 1814, Newport, R. I., June
Izard
Lake
and
Macomb
on
16, 1775; engaged
and

lieutenant-colonel

brevetted

was

in mercantile

for

business

in New

Orleans

in

he
1802, where
acquired a large fortune,
gallantry in the battle of Plattsburg. He
He
chief engineer of the army
of Genconsiderably to charity during
was
gave
eral Scott
in the siege of Vera
Cruz
in his life;and, at his death, in New
Orleans,
brevetted
1847, and
brigadier-general.La., Jan. 18, 1854, he bequeathed most

From

1846

War

engineer
He

army.

general, United
fore

his

States
in

death,

April 22,

1864.

He

of

majorday be-

the

army,

D.

Washington,
of

author

was

Subject of
Report on
fences (1851), and translator
the

an

National

of

able

on

United

1882-87;

tria-Hungary

in

of the

49;

as

United

1845.

He

United

States

served
States

Senator

as

FRANCOIS

DOMINIQUE.

See

Tower,
CHARLEMAGNE,
diplomatist;
in Philadelphia,Pa., April 17, 1848;
graduated at Harvard
College in 1872;
admitted
to the bar in 1878; president of
the Duluth
and
Iron
in
Range Railroad

born
in
Toucey,
ISAAC,
statesman;
Newtown,
Conn., Nov. 5, 1796; received a
to the bar in
private education; admitted
1818; practised at Hartford, Conn.; member of Congress in 1835-39;
of,
governor
Connecticut

public charitable

city.

DOMINGO.

Mortars.

ney-General

the

that

C., born
De-

of Vicat

SANTO

to

property

Toussaint,

United

the

his

institutions

in 'the Civil

brevetted

was

of

regent of the

was

Institution, and
chief

was

States

he

to 1864

Smithsonian

Russia

Germany
of

American

Attor-

in 1848-

in 1852-57;

The

ure

in

States

in

and

1899-1902,
since

1902.

Marquis

de

Revolution

Town-meetings,
in New
England

the

promoter

minister

to

1897-99, ambassador

and

He
La

ambassador
is

the

Fayette

Austo
to

author
in

the

(2 volumes).
the

conspicuous featand
politics,

colonial

conservator

of

free

speech,a free press, and a spiritof liberty


Navy in 1857-61.
which
He then resumed
the practice of law.
He
pervaded the whole population. It
died in Hartford, Conn., July 30, 1869.
fruitful
seed
of republicanism.
the
was
voted
In
its
ALBION
the
taxes were
WINEGAR,
Tourgee,
town-meetings
jurist;
born
in Williamsfield, O., May
settled,
its affairs
discussed
and
2, 1838; and
of
the agents and public servants
graduated at Rochester
University in Therein
each town
1862; admitted
to the bar in 1864; served
were
annually elected by a free
in the Civil War;
twice and imwounded
ballot, and there abstract
politicalprindebated.
in Libby prison; cipleswere
prisoned for six months
By these discussions
ereStates
consul
at Borappointed United
an
intelligentpublic Sentiment was
and
in 1897.
deanx
of
is the author
He
the
of Figs
ated
rights
man,
concerning
and
Thistles; A Fool's Errand; The Man
particularly the rights of Englishmen in
Who
Outlived
Himself; The Story of a America, which was
ready to support, by
in
An
the champions of freedom
Thousand;
Appeal to Ccesar; War
of its power,
and
the Standards;
for
finally
Digest of Cited Cases, etc. the great struggle
justice,
this latter featfor independence. It was
Tourjee, EBEN, musician; born in Warwick, R. I.,June
1, 1834; was
organist of ure of the town-meeting that excited the
called
who
church
when
thirteen
a
old ; reofficers,
opposition of the crown
years
to
moved
he
Providence, where
focus of rebellion."
They hated and
opened it a
music
store and
feared it.
a
began teaching when
in
}859
to
Prof.
John
seventeen, and
Fiske, in his illuminating
Greenwich,
and

as

Secretary

of the

"

96

TOWN-MEETINGS"
the
on
essay
its origin and

lish, and

town-meeting,
relation

American

brilliant

to

has

forth

set

German,
in

history
give

We

TOWNSEND

the
few

completeness.

In

Eng-

Western

States

most

is the

county, and

several

the

Southern

administrative
local

affairs

and
unit

are

man-

short

aged by county commissioners


elected by
from
extracts
the same.
the people. Elsewhere
find a mixture
we
of the county and
township systems. In
of the Western
some
States
their
arrival
New
in
settled by the
on
Immediately
England people, town-meetings are
England the settlers proceeded to form for New
themselves
held, though their powers
a
somewhat
as
are
government
purely demoless extensive
cratic as any
than in New
that had
been
in
ever
seen
England,
But
the
world.
Instead
of scattering about
something very like the "townthe country, the requirements of eduover
meeting principle lies at the bottom
of
all the politicallife of the United
cation
and
of public worship, as
States,
well as
of defence
vitality in the centre withagainst Indian attacks, obliged To maintain
them
to form
out sacrificing
it in the parts; to preserve
small
village communities.
As
these
relations
of
tranquillity in the mutual
villagesmultiplied, the surface
of the country came
to be laid out in small
forty powerful States, while keeping the
districts
(usually from 6 to 10 miles in people everywhere as far as possible in
with
the government,
called
such
length and
breadth)
townships, direct contact
Each
its village,to- is the politicalproblem which
the Ameritownship contained
union
exists
for
the
gether with the woodlands
of
surrounding it. can
purpose
From
the outset
of this
the government
solving, and
of the
great truth
every
citizen is supposed to have
vested
in the town-meeting. American
township was
some
Once
in each
however
crude,
is
glimmering,
a
year
held,
meeting
at which
Towne, CHARLES
ARNETTE, born in Oakevery adult male
residing within
the limits of the township is
land
Nov.
Mich.,
county,
to
21, 1858; eduexpected
be present, and
cated
at the University of Michigan; adis at liberty to address
the
to
the bar
in 1886; removed
to
meeting or vote upon
question mitted
any
manner.

"

that
At

chosen
nine

up.
annual
less

not

taxes,

three

of

overseers

the

of highways,
surveyors
other
officers.
In very
the

selectmen
of

sessors

The

selectmen

if such
board

are

of

or

overseers

in

treasof

and
He
a-

by

the

declined
United

Silver
both

States

Republicans
nominations,

Senator

for

in

1900.

and

was

two

townships in 1900-01, fillinga vacancy,


EDWARD
Townsend,
asDAVIS,
as

small

act

may
of

the

poor,
police officers

appoint
may
required; they may

health;

are

than

more

of Con*
Minn., in 1890; member
from
1895-97; withdrew
the Republican convention
in 1897; nominated
for Vice-President
by the People's party
in

gress

constables,
poor,
fence viewers, and

themselves

taxes

or

there

town
clerk, a town
committee, assessors

school

town-meeting

than

selectmen,a

urer,

Duluth,

come

may
each

addition

act

as

in
officer; born
1817; graduated
served

He

in the

months

military

Boston, Mass., Aug. 22,


at West
Point
in 1837;

Seminole

and

Mexican

wars,

adjutant-general of the United


States during the Civil War, and chief exspecificduties too numerous
to mention
here, they have the general superintend- ecutive officer under Secretary Stanton.
He
of all the public business, save
ence
died in Washington, D. C., May
such
11, 1893.
is expressly assigned to the other
as
GEORGE
offiTownsend,
ALFRED, journalist;
and
whenever
born
in Georgetown, Del., Jan.
circumstances
cers;
30, 1841;
may
to require it, they are
seem
educated
in
authorized
Philadelphia, Pa.; entered
to call a town-meeting.
journalism in 1860; was
war
correspondBesides
York
choosing executive
in 1864-65,
World
officers,the ent for the New
town-meeting has the power
of enacting under
the pen-name
of GATH.
is the
He
by-laws, of making
appropriations of author of Real Life of Abraham
Lincoln;
for

money

town

purposes,

to

and

sundry

of

was

Washington

pro-

Outside

and

Inside; Mormon

viding for miscellaneous


emergencies by Trials; Washington Rebuilded; The En^hat
might be termed
special legislation,tailed Hat; Life of Levi P. Morton, etc.
It is only in New
England that the
JOHN
Townsend,
naturalist;
KIRK,
in its born
.ownship system is to be found
in Philadelphia. Pa.. Aug. 10. 1809:
ix."

97

TRACY

TOWNSEND"

was

associated

the

preparation of

ogy;

travelled

37;

visited

South
the

department

the

of

Institution.

later
birds

in
in

the

dentistry; was
Philadelphia Academy

contributor

to its

of A

author
the

Rocky

er;

and

He

died
Townsf

in New

Narrative

Me

tntains

in

1833-

lectures

and

charge
the

of

Smith-

of

member

and

of Sciences

Columbia

later

Riv-

entered

addresses

on

Columbia

Townshend,
military officer;born

the

der

in

bee, and
the

in

the

took

death

of

many
War.

Marquis,

Norfolk, England,
division

un-

expedition against QUC-

command

of

Civil

first

28, 1724; commanded


Wolfe

Uni-

delivered

that

of the

after

army

general, receiving the

capitulation of the French.


to
England, and was

education, and

He

He

turned

of the United States,


in " ashington,D. C., Feb. 16, 1851.
S., compiler ; born
"id,THOMAS
1 ork City,Aug. 27, 1829; received

class1 jal

and

libraryof
York.

GEORGE,

Feb.

Washington

Proceedings; and was


of a Journey Across
to the

the

Islands

Oology

Orn

in

now

versity, New

had

While

is

Ornithol-

West

Sandwich
and

in

J. Audubon

American

studied

he

John

through
the

America;

sonian

witn

then

re-

member

Parliament

became

lord-lieutenant

lor; was
72 ) and
,
1787.

ten years
He
(1754-64).
field-marshal
and
privy council-

created

was

of Ireland

( 1767-

in

marquis

October,

died

He

Sept. 14, 1807.


NATHAN,
artilleryofficer ; born
near
Baltimore, Md., Jan. 22, 1784; was
appointed captain of artilleryin March,
Towson,

York
in New
firm
City. In
began a chronologicalhistory of
in connection
1812, having had some
important occurrence
experience in that
every
with the impending Civil War, by clipping service as
commander
of a volunteer
ar"
of tillerycompany;
from
statement
the newspapers
to the Niagara
sent
was
every
value
frontier; and there, in 1813-14, performed
relating to the subject and the record of every military officer in both armies,
bore
He
distinguished services.
a
promHis collection comprised 120 volumes, and
inent part in the battles of Chippewa and
Lundy's Lane; also in the defence of
mercantile
1860

he

Fort

Erie.

In

lieutenant

he

1816

brevetted

was

colonel, and

made

was

paymaster-general in 1819.

In

1849, he received

of

March,

majorservices
"meritorious
general for
died
War."
He
during the Mexican
in Washington, D. C., July 20, 1854.
Tract

tract

United

was

in

In

1803.

formed
in

the

1825, and

yer;

The

have
born

in

Boston,
Tract

American
in

New

of all

was

was

which,

American

various

tract

Tract
York

in

effected.

denominations

societies.

BENJAMIN

FRANKLIN,

in

N.

Oswego,

became

lican

politician, and
New

an

law

Y., April 26,


Repub
a
prominent

influential

1830;

lawyer in
98

the

Boston

Mass.,

abode

formed
union

in

of
the
In
society's
1859, because
the
hesitancy to publish tracts on
society
subject of slavery,the Boston
withdrew.
A
colporteur system was
established
the colporin 1842, and
of
teurs
disposed of a vast number

Tracy,

THACV.

its

in

society

of the

name

Another

also

YKASS.LIX

1814

Society.
Society was

tracts.

BENJAMIN

society
formed

Andover,

1823, made

with

at

unde

first

The

Society.

nominational
States

brevet

the

York-

raised

two

regi-

TRADES

THADE"
ments

for

colonel

of the

Civil

the

severelywounded

was

received

honor

for

he served

of

court

Secretary of the Navy


cabinet, 1889-93.

was

the close of his term

practiceof law;

this

the

Harrison's

At

which

cessful

of the

judge

President

Greater

of

district at-

States

United

in

mission

of the

as

and

brigadier-generalin

associate

torney and

appeals;

battle

he returned

president of

was

the

drafted

York;

New

candidate

and

for

to the
the

an

was

first

com-

for the

charter

under

charter.

Trade
first of

COMMEECE

OP

STATES.

UNITED

THE

See

FOREIGN.

Trade,

and

Plantations,
commissions

these

to

The

OF.

for

pendent

the

pole, at
trade
to

overrule

seemed
claim

commit-

secretary

of

de-

state

for

1749, Horace

Wai-

bill

all charters, and

the

King,

or

to

under

in
law
supreme
consistent
to be

make

of

his

author-

America.

This

with

the

high
legislativeauthority for Parliaof
Onslow, speaker of the House

of

believed

Commons,

the

Parliament

had

to tax America, but not to delegate


power
it. He ordered
the objectionsto the measof

to be
the

spread at length on the journals


of trade
House, and the board

William

the

matter.

Trade

Dollar, a silver dollar containing


378 troy grains of silver and 42 troy grains
of note.
Davenant, and an English author
of alloy. Dollars
of this description,
issued
He
proposed, in an essay, that the care
under
colonies
should
be made
act of Congress of Feb.
of the American
12, 1873,
of lords
of $5. Those
the province of a select number
were
legal tender to amount
and gentlemen of reputationboth for parts issued under
act of July 22, 1876, possessed
and
The
trade
dollars
and
fortunes";
suggested that it no legal-tenderpower.
intended
for trade with countries
would
doto put things were
be in their power
into a form
and order of government that
ing business on a silver basis; hence the
See COINAGE, UNITED
STATES.
should
always preserve these countries in name.
Trade
See COMMERCE
and
obedience
to the
Expansion.
crown
OF
dependence
STATES.
UNITED
the kingdom." At the same
time, he THE
upon
of
Trades
Unions.
first local labor
The
advocated
the keeping of the conditions
A
inviolate.
unions
in 1800-25.
and
sacred
their
charters
arose
They multiplied
had
been
from
time
Civil
to the
of the
1815
standing council of commerce
up
was
dropped. War, though the movement
established, but in 1673 it was
opposed
all disputes by the
and
until
From
time
1696
that
employers combined
press,
it.
The
first central
and
labor
to suppress
regulations relating to commerce
States
and
the Genthe colonies were
was
usually referred to union in the United
eral
Trades
in New
committee
of the privy council.
Union, established
a
York
of trade
In
the
and
1850
The
board
(1833).
Typographical
plantations
formed.
established
III. in Union
was
was
Employers at first
by King William
by

Charles

Davenant,

of

son

Sir

of trade

report, and

In March,

of the

ity, the

min"

new

instigation of the board


plantations, reported a

and

orders

the

"

and

the

upon
the colonies.

Anne,

powerful board
position a mere

reference

suggested dropped

was

Queen
the

subordinate

tee

ure

BOARDS

of

istry reduced

ment.

unsuc-

mayor

death

the

Volunteers

congressional medal
gallantry in battle. After

1865;

war

York
at the

brevetted

Wilderness;

commissioned

War;

New

109th

UNIONS

"

"

that

It

year.

commissioner,
realm, and
with

consisted
who

seven

salary

first

lord

of

the

welcomed

commissioners,

combined

of

was

other

peer

of $5,000 each.

The

mem-

opposed,but

1858, the

and
in

later

all endured, while

supported
1854, the

machinists

in

it.

The

most

hatters

iron -workers

in

1859, etc.,till,in

labor
existed,
unions
styled the "lord
1860, twenty -six
labor
International
plantations."
organizations were
this
board
the
the
With
of
formed
the
(1864), the
cigar-makers
by
governors
(1865).
English-American colonies held continual
engineers (1864), the masons
those of the concorrespondence concerning their respec- Among other unions were
tive governments; and
to this board
(1869), locothey ductors (1868), wool-hatters
transmitted
firemen
the journals of their councils
motive
(1869), furniture-makers
and
of the col(1875), granite-cutassemblies, the accounts
(1873), horseshoers
bers

of

the

commissioners

lectors

similar

of

board

were

for trade

customs

and

and

naval

officers,and

(1885), bakers
(1877), coal-miners
(1886), tailors, plasterers,carpenters,

ters

On
articles of officialintelligence.
99

UNIONS"

TRADES

TRANSYLVANIA

bottle-blowers, plumbers,
Train, GEORGE
FRANCIS, author ; born
24, 1829 j engaged
piano makers, bookkeep- in Boston, Mass., March

.workers,
makers,

boilev-

for several
lithographers, stereotypers, switch- in business in Boston
years;
went
to
Australia
in
1853; travelled exspinners,and, lastly,messenger-boys,
men,
he lectWomen,
too, organized their callings,till tensivelythrough England, where
universal.
Their
to the
the unions
were
objects ured to large audiences; returned
United
States
in
wrote
have
An
1862, and
always been substantiallythe same
Merchant
in Europe, Asia, and
viz., short hours, higher wages, laws to American
the laborer's
of Australia; Young America
better
lot, the payment
Abroad; Young
ere,

"

the

wages

to

work,

the

same

the

same

in

factories

vention

of

the

of

and

while

on

duty,

and

useless

children

of

order

Feb.

homestead

ed into
In

ceased

had
politics,

formed

was

first association

and

fourteen

having

Street;

by RALPH

BRONSON

in

derived

term

to

go
of the

doctrine

WALDO

beyond,
school

which

England

ALCOTT

died

He

etc.

1904.

transcendere,

applied to that
philosophy in New

A.

was

EMERSON

and

(q. v.).

Transportation.

See

RAILROADS

STEAMBOATS.

em

Transylvania.

the

ulation

enter-

the

on

While

the

Atlantic

Philadelphia the
Knights of Labor,

form
of

in

were

the

pop*
ift

early

in

to
progress
in the valley

commonwealth

new

English

seaboard

great political commotion


part of 1775, efforts were

to exist by 1875.

in

of the

the Latin

founded

called

its successor,

with

Brotherhood, both

1869

pre-

government

Wall

City, Jan. 18,


Transcendentalism,

pushed the
an
eight-

obtained

in

York

strikes, from

was

It

for

Industrial

Union

and

working day
ploye's(1868), but,

the

under

22, 1861.

law,

hour

New

of

years of age, etc.


The
National
Labor
to

America

for

men

protection of laborers

unorganized

labor

and

women

the

Mississippi. Richard
Henderson,
of its objects was
to an
energetic lawyer of North
ganization. One
Carolina,
land
harmonize
labor
a
and
de- and
speculator, induced
by the
capital, while
crying strikes,idleness, and frivolity. It reports of Finley, Boone, and others of the
fertile regions on
also collected
the banks
of the lower
the statistics of its memand
strove
to
bers,
promote intelligenceKentucky River, purchased of the Cherokees
for a few
them.
In 1877
it engaged in the
wagon-loads of goods a
among
a

limited, social, and

great strike
Railroad
resist

to

it had
a

the

membership

ized

labor

in
bor
ment

1884

bureaus
the

in

United

of Labor

States

between
and

of

Others

associated

were

adventurer

1877

the

the

land

Daniel

of

south
with

It

and

organ-

to

commence

who

Boone,

bureau
the

of

Friction

American

Knights

la-

depart-

fort

Madison

co.,

time

James

Col.

Ky.

site of

At

the
been

afterwards
out

road

built

He

Boonesboro,

about

Harrod,

river.

and
had

settlement.
the

on

that

him;

present at the treaty,was


soon
organiza- sent (March, 1775) to mark

twenty-eight States; palisaded

in

established; in 1888
of labor, at Washington.

eration

great tract

it claimed

1878.

was

existed

main

Railroad

By

the

200,000;

national

always
from

of

or-

Ohio

and

in wages.
societies; in 1901

450

became

Baltimore

Pennsylvania

reduction

tion

the

on

and

(at first) secret

the

same

equally bold
founded
backwoodsman,
Harrodsburg.
Governor
Dunmore, of Virginia,denounced
Henderson's
purchase as illegaland void,

has
Fed-

of Labor,

the fact that, while both desire in the


the same
ends, each favors a differ-

and
under

offered
the

these

western

an

lands

for

sale

Regardless
procent
the Knights advocating cenlamation, delegatesfrom Boonesboro, Harmeans,
while the Federation
tralization,
of Labor
two
other
rodsburg, and
settlements,
would
have each union
itself.
eighteen in number, met at Boonesboro,
govern
The
usefulness
of trades unions
is now
and
into an
Assemorganized thsmselres
generally acknowledged. They have made
bly of a State which they named
Transylthe alien-labor
law
an
accomplished fact, vania
by appointing Thomas
Slaughter
and
they have secured in many
and
the
Matthew
Jewett
cases
clerk,
chairman,
the eight-hour,worknine-hour, in some
addressed
be
They were
on
by Henderson
ing-day. Their main contention,however, half of the proprietors,between whom
and
at present, is still for the
eight-hour day. the settlers a compact was
made, the most
See LABOB,

INDUSTRIAL.

important features
100

of the

crown.

of which

were

an

agree-

TREASON

TRASK"
ment

1. That

"

should

be

the

annual;

election

of

Perfect

2.

delegates thirty-two
of

freedom

of religion
; 3. That
opinion in matters
judges should be appointed by the propriefor

answerable

tors, but

bad

conduct

the

Convention

That

to

people; and,
of raisAssembly have the sole power
and of
ing and appropriating all moneys,
and
Courts
a
electing their treasurers.
laws
militia
were
were
organized, and
enacted.
The
proprietors held a meeting
in September at Oxford, Greenville
co.,
the

4.

or

Mexican
been

succeeded

in passing the
frequent attacks had
great slaughter a hand-

men

lines.

After

repulsed with
fight occurred

to-hand
which

the

Texans

Bowie.

These

left alive,

were

Crockett,

surrendered

promise of protection had been


when
taken
before
they were
San

near

Antonio,

orders

gave

the

on

them

cut

to

until

overcome

only six of their number


including Travis, David
James

6, in

March

on

not

were

and

after

made,

but

Santa

Ana,

day he
pieces. Shortly

to

same

delegate afterwards, during the battle at San JaHogg


Conmet
for Transylvania in the Continental
cinto, where the Mexicans
a bloody de
the
battle
the
of
Remember
the
claim
to
feat,
was
but
the
Virginia
cry
gress,
Alamo."
See ALAMO,
FORT.
commonwealth
a
was
territoryof the new
elected

C., and

N.

James

"

bar

his

to

Virginia
of

chase

and

Henderson,
of land

tract

purinchoate

below

square,

WILLIAM

Trask,

tion
States

Hender-

historian;

BLAKE,

in Dorchester, Mass., Nov.


25, 1812;
school education
received
a
common
; was
born

apprenticed to
ed

at

his

school

trade

in

1823-35;

of

committee

was

Dorchester;

1850, which

in

assessor

came

cabinet-maker, and

he

"Treason
says:
shall consist

In

section

Constitu-

against the United


only in levying war
in adhering to their
aid

of

consequence
North
western

of

national

the

and

comfort."

disturbances

Carolina

in

(see FRANKLAND)

symptoms of disaffection on the southborder, and in Kentucky, the Virginia legislaturepassed a law in October,
1785, subjectingto the penaltiesof treason
western

the

on

the

and

work-

and

first clause

3, of

against them, or
enemies, giving them

miles

12

River.

of Green

mouth

the

gave
Ohio

The

iii.,article

the

the

the

on

Treason.

legislatureof

The

annulled

disappeared. Virginia

State
son

admission.
afterwards

be-

resigned

all

attempts

to erect

State

new

in

any

part of her

territory without
permission
first obtained
of the Assembly.
he became
interested
in historical studies,
Pennsylvania had passed a similar law.
records of BosHe copied the ancient town
When
Admiral
in
Sumner
Gen.
William
H.
ton; aided
Farragut arrived before
New
Orleans
(April 28, 1862), he sent
preparing a History of East Boston; contributed
to
Historical
the New
Captain Bailey ashore with a flag to deEngland
the
surrender
of the
and
Genealogical Register, and aided in mand
city. The
over
(Lovell) turned
preparing several genealogies; and pub- military commander
after, owing to failinghealth.

soon

lished

Memoir

lie's Remarks

Family,
member

of Andrew
General

on

and
of

The

Seaver

the

Later

H.
Ward;
BayCobb; The Bird
Family. He was

Dorchester

Antiquarian
New
England
Historic-Genealogical Society, and
its historiographer in 1861-68.
was
WILLIAM
Travis,
BARRETT,
military
a

and

Historical

officer; born
1811;

admitted

Society,and

in

Conecuh
to

the

the

county, Ala., in
bar

in 1830

and

be-

the

whole

force
and

matter

demand

The

had

As

William

named

men,
young
it through

act

was

from

as

they

B.

the

streets
with

Meanwhile
of

flag

retired

the
in

vessels

the

Mumford,

tore down

hailed

one

National

the

soon

civil authorities.

the

refused.

landed

hoisted

Mint.

to

was

the

over

gambler,

with

flagand

some

dragged

derision.

acclamatf

of
proval by the Confederates
and
paragraphs of praise and
Orleans
appeared in the New

jns

the

This
of

ap-

city,

exultation
practice in Claiborne, Ala.; went to
about
and
later
1832
the
journals.
joined
Texas
Butler
arrived
with
and
2,000 troops
fought for the indepen- General
army
dence of that territory. With
140 men
he
(May 1), and took possession of the city,
defended
Alamo
His headquarters were
at the St. Charles
Fort
(the old mission
station of San Antonio
which
de Valerio ) against Hotel, before
a
threatening crowd
them
Mumford,
The
4,000 Mexicans, Feb. 23, 1836.
was
place gathered. Among
who
was
openly boasted of his exploit in hum
stoutly defended for ten days ; numerStates.**
old rag of the United
made
for aid, but only bling the
ous
appeals were

gan
Texas

"

101

TREASURY"

He

became

of

New

that

Orleans

executed

and

had

1901,

Butler

suffered

the

"

death
of

1901, after

him

had

He

was

only

guilty, and

crime

for

that

the

national

since

of

President

the

States, whether

fatal

of

the

an

(from

DEPARTMENT

Treasury,
executive

States

of

departments

known
officially
Treasury, and

one

of

is

plans

national

for

and

the

for

the

of

keeping

and
for

revenue,

of

and

making

all moneys

collection

returns

drawn

from

the

and

mies

TTo
He

"o"f
ment.

of

disbursements

of

onnfr-nlo
controls

olc^
also

of

CNITED

detic

of

the

into

Foreign

Power

cutter,

office is transacted
.

.,

in

and

the

T.
c-

of the

...

steamboats, bureau
i.
j
j
tics, light-houseboard, and in

general
*"

of

LJ.

"

t.

of
j.v
the

statis-

currency;

expowers,
Treaties

revenue-cutter;

OTHER

C.:

by
OF

THE

POWERa

San

Jose".

navigation

July 27,

Austria:

commerce,

navigation

....

Washington. Aug. 26,1829


May 8, 1848
July 3, 1856
Washington. July 11, 1870
Sept 20,
Nov. 25, 1871

Rights of consuls

Vienna
Baden:
Extradition
Naturalization
Bavaria
and

baine

igration

102

Jan. 30, 1857


.

taxes

d'au
on

Berlin

em

Jan.

London...

..

and navigation. Brussels


Commerce
Washington.
Peace,amity,commerce,etc
Completing treaty of 1858. Brussels

extinguishScheldt

Commerce

dues.

Washington.

;"""/""

and

navigation.
rights.

navigation

Sept. 12, 1853


May 26, 1868
Nov. 10, 1845

July 17, 1858


May 20, 1863
July 20, "
Nov. 16, 1868
Dec. 20, "
Mar. 19, 1874
Mar. 8, 1875
Mar.

9,

1880

April 7, 1884

peace, friendship,com-)
merce,

21, 1845

emigrants.. Munich
Belgium :

TO

July 19,1868

droit

Abolishing

"

Berlin

Carlsruhe.

Trade-nmrk^.

"'

Commerce'and navigation.

consular
c
c.

sta-

July 10,1853

commerce,

Naturalization
Trade marks
c. Extradition

T.

"
n
follow-

ing divisions: bookkeeping and warrants;


public moneys;
appointments; customs;
and

the

Uruguay

C. Extradition.
T. Citizenship of

the
.

...

mint,
architect,director
T.
and
engraving
printing,
super"
6'.
"
C.
i,
of
the
marme-hossurgeon-general
vising
c.
pitalservice,general superintendent of the T.
C.
f..
life-savingservice, supervising
inspector- c.
,

of

Where
Concluded.

Object

of Para-

navigation
and

_,

offices of

supervising
director of

loans

Free
na

geo-

,.

list of the

Algiers.... Sept. 5, 1795


July 6, 1815
Dec. 24, 1816

T. Friendship,

,,

12,

Argentine Confederation:
T.

_,

i-

and

Treaty.

survey,

July

CONVENTIONS

AND
WITH

T'
reve-

life-saving,
light-house,revsteamboat
c.
inspection, and
of
the
public "
marine-hospital branches
service, and furnishes
generally such inC.
formation
be
as
required by either T.
may
all matters
branch
of Congress on
perC.
to the foregoing.
taining
6
6.
6.
The
routine
work
of
the
Secretary's

enue

other

T
Peace
T.

to

governnnnafriipfinn
construction

coast

with

STATES

by

public buildings,the coinage and print


of statistics,
the collection
ing of money,
T
administration

1686-1701.

conventions

and

TREATIES

PRINCIPAL

of

the

in

Conn.,

postal conventions.
indicated
by T.; conventions

are

the

tlio
the

Connecti-

following is

The

elusive

treasury

appropriations made
the payment of moneys
the
annually submits
treasury, and
of the probable
Congress estimates
pursuance
law, and for

of

relief

the
the

governor

treaties

States

of

in

in

Phil-

King

In

in

Milford,

United

warrants

grants

1670.

active

forms

public accounts

rendering

was

in

principal

He

the

the

and
died

He

Treaties.

of

prescribesthe

and

in

magistrate
major of the

and

1665),

Valley, especiallyof Springfield and


of
Hadley. He aided in the destruction
the
fort
in
December,
Narraganset
was
1676; the same
lieutenant-govyear

the

improvement
support

Sir

1710.

of

the

to

settlements

ernor;

is

the

finances.

public credit; superintends


of

United

Secretary of
charged by law with

Eng-

cut

of

officer

then

judge,

1661

menaced

act

the

as

of the

management

THE,
the

chief

The

government.

prepares
the revenue

OF

in
; born
governor
to America
with

came

provincial troops
he was
ip's War

treason.

the

1622;

chosen

was

Me-

United

the

not,

or

in

of the
one
Saltonstall, and was
first settlers of Wethersfield, Conn.
He

a
Kinley by an assassin's bullet, there was
wide-spread opinion that Congress should
attack
the
act
on
an
making an
pass

person

PRESIDENT'S.

Richard

government,

of President

death

the

land

to

up

CABINET,

Treat, ROBERT,

guilty

who,

man

tionery; printing and blanks; mails and


miscellaneous.
files; special agents, and
See

arrested

found

tried, found

been

foundation
In

turbulent

the

tried for treason.

and

good order as
spirits iu

to

dangerous

so

leader

the

TREATIES

La Pax....

May 13, 1858

TREATIES
PRINCIPAL

TREATIES

AND

CONVENTIONS

OF

UNITED

THE

103

STATES

WITH

OTHER

POWERS"

Con"ntt"i

TREATIES

PRINCIPAL

TREATIES

AND

CONVENTIONS

OP

THE

UNITED

STATES

WITH

OTHER

POWERS"

Continued

TREATIES

PRINCIPAL

CONVENTIONS

AND

TREATIES

OF

with
His
In

Dr.

Franklin

mission

on

the

was

July following Oswald

In
was

to

the
sent

confer

subject of peace.

initiatory in
was

four

and

Oswald

WITH

OTHER

POWERS"

Concluded,

requisitesin a treaty. In July, Parliahad parsed a bill to enable the King


to
acknowlet/ge the independence of the
ment

United

character,

way

with

rens

vested

full power
to negotiate a treaty of peace,
and
in September the United
States
ap-

pointed

STATES

ANGLO-AMERICAN

TREATIES,
Treaties, ANGLO-AMERICAN.
Oswald
spring of 1782, Richard
by the British ministry to Paris,

UNITED

THE

States, and
of

negotiations
joined the other

sioners
a

ail
were

obstacles

in

removed.
American

Nov.
Paris, and on
preliminary treaty of peace

the
Lau-

commis-

30, 1782,

at

was

signed

and
Mr.
commissioners, representing by the commissioners
Oswald,
the various
sections of the Union, for the
without
the knowledge of the French
govviolation
This
of the
These
John
ernment.
same
a
were
was
Adams,
purpose.
of Massachusetts
Jay, of New York ; treaty of alliance.
; John
Dr. Franklin, of Pennsylvania ; and Henry
In April, 1783, the preliminary treaty
of peace having been ratified by the United
Carolina.
These
Laurens, of South
were
States and Great
Dr. Franklin
all in Europe at the time.
Britain, the latter vested
to negoHartley with full powers
already prepared the David
Ameridefinitive
with
the
tiate
Franka
treaty
negotiations.
way
concluded
and
lin had assured
commissioners.
It was
Oswald
that independence, can
satisfactoryboundaries, and a participa- signed at Paris, Sept. 3, 1783, by Hartley,
tion in the fisheries would
the part of Great
be indisputableon
Britain, and Dr.
Mr.

had

for harmonious

105

TREATIES,
Franklin, John Adams,
the part of the United
similar

were

put
ten

the

accordance

about

with

definitive

day

signed, and

were

United

on

terms

States

Brit-

America, in order to
provisionalartimentioned, according to the

into
carry
cles above

of

full effect the

thereof, have

tenor

constituted

pointed: that is to
Majesty on his part,
member

Spain

Great

between

one

treaties

Britain, France, and

Great

between

Jay,

The

laid aside

he had

same

John

States.

of the preliminary
signed it, Franklin

had

before, in

years
On

vow.

he

clothes

the

on

those

to

treaty. When

and

ANGLO-AMEBICAJT

of the
the

ain; and

part,

John

Hartley, Esq.,

Parliament

said

of Great

United

Adams,

and
apBritannic

his

say,
David

States

Esq.,

late

Brittheir

on

commis-

sioner

of

before.

at

Court

The

following is the text of the definiand


tive treaty of peace
friendship bethe
his
Britannic
tween
Majesty, and
of
United
States
America,
signed at
Paris, the 3d day of September, 1783:

in

In

lands; Benjamin Franklin, Esq., late delegate in Congress from the State of Penn-

ain

Holland

and

the

of

name

signed

was

the

the

holy

most

day

and

un-

the

the

United
of

States

of

America

Versailles, late

delegate
Congress from the State of Massachuof the said State,
setts, and chief-justice
minister
and
plenipotentiary of the said
United
States
to their high mightinesses
the

States-General

of

United

the

Nether-

of
sylvania, president of the convention
Trinity.
Providence
said
Divine
the
the
It having pleased
State, and minister
plenipotenof the most
States
of America
to dispose the hearts
serene
tiary from the United
Court
of
John
and
at
the
and
most
Versailles;
III.,
prince,
George
Jay,
potent
by the grace of God King of Great Brit- Esq., late president of Congress, and chiefof the
York, and
justice of the State of New
ain, France, and Ireland, Defender
minister
and
said
of Brunswick
Lunenthe
Faith, Duke
plenipotentiary from
to
States at the Court
of Madrid;
and
prince elector United
burg, arch-treasurer
of the Holy Roman
Empire, etc., and of be the plenipotentiariesfor the concludto
States
of America,
the United
forget ing and
signing the present definitive
differ- treaty, who,
all past misunderstandings and
after
having reciprocally
have
that
their
ences
unhappily interrupted communicated
respective full powconfirmed
the
and
the
friendship ers, have agreed upon
good correspondence and
which
following articles:
they mutually wish to restore, and
beneficial
satisArticle
and
Britannic
such
to establish
1. His
a
Majesty acbetween
the two
States
counviz.,
knowledges the said United
factory intercourse
New
the ground of reciprocal adMassachusetts
tries, upon
Hampshire,
Bay,
Rhode
Island
and Providence
Plantations,
convenience,as may
vantages and mutual
both
and
New
to
secure
York,
perpetual Connecticut, New
Jersey,
promote
and
harmony; and haying for this Pennsylvania, Delaware, Maryland, Virpeace
foundation
desirable
end already laid the
Carolina,
Carolina, South
ginia, North
and
of peace
reconciliation, by the pro- and
Georgia, to be free, sovereign, and
visional
articles signed at Pans,
the
on
independent States; that he treats with
thirtieth
them
as
such, and for himself, his heirs,
day of November, one thousand
hundred
and eighty-two by the comand
seven
relinquishes all claim to
successors,
terrimissioners
which
each
the
empowered qn
part;
government, proprietary and
and
inserted
be
torial
of
the
articles were
to
in,
part
agreed
rights
same,
every
divided

"

and

to constitute

posed
of

be

to

Britain

Great

until

concluded

France,

Britain

be

and

between
the

treaty

terms

between
upon
and
his

ready
accordingly; and
should

treaty of peace

and

which

States, but

agreed

the

concluded

the
said

was

not

to

Britannic

be

Majesty

the

treaty between

having

concluded, his Britannic

such

treaty

Majesty

be
may
declared

and

of the

be their boundaries

angle

west

north

the
106

to

the

disputes which
the subject of

all

that
future

on

said

United

States

prevented, it is hereby agreed and


and
shall
that the following are

angle which

been

in

boundaries

the

Great

since

arise

might

should
be
peace
Great
Britain
and

conclude

2. And

Art.

United

of

to

France

thereof.

procrown

from

of

"

Nova

is formed
the

source

the north-

viz. : From
Scotia

by

"

viz., that

line drawn

of St. Croix

high lands, along


"

the

said

due
River

high

ANGLO-AMERICAN

TREATIES,
divide

lands

which

impty

themselves
from

rence,

Jantic
head

fall into

along the middle


degree
forty-fifth
thence
by a line

of

shall

due

west

the

to

said

on

lati-

thence

said

of

middle

Lake

said

communication
and

lake

Lake

the

it arrives

at

munication

thence
lake

between

of

and

through
Royal

isles

the

said

Long

munication

and

from

of

due

east

unmolested

Superior;

prov-

the

people

the

continue

right

to

the

other

places

tants

of both

of

to

sea

used

fish; and

also

United

fishermen

also
at

dry

or

cure

and

also

the
the

at any
time
that the in-

shall

have

on

coasts, bays, and


his

Britannic

creeks

and

fish in any
of the unsettled
dry and cure
Scotia,
bays, harbors, and creeks of Nova
Magdalen Islands, and Labrador, so long

water
the

dominions

due

of

of
the

lake

to

point thereof,
west

course

from

to the

determination

the

line last mentioned,

thirty-onedegrees north

in

American

com-

Lake

of

as

Superior
Philipeaux, to the
through the middle
the

other

such

(but not to
that
island),

use

same

all

inhabi-

the

States

shall

all

on

fish of every kind on


coast
of Newfoundland

the

on

where

countries

British

all

Great

in the

of

en-

fish of

take

to

Bank, and
banks
of Newfoundland;
Gulf
of St. Lawrence,
and

part

of

shall

the

on

take

Mississippi; thence by a line to be


of
said
river
drawn
along the middle
Mississippi, until it shall intersect the
denorthernmost
part of the thirty-first
latitude; south, by a line to
gree of north
of the

joy

that

agreed

States

of the

river

be drawn

United

libertyto

communication

it and

the

habitants

Lake

said

the

Scotia.
is

3. It

every kind
the other

of

of

between

thence

of Nova

said

middle

Lake

northwesternmost

most

ince

have

heretofore

or

limits

the

heretofore

and

Lake

within

are

into

com-

and

lake

Lake
the
said
the
to
Woods,
thence
Woods;
through the said
the

the

northward

thence

Lake;

Long

water

Lake

thence
to

the
lake

of

water

the

through

to
that

middle
the

that

between

Huron;
said

communication

said

been

in

that

along

thence

Erie, through
until

lake

Erie;

the

between

water

by

Lake

of

middle

of

Ontario; through the


lake, until it strikes the

into

river

middle

the

along

now

other,

the

on

Bay of Fundy
excepting such

the

Ocean,

Atlantic
as

Art.

tude, until it strikes the river Iroquois or

Cataraquy;

the

islands

latitude; from

Florida

east

respectivelytouch

and

drawn

river

that

of north

part and

one

At-

the

Kiver; thence

Connecticut

of

that

St. Law-

northwesternmost

the

to

river

the

which

those

Ocean,

rivers

those

into

as

fishermen

the

shall

shall

cure

that

have

liberty to

shall

same

for the

fish

the

unsettled; but
be settled, it
said

such

at

Majesty's

and

remain

lawful

be
or

without

fishermen

settlement,

previous agreement for that


the inhabitants, proprietors,
of the ground,
possessors
creditthe
is agreed that
4. It
Art.
a

with

purpose
or

the

as

not

dry

to

shall

same

soon

so

America;

ors

in the

latitude

of the

equator, full

either

on

side

shall

meet

with

no

impediment to the recovery of the


of all "bona,
value
in sterling money

lawful

contracted.
Apalachicola or fide debts heretofore
middle
thence
Art. 5. It is agreed that Congress shall
Catahouche;
along the
Flint
the
it to the
thereof, to its junction with
legislatearnestly recommend
of the respective States
to provide
River; thence straight to the head of St. ures
for the restitution
of all estates, rights,
Ocean;
Mary's River, to the Atlantic
been
confishave
east, by a line to be drawn
along the and properties which
middle
of the river
St. Croix, from
its cated, belonging to real British
subjects;
in the Bay of Fundy to its source,
mouth
and
also of the estates, rights,and
propand
from
its source
resident
in districts in
erties of persons
to
directly north
and
aforesaid
the
divide
the possession of his Majesty's arms,
high lands, which
said
rivers
the
fall into
Atlantic
the
that
the
who
have not borne
arms
against

to

the

Ocean
river

middle

from

of the

river

those

which

St.

fall

into

the

islands

Lawrence,
within
twenty

comprehending all
leagues of any part

of

shores

United

the

lying between
from

the

boundaries

of

the

lines

points
between

to

be

where
Nova

States, and

drawn
the
Scotia

due

other

States; and

the

that

description shall

go to
thirteen
to

persons
free
have

part or parts of
any
United
States, and

twelve

months

unmolested

endeavors

to

obtain

the

of

their

remain

east

aforesaid
on

United

such

107

of

any

liberty

of the
any
to
therein
in their

restitution

estates, rights, and

of

prop-

ANGLO-AMERICAN

TREATIES,
erties
that

may

as

Congress

mend

to

tion

and

have

been

confiscated; and

may

shall

also

earnestly recom-

cause

several

the

States

revision

of

reconsidera-

all

acts

laws

or

therein; and shall also order and


archives, records, deeds, and

be

all

papers

belonging

States,

or

to

their

of

any

said

the

citizens, which

in

the

the

of the war
fallen into
have
course
premises, so as to render
may
acts
the said laws
of his officers,to be forthwith
or
perfectlyconsistent, the hands
not
delivered
the
to
only with
justice and
equity, but restored, and
proper
with
that
to whom
which, States and persons
spirit of conciliation
they belong,
of the blessings of peace,
Art.
8. The
the return
on
navigation of the river
should
and
that
Confrom
to the ocean,
its source
Mississippi,
invariably prevail;
shall
also
shall
forever
to
to
recommend
remain
and
free
earnestly
gress
open
the
several
States
that
the
estates, the subjectsof Great Britain and the citiof the United
States,
zens
rights,and properties of such last-mentioned
shall be restored
Art.
to them,
it should
9. In
case
so
happen
persons
who
that
they refunding to any persons
place or territorybelonging to
may
any
in possession the bona
be now
Britain
United
States
to the
or
fide price Great
such
should
have
been
(where any has been given), which
conquered by the arms
have paid on
the other, before
the arpurchasing any of either from
persons
may
of the said islands, rights, or
properties rival of the said provisional articles in
since the confiscation.
shall
America, it is agreed that the same
it is agreed that all persons
who
be restored
And
without
and without
difficulty
interest
in confiscated
have
lands, requiring any compensation,
any
either by debts, marriage settlements, or
ratifications
Art. 10. The
of the
solemn
otherwise, shall meet with no lawful im- present treaty, expedited in good and due
the conpediment in the prosecution of their just form, shall be exchanged between
of
six
rights,
tracting parties in the
space
future
Art.
there
shall be no
6. That
be
to
if
cornmonths, or sooner,
possible,
confiscations
made, nor
prosecutions puted from the day of the signature of
any
commenced
the present treaty.
or
against any
person
perfor or by reason
of the part which
underIn
witness
the
whereof, we,
sons,
he or they may
taken
in the present signed, their
have
ministers
plenipotentiary,

regarding

and

war;

that

count

suffer

either

in his

and
on

shall

on

loss

or

ac-

have

damage

full

that

or

property;

those

such

of the

treaty in America,

immediately
cutions

person
future

liberty,
person,
who
be in confinement
may
charges, at the time of the ratifi-

that

cation

no

any

so

be

liberty,and

set at

be

commenced

7. There

Art.

shall

shall

the prosediscontinued.

be

firm

in their

seals

of

our

be

to

arms

of

hundred

seven

and

henceforth

all

cease;

be

set

at

prisoners, on
liberty; and

both
his

Britannic

Majesty shall with all convenspeed, and without


causing any deor
struction,
carrying away
negroes
any
inother
or
property of the American
all his armies, garhabitants, withdraw

harbor

from

the

from

every

post, place, and


leaving in all
artillerythat

within

fortifications

United

fleets

the
the

same,

American

said

the

thereto,

DAVID

ient

risons, and
States, and

the

caused

HARTLEY,
ADAMS,
B. FRANKLIN,
JOHN

all hosother; wherefore


and
shall
from
sea
land,
by

sides, shall

our

eighty-three,

and

JOHN

For

the

tilities,both

affixed

of

hands

Done
at Paris, this third day of Septemthousand
Lord
ber, in the year of our
one

his
between
Britannic
perpetual peace
States, and
Majesty and the said United
between
the subjects of the one
and
the
citizens

in virtue

and

name,

signed with our


powers,
definitive
treaty, and
present

the British
government
years
the provisions of the
execute

some

omitted

JAY,

to

States
treaty of peace with the United
concerning the delivering up of the forts
Morris

neur

to

go
sound
of

to

the

the

108

was

England
British

full and

treaty.
months,
answer

frontier.

northeastern

the

on

He

directed
from

by Washington
Paris

ministry

immediate
remained

(1791)
the

on

of

about

the
nine

positive

you
a

to

subject

execution
there

endeavoring to obtain
questions,Will
Will
make
treaty?
you
to the

Gouver-

execute

treaty

of

ANGLO-AMEBICAN

TREATIES,
with

tommerce

British
the

vastly
States, and
more

of

the

United

was

not

Jay

was

contain-

enforce

its

wishes

agreed

in

August, 1791, George


full

as

the

But

minister

to

treaty of 1783

until

after

ratified.

of

that
See

JAY,

JOHN.

jected

the

Russia

mediation

in

The
was

selected, and

ers

of

the

the

about

of

missioners
A.

ish

at

ers

Albert

com-

Gallatin.

Adams,
Jonathan

The

Lord

were

Gambier,

William

and

Adams.

Jr., the American


Stockholm,
was

secretary

the

to

charge

to the

war

for

American

the

on

and
The

to
suppress
Hostilities
on

the

the

United

the

to

ratification

of

the

Favorite.
Feb.

It did

left

landed

in

reached
the

copy
President
arrived

to

sloop-ofYork

New

Hughes, principal

Mr.

commissioners,

and

York,
into

treaty

before

Transit,
after

days

two

New

Madison

schooner

the

Annapolis

at

sent

British

of the treaty at
copy
sailed for the Chesapeake

Texel

the

28, 1814,

time,

same

from

to

search

then

in

se-

went

from

Dec.

American

with

Ghent

not

they

arrived

She
1815.

speci-

distance, the

and

in the

11,
secretary to the
on

at

ocean

what

Regent,

States

African
were

ratified

was

Prince

was

their

use

land

Americans

treaty

the

by

shores
It

parties should

"

the

put

his

hands

ratified

the

the

of
copy

treaty of peace spread


it assured
land, because
when
its contents
were
known,

there.

The

the

over

but
peace;
and
that

com-

fish

Lawrence.

namely, immunity
impressment.

appoint- joy

missioners.

time, that

treaty of peace, and on the


periods, according to
longest being four months.
cure

right,

earliest

fied

of

Christo-

1814.

both

with

Favorite

commission-

curing
St.

raluable

the

of

that

terminate

the

Brit-

and

Gulf

endeavors

war

in

met

American

joined the American


Ghent, Aug. 6,

pher Hughes,
d'affaires at
ed

commission-

the

John

Goulburn,

These

Belgium,

from

slave-trade.

to

States,

in

Ghent,

The

commissioners

Henry

United

Quincy
Bayard, Henry Clay,

Russell, and

with

peace

governments

were

of

Empress

the

1814.

re-

finallyoffered

there

two

summer

James

the

States, but

directly with
ancient
city of

treat

government

of

bringing

United

the

British

the

best

fishermen

used

catching

league

sent

the

of
of

fully executed
negotiated and

1814

England

the

States.

In

New

hitherto

vitality than
so

energy;
Hammond
was

The
that

government

could

with

States?

conclusion

the

national

new

ed

United

the
to

came

search
imor
Negotiations were
immunity from
speedily
wide
difference
of views
a
opened, when
pressment had not been secured, it was
The
at first threatened
the
appeared, which
severely criticised.
opposition pointformidable
ed to it exultingly as proof of the wisdom
most
obstructions
to an
agreeof their prophecies,the patriotism of their
ment.
The
discussions
continued
several
in opposing the war,
and the truth
reached
months, and a conclusion
was
by course
a

mutual

agreement

24, 1814, when

it

to

mutual

restoration

territory,and

for

settle the

to

quoddy

Bay,

northeastern
States
third

to

run

and

rence

Woods.

In

provision
the

line
Lakes

to

was

through
to

United

the

Lawrence,
the

the

on

It took

of the
the
away

Woods,

of

nor

shores

of

from

the

right (never used),


navigating the Mississippi; and
a

as

it made

cause

86,

was

in

the

"war

concessions

was

the

to

to

fell to

from

109

treaty

Ameri-

$2.25 per
box

to

22

cent,

per

cwt.

pound
In
$25.

in

to

from

76

92

to

to
98.

cent, premium,
per
in forty-eight hours.
was

equally great,

hours

sugar

fell

$12.50; tea, from


$1; tin, from
$80 a

to

England

commemoration

medals
of

CLAYTON-BULWEB
ALASKA;
CANAL;
WASHINGTON,

PANAMA
OF.

Six-per-cents
from

notes

was

per

financial

upon

marked.

very

treasury

$26

See

the

the

The
effect on
commerce
Within
forty-eight

British
of

of

twenty-four hours,

and

struck

from

effect

matters

British

that

that

The

Coin, which

the

disagreement in either
to
point in dispute was
No
some
friendly power.
made
to the boundary
as

Lake

in

rose,

and

St. Law-

Lake

declaration

English people, too, indulged


of the treaty, bestrong condemnation

The

the

out

their

failure."

in Passama-

mark
of

St.

of

cans.

one

"

of

the

fisheries

normal

the

to

of the

America.

the

case

referred

west

as

the

commission,
be

islands

another

boundary
far

as

commissions

three

titles to

Dec.

on

resigned by
It provided for
of all conquered

spectire commissioners.
the

treaty

the

was

the

were

event,

TREATY?
TBEATT

ANGLO-AMERICAN

TREATIES,

a
u'fc

Jrt^^T^ efa^0f^*6rC"
^c^a^^'
x

SEALS

AND

SIGNATURES

TO

THK

no

AN(JLO-AMERICAN

0"i4^"2S

"si**stsn

TREATY

AT

OHKNT.

TREATIES

SEALS

Treaties,
after

weeks

elaborate

THE

In
SepCongress,
deliberation, adopted an

of

of

They wanted

to

France

engage
Britain, and

in

nounced

favor

sole

of

right

Indies, but

acquiring

for

with

that

the

claimed

British

make

Con-

in

in

the

six months'

at

to

at

Lee
the

should
without

United

were

French

Court

Continental

The

elaborated

in

become

party

other,

the
and

the close of 1776.

gress

negotiate
promise

treaty of peace

notice

commissioners

had

to

neither

war,

Franklin, Deane,
States

to

should

France

definitive

sent

authorized

were

case

of

contraband

goods

commissioners

treaty

volved

GHENT.

AT

power

The

war.

re-

eventual

all

France

of

conquests in the West


the

TREATY

treaty to be proposed that, in

with Great
separate war
an
opportunity
so
give the Americans
establishingtheir independence. They

in

ANGLO-AMERICAN

Continental

the

plan

to France.

TO

FRANCO-AMERICAN.

1776,

tember,

SIGNATURES

AND

plan

of

Con-

treaty

it was
adjacent isl- with France, by which
hoped the
their
ands, including the Bermudas,
Cape Bre- States might secure
independence,
Newfoundland.
and
instructed
to press
ton
were
They proposed The commissioners
the
fisheries
French
of
the
immediate
declaration
for
an
;
arrangements concerning
the
in favor
Americans,
avowed
the
of the
principle of Frederick
government
to widen
Great
that
free ships made
free goods, Knowing the desire of the French
that
and
neutral
dismemberment
of
a
a
lawfully the breach and cause
power
may
trade
with
a
belligerent. Privateering the British
Empire, the commissioners
tinental

was

while
make
were

to

America,

be

the

cause

willing to
in

all

restricted, not
Americans

common

Britain

and

the

were

with

agree
war

on

abolished; and
not
the

not

to

willing

to

were

intimate

to

colonies

with

French, they consequence


assist

France,

nor

Great

then

trade with
ill

of

unwilling
Great

that

Great

delay.
to

Britain.

But

incur
When

of

reunion

Britain

the

might

be

France
risk
the

the
the
was

of

defeat

war

of

TREATIES

Burgoyne wag: made


thereby that

at

the

Americans

for

treat

to

teady

French

the

kelp themselves,

of an
presence
in
on
Paris,
ministry

were

with

them.

of

agent

The

British

the

with

social terms

the

hasteneti

commissioners,

American

Court

alliance

an

the

negotiations, and, on Feb. 6, 1778,


treaties were
secretly signed at Paris
Count

Vergennes

was

other

ing

an

Britain.

It

until

stipulated in

was

the

the

should

States

United

be secured.

The

conciliatorybills of Lord

North

the

French

for

made

and
for
the

reconciliation

her

treaties

cated

to

language
the

thwart
and

to

British

his

scheme

he

caused

British

declaration

ambassador

the

officiallycommuni

at

in

government,

intentionally offensive
was
regarded as

so

anonuncement

tamount

Britain

dismembering

and

be

to

the

Great

between

prolonging the war


British
Empire;

secret

anxious,

monarch

would

colonies

ians

Because
been

the

United

treaties

States

with

France

between
held

negotiate

to

of

nations

had

the

on

of

part
an

the

amicable

all difficulties between

had

the

Indians,

Sir

plained

that

the

his

upon
conference
a

white

Quakers
held

the

Johnson

com

intruded

had

Finally,

was

with

Easton

at

se

friendship
people. They

William

office.

for

and

them,

and

and

July, 1756,

in

between

Dela

the

cil,and
At

the

Mohegans, the Six Na


Denny and his coun
trader.
George Croghan, an Indian
of
the
TEEDY
Quakers,
suggestion

Thomson,
(q. v.) invited Charles
the Quaker
Academy in Phila
secre
delphia, and afterwards
permanent
tary of the Continental
Congress, to act as
his
and
secretary. Denny
Croghan op
posed it; Teedyuscung persisted in hav
USCUNG

master

of

of

just claims
reparation of
property had been

United

two

association

an

for

conferences

tan

the

and

adjustment

them

two

ing Thomson
ceedings,so

for the

injuriesto persons
refused; attempts
States

formed

that

of war,
and
the
the French
Court

repeatedly violated;

of the

and

curing justice

the

make
that

interested

truth.

men

this

By

received

fair

The

conference

withdrawn.

was

Six

greatly incensed against the white people


of Pennsylvania.
of that
The
Quakers
State
of the Ind
had
espoused the cause

that

the
of

independence

and

France

between

the

and

and
Delawares,
Shawnees,
critical, for the Indians,,
Mohegans were
had
become
Delawares,
especially the

should
not
Shawnees,
wares,
peace
mercantile
and
political tions, and Governor

treaty of alliance
be made

the

on

of hostilities

out

Great

the

part of France.
commercial
a
agreement, the
alliance contingent on
the break

de

One

by

and

commissioners

American

the

two

English

the

Versailles, tions between


could
Nations, the

known

assured

another,

at

minutes

garbled
might

of

and

the

false
be

not

given

a?

Indiana

the

arrangement

pro

report?

play.

the Indian
year,
sented.
In reply

thinly attended;

was

begun

on

tribes

the

INOV.

well

were

but

sam"

repre

questions by Governor
he complained, Teedyus
Denny of what
charged the proprietaries of Penn
cung
sylvania with obtaining large territories
in
specified well-known
by fraud, and
to

been

"

Walk*
in
like that
of the
Indian
stances
repelled with
there were
citi"
dignity; and because, under the authority At that conference
many
of the French
from
government, there was
Quakers,
zens
Philadelphia,
chiefly
yet
States
after
deliberations
result
and
the
pursued against the United
a
was,
sys
tem
of predatory violence infracting
those
days, a satisfactory
kept up for nine
hostile
to
treaties, and
the
made
the
between
was
rights of a treaty of peace
free and independent nation
and
Indians
the
Congress, on
English,, the governor
for
July 7, 1797, passed an act declaring the offering to indemnify the Delawares
treaties heretofore
concluded
with
which
France
lands
had
been
fraudulently
any
no
de
States.
taken
from
them.
That
matter
longer obligatory on the United
was
Treaties, INDIAN.
beld at Easton
ferred until a council
was
Easton, on the Dela
favorite
well
was
a
ware,
place for holding in July, 1757, when Teedyuscung was
councils with
the
Indian
with
chiefs
between
Quakers,
liquor. The
plied with
x

"

1754
to

and
500

1761.
Indians

Teedyuscung, an
who
represented

speaker

and

On

these

were

occasions

frequently

200
seen.

eminent

Delaware

chief,

several

tribes, was

chief

manager.

In

1756

the

rela

much

exertion, enabled

resist

the

en

his

influence

among
council
was

Another
autumn

intrigues of

of

1758.

The

the

Croghan
the
held

chief

old

to

to

weak

Indians.
there

object

was

in

the

to

ad-

TREATY

TREATY"

OF

LANCASTER
N^

just

all

differences

and

the

Six

Nations,

governors
Jersey, Sir

Croghan,
Friendly

and

Johnson,

William

and

number

large

Oct. 18 (N. S.), 1748.


on
By it
powers
the treaties of Westphalia (1648 ), of Nime-

other

as

southward,

and

Pennsylvania

of

The

well

as

westward

farther

tribes

English

the

between

(1678-79), of Ryswick
(1697), of
guen
Utrecht
(1713), of Baden
(1714), of the

New

Colonel

Triple

of

Alliance

the

Alliance

(1717), of the Quadruple


(1718), and of Vienna
(1738),

renewed
and confirmed.
It was
fondpresent. Teedy- were
this
which
would
insure
ly
hoped
treaty
a
speaker,
uscung
perfor Europe.
offended
Six
It was,
the
howNations, who
regarded manent
peace
their
France
the Delawares
vassals ; but
he
and Engas
ever, only a truce between
conducted
himself
in America,
land, contending for dominion
admirably, maintainThe
ed his position finely,and
the
resisted
English regarded as encroachments
the erection by the French
wiles
of Colonel
of about
twenand
the
Croghan
govbesides
block-houses
This great council
continued
and
forts,
ty
ernor.
eightradingclaimed
land question was
teen days. The
thorposts, within
English domain,
So
while
ACADIA
All causes
for misunone
(q. v.) furnished
oughly discussed.
field for hostilities between
the two
the English and
the
naderstanding between
Indians
were
removed, and a treaty for a tions, the country along the lakes and in
the Ohio and Mississippi
concluded
Oct. 26, 1758.
general peace was
valleys furnished
Association

acted

There
in

were

chief

as

another

was

council

held

in

oming,
active

at

which

Teedyuscung
eloquent part. See

and

another.

at Easton

1761, concerning settlements

in

signed

treaty

7, 1790, by

Gen.

New

Henry

York,

United

States, and Alexander


twenty-three other Creek

and
vided

TREATIES,

A
Guadalupe
Hidalgo.
friendship,limits, and settlements
concluded
at
was
GuadalupeHidalgo, a city of Mexico, Feb. 2, 1848,

Aug.

for

See

of

Treaty
treaty of

SUSQUE-

Knox

Ghent.

ANGLO-AMERICAN.

an

SETTLERS.

HANNA

of

Treaty

Wy-

took

the

McGillivray

between
the

chiefs, pro-

peace,

Nicholas

United

P.

Trist

States, and

the

on

Don

Luis

part of

Gonzaga

Bernardo
Couto, and Don
Georgia Cuevas, Don
the part of Mexico,
land
on
Miguel Atristain
It provided for a convention
for the pro
south
and
west
belonging to the Creeks
of the Oconee
River; the acknowledgment visional suspension of hostilities; for the
of the Creeks
being under the protection cessation of the blockade of Mexican
ports ;
of the United
of the Mexican
States; the resignation of for the evacuation
capital
the
of all pretensions to
States
Creeks
lands
by the United
a
troops within
to

for

the

claims

north

and

mutual

relinquishment

of

immense

an

east

of

exchange
for

agreement
murderer

of

the

the

of

of

tract

Oconee

of

River;

prisoners,
delivery of an

white

man.

and

and

the

within

Indian

secret

after

month

a
an

the

three

tide

war;

of

fine the

provided that presents to the value


be distributed
$1,500 should
annually
the nation; annuities
of $100 seamong
cured
six
to
of
the
principal chiefs,
and
$1,200 a year to McGillivray annu-

for

States
tion

Colorado

after

restoration

commission

of the

Mexican
such

of
to

treaty,

territory
evacua-

prisoners of

and
desurvey
the United

boundary-lines between
and

of

of

months

tion; for the

ar-

ratification

evacuation

Mexico;

the
and

Gulf

for
of

Green

the

free

California
rivers

for

navigaand

the

United

of a salary; also the


States
of Mexicans
in
ally, in the name
vessels; freedom
privilege of importing goods for supply- any
territory acquired by the United
These
considof
ing the Indians.
States; Indian
incursions; payment
money
erations
to the leaders
intended
to
for territory conquered
to Mexico
were
money
their fidelityto the terms
secure
of the
and held, and of debts due citizens of the
United
treaty.
States
by Mexico; regulation of
THE
HAY-PATJNCEFOTE.
See
international
Treaty,
minor
and
other
commerce,
CLAYTON-BULWER
TREATY.
Both
regulations about
property, etc.
Treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle, a treaty governments
See
ratified
the
treaty.

between

Great

Britain, France, Holland, MEXICO, WAR


WITH.
and
Greece; signed by
Treaty of Lancaster.
representatives of these
OF.
respective TREATY

Germany, Spain,
the

ix."

U3

See

LANCASTER,

of

Treaty
(and

Paris,

signed

of peace,
was

definitive

Paris

at

Feb.

on

after

soon

TRENCHARD

treaty excepting by debts


France

18, 1763

of

ratified) between

Britain, France, Spain, and

Great

PARIS"

OF

TREATY

Portu-

ceded

Grenada

materially changed the political as those


islands
and
aspects of North America,
Britain, both
bago to
acquisitions of Great

in the

of

and

France

the

America, Curing

North

continent

the

Spain, on

New

and

distance

of

Great

to

islands

of

St.

shelter

for

the

that

the

To-

in

the

possession of Eng-

St.

Lucia, of

should

erected

in the

France;

all the

cause

of

Bay

forti-

Honduras,

territoryof Spain in that region,


that
Spain should deall pretensions to the right of

demolished;

from

fishing about
Britain

that

Newfoundland;

should

tinent, should
from

its

restore

Great
all

Spain

to

ville

(14 miles

from

thence

middle

of

far

as

below

by

Baton

line

River

the

as

river

this

this

on

drawn
and

of

her

of

which

it is

the

be

length, from

its

its

whole

out
in and
passage
in Canada
the French

profess the
the

laws

its

Britain

Great

as

civil rights, and


pleased, disposing of
British
subjects; that

mit, enjoy their


when
estates

they
to

Britain

should

islands

of

restore

to

France

Guadeloupe, Marie
and
Martinique, in

destruction
of

and

America,

and
well

the

full

of

in

colonies

satisfaction

from

of the claims
of the allies, EngThis treaty
land, Holland, and Germany.
terminated
Queen Anne's War, and secured
peace

perretire

TREATY

MINSTER,

Treaty

with

See

THE.
OF.

WEST-

See

OF.

TEXAS.

See

Texas.

STEPHEN
Trenchard,
DECATTTR, naval
in
born
officer;
Brooklyn, N. Y., July 10,

their
Great
the

1818;

Galante,

subjects

months

to

without

being restrained

places eighteen
and
estates
depart,
account,

entered

the

in

lieutenant

manded

these

any

the

Dunkirk,

British

France

British

on

the

enlargement

bark

sell their

square
of white

trodden,

never

crowns,

on

the
West
Deseada,
Indies, and of Belle-Isle,on the coast of
their fortresses, giving the
France, with
at

of

of
foot

mouth;

would

half

Ocean, in-

Polar

thousands
the

the

Euro-

of Mexico

Gulf

the

of

in

rival

eastern

the

for thirty years,


Treaty of Washington,
TREATY
might freely WASHINGTON, THE
faith, as far
Treaty of Westminster.
sea,

of

Catholic

Roman
of

breadth

to the

source

Missis-

Treaty of Utrecht, a treaty signed


secured
the ProtesApril 11, 1713, which
tant succession
of England,
to the throne
the separation of the French
ai*-d Spanish

remain

should

the

that

island

the

situated, which

nations, in

both

and

whole

territorywhich

had

man

lakes

of

consent

and

hundreds

of

posto the

vested

was

from

America,
to Hudson
Bay
miles

and

the navigation of the Missisequally free to the subjects of

France;

sippi to

Orleans

New

Thus

by
crown,
claimants, the

pean
North

Spain

of America

southeast, of the

River.

eluding

Maurepas and Pontchartrain, to the sea;


Britain
the
river
gnaranteed to Great
and port of Mobile, and everything on
the
left side of the Mississippi,excepting the
town

the

to

all that

continent

British

Iber-

the

the

or

sippi

con-

Rouge),
along

Pensacola, and
on

east,

declared

by a line drawn
Mississippi River,

of the

source

sessed

dominions

the

France,

fixed

be

middle

the

along

and

as

of

Bay

the

Miquelon,

fishermen;
between

Britain

of Great

and

Peter

shores

ceded

Britain;

French

confines

the

from

leagues

belonging

as

Canadians

the fortress
of
conquests in Cuba, with
that
cede
and
to the French
the liberty of fishing Havana;
Spain should
guarantee, in full right,to Great Britain,
drying on a part of Newfoundland
in the Gulf
of St. Lawrence, at a
Florida, with Fort St. Augustine and the

gave
and

as

sist

of the

the

inhabitants

of

British

other
be

to

Britain
all Nova
to
Great
guaranteed
Scotia or Acadia, Canada, the Isle of Cape
Breton, and all other islands in the Gulf
and
River
The
of St. Lawrence.
treaty

to

the

and

so-

and

renounced

France

World.

that

fications

in

important
recently closed, wei'J most
their bearings upom
the history of the
called

that

then

war

their

to

Vincent, Dominica, and

remain

land, and

islands

the

Grenadines, with

case

of St.

boundaries

from

the

and

prosecutions,

Britain

stipulation as

same

gal,which
The

criminal

or

Great

to

in 1834;

navy

rescued

1847;

off Gloucester,

Adieu

sel

Roads

the

to

to

tow

Civil

Island

Rhode

endeavored

Hampton

114

during

the

the

British

Mass., while

coast-survey duty in 1853-57


distinction

promoted

the

when

on

served

with

War;

corn-

that

Monitor

Beaufort, N. C.

ves-

from

The

TRENTON

TRENT"
vessel

latter

foundered

Lieutenant

but

the

saving
in 1875;
York

City, Nov.
Mason,

to

Great

barked

On

in

for

steamship San
Wilkes, was
watching
Bahama

channel,

to

the

British

1888-1900;

ac-

at
English Literature
University in the latter year,

is the

of

of

author

in
English Culture
Statesmen
Virginia;
of the Old
Robert
E.
Regime;
Lee; Authority of
Criticism, etc.
Trenton, a city and capitalof the State

for

Captain
to
responsibility,

of

number

chased

Yeffalles

of

were

called

ye De
of the

under

la

Ware,

Society of
Stacy, purhere in 1680, and
large planin
bought by Judge Trent

1715, which

on

of

members

including

land

tations

Ha-

having decided,

Jersey; originally settled

name

Friends,

in

Trent
from

New

Captain

the

miles

240

of
the

mail
United

The

Jacinto,

Wilkes

vana,

envoy

Slidell, of
emFrance,

England.

States

the

7, 1861, James
John

accredited
Havana

Trent

steamer

He

in New

in

South

the
chair

Southern

Nov.

Britain, and
at

Columbia

died

Virginia, Confederate

of

Louisiana,

rear-admiral

He

1883.

15,

THE.

Trent,

in

succeeded

in 1880.

versity of
cepted the

Cape Hatteras,

promoted

crew;

retired

M.

off

Trenchard

Mahlon

caused

Trent

the

Town.

settlement

be

to

The

creplace was
ated a borough town
in
charter
Confederate
The
San
Jacinto
royal
met
by
envoys.
of the eighteenth century, and
the Trent
the forenoon
of Nov.
on
8, sig- the middle
became
the State capitalin 1790.
nailed her to stop in vain, and
then fired the town
After
the
the Contishot across
her bow.
Her
Revolutionary War
a
captain unnental
met
here.
The
allowed
once
Mason
and
Congress
willingly
city
Slidell,with
is best known
their secretaries, to be taken
aboard
historicallybecause of the
the
decisive battle fought here
San
(see TRENTON,
Jacinto.
reached
Captain Wilkes

his

own

Boston

Nov.

on

19, and

confined

were

seizure

in

States,

manded

from

ington

the

Fort

received

was

United

the

two

BATTLE

ministers

two

Warren.

with

but

the

seize

in

favor

Great

Britain

government

at

of

the

United

expressed in

was

for which

it had

accepted

by

Mason
and

and
sailed

MASON,

Trent,
born

in

for

the

MURRAY;

at

Jan.

principle

WILLIAM

Lee's

division, under

but

established

cantonments

See

of

New
so
"

sure

Howe

was

rebellion

that

"

line

of

Pennington,

leave

and

preparing

he

was

event

tioned
in

to

need

Uni-

of
we

He

of

had

made

the

England,
an

of

the

sta-

Rail, who,

fatal

con-

said, " What

had
Let

with

un-

enemy,

were

security and
?

at them

the
gave

Washington

Colonel

under

plantinga singlecannon.
115

him.

1,500

intrenchments
will

to

(Germans),

consciousness

of
he

to sail when

for the Americans,

come;

back

that

return

detained

at Trenton

his

the

broken

was

Cornwallis

Virginia

at the

in

Trenton,

and Burlington. Other


corps
quartered in the rear, at Princeton,
Brunswick, and Elizabethtown
; and

tempt

University
of English

some

Bordentown,
were

SLIDELL, JOHN;

PETERFIELD, educator;
Va., Nov.
10, 1862;

Sullivan, and

themselves
at

once

1, 1862.

surmounted

regiments from Ticonderoga under Gates,


the
21st.
on
joined him
Contrary to
Washington's expectations, the British,
with
content
the Jerseys,
having overrun
made
to
the
no
Delaware,
attempt
pass

expected

thus

CHARLES.

Richmond,

Points, and

knew
that
about
government,
released, chiefly Hessians

British
were

Five

corn-

erected

by a statue of Washington directing his


troops.
Late in December,
OF.
Tnenton, BATTLE
1776, Washington's army,
by much
exerto nearly 6,000 men.
tion, had increased

Wash-

was

old

been

shaft

at

government

contended

England

graduated at the
1884; Professor

in

States
fact that

long

Slidell

JAMES

WILKES,

the

the

has

event
memorial

de-

apology and the immediof the prisoners, Lord


ate release
John
Russell
instructing the minister, Lord
30, 1861,
Lyons, at Washington, Nov.
that
unless
a
were
satisfactory answer
given within seven
days he might, at his
the legation and
discretion, withdraw
reto England.
turn
This
redespatch was
ceived on Dec. 18; on the 19th Lord
Lyons
called on
Mr.
Seward, and in a personal
interview
amicable
an
adjustment was
made
of both
possibleby the moderation
transdiplomats. On Dec. kQ Mr. Seward
mitted
to
Lord
Lyons the reply of the
United
the illegality
of
States, in which
the seizure was
recognized,while the satisfaction

by

the

formal

The

OF).

memorated

This

the

the

mistake

rebels

bayonet."
of

Washington

not

felt

OF

BATTLE

TRENTON,
strong enough to attack this force, and at
night he had about
twilight on Christmas

eral

McConkey's

duty, and
the shore of the Delaware
at
ington, rode
(afterwards Taylors- trigue among
Ferry

ville), a few

miles

above

the

river.

2,000

ing

to

lieved

on

men

cross

the

Germans,

of

the

Christmas

be

rightly

He

that

carouse

PHILIP

Trenton, prepar
after

the

ing

disobedience

turning

his

towards

on

Congressmen

refused
Wash

on

to

in

Gen.

against

Ice was
form
(q. v.)
Delaware, and its surface was

with

The

current

dark, and

towards

floatingpieces.

swift, the night was

was

back

Baltimore

SCHUYLER

in the

covered

usual

festival, would

wilful

Lee, with

the

and sleet set in.


midnight a storm of snow
peculiarly exposed to a surprise, and
4 A.M.
It was
before the troops in march
prepared to fall upon them before day
ing order stood on the New
Jersey shore,
light on the morning of the 26th.
Generals
him
With
were
Stirling, boats having been hurriedly provided for
their passage.
moved
in two
The
Greene, Sullivan, Mercer, Stephen, and
army
be
he

MAP

Knox,

commanding

rangements
ment

against the

ton, the
to General
of

were

the

made

of which

Gates; but

Washington,

and

in

THE

artillery.

for

cantonments

command

OP

that

similar

BATTLE

Ar

OF

TRENTON.

columns
road

move

"

led

one,

nearest

below
was

Tren
Washington and
assigned generals,along

officer,jealous

imitation

of

Gen-

road

It

reached

Trenton,

116

Sullivan, along

broad
but

the

other

little distance

daylight when
they

other, led by

accompanied by
a

the left.

was

by

river; the

the

were

to

they
undis-

TRESCOT"

TRESPASS

ACT

until they reached


picket-lineon the out

covered
the

skirts

of the

firing

that

ened

Rail

officers

village. The
his

and

had

(who

recovered

awak

ensued

from

scarcely

the

night's
deep

their

debauch) from
The

slumbers.

fellow-

colonel
head

soon

at

the

men

in

battle

was

of

his

order.

in
sharp conflict ensued
the
village, lasting only
The
thirty-five minutes.
Germans
and

defeated

were

Rail
his

was

BRIDGE

GREAT

McCOXKEY'S

AT

FEUKY.

Colonel

dispersed,and

mortally wounded,

quarters, where

he

and

died.

taken

at

graduated

to

admitted

main

The

College in 1840;

Charleston
bar

the

to

in

assistant

1843;

1860,
body, attempting to escape by the PrinceSecretary of State from December,
Carolina
ton road, were
of South
till the secession
; held
interceptedby Colonel Hand
and
made
British
prisoners. Some
light- a seat in the legislatureof that State
horse
at
Trenton
and
infantry
escaped to in 1862-66; began the practice of law in
of
member
Bordentown.
in 1875; was
a
The
victory was
complete. Washington
1880
to
the
revise
of
The
about
1,000 prisoners, the commission
spoils were
1.200
small-arms, six brass
China; special agent to the
treaty with
field-pieces,
and
Bolivia
all the German
tri- belligerentsof Peru,
standards.
The
Chile, and
and
the
in
recrossed
the
Delaware
same
1881,
umphant
during
year
army
reprein
with
their prisoners (who
the
sent
to
the
sented
were
negotiagovernment
their
tions concerning its rights in the Isthmus
went
to
back
Philadelphia), and
General
Grant
of Panama
; appointed with
in

1882

effect

to

Mexico.

His

commercial

treaty with

publications include

Few

Foreign Policy of the


of the
States; The
Diplomacy
of the
System
Revolution; Diplomatic
United
View
States; An American
of the
His
Eastern
Question; The
Diplomatic
of Washing
tory of the Administrations
ton
and Adams;
Address
before the South
died
Historical
He
Carolina
Society, etc.
in Pendleton, S. C., May 4, 1898.
Act.
Some
States
of the
Trespass
whose
territoryhad been longest and most
inrecently occupied by the British were
Thoughts

the

on

United

RALL'S

This

encampment.
and

annoyed

not

sail

into

HEADQUARTERS.

for

the

bold

British.

England,
Jersey.

New

stroke

puzzled

Cornwallis

but
The

was

sent

Tories

did

clined

to

Such

enact

was

back

New

were

of real

the

York,
estate

confiscation

new

so-called

which

trespass

authorized

in the

city to

the
recover

laws,
act

of

owners

rents

had
as
against
persons
British
under
aubuildings
dissipated.
faltering
act
militia soon
This
was
thority during the war.
began to flock to the standard
of the
of Washington, and
arrived
of the soldiers
passed before the news
many
who
about
to
leave
American
of the preliminary treaty of peace
the
terms
were

alarmed,
Germans

army

and

dread

of the

The

was

mercenary

and

used

damages

such

their

In
).
(see TREATIES, ANGLO-AMERICAN
Court
of
New
the
York,
HENRY, diplomatist; 1786
Supreme
in Charleston, S. C., Nov.
the
10, 1822;
by the efforts of Hamilton, declared
re-enlisted.

Trescot,
born

the

WILLIAM

117

TRIALS

void,

act

trespass
the

with

Trials.

The

notable

most
Anne

trials

in the

the

and

and

executed
Trials

for

York,

calculated

"to

"

Feb.
J.

16, 1691

T.

Adams

witchcraft, Massachusetts
1692

publication

sedition
up
and the govern
confined
four

and

convicted

Vermont,

stir

to

ment

in Massachusetts

May

for treason

in

bring the President


into
contempt ;
months
in Vergennes jail; fine of $1,000
paid by friends,and Lyon released

1637

Leisler, New

letter

1656-61
Jacob

convicted

Lyon

October, 1798, of writing for

heresy

controversy); imprison-

of Quakers

1799

Matthew

States:

United

banished

Trials

and
CumDuane,
Reynolds, Moore,
ming acquitted of seditious riot, Pennsyl-

See

list of

sedition

Hutchinson;

and

conflict

in

vania

following is

(the Antinomian
ed

being

AMERICAN.

FRANCO-

TREATIES,

as

treaty of Paris.

definitive

Cal lender, for


in

fore Us;

pamphlet,

tried

at

libel
The

Richmond,

of

9, 1799

President

Prospect BeVa., fined

to nine
months'
impublica- $200 and sentenced
Maule, for slanderous
1696
June
prisonment
6, 1800
blasphemy, Massachusetts..
Thomas
1702
Daniel, for opening letters of a
Nicholas
Bayard, treason
minister
and
for
John
1800
foreign
Peter
printing
Zenger,
Judge John Pickering impeached before
publishing libels on the colonial governthe United
States
1735
Senate, March
3, 1803,
1734, acquitted
ment, November,
for malfeasance
in the
New
James
William
Hartegan,
Wemms,
Hampshire
district court
in October
British
and
other
William
November,
McCauley, and
1802, in restoringship Eliza, seized for
soldiers, in Boston, Mass., for the murder
of Crispus Attucks, Samuel
smuggling, to its owners;
Judge PickerGray, Samuel
doubtless
Patrick
and
ing, though
insane, is convicted
Caldwell,
Maverick, James
Thomas

tions

and

March

Carr

5, 1770

and

removed

Judge

Lee, court-martial
found
Monmouth;

from

Samuel

office

March

4, 1804

Chase

impeached before
Maj.-Gen.
the United
States Senate, acquitted. 1805
after
battle
of
the
Thomas
O. Selfridgetried for murder
in
of
of orders
guilty of, first,disobedience
Charles
Austin
the public exchange in
not
on
second, unnecesattacking the enemy;
and
Aug. 4, 1806
disorderly retreat; third, dis- Boston
sary
Aaron
for
commander-in-chief
to
the
Burr,
treason, Virginia; acsusrespect
;
March
for one
quitted
27-Sept. 7, 1807
pended from command
year, tried
Col. Thomas
H. Cushing, by court-marJuly 4, 1778
tial at Baton
John
Hett
Rouge, on charges of BrigSmith, for assisting BeneGen.
Wade
1812
diet Arnold, New
Hampton
York, not guilty. 1780
Patrick
Byrne, for mutiny, by general
Andre", adjutant
general,
Maj. John
at Fort Columbus;
British
sentenced
seized as a spy at Tappan, court-martial
army,
N. Y., Sept. 23, 1780, tried by military to death
May 22, 1813
Gen.
W.
court
the northOct. 2, 1780
and hanged
Hull, commanding
western
of the United
States, for
Stewart, Wright, Porter, Vigol, and
army
in surrender
of Detroit, Aug. 16,
Mitchell, Western
insurgents,found guilty cowardice
at
1795
etc.; by court-martial, held
Albany,
William
States
to be shot; sentence
Blount, United
Senate, sentenced
approved
1797
by the President, but execution remitted
impeached for misdemeanor
William
Jan. 3, 1814
Cobbett, for libellingthe King
of Spain and
Dartmouth
his ambassador,
the
as
College
defining
writing
case,
Peter
in
of States
over
Porcupine
Porcupine's Ga- power
corporations
1817-18
of
zette, July 17, before
Supreme Court
Arbuthnot
and Ambrister, by court-mar1797
Pennsylvania; acquitted
Thomas
tial,April 26, 1818, for incitingCreek IndCooper, of Northumberland,
convicted
under
the
sedition
ians to war
of
act
Pa.,
States;
against the United
libel on
the administration
of President
executed
of General
Jackson
order
by
Adams
in Reading Advertiser
of Oct. 26,
April 30, 1818
and
1799, imprisonment for six months
Stephen and Jesse Boom, at Manchester,
Charles

"

$400

"

fine

1799

Vt., Nov.
118

1819, for the

murder

of

Louis

TRIALS

tenced

in

disappeared
hanged

Colvin, who
to be

dreamed

of

the

Boorns

came

to

his

bedside, declared

his

murderers,

was

buried.

Boorns

This

the

tried

were
circumstantially,

and

exceeding

Alexander

in

his

Washington,
powers
deRico
and
Porto
on
landing 200 men
manding an apology for arrest of the commanding officer of the Beadle, sent by him,
October, 1824, to investigatealleged storthe island by pirates; susage of goods on
July 7, 1825
pended for six months
States
H.
James
Peck, judge of United
district

A.

John
land

pirate,
and

Tennessee

the

Murrell,
chief

of Missouri,

district

for the

court

impeached for allegedabuse


thority; trial begins May
quitted

judicialau-

of

4,

1830;

Jan.

31,

great

Arkansas,

co.,

He

fear, physical

was

promised

asks

Congress; Mr. Webster


discharge. A specialsession
court, ordered
by the legisYork

at

Utica, tries and


Oct.

quits him

four
(fortyescaping in

the

on

His

ac-

4-12, 1841

of the

crew

murder

for

Brown

some

of the

Holmes,

W.

A.
iam

Will-

high

seas

and
crew
passengers
the long-boat,the sailors threw
of

the

overboard

passengers

lighten the

to

to

Dorr, Rhode

W.

rec-

1842

May,

mercy

treason

Island;

1842

in

S. Mackenzie

Alexander

the

of its

mu-

of New

T. Onderdonk,

conduct;

immoral

for

York,

(Somers's

1842

tiny)
Bishop Benjamin

ecclesias-

by

tical court, suspended

10, 1844-Jan.

Dec.

without

horse-stealingand

operationswere
running." He

of New

corpus,
his release

of

Madison

man

moral.

or

circuit

lature

Thomas

1834

Tenn.

of the

1831

of

leader

Denmark,

his

advocates

from

habeas

on

Britain

Great

session

ommended

central

whose

"

near

in extra

York

New

1841.

May,

Durfee, is taken

of Amos
to

Lockport

Western

Council
Grand
committee, called
Mystic Clan," is broken up by arrest

[Murrell lived

the murder

boat, April 19, 1841), convicted, but

ac-

bandits

noted

of

Amistad
1839-40

crime

Colvin
executed, because
Collins's
in
New
alive
Jersey. Wilkie
this
Alive, founded
novel, The Dead
upon
case.]
at
Capt. David Porter, by court-martial
for

schooner

slave

McLeod, a Canadian, charged


convicted, as an accomplice in burning the steamer
found
in the
Caroline
was
Niagara River, and in

not

but

of

The

the

arrested, confessed

were

Case

body

1819.

April 27,

was

an

Boorns

his

where

told

and

of

tery

Colvin

that

uncle

tried and
acquitted by presbyPhiladelphia, June
30-July 8,
1835; condemned
by the synod and suspended for six months, but acquitted by
the general assembly
1836

Romans;

sen-

28, 1820

disappeared

Colvin

after

[Six years

1813;

Jan.

J.

Ex-Senator

favorite

C.

"

N. Grover, and
Aldrich, William
of Hiram
Williams, for murder

negrotheir
negroes
him
to
conduct

Sharp,

Signal;

of Warsaw

editor

3, 1845

Davis, of Illinois; T.

C.

Mark

Col. Levi
Joe

and

begins at Car(Mormons)
; trial
the way
on
them
21, 1845
by thage, 111.; acquitted
North, sellingthem
May
back
Tirrell
J.
Albert
by night,
(the somnambulist
day and
stealing them
in the end.
A. Bickford
He
murderer), for killingMaria
always murdering them
freedom

if they

allowed

captured by Virgil

was

tentiary,where he died.]
Spanish pirates (twelve
board
act of piracy on
an
can;

trial at

Boston;

acquitted
Heresy trial ;
byterian,before

Stewart

A.

sentenced

1834, convicted, and

the

in

in number

peni-

brig Mexifound
guilty,
11-25,

1834

Lyman Beecher, Prespresbytery and synod


of
Cincinnati, on
charges preferred by
Dr. Wilson, of holding and
teaching Pedoctrines; acquitlagian and Arminian
the

June

Rer.
heresies

Albert
in

Barnes,

Notes

on

committed

et

seq.,

Dr.

cal

George

1835

for

23,

his victim.
set

and

of

false

hanged;

divorce

ton

119

and

N.

Forrest

v.

the

MediWeb-

1849.

remains

The
teeth.

Web-

trial

19-30, 1850

Edwin

alimony granted

murder

the

in

March
Catherine

to

Forrest;
Mrs.

For-

26,

1852

case,
Anthony Burns, fugitive-slave
May 27-31,

1854

rest

Presbyterian, for
the Epistles to the

convicted

sleep-walking.]

was

College, Boston, Nov.

murder

the

that

Parkman

W.

partly burns
identified by a
ster

plea
he

Webster,

W.

John

Dr.
of

while

ster

Rev.

the

[Acquitted on

), for

the

Nov.

ted

1846

was

seven

five

to

Smith

Dec.

16, 1851-Jan.

Bos-

TRIALS
Dr.

States

for

hiring

out

of the

British
tried

Beale, -ether

T.

Stephen

United

and

Henry
retaining

United

States

foreign legion
district

the

in

persons
enlist

in

to

to

the
of

court

district

for eastern

States

et

for

of

16; tried by a military commission


May
al., at Indianapolis,Ind., beginning Sept. 27;
William
A. Bowles, L. P. Milligan, and
go

1855

case..

Hertz

v.

the

in

case

United

the

J. Y. Beall, tried

Pennsylvania

Cincinnati, O.

James

P.

editor

United

tried

States

and

mittee
DRED

SCOTT
J.

R.

dinary

murderer

Emma

A.

most
in

named

dent

1856

In

calendar

the

for

the

murder

the

visible

sentenced

to

1864

the

1865
Surratt

H.

1867

of William

case

H.

McCardle,

of

of
Mississippi,testingthe constitutionality

1857

Cunningham,

without

war,

Lincoln

John

extraor-

Cleveland, 0

Lafayette by a
seizingthe steam'
Lake
Erie, Sept. 19,

military service;
hanged; trial occurs

and

17, 1864

Fort

December,

vigilance comMay 20, 1856

(" the

hanged

of AnCapt. Henry Wirtz, commander


dersonville
for
prison during the war,
cruelty; trial begins Aug. 21; Wirtz
Nov.
10, 1865
hanged
of PresiConspirators for assassination

Fran-

(q. v.)

case

Ward

M.

crime"),

of

the

by

Francisco

San

be

to

for

on

of

acts

of

death

Cora, murderer
Richardson;

Marshal

hanged

in

San

Parsons

other

badge

of the

Charles

cisco Bulletin, and


of

for

Casey,

of William,

Philo

and

April, 1856
shooting James

at

military commission,
er

(see Ear-

per's Magazine, vol. xii.,p. 691)

King,

sentenced

Oct.

1855
Slave

Stephen Horsey

Crimea;

H.

reconstruction

act

of

1867;

Matthew

of

Wisconsin,
Lyman
of Illinois, and
Trumbull,
30, 1856; acquitted
May, 1857
Henry Stanfor the
Daniel
E. Sickles, for killingPhilip Barberry, Attorney General, appear
and
Robert
J.
C.
D.
ton
Judge Sharkey,
acquitted government,
Key, Wasnington,
;
O'Conor,
April 4-26, 1859 Walker, of Mississippi,Charles
John
for insurrection
of New
S. Black, of Pennin VirYork, Jeremiah
Brown,
David
for
executed
at sylvania. and
ginia; tried Oct. 29, and
Dudley Field
reconstruction
Dec. 2, 1859
act
McCardle;
Charlestown, Va
repealed
Albert
W.
Hicks, pirate; tried at Bedduring the trial; habeas corpus issued
Nov.
loe's Island, May 18-23; convicted
of triple
12, 1867
Andrew
Johnson
1868
murder
the
Edwin
A.
on
oyster sloop
impeachment
Colonel
York
of Colonel
in New
Johnson
Yerger, for murder
Harbor; hanged
July 13, 1860 Crane, U. S. A., at Jackson, Miss.
Officers and
of the privateer SaJune
crew
8, 1869
William
H. Holden, governor
of North
the
vannah, on
charge of piracy; jury
Oct. 23-31, 1861
Carolina, impeached and removed
disagree
Nathaniel
March
Gordon, for engaging in the
22, 1870
Daniel
slave -trade, Nov.
for
of
the
murder
at
MacFarland,
6-8, 1861; hanged
York
New
Albert
D.
in
Feb.
1862
Nov.
Richardson,
25,
1869,
21,
of

Dr.

Burdell, in New

York

City,

Jan.

Carpenter,

Fitz-John

tried

Porter

City; acquitted
April 4-May

York

New

by military court
1863

C. L.

utVallandigham, for treasonable


court
terances ; by
martial
in
Cincinnati; sentence of imprisonment during the
-

commuted

war

to banishment

to

May
Pauline

Cushman,
to be hanged by a
General
hind
and

at

the

spy;
court-martial

rescued

by Union

troops.

.June,

conspiracy against the


States, in organizing the Order of
can

at

Knights

or

Sons

of

1863

United

10, 1870

of Nebraska,

impeached for appropriating school funds,


June
2, 1870
suspended
Bible in the public schools," case
The
education

Bragg's headquarters; is left bethe evacuation


of Shelbyville,
Tenn.,

For

Butler, governor

and

of; J. D.

sentenced
held

P.

"

South

5-16, 1863

Union

David

Superior
for

the

school

Miner

et

of Cincinnati
Court
use

of

by William

al.

v.

the

the
M.

Bible

in

Ramsey,

the

public
George R.

Sage, and Rufus King; against,J. B. Stallo, George Hoadly, and Stanley Matthews
1870

Ameri-

Liberty

of

board

al.; tried in the


of Cincinnati; arguments
et

about

Mrs.
120

Wharton,

for murder

of Gen.

W.

S.

TRIALS

Ketchum, U. S. A., at Washington, June


28, 1871; acquitted
Dec.

York)

New

Court,

corruption, and

for

Captain

and

Jack

three

Modoc

other

of
tried, July 3, for the massacre
Rev.
and
U.
S.
R.
E.
S.
Gen.
A.,
Canby,
Dr.
Thomas
(commissioner), April 11;
convicted
and
hanged at Fort Klamath,
Oct.

Or
Edward

S.
Fisk.

first

1872;

trial

second

in

Stokes, for
Jr., in New

York,

Jan.

W.

M.

for

Tweed,
county of New

frauds

the

York;

withdrew

Presbyterian
pendent congregation.]
Theodore
for

Tilton

v.

Henry

adultery, Brooklyn,

N.

Colonel

Slayback;

acquitted

Ward
Y. ;

an

1873

granting

suit

perpetual injunction

Jan.
William

the
inde-

Beecher,

jury

13, 1882

four

to

from

formed

and

1882

Oct.

1874

Church

trials

Cockrill, managing editor of the


St. Louis
Post-Despatch, for fatallyshoot-

(California), decided against


hydraulic miners, Judge Sawyer, of the
United
States
court, San Franci_co, Cal.,

years' imprisonment. .Nov. 19, 1873


of New
A. Oakey Hall, ex-mayor
York,
for
Tweed
the
"ring"
complicity with
1-21, 1872;
frauds; jury disagree, March
second
1; actrial, jury disagree, Nov.
Dec.
24, 1873
quitted
David
Swing, for heresy before the ChiPresbytery,
April 15 et seq., in
cago
by Prof. Frantwenty-eight specifications
cis L. Patton; acquitted after a long trial
Swing

Guiteau, for the assassination


Garfield; convicted, Feb. 26;
June
30, 1882

Route

Debris

twelve

[Professor

1882

J.

city

upon
sentenced

from

John

ing

man-

13-29,

state-

dismissed

18, 1872-Jan.

Oct.

and

Star

6,

false

and

1881;

service

of President

Sing Sing)

at

embezzlement

November,

hanged

of

murder

the

28, 1873), Dec.

prison

Frankfort, Ky.;
insanity; trial

Charles

3, 1873

hanged
trial
6, 1873; third
(guilty of
slaughter in third degree; sentence,
years

for

the

19, 1872;
jury disagree,June
to be
(guilty and sentenced

Feb.

court,
ments,

Indians

James

at

of

acquitted on
July, 1879
24, 1872
Whittaker, colored cadet at West
4, 1871-Jan.
Point,
(judge of Supreme by military court for injuring himself on
13, pretence of being hurt by others, April 6;
impeached, May
1880
expelled
deposed
Lieutenant
Aug. 18, 1872
Flipper, colored, by military

Barnard

C.

George

Elliott

ground

dis-

of

convicted

Berner,

manslaughter

in

killing

Kirk

[Berner
of

was

confessed

manslaughter,

murderers

were

in

7,

1884

Cincinnati

William

March

verdict
tried

at

H.

28, 1884

murderer;
twenty

when
the

the
un-

city jail,led

the courtdays' riot,during


set on
other buildings were
fire,
killed, and 138 inforty-fivepersons were
jured.]
Brig.-Gen. D. G. Swaim, judge-advocategeneral of the army, tried by court-martial
for attempt to defraud
a
banking firm in
to

which

six

house

and

Washington,

and

officer

had

count

for

who

; sentenced
twelve
years

failing to report

duplicated

an

his

to

suspension

on

half-pay;

pay
from

trial

army
ac-

duty
opens

Nov.
15, 1884
July 2, 1875
D.
Boston
James
the
Fish, president of the Maboy murPomeroy,
W.
derer, for killing of Horace
York, secretly conMillen, rine Bank, of New
firm
of Grant
" Ward,
to
with
the
be
nected
22,
1874, supposed
April
Pomeroy's
fourth
of misappropriation of funds,
victim
1875
convicted
at
sentenced
to ten
O. E. Babcock, private secretary April 11, and
Gen.
years
of President
Grant, tried at St. Louis for hard labor in Sing Sing, N. Y.
June
27, 1885
complicity in whiskey frauds; acquitted
Feb. 7, 1876
Ferdinand
of
the
Ward,
suspended firm
United
York
W.
States
SecreGrant
"
New
W.
of
Ward,
City, indictBelknap,
ed for financial
4; convictfrauds, June
tary of War, impeached; acquitted
hard
at
sentenced
to
ten
ed and
Aug. 1, 1876
years
in Sing Sing
Oct. 31, 1885
Meadow
labor
John
D. Lee, for the Mountain
and
[Released, April 30, 1892.]
Sept. 15, 1857; convicted
massacre,
March
executed
23, 1877
Henry W. Jaehne, vice-presidentof the
agree;
Jesse

Col.

case

Thomas

ended

Buford,

for

killing Judge

New

121

York

common

council, for receiving

TRIALS
bribe

to

Jacob

to death
Sharp's Broad"triangle,"and condemned
by
them
for
of embezzling
Aug. 30, 1884; senaccusing them
in Sing funds
allotted for dynamiting in England
tence, nine years and ten months
in February, May
murdered
at
Sing
May 20, 1886
4) found
Alfred
of six miners, who
Lake
Packer, one
View, Chicago
May 22, 1889
killed and ate his companions when
starvCoroner's
to
jury declare the murder
be the result
site of Lake
the
of a
on
ing in their camp
conspiracy, of which
Alexander
at
New
Sullivan, P. O'Sullivan, Daniel
City, Col., in 1874; convicted
York
of manslaughter, and
to
sentenced
Woodruff
(connected
Coughlin, and Frank
with
the
Clan-na-Gael
the
) were
forty years' imprisonment
August, 1886
prinTrial
of Jacob
Sullivan
and others arSharp; found guilty of cipals. Alexander
to four
bribery and sentenced
years' im- rested, June 12; Sullivan released on high
bail
June
prisonment and a fine of $5,000.
15, 1889
Martin
Burke
arrested
at
July 14, 1887
Winnipeg,
indicted
of
about
June
20.
Canada,
The
[Sentence reversed
by court
apgrand jury at Chicago, after sixteen days'
peals.]
Anarchists
in- investigation,indict Martin
at Chicago: Twenty- two
Burke, John
convicted
of F. Beggs, Daniel
dieted, May 27, 1886; seven
Coughlin, Patrick O'Sulmurder, Aug. 20; four
Woodruff, Patrick
(Spies, Parsons, livan, Frank
Cooney,
and
John
of
Fischer, and
one
Kunz, with others unknown,
Engel) hanged; and
suicide. .Nov.
of Patrick
(Lingg) commits
11, 1887
conspiracy and of the murder
June
[Governor Altgeld pardoned all the an29, 1889
Henry Cronin
archists
(Schwab, Neebe, and Fielden) in
CoughKn, Burke, O'Sullivan, Kunz, and
of Cronin
in Chicago,
26, 1893.]
Beggs, for murder
prison, June
Orleans
City of New
May 6; trial begins Aug. 30; the first
against adminisof
tratrix
the
of
estate
Clark
three
sentenced
to imprisonment for
are
Myra
a

surface

way

support
road

on

..

Gaines,
prerae

deceased, Jan.
Court

against

the

of

United

city

for

over

9, 1885, in SuStates; judgment


$500,000

May

1836
Gaines
Myra Clark
real estate
equity to recover
possession of the city of New

leans.

Her

in
Or-

father, Daniel

Clark, who died


in New
Orleans
a
reputed bachelor, Aug.
16, 1813, by will dated May 20, 1811, gave
the property to his mother, and
by memwill
orandum
for
a
(which was
never
in
made
it to
his
found)
1813, gave
The
daughter Myra.
ceived by the Supreme

latter

will

Court

of Louisiana

was

three

years,

and

Beggs

Dee.

dis-

16, 1889

[Second trial of Daniel


Coughlin began
3, 1893; acquitted by jury, March
8,
filed 1894.]

bill in

the

for

charged
Nov.

13, 1889

[About
a

life,Kunz

re-

Commander

B.

H.

States

steamship

martial

for malfeasance

McCalla,

of

United

by courtcruelty,April
inquiry held in
11, suspended

Enterprise,
and

on
findingof a court of
Brooklyn navy-yard, March
from
rank
and
duty for three years,
tence
approved by Secretary Tracy
May 15,

22,

Dr.
Mrs.

T.

Thacher

Graves, for

murder

sen-

1890
of

Josephine Barnaby, of Providence,


Feb. 18, 1856, and the legitimacy of Myra
R. I.,by poison, at Denver, Col
1891
questioned. Judge Billings,of the United
[While awaiting his second trial he coinStates
circuit court
at New
mitted
suicide
in the county jail at DenOrleans, rendered a decision which
recognized the pro- ver, Sept. 3, 1893.]
bate of the will of 1813, in April, 1877;
Rev. Charles
A. Briggs, charged by the
an
taken, and in 1883 judg- presbytery of New
York, Oct. 5, 1891,
appeal was
ment
was
doctrines
conflict
"which
again given in favor of Mrs. with
teaching
Gaines
for $1,925,667 and
interest.
The
irreconcilablywith, and are
contrary to,
final appeal, June, 1883, resulted
above,
the cardinal
doctrines
as
taught in the Holy
1861
the value
of the
In
at the
Union
Scriptures," in an address
property was
estimated
at $35,000,000.]
York, Jan.
Theological Seminary in New
Dr. Patrick
dismissed, Nov. 4; prosecutHenry Cronin, Irish dyna- 20, 1891; case
nationalist
mite
(expelled from the Clan- ing committee
appeal to the general asand
as
a
na-Gael, and denounced
sembly, Nov. 13; judgment reversed
spy by Alexander
and the leaders,termed
Sullivan
remanded
the
to the presbytery of New
case
122

TBI-MOTJNTAIN

THIMBLE"

Sbrk

trial, May
new
Briggs acquitted
days

for

fessor
nineteen
John

Y.

election
to

McKane,

frauds;

Sing Sing

30, 1892;
after

L.

Gravesend,

of

30, 1892

Dec.

convicted

resigned in 1832 and became


with
various
gineer; was
chief engineer till the outbreak

Pro-

trial

I., for

the

promise, against Representative

W.

C.

P.

from

engineers

damages, $50,Breckinridge, of Kentucky;


trial begun March
8, 1894, at Washington, D. C. ; verdict of $15,000 for Miss
April 14, 1894
Pollard, Saturday
Patrick
Prendergast, for the
Eugene
of Chimurder
of Carter
Harrison, mayor
Oct. 28, 1893; plea of defence, incago,
000;

construction

eral

of

at

River.

blockaded

the

With
river

and

of
the

forts

brigadier-gen-

promoted

batteries

the

Potomac

In

colonel
directed

and

location

the

non-

defend

soldiers.

field works

the

was

the
to

made

finishingthat work,

on

charge
of

of

Northern

of

Norfolk;

at

as

Civil

recruited

he was
year
in Virginia

same

en-

of the

command

volunteers

Baltimore

for six years... Feb. 19, 1894


of
V. Pollard, for breach

took

he

uniformed

Madeline

Miss

when

War,

sentenced

and

civil

raikoads

and

Evansport

the

on

batteries

these

against

took

then

construction

and

United

he

States

is vessels
of
and
1861-62.
he
during the winter
distincalso
He
won
July 13, 1894
participated and
Gaines's
American
in
various
tion
battles, including
Debs, president
Bull
Railroad
conspiracy Mills, Slaughter's Mountain, Second
Union, charged with
the Western
in directing great strike on
promoted
Run, Chancellorsville, etc.; was
1894
railroads, and acquitted
major-general for gallantry and meritoimrious services April 23, 1863.
to six months'
sentenced
During the
[He was
prisonment for contempt of court in vio- third day of the action at Gettysburg he
lost a leg, was
captured, and held a prislating its injunction in 1895.]

sanity; jury
hanged
Eugene V.

William

R.

find

him

Laidlaw,

sane

Jr.,

v.

Russell

for

Johnson's

at

oner

of
personal injuries at time
bomb
explosion in the latter's office,Dec.
suit brought soon
afterwards;
4, 1891;
plaintiff awarded
by
heavy
damages
jury: defendant
appealed; case still in the

Sage,

months

before

Island

being

he settled

the

war

he

died, Jan.

2,

for

twenty-one

exchanged.

After

Baltimore, Md., where

in

1888.

Trimble, ROBERT, jurist;born in Berkewith


ley county, Va., in 1777; removed
courts.
his parents to Kentucky in 1780; studied
Leon
for
law and began practice in 1803; appointed
Czolgosz indicted in Buffalo
murder
of President
of appeals in
McKinley, Sept. 16, second
judge of the court
found
in
and
chief -justice of Kentucky
1901; tried Sept. 23-24;
1808;
guilty on
second
in Auburn
States
United
(N. Y.) 1810; was
day; executed
judge for Ken..Oct.
then appointed
29, 1901
prison
tucky in 1816-26, and was
in a
States
Trimble, ALLEN, statesman; born
justice of the United
Supreme
He
died Aug. 25, 1828.
Augusta county, Va., Nov. 24, 1783; re- Court.
moved
to
Trimble, WILLIAM
A., legislator;born
Lexington, Ky., in 1784; and
later settled in Highland county, O., where
in Woodford,
Ky., April 4, 1786; gradhe was
clerk of the courts
and
recorder
at Transylvania College; admitted
uated
in 1809-16; was
in command
of a mountto the bar
and
began practice in Highed regiment under
Gen.
William
land, O., in 1811; was
Henry
adjutant of his
Harrison
in
in
served
both
Allen's regiment in the campaign
brother
1812-13;
branches
of the State legislaturein 1816in
Pottawattomie
Indians
against the
in
of Ohio
in 182126; was
acting governor
1812; became
major of Ohio volunteers
in 1826-30;
States
and president of
22; governor
1812, and major of the 26th United
the
first State
board
lieutenantof agriculture in Infantry in
brevetted
1813;
1846-48.
died
He
in Hillsboro, 0., Feb.
in 1814
for gallantry in the encolonel
2, 1870.
ISAAC

RIDGEWAY,

military

officer;born in Culpeper county, Va., May


15, 1802; graduated at the United
States
Military Academy in 1822, and was
as-

signed
road

at

gagement

Trimble,

the

from

duty of surveying
Washington to the

the
Ohio

the

8th

March
Senator

military
River;

to

1,

Fort

Erie;

Infantry
1819.

from

1819

He

death

ington, D. C., Dec. 13, 1821.


Tri-mountain, the name
Boston,

123

Mass.

and
United

was

till his

transferred

was

in 1815;

first

resigned
States
in Wash-

given to

TRINITY

Trinity Church.
organized

church
York
"

called

was

Parish

The

and

eluded

several

council.

the

in

of

wardens

the

The
in

first Episcopal
province of New

its

charter

Trinity
members

of

following

first officers of

the

the

are

King's

London, rector; Thomas


Robert
Lurting, wardens;

of

names

church:

of

in-

chosen

Bishop

Wenham

and

Caleb

Heath-

Merret, John
Tudor, James
Emott, William
Morris, Thomas
Clarke,
Ebenezer
Wilson, Samuel
Burt, James
HowEvets, Nathaniel
Marston, Michael
den, John
Crooke, William
Sharpas, LawWilliam
David
rence
Jamison,
Read,
BurHudleston, Gabriel
Ludlow, Thomas
Janeroughs, John
Merret, and William
of land
In 1705 a tract
vestrymen.
way,
known
extended
"The
as
Queen's Farm"
west
from
St.
side of Broadway)
Chapel (Vesey Street and Broadway) along the river to Skinner Road, now
This
farm
then
was
Christopher Street.
colwas
Money
totally unproductive.
lected for the building of the church.
It

(on the

Paul's

small

banks

of

square
Hudson

the

larged in 1737 to
eluding the tower
feet in width.

completed
height. The

edifice
River.
feet

148
and

It
in

was

corsair

cruising

in

Barbary

States

feet

It was
great fire of 1776.
in 1839, and
taken
down
the present edifice was
consecrated.

corsairs

at

and

boats

ruler

72

to

his

February

between

.The Constellation,
not
contest
long

seventeen

some

Tripolitan gun-

batteries, which

land

were

ship

the

in 1803, under

other

The

corn-

flag-

Preble, whose

Edward

Constitution.

the

was

to

sent

expeditionwas

naval

of Com.

mand

not
in

The

sels

ves-

In

the

autumn

the

were

Tangier, holding

of

of

Tripoli,learning that
paid larger gross
neighbors (see ALGIERS) than

States

Chesapeake

flag-ship. The vesproceeded

severe

the Mediterranean

Little

United

V.

Richard
The

body, but

Gibraltar.

left alone, had


with
afterwards

Another

kinds.

1800, the

go

the

Early in May,
September.
United
States
the
after
the Boston,
taking
to
France,
R.
minister
Livingston)
(R.
she
blockaded
the port of Tripoli. There
was
joined by the frigate Constellation,
two
blockaded
Tripolitan
while
the Essex
and

of various

the

in

another,

(1801)

vessel.

WITH.

not

after

one

Dale.

commodore's

sels did

made

Commodore

relieve

to

the

was

still holds a
corporation of Trinity Church
portion of the land of the Queen's Farm,
from
which
is derived,
alarge income
That
corporation has contributed
generthe building and
ously towards
supportin various
ing of churches
parts of the
work
country and carrying on Christian

Tripoli, WAR

States
under

squadron,
Morris,

squadron

circumspect. Recogwith
of war
Tripoli,
a
government ordered

more

existence

the

United

the

aston-

was

Mediterranean

the

Bey

appeared before
captured a Tripolitan

The
Bey
way.
little American

the

the

he

war

the

on

reached

after

soon

Philadelphia, Argus, Siren,


in the
consumed
Enterprise. The
Nautilus, Vixen, and
rebuilt in 1788, Philadelphia, Captain Bainbridge, sailed in
corsair off
on
May 21, 1846, July, and captured a Moorish
175

was

building was

to

declared

Tripoli, having

en-

was

and

President

Roads,

Hampton

July 1,

ished, and

the

was
flag-ship

from

severelyhandled.

length, in-

chancel, and

1772,

the

on

steeple,which

The

until

then

sailed

nizing

cote, William

was

His

ranean.

He

had

The

the

TRIPOLI

Gibraltar

(1697)

Church."
first

vestrymen

The

CHURCH"

going

in

August, and,
an
explana-

Tangier, demanded
Emperor of Morocco,

to

claimed

the

fell

into

until

a
apolproceeded to bring Tripoli to

act

he
ogy. Then
Soon
terms.

and

further

the

in

much

1804, when
in

Americans

delphia in the

of

hands
of

suitable

made

afterwards

the

early

dis-

who

of the

tion

the

had

merchant

American

an

arrived

Preble

the

Philadelphia

Tripolitans.

interest
the

occurred

boldness
the

of

Phila-

destroying
of Tripoli greatly

harbor

PHILADELPHIA,
alarmed
the
(see
Bey
his
blockaded
Preble
while
For
a
tribute, THE).
the
and threatened
in case
it was
refused,
war
port; and in July, 1804, he entered
In May, 1801, he caused
the flag-staff
of harbor
(whose protection lay in heavy
his
115
to be cut
the American
consulate
down,
batteries
guns) with
mounting
sums

to

himself, demanded

an

annual

and

June
proclaimed war
of
this
pation
event, the
had

ernment
Dale

with

sent

10.

Commodore

squadron

In

American

to

the

anticigovRichard

Mediter-

squadron.
the

harbor

schooners,
soldiers
124

on

The

Tripolitans also had in


gunboats, a brig, two
some
galleys,with 25,000
land.
A sheltering reef

nineteen
and
the

WAR

TRIPOLI,
afforded

protection. These formiOn


dismay Preble.
and
opened a heavy cannonade

obstacles

Aug.

3 he

his

from

which

gunboats,

After

the

alongside th"

Four)

largestof those of the


and captured her after

did not

bombardment

Number

gunboat

further

dable

WITH

and boarded
enemy,
fierce
a
struggle,
had

Americans

sunk

capt

or

six of the Tri-

ured

politan vessels,and
inflicted a
heavy
loss

of

life

drew,
the
later

days

loss of

(Aug. 7).

the Americans
but

four

After

and

again
the

renewed

with

resumed

attack

gunboat

but

the

on

they

enemy,

ten

the
men,

withdrew

attack

on

the

24th, without
result.
A

STREET

SCENE

IN

made

TRIPOLI.

could

Lieutenant

get
severe

near

enough

for

conflict ensued.

Decatur

laid

his

effective

squadron

Finally,

anchor

vessel

(the

125

again

off the

fifth attack

important
any
fourth
attack
was

the

28th, and, after

American
conflict, the
and
withdrew,
lay

at

on

sharp
service.

harbor
was

made.

until
A

Sept. 2, when
floatingmine,

TRTTMBULL

TBIST"
sent
the

to blow

the

up

in

Tripolitanvessels

destroyed all of the Ameriin charge of it (see INTREPID, THE).


cans
The
season
approaching, Preble
stormy
from
the
withdrew
dangerous Barbary
coast, leaving a small force to blockade
Samuel
the harbor
of Tripoli. Com.
Barently,

and

friend

personal
of

harbor, exploded prematurely, appar-

President

and

the

private secretary

Jackson.

andria, Va., Feb.

Trollope,

died

He

in

Alex-

11, 1874.

FRANCES

author;
MILTON,
Heckfield, Hampshire, England,
about
to the United
States
1780; came
and settled in Cincinnati, O., in 1829.
She
returned
to England in 1831, and published Domestic
Manners
sent to relieve Preble, who, with
was
ron
of the Americans.
She died in Florence, Italy,Oct. 6, 1863.
the
Moors
a
large squadron, overawed
and kept up the blockade.
Troup, ROBERT, military officer; born
in
York
New
under
Meanwhile
movement
a
City in 1757; graduated at
Capt.
American
William
consul
at
King's
Tunis,
College in 1774; studied law under
Eaton,
the

soon
brought
joined Hamet

Bey

of

to

war

Tunis, in

the

effort

an

close.

Caramelli,

to

He

rightful

born

in

John

Jay;

Island
1776.

his

recover

and

joined

lieutenant

as

became

He

the

aide

Long

on
army
the
summer

in

General

to

of
Wood-

taken
with
hull; was
prisoner at the battle of
time
for some
in
join- Long Island; and was
the
of
and
the
with
ed him
few
a
prison-shipJersey
provost jail
troops composed
at New
York.
of all nations, and, marching westmen
Exchanged in the spring of
and
Africa
ward
Northern
across
1,000 miles, 1777, he joined the Northern
army,
with
transportation consisting of 190 participated in the capture of Burgoyne.
secretary of the board of
camels, on
April 27, 1805, captured the In 1778 he was
After
he was
the war
made
of Derne.
judge
Tripolitan seaport town
They war.
district
of the
United
States
of
court
fought their way
successfully towards
New
that
office
several
intheir
followers
York,
the capital,
holding
continually
Colonel
the warm
of years.
Troup was
creasing, when, to the mortification
perand
and the extinguishment of the hopes sonal
Eaton
politicalfriend of Alexander
died
in New
York
He
of Caramelli, they found
that Tobias
City,
Lear, Hamilton.
Jan.
the American
14, 1832.
a
consul-general,had made
BENJAMIN
CUMMINGS,
jourTruman,
treaty of peace (June 4, 1805) with the
had
rights. Hamet
the Viceroy of Egypt.

terrified ruler of
The

ruler

taken

refuge

There

Eaton

ended

Tripoli.So

of Tunis

the

war.

insolent, but

was
yet
suddenly humbled
by the apof
of
thirteen
vessels
a
squadron
pearance
Commodore
under
succeedRodgers, who

his

ed

pride was

Barren, and

the

United

now

all feared

he

sent

States.

ambassador

an

The

Barbary

to

nalist; born in Providence, R. I., Oct. 25,


1835; received a public school education;
was

the

of the Americans,
the power
in the Mediterranean
Sea

York
Civil

War

proof-readeron

in

Times

government

missions

Alaska,

Europe.

He

several

author

of

the
in
on

Japan,

times

to

South

The

Tropical CaliCity to the


fornia;
great peril. Pope
HisGolden
VII. declared
that the Americans
had done
Gate; The Field of Honor;
Fair in Chicago, etc.
for Christendom
more
tory of the World's
against the North
African
historian; born
all the
of
Trumbull, BENJAMIN,
pirates than
powers
in Hebron,
Conn., Dec. 19, 1735; gradEurope united.
PHILIP, diplomatist; uated at Yale College in 1759, and studied
Trist, NICHOLAS
Eleazer
Rev.
born in Charlottesville,
Wheelock;
Va., June 2, 1800; theology under
for
in
North
educated
Haven
at
West
he
nearly
sixty
Point, where
was
pastor
and

commerce

was

relieved

of

acting professor in
was

and

chief
was

the

army
authorized

clerk
United
under
to

accomplished
January, 1848.
cd

States

1819-20.

1845

State

States

commissioner

treat

consul

In

of the

General

at

During

for

He
at

was

in

peace,

Guadalupe

with
Mexico

which

he

Hidalgo

afterwards

Havana.

he

Department,

Scott

He

in

Unitwas

War;

From

Pius

years.

His

the

Semi

been

China,

to

and

is the

the

served

1854-60;

staff-officer ; has

as

Hawaii,

States

and

compositor

New

Crescent

publications include

General

States
of America;
History of the United
of Connecticut
History
Complete
from
He
died in
1630
till 1713
(2 volumes).
North
Haven, Conn., Feb. 2, 1820.
JAMES
HAMMOND,
Trumbull,
philoloin
born
Conn., Dec. 20,
Stonington,
gist;

126

1821;

educated

at

Yale

College;

settled

TRtTMBTJLL

Watkin-

in

of the

He

author

the

was

1775, he

attracted

around

the

an

ac

Boston
of

attention

in

Washington, who,

Col

made

Having
works

August of that year,


him
of his aides-de-camp. He
one
onial Records
(3 volumes) ; made
of Connecticut
Provisions
Some
Historical
Notes
a
on
of became
major of brigade, and in 1776
the Connecticut
Statutes; The Defence of deputy adjutant-general of the Northern
Squadron,
Stonington against a British
Department, with the rank of colonel. In
Notes
the
on
February, 1777, he retired from the army,
August, 1814; Historical
to
Notes
London
and
to study painting
Constitution
went
on
of Connecticut;
under
West.
On
the execution
of Major
Versions
of the Lord's
Forty Algonquin
and
seized and
Andre"
(October, 1780), he was
Prayer; The Blue Laws
of Connecticut
the False
invented
Blue Laws
eight
by the Rev. cast into prison, where he remained
months.
In 1786 he painted his Battle
Names
Samuel
of Places
Peters; Indian
of
1863-91.

of

sketch

curate
in

Hartford

in

reference

of

library

"on

of the

librarian

College in 1773.

politicalvard

held

1847, and

in

Hartford

In

offices till 1864;

The

the Borders
on
of the Connecticut,
died
in
Interpretations, etc. He
Hartford, Conn., Aug. 5, 1897.
Trumbull, JOHN, poet; born in WestConn., April 24,
bury (since Watertown),
1750; graduated at Yale College in 1767,
in and

Bunker

with

in

having

been

the

of

age

admitted

seven

the

to

such

years,

college at

cocity in acquiring learning;


reside

not

delicate
ted
a

there

health.
the

to

he

In

1763,
1773

Yale

Progress of Dulness.

and

active

In

patriot.

famous

lished

in

essays

entitled

account

of

He

for

1789

From

to

1793

he

was

United

his

States, painting portraits


historical
pictures (now in the

rotunda

of

the

national

Capitol)

"

The

Declaration

of Independence; The Surren


der of Burgoyne;
The Surrender
of Cornwallis; and the Resignation of Washing
Trumbull
1794
In
ton
at
Annapolis.

secretary

was

don,

and

was

to Lon
Jay's mission
appointed a commissioner

to

admit

was

two

first considerable

The

of his

pre
did

College. During

his

wrote

on

he

he

but

been

bar, having

in

tutor

time

until

his

was

Hill.

the

years
that
poem,

was

warm

the first canto

1775

pub
McFingal, was
poem,
Philadelphia. The whole work,
in four cantos, was
published in Hartford
in 1782.
It is a burlesque epic, in the
style of Hudibras, directed
against the
Tories
enemies
of liberty in
and
other
America.
has
This
famous
passed
poem
editions.
After
the war,
through many
Trumbull, with Humphreys, Barlow, and
Lemuel
Hopkins, wrote a series of poetic
American

tended

extracts

styled

The

to

check

to
ney
he

1795
for

Antiquities, pre
which
they
poem

Anarchiad.

the

vailing in

from

It

designed

was

spirit of anarchy
feeble

the

Mr.

Union.

Trumbull

Hartford;
member

and

was

in

then

pre
1789

From
State
1792

attor

and

1800

JOHN

He

the

and

he

court
removed

of

errors

in

1808.

In

1825

he

Detroit, Mich.,
10, 1831.
Trumbull, JOHN, artist;born in Leba
of Gov.
Conn., June
6, 1756; son
non,
Jonathan
Trumbull;
graduated at Har

died, May

to

THUMB

DLL.

of the

legislature. He
for
was
a
judge of the Supreme Court
eighteen years
(1801-19), and
judge of
was

where

the

(1796) to carry
returned
went

back

everything
that

to

England

to

founding

was

little

he found

in

he

1808, when

in

unpopular

so

He

employment.

New

the

there, of which
127

treaty into execution.


States in 1804,

United

American

back, settled
in

the

York,

came

assisted

Fine

Arts

presidentin

1816-

Academy
was

and
of

TRTTMBULL

Mr.

25.

of

her

Trumbull

painted a large num-

pictures of
In

tory.

in American

events

consideration

and

tion

his-

of

bull
receiving from
his
during
year
Trumbull
life, Colonel
presented to that
institution
of
his
fifty seven
pictures,
which
form
the
"Trumbull
Gallery"
there.
The
profitsof the exhibition, after
his
death, were
to be
applied towards
the education
of needy students.
He died
in New
York
City, Nov. 10, 1843.
Trumbull, JONATHAN, patriot; born in
Lebanon, Conn., Oct. 12, 1710 j gradu
ated at Harvard
College in 1727; preached
Yale

College $1,000

other

continued,

supplies, and

more

then

was

this

want

less,for months.

or

of

governor

Trum-

Connecticut

few

studied

years;

law;

and

became

THE

On

occasion,

one

there

seemed

vision

against
consult
He

subject."

an

wants

council

no

way

expected

of the

and

these

originof

JONATHAN

member

of

ty-three.

He

1766, and

in

ernor

justice of
he boldly
joined on
1769

be

only
cause

was

the

officers
chosen

conlonial
of

the

at the

was

country and
common
saying

a
a

by-word,

were

soon

"

We
The

lost

sight

became

to

of

Court.

take
the

of twen

In

the
crown,

governor.
who

governor

people

age

lieutenant-gov
chiefex-officio

chosen

Superior

refused

governor
the

TRUMBULL.

Assembly
was

We
the

of
many
the army

Jonathan."

Brother
words

pro
the

the

over

it was
difficulties arose,
the
as
officers,
among
consult

the

When

army.

"

on

supplying

spread

afterwards

must

said,

did

so,

of

attack

Jonathan

in

when

of war,
make

to

Brother

successful

was

commander-in-chief

the

enemy,
must

at

be

to

1850.

HOUSE,

TRUMBULL

in

He

1768

oath

en

in

and
was

the

espoused the
struggle

their

for

In the absence
justice and freedom.
Hancock
and
Congress of the Adamses
from
New
considwas
England, Trumbull
ered the Whig
leader
in that region, and
Washington
always placed implicit refiance
his
patriotism and
upon
energy
for
When
took
Washington
support.

TRUMBULL'S

GOVERNOR

WAR-OFFICE.

in

command

bridge, he

of the
found

Continental
it in

want

army
of

at Camammuni-

of, and

"

Brother

Jonathan

"

became

the

"

nationality,like that of John


died in Lebanon,
of England.
Bull"
He
Conn., Aug. 17, 1785.
legislator;born
Trumbull, JONATHAN,

title of

in

our

Lebanon,

of Governor
528

Conn., March
26, 1740; son
Trumbull; graduated at Har-

TBUXTUN

TBUMBULL"
in

rard College
tionary War
its

paymaster
1780

he

army;
first aide

secretary and

was

Washington, remaining in
family of the commander-in-chief
of

close

the

1791

1795;

until

United

States

thereof

to

in

that

the

from

lieutenant-governor of Connecti1797 until


from
in 1796; and governor
his death
in Lebanon, Aug. 7, 1809.
JONATHAN,
librarian; born
Trumbull,
in Norwich,
re23, 1844;
Conn., Jan.
of
academic
ceived an
education; member

conducted

that

On

the

other

join

line of goods in his

dent

of

Sons

of the

the

Historical

Connecticut

author

The

of

Lebanon

The

of

Defamation

triots:

Revolution.

American

is

He

Office;

War

Revolutionary

have

of General
First
Trumbull,

tried

protect the

in the

of the

of the

also

great

trust

sugar
in

asked

to

that

The

attempts

influenc.e legislation
rise

gave

to

national

Senator

each

declaration

law

the

trusts.

to

1894, when

make

of

capitalists
the rights of small
Oil Company
was

Standard

The

Washington

at

competo
refuses

who

devise

to

rights

and

trusts

scandal

Pa-

Israel

Vindication

will

that

the trust
sellinghis
neighborhood at prices
various
Legislatures of

cost.

States

claimed

finds

trust

Society; presi- dealers.


Society of the the first

Connecticut

the

below

is

dealer

1795-96;

the

way,
benefited,

by driving out

small

it

hand,

business

this

therefore

are

stock

business

cheaply

more

people

ruin

tition.

claim

Trusts

trust.

be

can

and

trusts

in

Senator

the

cut

the

pool their

who

corporations

interests, accepting in lieu

of

speaker

1896.

of manufacturers

combination

business

1894

in

in

member

was

joined the Populists


Chicago, 111.,June 25,

in

Trust,
or

military

the

to 1795;

1789

from

to

He

war.

Congress

and
was

and

Northern

of the

he

1778

died

He

active

an

Assembly,
to

1775

From

speaker.

was

Connecticut

of the

member

out, he

1872, and

Revolu-

the

When

1759.

broke

was

he

whether

stock during the tariff


Comhad dealt in sugar
Joseph
Putnam;
debate.
The
General
Continental
the
missaryof
greatest of all combinations
Army;
Steel
The
States
Share
in the Revoluwas
of Connecticut
organized as the United
tion, etc.
Corporation, in March, 1901, with $1,100,10, 1902, the
Truxnbull, JOSEPH,
military officer; 000,000 capital. On March
born in Lebanon, Conn., March
States
Supreme Court decided the
11, 1737; United
another
ated

of Governor

son

Trumbull

Harvard

College
commissary general
in July, 1775.
army

at

made

nental

1777, he

was

the

of war,

board

made

which

in
of
In

gradu-

1756;

was

Illinois

anti-trust

tional.

Similar

law

to

in

laws

Conti-

the

be

unconstitu-

Georgia, Indiana,
Mississippi, Mon-

Louisiana, Michigan,
North
Carolina, South
tana, Nebraska,
Wisconsin
of Dakota, Tennessee, Texas, and

November,

commissioner
office he

resigned

affected

were

by

this

decision.

The

seven

smaller
of ill-health, great industrial
311
and
trusts
April, 1778, on account
He died in Lebanon, Conn., July 23, 1778. trusts, none
having a capital of less than
Trumbull, LYMAN,
legislator;born in $2,000,000, had 5,288 plants in 1905, with
Colchester, Conn., Oct. 12, 1813; taught a total capital of $7,246,342,533. The
in

when
the

sixteen

Academy

law at
years of age; studied
admitted
of Georgia, and was

111

franchise

allied

trusts

and

trusts

16

and

railroad

capitalizedat

were

$13,132,-

to Belleville,819,978.
in 1837; removed
total
The
capitalizationof all
States
trusts is $23,000,000,000.
secretary of state in 1841; a jus- United
tice of the State Supreme Court
in 1848;
naval
Truxtun, THOMAS,
officer; born
Democratic
member
State
of the
to
legis- in Jamaica, L. I., Feb. 17, 1755; went

to the

bar

111.;was

lature
Senator

in 1854; and elected a United


in 1855, 1861, and in 1867,

States

serving

sea

when

for

he

short

twelve

years

of age,

was

impressed

man-of-war.

Lieutenant

on

and

board

for

Democratic

privateer Congress in 1776, he brought


of her prizes to New
one
Bedford; and in
June, 1777, commanding the Independence,
owned
by himself and ISAAC SEAKS
(q. v.),
he captured three valuable
prizes off the
Azores.
Truxtun
performed other brave
exploits during the Revolutionary War,

abandoned
the
He
eighteen years.
of his opparty on account
of slavery, and
position to the extension
labored with the anti-slaveryworkers.
He
voted
against the impeachment of President

Johnson

Democratic
for

and

afterwards

party,

and

was

acted with

the

its candidate

of Illinois in 1880.
He
governor
supfor
Horace
in
President
ported
Greeley
IX."

-I

British

was

time

and

129

was

afterwards

of the

engaged in
extensively

TBYON

TBUXTUN"
the

modore

trade in Philadelphia. In
appointed captain of the new

India

East

1794

he

was

Station, with

Guadeloupe

the

on

sail under

ten

command

his

at

time,

one

lie In 1802
he was
appointed to command
frigate Constellation, and in 1798-99
denied
French
notable
expedition against Tripoli, was
two
made
captures of
L'lnvessels
of superior size

an
a

"

of

surgente,
409

of

forty

and

men,

Vengeance,
and

fifty-fourguns
former

The

with

and

men.

famous

engagement

the

lasted

which

her,

hour

400
a

was

and

frigate,

and

guns

La

one

quarter, was
L'Insurgente

very
lost

severe.

wound
killed and
seventy men
only three
ed, the Constellation
men

La

wounded.

Vengeance

equally se
fought

was

vessels

The

vere.

with

action

The

were

the

pistol-shotdistance,
gagement lasting till
at

en
A.M.

crippled,
daylight, and
lost his prize. This
Truxtun
second
victory gave him great
popularity, and Congress voted
La

much

Vengeance,

escaped

before

him

the

thanks

and

tories,
made

at

the

and

of

vic

These
critical

that

time,
TRUXTUN'S

popular,

very

navy

"The

nation

the

medal.

gold

became

Navy"

GRAVE.

the
declined
and
captain for his flag-ship,
treated
His
as
was
appointment.
protest
songs
earthen
allowed
to leave
shop-windows, and some
pitchers, a resignation,and he was
made
in Liverpool the
service.
1816-19
he
of different sizes, were
In
was
highAmerican
died in Phila
for
in sheriff of Philadelphia. He
an
crockery merchant
remains
His
were
delphia, May 5, 1822.
in
buried
Christ
Church-yard, in that
by an up
city, and his grave is marked
right slab of white marble.
born
Tryon, WILLIAM, royal governor;

popular

toast

of naval

battles

all

at

and

banquets.

naval

Pictures

filled the

'

in

Ireland

in

the

Wake,

about

1725; became

of

accomplished kins
Hillsborough, the

army,
bea.utiful and

the

Earl

of

state

secretary

of

for

the

Through him Tryon procured


lieutenant-governor of North
and

on
1764,
1765, he

in

NAVAL

eommemoration
The
one

of
shows

engraving
of these.

ferred

to

the

In

1801

Miss

and

woman

fond

was

officer

an

married

British

the
was

the

office of

of Governor

death

appointed governor.
display,and

Newberne

at

an

in

Carolina

of ostentatious

palace at

colonies,

expense

Dobbs,
He
built
to

the

PITCHER.

the

colony of $25,000. To gain this appropriation, Lady Tryon and her beautiful
Wake, gave brilliant balls
sister, Esther

American

navy,
of
appearance
transTruxtun
was
the

President, and

was

com-

dinner-partiesto
legislature,and used
and

130

the

members

every

of the

blandishment

TUCKER
of
they possessed. The taxes on account
palace added greatly to the burdens
the
of
the
brought about
people, and
western
in the
movement
Regulator
counties.
The
history of Tryon's admin-

American

istration

differences

this

"

"

of

in

Carolina

North

folly, extortion,

gained the

name

Carolina."

He

when

Revolu

the

and

he

last

the

of

that

to

take

from

Liberty

governor

York

the

attracted

much

attention.
British

The

ministry knew
opinion in the

of

the

did

the

out

the

This

crown.

of the

more

Continental

Americans,
secret

fact

for Gal-

friends

to

of

Lord

encouraged

of

board

on

it

York

proved

permanent

abdication.

He

tered

British

the

en
8EAL

service,
military
and
engaged in several
rauding expeditions.
Carolina
in

was

disreputable maHis
property in

confiscated.

1780, and

England
He
ant-general in 1782.
England, Feb. 27, 1788.
to

in

and

Mary

the

bar

He

died

went

lieuten-

became
in

London,

SIGNATURE;

*""

North

OP

his

and

TRTON.

ain

would

up
It

the

shake

known

resolution

the

union

that

tached

the

to

break

colonists,
of the

of the

warmly

were

Brit-

and

the

influential

colonies

of the

colonies

of

large portion

respectableand

habitants

that

part of Great

the

on

apparent

was

believe

colleaguesto

little firmness

most

GEORGE, author; born in Ber1775; graduated at William


to
College in 1797; admitted

Tucker,
muda

of New

dis-

and

f/f^f

refuge

North

North

the

on

Britain

colonies, which

Congress than
loway had let

he

of

tracts

was

Sons

in New

be

Wolf

Great

province

Harbor,
to

and

crime,

The

several

between

governor

the

vessel

was

and
"

record

published

pute

broke

tionary War
out,

of

is

and

inat-

In several
mother-country.
a
was
strong prejudice felt

there

and

New
most
the
practised in Lynchburg; towards
England, where
violent
occurred.
The
Congress in 1819, 1821, and
proceedings had
of Moral
Quakers, as a body, were
1823; Professor
Philosophy and
opposed to vioPolitical
at
The
of Pennsylthe
University of lent measures.
Economy
governor
Scotch
His
indifferent, and
Virginia for twenty years.
Highpubli- vania was
elected

to

cations

include

of

Slaves

Roanoke

Letters

in

on

Virginia;
Navigation; The
Life of Thomas

the

landers

Conspiracy

Letters

linas

the

on

Shen-

Valley of
andoah;
Jefferson, with
Parts
of his Correspondence; Progress of
United
the
States
in
and
Population
Wealth
in Fifty Tears;
History of the
United
States
to
from their Colonization
the End
of the Twenty-sixth Congress in
died
in
1841, etc. He
Sherwood,
Va.,

April 10, 1861.


Tucker, JOSIAH,
Laugharne, Wales,

settled
and

should

nists

Georgia
the

would

obstinate

limited

one

end

their

pens

of the

resources

wholly inadequate
lengthened resistance.

or

of

America

writers

British

loyal. Even
perfect, it wai
to

be

that,

regiments, they

few

the Caro-

very

remain

tary officers boasted


a

York, and

were

union

the

believed

in New

and
had

and

to

the

at

would
the

"

tongues in the

other."

same

anj
Mili-

head

march

speakers

colo-

of

from
All

exercised
strain.

to
recomgood sense
mend
was
in 1711; educated
at
a
peaceful separation. That
ParTucker.
Dean
He
for many
Oxford, he took orders, and was
proposed that
act
rector
in Bristol; in 1758 he was
a
declaring them
liament, by a solemn
years
Dean
all
the
of Gloucester; he
forfeited
to
have
privileges of
was
a
prolific
writer
on
politicaland religioussubjects. British subjects by sea and land, should

clergyman;

born

in

Only

131

one

the

TUDOB

TUCKER"
off the

cut

rebellious

provincesfrom

British

Empire; with
granting pardon

the

provision,however,

died

He

setts.

in Bremen,

Me., March

10,

1833.

in
Tucker, ST. GEORGE, jurist; born
or
on
Royal, Bermuda,
July 10, 1752;
petition to that effect. Had
this proposition graduated at the College of William
and
Britain
then
would
been
adopted, Great
Mary in 1772; studied law, but entered
have
still retained
a
large and influential the public service at the beginning of the
Revolutionary War, planning and assistparty in the colonies, the hatreds
engenwould
have
dered
been
avoided, ing personally in the seizure of a large
by war
for

either

the

at

lost to

Great

without

"were,

Port

colonies

would

as
they
expenditure of

which

sides

both

on

to

humble

Britain,

the

treasure

restoration

their

worst, the

and,
been

and

and

all of them

have

finally Bermuda.
blood

the

war

vulgar expedients were


predenounced
ferred, and this propositionwas
the wise
the height of folly,and
even
as
caused.

But

Burke
died

admitted

1801;
in

tised

judge
Returning
as

the

to

He

Disunion

the Dangers

Mary

College

and

bar

practill 1815, when

State

circuit

there

was

and
the

Threaten

in

College

Mary

of A

author

Key

Discourse
the

Free

to
on

Insti-

in

stores

fortification

at

regiment
where
he
was
siege of Yorktown,
After
he bethe war
severely wounded.
reviser and
a
a
came
Virginia legislator,
digesterof the laws of Virginia,professor
in the College of William
and
Mary, and
at Annapolis in
of the convention
member
He

commanded

at

the

which

1786

led

judge in

and

years,
1803

to

judge
Judge

of

the
In

1811.

of the

United

Tucker

1787

Constitution.

State

the

of

that

to

the national

framed

courts

court

of

1813

he

made

was

possessed of

was

keen

wit, and

was

nearly fifty
appeals from
district

States

that

He

he

court,

fine liter-

a
poet
some
ordinary ability. He wrote
of PETER
poetical satires under the name
also some
PINDAR;
politicaltracts; and
edition of
in 1803
published an annotated
died
in
Blackstone.
He
Edgewood, Nelson

ary
of

Professor

was

Conspiracy;
that

till 1830.

court
he

Virginia

William

at

1834-51.
the

Tucker

4, 1799.

Mississippi,serving

to
in

and
the

to

native

his

removed

Law

William

at

graduated

of

England,

Dean
Nov.

BEVEIJLY, lawyer ;
in Williamsburg, Va., Sept. 6, 1784;

born

he

childish."

NATHANIEL

Tucker,

in

"

it

called

in Gloucester,

of

amount

taste

and

was

no

10, 1828.
of the United
States; Lectures
co., Va., Nov.
to Prepare
author; born in
Intended
the Student
the
BAYARD,
Tuckerman,
for
New
York, July 2, 1855; graduated at
Study of the Constitution
of the United
States, etc. He died in Winchester, Va., Harvard
College in 1878; and wrote Life
Stuyvesant; William
Aug. 26, 1851.
of Lafayette; Peter
of Slavery, etc.
Tucker, SAMUEL, naval officer;born in Jay and the Abolition
HENRY
a
THEODORE, author;
Marblehead, Mass., Nov.
Tuckerman,
1, 1747; was
in Boston,
Mass., April 20, 1813;
service, sailing born
captain in the merchant
and went
between
Boston
and
education;
London, before the received an academic
He returned
and 1837.
Revolution.
In March, 1777, he was
to Europe in 1833
comtutions

missioned

captain

in

and, in command
navy,
he took John
Adams
to
can

minister

1779

he

took

in the

the
of

Continental
the

France

as

in

February, 1778.
prizes. In
many

defence

helped
made
prisoner; and

of
was

the United

tributor

Life,

Memorial

he

or

tors, etc.

was

in June,

to

States

in 1839

periodicals;and

became

wrote

con-

Artist

Painters;
of American
Greenough; Essay on
of Horatio
America
and Her CommentaWashington;

Ameri-

During
1780

Charleston
released

to

Boston,

Sketches

He

died

in New

York

City, Dec.

17, 1871.

diplomatist; born in
and made
Thome,
prizes,receiving, Boston, Mass., Jan. 28, 1779; graduated
many
Harvard
at
of at
the close of the war,
the thanks
College in 1796; travelled
the Anthology Club
founded
in
in
in
settled
He
Bristol, Me.,
Europe;
Congress.
the Monthly
its
contributed
to
and
1812
and
the
he
journal,
War
of
1792;
during
founded
the North
American
vessel
Anthology;
captured, by a trick, a British
the
in 1815; published Letters
on
which
had
greatly annoyed the shipping Remeio
consul
in
at Lima
in Eastern
in that vicinity. He was
several times
States; was
in
in
and
MassachuBrazil,
the legislatures
of Maine
1823;
charge d'affaires
1781,

when

he

took

command

of

the

132

Tudor, WILLIAM,

TULANE"
and

1827;
Bunker

originator

the

was

of

the

Tunkers.

in

Rio

Tupper,

died

He

monument.

Hill

TURNER

9, 1830.
Janeiro, Brazil, March
in
born
Tulane, PAUL, philanthropist;
made
1801
in
N.
May,
J.,
;
Cherry Valley,
de

New

business

1822, where

in

Orleans
till

removed

with

He

retired

He

assisted

and

of

North, and
Princeton,

to

$1,100,000 towards
of

higher education
was
Louisiana, which
the

University

Tulane

in

J.

1867.

institutions;

charitable

several

promot

used

found

to

Orleans.

New

1738;
in

of

He

was

served

Gates

1777;

He

war

was

the

the
of

in

early

1776.

commanded

the

the Hudson

in the

River

Northern

battle

and

year;
made

before

army
Monmouth

of
the

end

of the

brigadier-general. Tup
of the originatorsof the Ohio
one
Company, and was
appointed sur

was

per
Land

in

was

next

in

colonel

he

year

galleys in

under

and
school

was

regiment
of that

French

taught
active

very

and

gunboats and
in

the

afterwards

Boston,

August

in

and

Easton.

In

military officer;
in
August,

Mass.,

soldier

War,

siege

DUNKARDS.

Stoughton,

was

Indian

the

youth

white

in

Massachusetts

later
N.

in

large fortune

about

gave

ing

transferred

he

the

to

part of his estate

permanently

engaged in

he

when

1856,

in

settled

in 1818;

Southwest

of the

tour

born

See

BENJAMIN,

N. J., March
In suppress
27, 1877. veyor of Ohio lands in 1785.
in
educational
an
INSURRECTION
University,
ing SHAYS'S
(q. v.) he was
in New
stitution
in
Orleans, La., formerly distinguished. He settled at Marietta
known
the University of Louisiana, and
He died
as
1787, and became
judge in 1788.
TULANE
in Marietta, O., in June, 1792.
reorganized in 1884 after PAUL
fort
JAMES,
author; born
Turnbull, ROBERT
(q. v.) had set apart a considerable
of
education
white
for the
in
in
New
une
superior
January, 1775;
Smyrna, Fla.,
came
taken
was
youth in the South, which
by his parents to Charleston,
money
into the possession of the university, the
S. C., during the
Revolutionary War;
in

died

Princeton,

Tulane

which

of

name

in

changed

was

of

honor

studied

law

and

university has colleges till 1810, when


tech
of medicine, law, art, sciences, and
in the country.

the

The

donor.

university department
nology; the
the
science; and
philosophy and
Memorial
College
Sophie Newcomb
founded

Women,
of

ment

separate

Joseph

$500,000 by Mrs.

iNewcomb.

1903

In

and

ors

on

in the

volumes

H.
for

eign power
to protect

productive
buildings

Bragg,

MURFREESBORO

(q.

ville,about

25

v.

miles

the

after

) retreated

farther

ed

to resist

not

until

June

in

24,

short

Shelby-

teers

he intrench

advance.

1863,
from

campaign

that

It

Murfreesboro,
fifteen days

slave

gro

to

NAT,

parents

River.

and
See

ROSECRANS,

retreat

across

the

CHIOKAMAUGA,
WILLIAM

Tennessee

BATTLE

God
to

had

STARKE.
133

six

to

of

white

out

Turner's

from

the

own

killed, and

was

neighboring
plantations,
slaves
joined the party.

the

plan

insurrection.

to

was

belief

incite

and

person

master

out

ne

1800.

lead

to

laid

population

movement

of

his

men

him

chosen

liberty, and

kill every
slave

whole

then

OF;

author

insurgent; born
in Virginia about

confided

he

1831

(June 24-July 7), without


severe
fighting, His party started
middle
Ten
his
house, where
compelled Bragg to evacuate
nessee

federal

15, 1833.

slaves

of

the

was

volun

the

resist

the

to

that

General

Turnbull

Philadelphia Penitentiary;
Tribunal
The
Ressort; numer
of Dernier
and
articles,
magazine
ous
newspaper
died in Charleston, S. C., June
He
etc.
Visit

In

was

proclama

when

enlist

to

He

government.

sover

and
progress
President
After

ANDREW)
to

one

the

of

its

their

nullification

called

were

Turner,

Tullahoma,

to

interpose

arrest

his

claimed

infractions

the
to

JACKSON,

first

the

supporter

and

unquestionable

the

its citizens."

issued

(see

was

from MurfreesHere

away.
Federal

advanced

Rosecrans
and

the

of

battle
to

south

boro, taking part of his army


somewhat

Confeder

The

Campaign.

commander

ate

tion

to

plantation

stanch

has

of

judge

to

Louise

LL.D.

Tullahoma

right

to

movement,

State

"each

that

Constitution, and

funds, $1,230,000; grounds and


valued
at
$830,000; scientific apparatus,
of
$106,000; income, $128,940; number
A.
graduates, 4,923;
president, Edwin
Alderman,

was

nullification

of the

students, 1,223; Jackson

library,45,000;

He

endow

Profess

it reported:

instructors, 86;

of

retired

Charleston

in

practised
he

against

made
where
In

other

forty-eight

TWEED

TURNER"
had

party numbered
sixty and
white
The
fifty-five
persons.

the

hours
killed

their

made
surgents then
Jerusalem, Va., where

in-

towards

way

they expected to inand


be supplied with

the

whole, died

the

effects

of

the

of

eventful
blow

severe

long

not

the

afterwards

excitement

10, 1676.

May

from

and

fatigue
It

was

King Philip,
State, a popular

to

their number
Turpentine
of
name
North
atand
Carolina
of the
because
immense
were
fire-arms, but they divided
bodies
tacked
of
/hite
men.
by two
quantities of turpentine exported thereTurner
escaped to the woods, where, after from.
Tuscarora
living for two months, he was
captured,
Indians, a tribe of the Irotried, and hanged in Jerusalem, Va., Nov.
quois Confederacy, who
were
separated
their kindred
About
the same
time fifty-threefrom
at an
11, 1831.
early day, and
other
of were
seated
in North
Carolina
when
the
were
tried, seventeen
negroes
crease

whom

while

hanged,
thought to

were

who

were

be

others

many

implicated

were

tortured, mutilated, shot, and burned.


naval
Turner, THOMAS,
officer; born
in
Washington, D. C., Dec. 23, 1808;
entered

the

in

navy

actively engaged
In

command

of the

he

captured

two

harbor

of

In

attack

the

San

April, 1825;

in the

with

war

the

on

March

forts

in

6, 1860.

Ironsides.

the

Pacific
made

was

tired.

In

1869-70

Squadron.

the

May,

he

1868,

rear-admiral, and in 1870 redied in Glen, Mills, Pa., March

He

24, 1883.
Around

in
had

Falls,

the
as

May,

South

ENGAGEMENT

falls in the

Turner's
1676.

AT

Connecticut

sharp
large body
a

action
of

River
occurred

fort

Neuse

(Jan.

28,

wounding

400

they

of

800

Tuscaroras

1712),

They

it.

At

war

subdued

were

by

Carolina, at their
(March
20), who

them.

fled

of them.

broke

soon

Snow-hill

near

from
battle

in

Moore, of South

captured

troops

assailed

them

but
peace,
in
1713,

again

1711, but

of the

chastised
the

fought near
killing and

The

remaining
joined

and

northward,

kindred
of the
Iroquois Confederconstituting the sixth nation of that
388
Tuscaleague. In 1899 there were
acy,

of Indians.

He

found

them

fast

the

Tutuila.

desolated

Deerfield, were
encamped
Captain Turner was then in command
of the English troops in the valley, and,
started
taking 120 mounted
on
a
men,
night ride through Hadley and Deerfield

at

roras

Indians, who

here.

in search

Carolina

in
aid

their

Turner's

known

Carolina
to the

came

Colonel

he commanded

In

North

that

made

Charleston

Harbor, in April, 1863, he commanded


New

in

was

Mexico,

sloop-of-warSaratoga,
in the
Spanish steamers

Antonio,

divided
into
Europeans came.
They Avere
seven
clans, and at the beginning of the
eighteenth century occupied fifteen villages and had 1,200 warriors.
They atthe white
tempted to exterminate
people

Twain,

New

York

See

SAMOAN

agency.
ISLANDS.

See

CLEMENS,

MARK.

SAMUEL

LANGHORNE.
WILLIAM

Tweed,
born

in

MARCY,
politician;
City, April 3, 1823;

York

New

brought up in the trade


making, but finallystudied law

was

of

chair-

and

was

admitted
to the bar.
different
At
times
asleep in their camp, and surprised them,
Many fled to their canoes, but, leaving from 1850 to 1870 he filled several public
their paddles behind, went
the falls, offices, municipal, State, and
over
national,
Others
hid
of Congress in 1853-55,
the
being a member
rocks, and
away
among
were
State
killed, and others were
and
Senator
in 1867.
shot
while
a
Being apAfter
the battle
of public works
for
crossing the river.
the
pointed commissioner
bodies
of 100 Indians
the
York
in 1870, he
found
dead
were
at
succity of New
their camp,
and
140 who
with
went
a
the
over
ceeded, in connection
ring," of
falls perished. About
300
which
Indians
he was
the leader, in appropriating
were
lost only one
of public money
to his own
destroyed. Turner
vast sums
use.
man.
"

Another
on

his

of
party
track, and

troops when

it

Indians

rumored

was

Philip, with
1,000 men,
was
A
running fight occurred.
killed, many

of

his

Captain Holyoke,

men

who

were

panic

were

took

He

soon

seized

the

that
in

King
pursuit,

Turner

was

slain, and
command

of
134

and

arrested

was

released.

was

re-elected

State

his

In

seat.

charges

on

in office,but

sance

gave
Soon

bail in

he

was

$12,550, and

malfea-

$1,000,000,

afterwards

Senator, but

1873

of

did

he
not

was

take

guilty of

found

sentenced

fraud,

fined

twelve

years' imprisonment.

In

1875

to
a

TWIOBOHLL-^TWIOOS
suit

brought

was

against him by the


New
of
people
York

to

recover

which

$6,000,000
he

had

ly

fraudulent

appropriated ;

but

the

15, in

June

on

the

year,

same

of

court

appeals

decided

that

his

imprisonment
because
illegal,
below

court

ceeded
in

was

the

had

its

ex

powers

pronouncing

cumulative
tence

at

him.

against

Being
from

released

jail, he

was

ordered

once

find

sen

bail

$3,-

in the

000,000

to

for

civil

suits then
pending
against him, and,
failingto secure
it,
he

sent

was

Ludlow
On

Dec.

charge

to

home,

and

there

he

per
visit his
while

escaped

his way
of
was

ever

rested

by

United

to

Spain.

His

liberty,how-

duration;

short

order

and

ment,

WJLLIAM

of

delivered

the

was

ar-

Spanish
the

to

he

governofficers of the

to
New
Being returned
in
LudYork, he was
again imprisoned
low
Street
jail,and there he died April
The
and
12, 1878.
operations of Tweed
his associates
known
the Tweed
as
Ring
in
during their five years' domination

States.

"

"

New

York

bonded
nual
the

added

debt

enormous

man;

born

uated

at

ied at

the

of

over

$100,000,000 to the

its ancity, doubled


and
cost
expenditures,
tax-payers
the

Church
He

at

wrote

TWEED.

Love-Letters,etc.
DAVID
Twiggs,
EMANUEL,

officer;born in Richmond
1790; entered the United

ALTO
He

in

as

and

RESACA

Union

1859;

and

later

Theological and

stud-

Andover

paign

135

in

States

Vera
mand

Cruz.

was

at
a

PALMA

LA

DE

division
in

Early

(qq.

Scott's

military

in

States

Twiggs

in

1847, and

civil and

of United

General

the

v.

Mexico

made

was

Theological seminaries; served


through
the
Civil
War
as
been
chaplain; has
pastor of the Asylum Hill Congregational

military

county, Ga., in

brigadier general June


30,
brevetted
major-general for
MONTEREY
(q. v.). Twiggs

made

was

$160,000,000.
1846, and
HOPKINS,
clergy- gallantry
in Southington, Conn.; grad- commanded
in

1865.
Some

military
captain
spring of 1812,
and became
major of infantry in 1814. In
1836
he became
colonel
of dragoons, and
commander
of a
as
brigade he distinin the
of PALO
battles
guished himself
service

JOSEPH

Yale

Hartford, Conn., since


Life of John
Winthrop;

Puritan

of

sum

Twichell,

MARCT

and

custody,

made

in

keep-

was

mitted

from

jail.

4,

of two

he

ers,

to

Street

had

1861

he

in

governor
in
was

troops in
served

his

cam-

he

1848

of
com-

Texas,

country

did

characters

under

been

the

Confederate

the

command

the

seems

control

complete

leaders.

of

few

not

He

of

Department

weeks

before

foiled

to

ent

routes.

of

Feb.

two

with

One

them

of

He

did

Waito

mischief

had

been

had

commit

not

orders,

reached

dreaded

the

suspicion,
the

them, by differ-

accomplished. Twiggs

tious.

Texas

of

eye

duplicated

couriers

but

17;

been

He

cau-

himself

in

"

writing ; he always said, I will give up


A
to be recorded.
State
He
convention
in everything."
allowed
to
was
now
Texas
of safety, temporize no
appointed a committee
longer. He had to find an
of their
sent
who
for surrendering his troops, contwo
number
(Devine excuse
and
to treat with
for
It was
Maverick)
sisting of two skeleton
Twiggs
corps.
the surrender
of United
States troops and
Ben McCulloch, the famous
readily found.
only

into

property

the

hands

Confederates.

War
in

about

act

of

had

Twiggs
disloyalty.

signs of
ported to the
Secretary Holt,

the

sent

keen

the

them.

and

placed

was

with

general

years,

many
him.
He

spare
Georgia, and

of

native

was

have

for forty
corrupted so

which

virus

the

noble

in

its armies

in

honorably
but

EMANUEL

DAVH"

TWIGGS,

the

These

had

shown

been

Department,
general order

Texan

Texas

already

A.M.

re-

far

not
was
ranger,
He
approached

men.

Feb.

on

when

armed

(Jan.

(q. v.)

KNIGHTS

OF

the

near

had

He

10.

able

body

into

the

1,000

Antonio

at

been

With

CIRCLE
consider

rushed

followers, he

yells and
pretending

with

town

possession. Twiggs
McCulloch
surprised, met
Main

7th)

the

to

gave
up
ties of Texas
that

and

the

all the

ment.
the

was

ed

States

of

his

ed, in
visit

the

army

letter to the
in

Buchanan

him

to

him

leave

to

18), relieved him


Texas, and
gave
of the arrival

they took

ing

Colonel

tant;
who

but
had

it

the

and

to

Waite, who
the

the

60

Colonel

movements

miles

and
New
of

was

Twiggs
a

then

was

the

short

1861.

He

died

in

to

in

the

Hamilton,

Harbor.
an

Confederate

time

offi

allowed

given

im-

army,

command

Orleans, resigning towards

15, 1862.
136

for

York

to New

portant positionin

dis-

the

entrance

General

to

call

their

went

at the

Nichols,
of

and

A.

heard

flag

to

were

North, taking quarters in Fort

in San

was

of

most

loyal,

Texas,

the

threaten

ex-President,

in

Antonio,
prevent its reach-

vigilant

watched

Charles

Maverick

of the order

measures

command

Col.

to

Devine

When

Waite.

from

dis
Unit

officially
calling
The
betrayed

traitor."

remained

order

the

person,

for

account
"

When

his

for

treachery to
country." Twiggs

effective

for
of

at
sur

depart
deprived

army.
of it, an

troops, who, with


TWIGGS.

his

in

regular

the

"from

missal

cers,

He

By this act Twiggs


of the most
government

heard
government
issued
(March
1)

the

stores

valued,

war,

forts

num

the

$1,200,000.

all the

of

forces
in

2,500
all

of

cost, at

portion

He
authori

National

them

with

rendered

early

as

Confederate

munitions

their

EMANUEL

the

consummated.

was

State, about

ber, and

DAVID

be

in

commissioners

the

(begun by

in

took
to

Plaza, and
there, at
noon,
16, a negotiation for surrender

Feb.

as

joined by

GOLDEN

THE

town.
of

off with

San

the

at

close

Augusta, Ga., Sept.

TYLER

TWIGHTWEES"

in

officer; born
and

Academy,

of

Cumberland

the

in

engineer

War

Civil

the

Department
chief engineer

and

as

Ohio.

the

He

in

in North

tain

of

and

was

colonel
the

of volunteers
After

war.

assistant

of

commissioner

United

the

1872-76,

District
died

He

in

as

in

and

of

for

States
as

Columbia

in
D.

Washington,

Potomac.

President

tenth

States, from

of

April 4, 1841, to

in

battle

the

1862, he

the
in

Maryland,
Harper's Ferry.
He
5, resigned April 6, 1864.
York
City, Nov. 30, 1882.
at

Bull
to

division

of

Afterwards
the

Confederate

1863, he

of

ordered

was

commanded

When

briga

troops. Next
he
was
McDowell,

General

and

Connecticut

1st

months'

three

vaded
mand

C., March

1828-29

afterwards

Army of the Mississippi.


was
employed in guarding

he

Upper
in

army
in

was

General
died

com

Tyler
in

New

JOHN"

TYLER,
Tyler, JOHN,

the

command

West,

the

of

1878-82.

In

1819.

soon

March,

In

the

the

1882.

United

in

of

and

to

in

Run.

boundary-

commissioner

rank

second

of

Dakota,

of

survey
line in
the

war

which

Cockspur

on

to

colonel

dier-generalof

Engineering at
States
in
Military Academy
chief
engineer of the Depart

1865-67;
ment

served

France

Volunteers,

gallantry during
he

Point

West

at

became

cap
in 1877;

lieutenant-

and

with

Pulaski

study improvements
artillery; and in May, 1834, he re
practised civil engineering.
signed and
of the Civil War
he
At the breaking out

made

was

major

for

the

Professor

United

the

Carolina;

engineers in 1868;
brevetted
major

en

in

battles
at
in
Tennessee, in the
army
Franklin
and
Nashville, and in the oper
ations

batteries

the

Fort

visited

he

Hood's

General

the

Island, on April 11, 1862.


Tyler, DANIEL,
military officer; born
in Brooklyn, Conn., Jan.
7, 1799; gradu
ated

was

Georgia,

of

erected

breached

he

the

Department of the
engaged in the invasion
the
operations against

pf

served

and

off

Savannah

where

(q. v.)

island

an

River, belonging
the
as
county, Ga.; noted
Gen.
A.
GILLMOKE
QTJINCY

the

Chatham

place

first

1863;
of

remainder

the

assistant

as

was

engineers in

of

lieutenant

commissioned

Island,

to

trance
to

2, 1839;
Military

States

United

the

at

graduated

through

military

JOHNSON,
Indiana, Aug.

WILLIAM

Twining,

Tybee

INDIANS.

MIAMI

See

Twightwees.

the

in

States

of

Vice-President

them

by

March

On

1840.

United

the

death

the

of

Presi

President
he became
(see
City dent Harrison
March
lost the con
He
at
county, Va.,
29, 1790; graduated
CABINET, PRESIDENT'S).
the College of William
and Mary in 1807 ; fidence of both parties by his acts during
4,

admitted

born

Whig;

1845;

the

to

afterwards

he

in

in

bar

1809.

elected

was

legislature,and

was

In
years.
to fill a vacancy

twice

his

administration, and

Virginia

the

Presidential

for

five

in 1845.

ap
and

Webster,

Two

to the

re-elected

was

successive

pointed

Charles

re-elected

in
in

"

he

1816

years

was

Congress

"

which

he

op

posed all internal improvements by the


the
United
States
general government,
Bank, a protective tariff,and all restric
tions on
afterwards
in
slavery. He was
the State
legislature,and in December,
chosen
of Virginia by
1825, was
governor
the legislature,
to fill a vacancy.
In 1827
he
was

firm

became

United

States

in

1833, when

re-elected

supporter

supremacy,
with
the

joined

the

and
South

Whig

of

the

Senator, and
he

doctrine

avowed
Carolina

party,

his

was

of

State

sympathy

Nullifiers.
and

was

in

succeeded

was

by

James

K.

Polk,

All of his cabinet


excepting Mr.
resigned in 1841, and he left it
after an
important treaty had been con
cluded
and ratified (August, 1842), when
him.
The
last
Hugh S. Legare" succeeded
important act of Tyler's administration
of
was
signing the act for the annexation
Texas.

He

had

Presidency by
in May,

ers

ing

that

withdrew

1861, he
vention
died

He

elected

office

he

1844, but
had

from
was

held

been

no

the

137

of

in Richmond,

the

for

office-hold

August, perceiv
popular support, he
in

contest.

In

president of the
at
Washington,
Va., Jan.

'Negotiations with
the

nominated

convention

Great

following specialmessage

February,
con

peace
D.
C.

He

18, 1862.
Britain.

"

In

President

TYLER,
the

details

Tyler

results

several

of

negotiations with
in Washington:

portant
minister

the

im-

British

JOHN

spondence, however, had


various

occurrences,

definite

result

Lord

when

the

Ashburton

WASHINGTON,

Aug. 11, 1842.

movement

Senate

United

forded

in

purpose
should

be

States

of Maine

been

and

retarded

had

no

specialmission
announced.

was

by

to

come

of

This

the

part of England afjudgment of the executive


saisfaction
communicate
favorable
the
to
I have
a
opportunity for making an
the results of the negotia- attempt to settle this long-existingconto the Senate
the
in this city with
tions recently had
or
troversy by some
agreement
treaty
without
further
reference
British
extraordito arbitration,
minister, special and
It seemed
that
if this
entirely proper
nary.
the

To

These

results

First.

States,"

and

settle

to

treaty

the

between

United

the

the

comprise:

boundaries

the
of

of

and

States

define

territories

on

the

entertained

were

had

with
and
of

possessions ters, therefore,

the

with

the

consultation

authorities

which

communicated,

of those States,
governors
commissioners
should
be

cases.

city

and

this

government

Second.

ject of

of the

thorities

of

West
vessels

weather

driven

carried

or

Third.

the

and

attack

steamboat

au-

with

Indies

by

violence

by

sub-

the

destruction

of

the

Caroline.

Fourth.

sub-

the

correspondenceon

this

If

treaty

probation
a

has

ernments, has
ineffectual

ing

led

which

ernment
to

make

United

of

mencement

had

the

mission,

failed

had
it

governments
with

an

empire

to

make

or
a

an

for

ultimate

arbitrator
final

decision.

ter-

with

the

at

have

authorities

of

line

on

the

part

of

part of Maine,
Massachusetts,

and

high

charac-

of

seat

the

States.

been

in

government

These

commis-

correspondencewith

government during the period of the


discussions; have
enjoyed its confidence
freest

advice, and

in

the

riety

have

end

aided

counsel

and

unanimously
line proposed

to the

assent

of

would

it

and

be

no

task

easy

bring together such

interests

difficult and
the

their

treaty.

to reconcile

in

va-

itself

in

matter

perplexed, but the efforts of


in attempting to accombeen
desirable
object have
sustained
of
a
ac
spirit
by

government
this

seconded

of the
the

com-

the

signifiedtheir
in the

have

communications;

general object with

and

commodation

actu-

States

success

and

conciliation

on

concerned, to which
of

efforts

these

the
much

is to

be

part
of
as-

cribed.

corre-

Connected

between

reference

the
a

of distinction

United

sioners

agreed plish
arbitra-

joint

but
gov-

at the

the

on

Ordinarily

valid-

settle

to

that
year
in progress

been

and

been

found

was

last

had

the

and

the

subject of
had

of

the

dispute,

on

commister, were
duly appointed and
lost no
time
in presenting
sioned, and

has

all the

States
a

arbitration

controversy, and

two

in

been

dispute

but

spondence

title to

with

commissioners
three

all persons

govseveral

the

controverted, and

the

and

concerned

of

doubt

no

has

of the

ally had,

two

States

immediately

was

One

tion.

the

subject of

United

American

title

that

confer

this

which

at settlement, and

the

more

the

apterminate

great irritation, not


disturbing the exist-

of

Both

entertained

ity of
ritory

the

to

danger

peace.
States

have

between

been

attempts

sometimes
without

the

respecting boundary

subsisted

long

the

Senate, it will

of the

difference

receive

shall

to the

suggesting that
appointed by
to repair to this
them, respectively,

themselves

ject of impressment.

addressed

were

by agreement
or
compromise, with its equivalents and
met
compensations. This suggestion was
by both States in a spiritof candor and
patriotism, and promptly complied with,
Four

ports of those colonies.


A
correspondence upon

into the

ject of

colonial

of the

British

merchant

American
stress

correspondence

the interference

sub-

the

on

of

Lethere

copies are

of
her
Britannic
in
North
Majesty
America, for the suppression of the AMof crimand the surrender
can
slave-trade,
from
certain
inals
in
fugitive
justice

each

of the

Massachusetts.

line of the

com-

it

with

the

settlement

northeastern
the

States

boundary,
of

138

as

so

Maine

respects
authority Massachusetts, is the continuation
That
line along the
correhighlands to the
to

of

the
far
and

of that
north-

JOH"

TYLER,
head

westernmost
Which

River.

of

of

is entitled

stream

been

Connecticut

the

the

this

to

of

sources

has

character

controversy and

of

disability. The
lege,perpetual

that

of

covered

of

importance
in its terms,

this

to

privi-

country
present by pine forests of great

at

value, and

much

of

it capable hereafter
agricultural improvement, is not
a
decided
the
which
matter
the opinion of intelliThe
King of the Netherlands
upon
is likely to be divided.
to be the northwesternmost
branch
So far
main
gent men
did not
New
Connecticut.
This
of the
head
as
Hampshire is concerned, the treaty
all that
of
New
she
Hampshire, secures
satisfy the claim
requires, and New
and Vermont
The
line agreed to in the present treaty York
are
quieted to the extent
of their claim
follows the highlands to the head of Hall's
and
occupation. The
matter

interest

Stream,

and

bracing

the

of

have
the

down

thence

that

claim

whole

had

by the

of

decision

of

Hampshire,

New

river,

New

establishingher title
than
territory more

shire, and
acres

of

State

the

to

some

of

difference

em-

to

100,000

she

would

the

seen

By

of

treaty

down

the

Connecticut

proceed
the
forty-fifthdegree of
and
thence
west
by that
the

strikes

St.

animations

latitude

between

roneous,

and

would

error

side

the

only

not

tofore

supposed

Vermont

and

the

those

that

considerable

Recent

as

that

points

leave
of

on

degree

was

to

been

Rouse's

comprehend

British

this
of

last-mentioned

the

and

ron

obtained, and

the

consideration

this

relinquishment is to
provisions of the treaty to

Maine

and

position it

is

of

source

of
the

far

so

rence,
are

the

by

and

missioner
du

St.

Croix

Maine

as

the

to
and

St.

for considerations

the
Law-

Massachusetts
own

con-

thence

Woods.

the

from

the

The

arrived,

Superior, to
British

river

St. Louis

American

The

Rainy
to be to proceed
supposed the true course
by way of the Dog River.
Attempts were
made
to compromise this difference, but

satisfactoryto

without

The

success.

details

of these

the

chief

being

the

privilege of transporting the


agricultural products grown

separate reports of the commissioners,

in Maine

of the

remote

that

peace,

some

treaty

do

lumber

and

and

raised

St.

John

river

and

to the

ocean

its

these

on

tributaries
free from

ceedings are

considerations

the

waters

down

the

to

commissioner

them,

of

com-

on

the

by

Lake.

line

proceeding to Fond
southwest
angle of the lake,

Lac, at the

and

the

in Lake

Royale,

insisted

value,
was

commissioners

the

of the

the
of

boundary, then, from

Lake

the

soil and

difference

extending

Hu-

territories

from

of much

as

of

Lakes

the

Both

regarded

matter

of

for

States

concerned, is fixed by their

sent

Another

Massachusetts.

line

The

inure

thai

present treaty

in

States.

of Isle

been

the

is embraced

United

point

has

between

Superior. By

island

this

of the

the

line

of

of

matters

communication

water

north

true

article

disagreeno
ment, and therefore made
joint report
firs!
to their respectivegovernments. The
of these was
Sugar Island, or St. George
Island, lying in St. Mary's River, or tho

tofore

the

was

commissioners

point and the


commissioners,

the

seventh

the

at which

be

Woods

several

manner

to

Lake

line

the

the

acting under
treaty, found

also

within

of

Lake

lakes

under
the sixth
governments
treaty of Ghent; but be-

two

tween

territoryhere-

Point

the

article

be

St. Lawthe

between

Lake

by

forty-fifth

the
and

of

this

extend, but

and

States.
The
territory of the United
rethe
British
linquishment by
government
of all the territorysouth
of the line hereconsidered

with

the

to

to

the

atlas,

new

of the

latitude

ex-

New

considered

(1836),

maps
9.

Superior
definitelyagreed on by the

belong to the States of


York, but also Rouse's
of the
Point, the site of a military work
United
States, it has been
regarded as
an
object of importance not only to establish
the
rights and
jurisdiction of
those States up to the line to which
they
have

of north

Huron

er-

of

the

it

line of

true

correction

tract

Tanner's

on

and
to. rence
along that river
communication
latitude, to the water

ascertained

received

is to

parallel till

in

made

River

north

Lawrence.

having

line heretofore

line

the

1783

be

Nos. 6 and
maps
From
the intersection

Netherlands.
the

would

boundary of these two States


correcting the parallelof latitude may

of

King

which

northern

Hamp-

impositionor
139

From

found

the

at

length in

the

imperfect knowledge

pro-

printed
of

this

country at the date of the treaty of


of
not

the

descriptions in

harmonize

with

that

its natural

JOHN

TYLER,
features

is nowhere
is

There

name.

the

that

ever,

ascertained.

now

as

"

Lake

to be

for

reason

the

"Long

under

found

treaty,would, it is obvious, occasionThe


in
ally intersect islands.
manner

that

supposing, howintended
by

is the

of
estuary at the mouth
therepresent treaty
Pigeon
fore adopts that
estuary and river, and
that

name

River.

which

of water

sheet

The

the

commissioners
dealt

ernments

be

may
the
river

thus

the

two

difficult

did

gov-

subject

reports. But

where

middle

following the

watercourse

or

of

this

in their

seen

line

with

of the
with

meet

not

liable sometimes
to
islands, yet it was
pursues
the height of land
port- leave the only practicablenavigable chanby the various
nel altogether on
small
lakes till the line reaches
side.
The
one
treaty
ages and
made
of
no
Rainy Lake, from which the commissioners
use
provision for the common
of it to its ter- the waters
agreed on the extension
by the citizens and subjects of
ruination
in the northwest
angle of the both countries.
Lake
of the Woods.
It has
The region of country
happened, therefore, in a few
afterwards

and

on

River

Lac

south

the

region,

is

up

the

St.

It

British

scribed

the

the

45"

require the
intersection
and

tc

party

was

terriof

the

From

After

23' 55"

of

not

the

the

or

choice

be

Thus
passages.
St. Lawrence,

the

if in fact

other

in

in par-

greatly diminished

the

of

use

at the

there

channels

Sault, in

Long

dangerous passage,
practicableonly for boats, the only safe run
is between
and
Sault
the Long
Islands
Earnhardt's
Island
(all of which
belong
a

the

marked

and

the

on

water.

angle
is

River

Pigeon

of

be

to

the

along

run

due

in

to its

south

British

of any depth of water


from
Lake
Erie into
the Detroit
River
is between
Bois Blanc, a
British

Lake

the

found

north, existingtreaties

line to be

sundry

the

one

and

within
a

island, and
So, again, there are

that

parallel

into the

the

to

river

informal

communications

minister

sub-

the

upon

of that

or

passages

and

open

to

and

of

all the

shall

channels

the 'use

islands

its entry
these three

near

In

name.

be

citizens

the

or

facility

several

the

treaty provides that

eral

of

degrees
at

shore,

channels

several

St. Clair

lake

the

cases

Canadian

the

of different
passages
and usefulness
between

forty-fifthparallel, in the

Mountains.

Rocky
with

which

with

thence

and
rock

northwest

Woods,

latitude

the
as

river

of the

use

to the United
States) on one side and the
shore on
the other.
On the one
country is American
be of little value, being de- hand, by far the best passage
for vessels

by surveyors
a region of

as
map
From

of

to

on

the

places would

commissioners

Ghent.

height of land at the head


westerly to the Rainy Lake
understood

Louis
valuable

that

ticular

Fond

northward

of

instances

between

and

embraces

acres

by the
treaty

across

included

thus

States.

set

under

lake

considered

tory of 4,000,000
claim

route

north

river

the

west,

United

usual

of the

shore
on

and
and

mineral
the

the

near

Pigeon
du

the

sev-

free
and

ject of the claims of the two countries to subjectsof both parties,


of the Rocky Mountains,
The
territory west
treaty obligations subsisting belittle probabilitywas
countries
for the suppresthe two
found
so
to exist of tween
slave-trade, and the
coming to any agreement on that subject sion of the African
at present that
it was
not thought expecomplaints made to this government withof
dient
four years, many
it one
to make
of the subjects of in the last three or
formal
negotiation to be entered upon be- them but too well founded, of the visitatween

this

minister

as

government
part of his

and

latitude
outlet
be

strikes
of

drawn

waters,
their
tended

and

main

the

St.

Lake

Lawrence

his

under

special mission.
By the treaty of 1783 the line
ion along rivers and lakes from
where
the
forty-fifthparallel

tion, seizure, and

British

the

duties

could
of divisthe

place

of

north
to

is

the

literal

to

terms

of

but

form

by

have

held.

taken
and
the

been

early

and

government
for

the

inhuman
tenth

part

United

abolition

of

which

States

this

has

unlawful

known.
By
treaty of Ghent

traffic is well
article

it is declared

that

irreconcilable

with

140

the

cruisers

and

highly
negotiations which

prominent
of

American

British

delicate

of the

now

of

detention

coast

important part

the

the

that

on

not

The

Superior
invariably
of
such
through the middle
of
not
through the middle
channels.
Such
a
line,if ex-

according to

vessels

of

the

the
the

traffic in

slaves

principlesof

is
hu-

JOHN

TYLER,

shall

their

use

clared

in

ing

it is thereby

own

has

by
piracy, and
have

made

been

want-

efforts

made

nations

It has

not

zealous

governlaw de-

of

have

proved

slaves
efforts

these

directed

countries

other

end

traffic in

of the

coast, but
to

the

to

of

law

nation

one

for

known

any

and

nations,

its

of

the

by

the
ex-

purpose

acknowledged

under

by

whatever

re-

take place,
or
regulations it may
lead to dangerous results.
It is far
may
to
better
by other means
supersede any
motive
for such
any
Interference
with
a

supposed necessityor
examination

visit.

or

merchant

vessel
cruiser
is
by an armed
always a delicate proceeding, apt to touch
the point of national
honor
well as to
as

the
upon
those
and

considerable

cept those

its

and

means

visitation

of

another

perform

straints

of
the
with
the
wishes
conformity
the
entire
to
whole
accomplish
country,
abolition

of

own

or

vessels

cruisers

the

in

African

power.
examination

merchant

accom-

and

its

it should

that

country
laws

own

obligationsby

to

slave-trade

and

honest

own

its

The

States

enactments.

to

of the

dignity

contracting parties

suggestion other

its

similar

execute

object. The

an

African

the

and

depro-

endeavors

best

United

of the

ment

the

desirable

plish so

at

both

that

agreed

his

are

efforts

; and

abolition

its entire

mote

their

continuing

both

States

United

the

and

of

sirous

that

justice, and

and

inanity
Majesty

same

degree

effect the

interests

of

individuals.

It has

been

thought, therefore, expedient, not


in
accordance
with
entered
into some
between
the stipulations
been
only
years
ago
at the
of the treaty of Ghent, but
the former
same
England and France
by which
which
a
large time as removing all pretext on the part
usually maintains
power,
of
naval
force on
for violating the immunities
the African
of others
Station, was
adAmerican
to seize and
for
the
the
authorized
in
as
flag
bring
they
seas,
upon
judication vessels found
engaged in the exist and are defined by the law of naslave-trade
the French
subunder
tions, to enter into the articles now
flag.
Treaties

unsuccessful.

known

is

are

in

known

to have

last

mitted

signed
by
representatives
of
England, France, Russia,
Prussia, and Austria, having for its professed
effort
object a strong and united

The

proposes
ification

of

the

two

the

coast

It

treaty

that

December

in London

was

to put
five powers
traffic. This treaty was
not

the

municated

yet ratified

not

No

this

in

regard

government
this treaty, but the
of

the

as

tains

have

and

part of France.
request has been made
to become
party to

it has

course

it

excited

and

the

Senate.

of
It

which

submit

now

to

alteration, mitigation,or

no

the

rules

of

the

provides simply
shall

governments

which
principle upon
stipulationswhich

caused

my

countries

Africa

of

of

law

that

you
modna-

of

each

maintain

sufficient

on

squadron

in

Eu-

animadversions

warm

at
message
session

con-

the

commencement

suppression of

consideration

Another
has

tance

duties

era

coast

to

think

gaged
and
and
same

of

to

in

Our

be

and

commerce

of Africa

of
this

recommended

fillingthe

posed

it is
it

for the

the

slave-

trade.

country.

de-

small

discussion

the

take

might

no

great politicalexcitement.

In
of

to

attention

rope,
founded

and

comofficially

tions.

the

on

applicationor

to

gree

the

to

supposed to be accurately known


to
be
public. It is understood

are

the

to

end

an

the

to

treaty

of the United
to the government
to enforce
separately and respectivelythe
its provisions and
but
stipula- laws, rights, and obligations of the two

States,
tions

the

that

in

impor-

mode

of

ful-

obligations of the
along the west-

is extensive, and

increasing.

it have

great

There

is

sup-

reason

those
cases
enmany
with
met
interruptions

caused
by the jealousy
annoyances
instigation of rivals engaged in the
trade.
Many complaints on this sub-

A
reached
the
Congress, I enject have
government.
deavored
to state the principleswhich
this
force
is
the
coast
on
respectable naval
and
resort
supports respecting the right the natural
government
security against
of search
and the immunity of flags. Defurther
of this kind,
occurrences
sirous
of
to justiceof persons
maintaining those
who,
principles The surrender
time
that
fully, at the same
existing having committed
high crimes, seek an
be
obligations should
fulfilled, I have
asylum in the territories of a neighboring
nation
would
act due to the
te be an
thought it mest consistent with the honor
seem

present

141

JOHN

TYLER,
of

cause

longing
and

tion

general justice and properly bethe present state of civiliza-

to

intercourse.
America

inces of North
the

of the

States

miles, and

eral thousand
line

this

Union

amount

the

The
are

British

provseparated from
line of

sev-

ceased

discussed

submitted,
violation

as

of

States.

The

in
it
the

to be

attention
It

fresh

to it

on

and
the

has

only been so
the correspondence now
was
accomplished by a
territory of the United

letter of the

British

minister,

attempts to justify that violation upon


the ground of a pressing and
of
passage
Offenders
overruling necessity,admitting, nevertheother,
if justifiablean
the
themselves
to
less, that even
transfer
eide
apology
for
due
and
Sometimes
with
are
was
it,
accompanying this
great difficultythey
with
of the
assurances
brought to justice,but very often they acknowledgment
for the
of imsacred
consciousness
A
regard of his government
wholly escape.
national
of avoiding jus- inviolability of
territory, has
munity from the power
forto
sufficient to warrant
tice in this way
me
instigates the unprin- seemed
of
further
remonstrance
commission
from
bearance
any
cipled and reckless to the
took place as an
and
the peace
aggression
good neigh- against what
offences, and
borhood
of the border
are
consequently on the soil and territory of the country,
On
the subject of the interference
of the
often disturbed.
British
authorities
in the West
of offenders
In
the
Indies, a
case
fleeing from
that the corCanada
into the United
States, the gov- confident hope is entertained
has
taken
often applied to for r"spondence which
of States
are
place, showernors
this
taken
the
of
and
a
their surrender,
by
government,
ing
grounds
questions
very
embarrassing nature arise from these a$- and the engagements entered into by the
plications. It has been thought highly British minister, will be found such as to
important, therefore, to provide for the satisfy the just expectation of the people
States.
whole
case
by a proper treaty stipulation, of the United
from
The
article on
the
merThe
impressment of seamen
subject in the proposed treaty is carefully confined to such chant vessels of this country by British
all mankind
to regard cruisers, although not practised in time of
offences
as
agree
not
at present a proof
destructive
the
and
heinous
securas
peace, and therefore
careful
and
this
difference
In
ductive
of
life
and
of
irritation,
cause
ity
property.
of crimes
the
and
has, nevertheless, hitherto been so promispecifiedenumeration
all political nent a topic of controversy, and is so likeobject has been to exclude
contentions
at
renewed
criminal
off ences
or
charges arising from
]y to bring on
commotions.
intestine
the first breaking out of a European war,
Treason,
wars
or
it has
been
that
thought the part of
misprision of treason, libels,desertion from
and
simito
of
take
it into serious
offences
wisdom
and
other
now
military service,
either

lar

quite considerable, while the


the boundary is always easy.
against the law on the one

had

occurrence

recent, not to omit


present occasion.
far

by
along portions of
of population on
a

the

side is

character

And

lest

are
some

excluded.
unforeseen

while

earnest

inconvenience

he

consideration.

letter from

The

the

Secretary of State to the British minister


explains the ground which the government
it
and
assumed
the principles which
has

unexpected abuse should arise from the


in
stipulation rendering its continuance
of these
to uphold. For the defence
of
the
both
the opinion of one
or
parties means
of
these
maintenance
is
left
the
and
the
not
it
in
pringrounds
longer desirable,
power
end to it at will.
of either to put an
ciples the most perfect reliance is placed
Carodestruction
the intelligenceof the American
of the steamboat
The
on
peoand
their
firmness
five years
four
patriotline at Schlosser
or
pie and on
ago
of the
the honor
touches
ism in whatever
occasioned
small
no
degree of excitement
inessential
and
its
of
the
and
became
the
great
at
country or
time,
subject
terests.
two
the
between
correspondence
governOn
Texas.
The
April 22,
That
ments.
Treaty with
correspondence,having been
1844, President
Tyler sent the following
suspended for a considerable
period, was
to the Congress concernrenewed
in the spring of the last year,
specialmessage
States
the United
between
the
but
treaty
no
satisfactory result having been ing
and
Texas
arrived
it
:
was
at,
thought proper, though
or

"

142

JO

TYLER,

April 22, 1844.

WASHINGTON,
To

the

Senate

United

the

of

States,"

approval
herewith, for your
I have
ratification, a treaty which

transmit

and
caused

to

Unit

the

negotiated between

be

States

and

whereby

Texas,

In
States.
jurisdiction to the United
I
have
been
a
so
step
important
taking
to be
influenced
by what
appeared to me
of
the
most
controlling considerations
public policy and the general good, and
it meet
in having accomplished it, should
approval, the government will have
your
succeeded
in reclaiming a territorywhich
constituted
a
formerly
portion, as it is
under
confidently believed, of its domain
the treaty of cession
of 1803
by France

the

to

United

The

States.
thus

proposed to be
settled principallyby

country
has

been

from

the

nexed
sons

grated

the

on

Mexico,

United

invitation

and

wilderness

the

which

tially reclaimed
political and
their

native

of both

carried

who

with

per
emi

Spain

and

them

into

they have
par
laws, customs, and

the

domestic

institutions

if it does

of

land.

confederacy.

Union

our

and

firm

inflexible

and

reso

lution

to assist in maintaining the


pub
consideration
a
liberty unimpaired

lic

which,

as
as

it appears
small
no

try itself thus


value

in

point

of

to

of

is to

me,

obtained

is of

view.

To

re

coun

incalculable

agricultural and

an

be

The

moment.

commercial

soil

of

inexhaus

a
fertility it unites
genial and
healthy climate, and is destined at a day
not
to
distant
make
large contributions

to

the

of

commerce

the

world.

Its

river
and

Sabine
its

those
of
are

for

productions

of

the

distance

of

many
Union.

are

the

Such

add

to

Union.

As

asserted

that

ductions

to

the
the

the

310

to

its

by the
miles,
States

latter, it may

capaci
of

be

the

safely

in the

it will

addition

of the home

be

easily

cannot

made

market

the

character

and

Middle

the

treaty

are

the

secured
and
be

me

of

and

im

ad
many
the Eastern

to

accrue

States

of the

some

will

to
com

to

thus

mining, manufacturing,
skill and
industry will
the most
commanding

chanical

by the

of

ratification

of
advantages the extent
which
it is impossible to estimate
with
or
properly to appreciate. Tex
accuracy
culture
of cot
as, being adapted to the
of
ton, sugar, and rice, and devoting most
her energies to the raising of these pro
"

ductions, will
the

of beef,

well

in

as

time,

the

States

will

extensive

an
open
States

Western

articles

in

the

find

market

important

pork, horses, mules, etc.,

breadstuffs.

Southern

duration.
tide

in

At

and
the

the

same

Southeastern

fact

of annexation

Thus

magnitude of its pro


equal in a short time,
143

at

the

time

same

that

of

public prosperity is greatly


to the
swollen, an appeal of what
appears
to be of an
executive
imposing, if not of

the

with

wealth

their

distant, to swell

not

resistless, character

interests

country, such

such

general

ter

States

same

contiguous

is the

its inhabitants, and

ties to

of

that

boundaries

ual

tible

ritory is separated from the United


in part by an
imaginary line, and

of

protection and security to their peace and


tranquillity,as well against all domestic
as
foreign efforts to disturb them, thus
the union
of the States
consecrating anew
and holding out the promise of its perpet

"

garded

States

powerful impulse

be

magnitude which
puted; while the

as

to

and

new

govern
combined

of the

time, and

of

devotion

many
A

this
the

surpass,
of the

remarkable
a
already attained
degree of
prosperity by the partial monopoly they
have
enjoyed of the carrying-trade of the
Union, particularly the coastwise
trade,
which
this new
acquisition is destined in

in

reassociation

not

given to the navigating in


will be chief
country, which
fellow-citizens
of
ly engrossed by. our
the Eastern
and
Middle
have
States, who

liberty,and
act

thus

terest

to

the

of

production

They are
deeply in
in all the principles of civil
will bring along with
them

doctrinated

of

protecting care

portant. Such
vantages which

an

States, who

the

ment,

will

the

latter,
set
herein
the
conditions
on
forth, has
and
transferred
conveyed all its right of
separate and independent sovereignty and

ed

under

of every
Agriculture, which
extensive

is

portion
would

made

have

opened for
whose
ships would
commerce,
with
the rich productions of
and
fertile region; and
the
arts, in
would

seem

mand

for

But

may

market

all

their
to

the

in

these
are

to

be
an

and

new

produce;
freighted
extensive

mechanical

ramifications,
universal

one

ratification

important as
they

appear,

various

unite

country.

its

the

to

of the

of

the

de

treaty.

considerations
be

regarded

as

JOHN

TYLER,
secondary

but

off her

dependence

1836, and

as

dence

since

year,

Texas, for reaherself, threw

by

Mexico

on

her

of San

which

far

as

consummated
battle

the

by

same

others.

to

sufficient

deemed

sons

back

indepen-

Jacinto

period

wisdom
their
to
own
interests,
would, it is fairlyto be presumed, readily
more

in the
has

Mexico

such

adopt

expedients; or she would


proffer of discriminating

out

the

in

trade

and

the

cure

in

commerce

order

assistance.

necessary

hold
duties
to

se

Whatever

step she might adopt looking to this obfeat- ject would


the contest
has assumed
disastrous
in the highprove
est
of a mere
border
characterized
ures
degree to the interests of the whole
war,
Union.
To
In the
by acts revolting to humanity.
say nothing of the impolicy
of
1836
Texas
her
our
constitution,
permitting the carrying-trade and
adopted
year
under
which
market
she has existed as a sovereign home
of such a country to pass out
hands
into those of a commercial
ever
since, having been recognized of our
power
such
of the principal powers
as
rival,the government, in the first place,
by many
would
of the world; and contemporaneously with
be
certain
disasto suffer
most
its adoption, by a solemn
vote
of her peotrously in its revenue
by the introduction
pie, embracing all her population but of a system of smuggling upon an extensive scale, which
of custom-house
an
ninety-threepe/sons, declared her anxious
army
attempted
ritory,but

desire
the

serious

no

be admitted

to

United

has

of her
as

has

course

the

her

the

desire

been

adopted by

been

it.

herself

tive of the

her, has

denied

that

to

without
measures

in-

No

accomplish

it, and the execuStates, concurring with

sufficient

no

of

by

an

her

Under

to avoid

reason

esteemed

act

both.

is

Texas

Mexico.

foot

on

This

wills

United

seen

energies by

with
it

set

desirable

so

her

her

sinister

any

consummation

be

annexation.

part of this government.

Texas

with

officers could

not

prevent, and

which

would

for

of

trigue has

the

as

authorities, susby popular sentiment, she

employment

on

association

ter-

constituted

it is

reaffirms

of her

portion of their operate to affect injuriously the interclasses of this


vote, thus solemnly taken, ests of all the industrial
arise constant
colreversed, and now
by the country. Hence would

been

never

tained

into

States

territory. This
action

invasion

It

cannot

their

ger

inhabitants

would

A
peace.
force of the

of the

evermore

large

two

endanof

increase

the

United
States would
military
inevitablyfollow, thus devolving upon the
in
and
people new
extraordinary burdens
order

not

only

from

protect them

to

the

of

daily collision with Texas herbut


to
self,
guard their border inhabitants
hostile
inroads, so easily excited
against
danger

the

to

on

tribes

circumstances

the

countries, which

be

greatly depressed in
long-protracted war
these

lisions between

part of the
of Indians

borhood.
able

Texas

warlike

and

numerous

dwelling in their neighwould


undoubtedly be un-

for

to

many
years
time, to resist unaided

if at

come,

and

the

alone

any
mil-

is

but
of the United
natural
that
she
States; but it
should
seek
ilary power
safety and repose under the protection is not extravagant to suppose that nations
of some
her
from
trade,
stronger power, and it is equally reaping a rich harvest
that
her
them
secured
so
to
by the
turn
to the
advantageous
people should
United
be induced
to take
States, the land of their birth, treaties, would
part
in
the
first instance, in
the
pursuit with her in any conflict with us, from the
of
such
of public policy,
has
often
protection. She
strongest considerations
before made
her wishes, but
known
Such
of
state
her
a
things might subject
advances
have
the territory of contiguto this time
been
repelled, to devastation
for

The

executive

no

longer

to

look

of

the

United

States

ous

sees

States, and

would

cost

the

country

for

more
treasure,
single campaign
pursuing such a in a
course.
of now
defeating her thrice told over, than is stipulated to be
wishes
be of the most
reimbursed
fatal tendency, paid and
by the treaty now
may
It might lead, and
I will not permost
probably would, proposed for ratification.
to such
of the
this
view
entire alienation
dwell
to
an
mit
of sentiment
on
myself
and feelingas would
characfatal
of
a
induce
her
inevitably
subject. Consequences
cause
any
The
hazard

either
with

elsewhere
to

other

for

aid, and

force

her

into

dangerous alliances
nations, who, looking with

enter

144

ter
to

to

the

might

the

peace

of

preservation
be

dwelt

the
of

upon.

Union,
the

and

They

even

itself,
will
not,

Union

JOHN

TYLER,
however, fail to
Senate

and
in

dulge
future.

sion,

country.

vague
any
documents
The

mind

of the

conjectures
now

of

as

transmitted

in

the

and

American

islands

Scotia, the

Nova
seas,

with

Texas

tram-

of

our

the

right to
This

own.

interference.

other

of

exercise

With
the

due

regard

cannot

permit

con-

such

any

equal, if not

greater,

United

demand

to

governments
and

government

its honor

propriety might

the

be

Brunswick,

to

sistentlywith

the

will seek for


rejected Texas
the friendshipof others.
In contemplating
such
be
overa
contingency it cannot
that the United
looked
States are
already
surrounded
almost
by the possessions of
The
New
Canadas,
European powers.
tendered

claim

we

I in-

do

Nor

treaty lead to the concluinevitable, that if the boon now

with

along

to the

occur

of the

States
surrender

their

acquisitionsmade
in past time
at numberless
places on the
surface
of the globe, whereby
they have
added
and
to their power
enlarged their

numerous

valuable

resources.

To

Mexico

to

pursue
acter, and

the
course

at the

executive

is

conciliatoryin
same

time

to

disposed
its char-

render

her

and
ample justiceby conventions
inconsistent
commercial
with
the
character
differing in policy stipulations not
United
from
that
of the
States, would
rights and dignity of the government. It
Texas
voluntarily is actuated
by no
complete the circle.
spirit of unjust aghonor
looks
of
but
terms
forth,
steps
perfect
only to its own
grandizement,
upon
known
to Mexico
and
good faith to all nations, to ask to security. It has made
indeat several
the
Union.
As
be annexed
to
an
periods its extreme
anxiety to
the termination
of hostilities bependent sovereignty her right to do this witness
that country and Texas.
is unquestionable. In doing so she gives tween
Its wishes,
of umbrage to any other power;
been
no
cause
however, have
entirely disregarded,
slavher people desire it, and there is no
It has
adbeen
ever
ready to urge an
indeish transfer
of her sovereignty and
terms
mutjustment of the dispute upon
It will be
ually advantageous to both.
pendence. She has for eight years maintained
her
independence against all ef- ready at all times to hear and discuss any
melled

forts

by

to

treaties

subdue

her.

of

alliance

She

has

or

been

rec-

the

most

claims

Mexico

may

think

she

has

on

the

of the
States, and to adindependent by many
justice of the United
most
of
of
the
be deemed
to be so
nations, just any that may
on
family
prominent
and
that recognition,so far as
the
liberal
There
is no
deare
most
terms.
they
sire on
to
the
concerned, places her in a position,withpart of the executive
out
of umbrage to
wound
her pride or affect injuriously her
giving any just cause
her sovereignty at her
time
it canthem, to surrender
interest,but at the same
will and pleasure. The United
own
States, not compromise by any delay in its action
actuated
States,
evermore
by a spirit of justice, the essential interests of the United
has
desired
has no
by the stipulations of the Mexico
right to ask or expect this
deal rightfully with
of us;
Texas
as
we
treaty to render justiceto all. They have
the
of
which
made
for
the
The
an
war
independent
provision
payment
power.
look to her amhas
been
We
public debt of Texas.
waged for eight years has recertain
suited
all
fertile domain
the
with
as
pie and
only in the conviction
herself
cannot
of accomplishing this; but this is others
than
that
Texas
means
and
be
the United
States
but
between
matter
a
repeat
reconquered. I cannot
the opinion expressed in my
and
with
which
other
at
Texas,
governments
message
it
is
receive
time
to
to
the
of
that
have
do.
Our
nothing
right
Congress
opening
The
the rich grant tendered
executive, while it
by Texas is per- it had ceased.
look
could
its longer continu
not
feet,and this government should not, havupon
honor
without
the greatest uneasiness, has,
ance
ing due respect either to its own
its own
or
nevertheless, for all past time preserved
interests, permit its course
of strict neutrality. It could not
of policy to be interrupted by the inter- a course
ference
if
such
inbe
of other
even
ignorant of the fact of the exhaustion
powers,
had
which
of so
terference
threatened.
The
a
war
were
long duration
question
it ignorant
of all was
Least
is one
In the acquisi- produced.
purely American.
to induce
of the anxiety of other
tion, while we abstain most carefullyfrom
powers
into terms
of reconciliaMexico
all that could interrupt the public peace,
to enter

ognized

ix.~

as

145

JOHN

TYLER,
tion

ized government
earth having a volun
on
it of a domain
rich
so
tary tender made
and
fertile,so replete with all that can
add to national
greatness and wealth, and

Texas, which, affectingthe do


of Texas, would
oper

with

mestic

institutions

the
United
injuriously upon
most
threaten
might
seriously
the existence
of this happy Union.
Nor
it be unacquainted with
fact
could
the
that although foreign governments
might
disavow
all design to disturb
rela
the
ate

most

States, and

to its peace and safety,that it


so
necessary
would
Nor
other
reject the offer.
are

Mexico

inclusive,likely in any
injuriously affected by th"
ratification of the treaty. The
tions which
exist under
the Constitution
prosperity
of Texas
will be equally interestingto all ;
between
these
the
States, yet that one
in the increase
of the general commerce
most
had
them
not fail
powerful among
of the world
that
to
ed
declare
its marked
and
decided
prosperity will be se
cured by annexation.
hostilityto the chief feature in those rela
view
of the subject remains
But
tions and
to
one
its purpose
all suitable
on
oc
be
It
of
the
out
casions
to urge
Mexico
the
presented.
grows
pro
adoption
upon
of such a course
in negotiatingwith Texas
posed enlargement of our territory. From
free to confess, I see
dan
no
to produce the obliteration
this, I am
as
of that feat
federative
The
from
her
domestic
system is susceptible
of ger.
ure
policy as one
of the greatest extension
the conditions
compatible with
of her recognitionby Mex
of the
the
of
the
ico as
ability
representation
State.
The
an
execu
independent
distant State or Territoryto reach the
most
tive was
also aware
of the fact that for
of government
in time to participate
seat
midable
associations
of persons,
the sub
in the functions
and to make
of legislation
jects of foreign powers, existed, who were
constituent
known
the
of
the
wants
body.
efforts to the ac
directing their utmost
republic consisted orig
complishment of this object. To these Our confederated
It now
conclusions
it was
con
inevitably brought by inally of thirteen members.
sists of twice that number, while
the documents
to the Sen
submitted
applica
now
before Congress to permit other
I repeat, the executive
ate.
Texas
in tions are
saw
additions.
This
addition
of new
States
state of almost
a
hopeless exhaustion, and
to
has
served
to strengthen rather
the question was
than
narrowed
down
to
the
weaken
Union.
the
interests
have
New
whether
the
United
simple proposition
States
should
require the united power
accept the boon of annexa
sprung
up, which
tion
of
fair
the
action
of the common
and
liberal
all,
even
through
terms,
upon
by refusing to do so, force Texas
government, to protect and defend
or,
upon
seek
to
the high seas
and in foreign parts. Each
of
some
refuge in the arms
other
either
with
perfect security to
through a treaty State commits
power,
of alliance, offensive

adoption of some
might virtually
such

and
powre,
all future
time.

been
and

the

result

that

such

event

either

ratification

defensive,

or

expedient
tributary to
it for
dependent upon
The

her

executive

that

such

without
will

would

its

be

the

full

has

in

growing
nations

other

the

delay in the
unnecessary
of the rejectionof the pro

of

equally involve
Its

domestic

to

of

out

the

in

force

require

an

territorial
distance

the

and

if there

objection it

stretch

to

would

own

were
seem

of

abandonment

immediate

possessions

States.
its

left to

But

management.

which

of all the

are

with

and

world,

good

concerns

relations

our

the

great in

those

government

common

terests

interposition,any
result

be

to

exclusive

have

of
or

degree

that

the

which

make

believe

to

reason

and
other

powers,

lie

which
a

far-off

in
sea,

the
and

would
be found, it is believed,
posed treaty.
yet no one
In full view, then, of the highest public ready to recommend
such an abandonment.
in our
and
of security against Texas
doors
lies at our
duty, and as a measure
very
evils incalculablygreat, the executive
has
immediate
vicinity.
into the negotiation,the fruits of
been
entered
which
I have
view
Under
every
which

are

Independent
existed

submitted

now

of

for the

the

to

urgent

step it

has

Senate.

the

reasons

taken, it might
(which it confi

the
fact
safely invoke
dently believes) that there

exists

no

civil

take

of

the

the

interests

of

our

the

people of

all the

the

Union

able

which

to

ternative
146

to

States, and

a.

love

of

other

al

negotiatethe treaty.

The

left the
than

subject, I think that


constituents,
common
executive

no

TYLER"

TYBKEB
eral

high and solemn


duty of ratifying or re
the Sen
on
jecting it is wisely devolved
of the
United
ate
by the Constitution

of

volunteers

in

November,

1862;

and

at
Fredericksdistinguished himself
burg, Chancellorsville, Gettysburg, Spott-

States.

sylvania, and
GARDINER, educator; born
City county, Va., in August,

Tyler, LYON

Cold

Harbor.

He

bre-

was

vetted

major-general of volunteers and ma


in Charles
States
in 1865.
jor-general,United
army,
John
of
President
he was
son
1853;
Tyler; After the war
assigned to duty in
at
the
the Quartermaster's
graduated
University of Vir
Department at New
Professor
York
in
of
Belles-Let1875;
ginia
City, San
Francisco, Louisville,
at
tres
William
and
died in Bos
He
Mary
College in Charleston, and Boston.
in
1877-78;
ton, Mass., Dec. 1, 1874.
Richmond,
practised law
elected
1882-88;
Va., in
Tyndale,
president of
HECTOR,
military officer;
William
and
born in Philadelphia,Pa., March
He
Mary
24, 1821.
College in 1888.
is the author
of The
He was
Letters
and
not opposed to slavery and
Times
had no
and
with
the
of the Tylers; Parties
Patronage in sympathy
expedition of John
the United
Brown
Mrs.
about
was
States; Cradle of the Republic; Brown; but when
Contribution
to pass through Philadelphia on
The
and
her way
of William
Mary
to claim
the body of her husband
to the Making
after
of the Union, etc.
COIT, clergyman; born in his execution, Tyndale took the risk of
Tyler, MOSES
not
the
Griswold, Conn., Aug. 2, 1835; graduated escorting her, and
only became
at Yale
shot
College in 1857; studied theology object of insults and threats, but was
and Andover
at Yale
of English at by an
A
of
number
unseen
; Professor
person.
Southern
at the University of Michigan in 1867declared
that the re
newspapers
of John
81 ; ordained
in the Protestant
would
Brown
be re
never
Episcopal mains
turned
in 1883;
Church
to his friends, but
Professor
of American
a
"nigger's"
1881
When
the au
body would be substituted.
History at Cornell University from
thorities
till his death.
offered the coffin to Tyndale he
His
include
publications
to
Literature
History of American
during declined
accept it till it was
opened
the Colonial
Period; Manual
of English
Literature; Life of Patrick
Henry; Three
Men
of Letters; The Literary History of
the American
Glimpses
Revolution; and
of England, Social, Political,and Literary.
He died in Ithaca, N. Y., Dec. 28, 1900.
Tyler, RANSOM
HEBBARD, author; born
in Leyden, Mass., Nov.
He
was18, 1813.
district
county judge for
attorney and
Oswego county, and editor of the Oswego
books

Gazette.

In

and

legal subjects he
of the
sketches
early

articles

series
in

of

addition

to

numerous

on

wrote

and

the

Civil

remains

War

broke

major

of

teers,

with

the

identified.
out

28th

Tyndale

When
was

Pennsylvania

which

he

the
made
Volun

participated

in

He
thirty-three different
engagements.
was
promoted brigadier-generalof volun
in November,
teers
brevetted
1862, and
in 1865.
major-general of volunteers
Tyner, JAMES
NOBLE, lawyer; born in

Brookville, Ind., Jan. 17, 1826; received


academic
to the
education; admitted
bar in 1857, and
in
practised
Peru, Ind.;
member
of Congress, 1869-75;
assistant
an

settlers

died
at Fulton, Postmaster-General
He
and
Postmaster-Gen
county.
eral in 1875-82; assistant attorney-general
27, 1881.
OGDEN, military officer; for the Post-office Department in 1889Tyler, ROBERT
born
in Greene
county, N. Y., Dec. 22, 93 and
1897-1903; and
delegate to the
United
States
at
the
1831; graduated
postal congress in 1878 and in 1897.

Oswego

N. Y., Nov.

as
Military Academy in 1853; and was
signed to frontier duty. In April, 1861,
he accompanied the expedition for the re

Massachusetts

about

Massachusetts

in the

lief of Fort

tion

ing its
August

one

army.

and

bombardment
of that

Connecticut
colonel.

Sumter

He

on

he

most
was

present dur
In
17.
May

organized

the

4th

EDWARD,

naval

1683;

Cape

officer; born
commanded
Breton

in
the

expedi

in

1745, and
captured the French
man-of-war
Vigilante of sixty-four guns.
He died in Boston, Mass., Sept. 8, 1755.

its
of
foster-father
Tyrker, the German
Leif the
he accom
leadership it became
Scandinavian, whom
efficient regiments in the
panied in the expedition from Iceland to
the
land south
of Greenland
in the year
appointed brigadier-gen

Volunteers, and

Under

of the

year

was

Tyng,

was

made

his

147

TYTLER

TYSON"

call

with
the

member

from

and

1825,

from

of
New

of

member

Senate

State

Leif

to

the

JOB

Philadelphia,
the

bar

born

county

of

State

Feb.

the

the

on

The

States;

He

Social

Colony

admitted

was

Penal

Lottery
and

the
Laws

System

of

in

born

1803;

8,

1855-57.

Essay

of

lawyer;

ROBERTS,
Pa.,

in

Pennsylvania;
United

in

Intellectual

Pennsylvania

K.

Montgomery

Explora

Kane,

county,

Pa.,

land,

the

etc.

He

June

27,

but

ern

Great

Progress

An

of
of

the

England,

bar

to

30,
of

in

Scot

biographical

and

wrote

Historical

Discovery
America,

Aug.
University

researches;

Raleigh;

Malvern,

to

himself

devoted

Coasts

the

at

admitted

historical

historian;

Scotland,

educated

was

Walter
the

FRASER,

PATRICK

Edinburgh,

in

Edinburgh;

and

au

of
of

Elisha

William

of
Arctic

the

On

Dr.

Birth

"

Tytler,

New

the

Richmond

died

1791;

Tyson,

thor

Report
of

200th

the

on

the

of

1858.

York,

1828.

to

Penn;

Discourse

1743;

to

Anniversary

tions

Representatives

to

1823

York

caused

legislator

JACOB,
of

House

vinei

Vinland.

country

Tyson,

of

discovery
which

grapes,

prior

neighborhood

the

the

reported

loaded

in

exploring

While

1000.

Tyrker

Sir

View
on

etc.
Dec.

the
He

24,

of

North

died
1849.

in

Uch.ee
seated

Indians,
from

extending
Augusta
banks

Oconee

the

and

Ogeechee and Chattahoochee.


a
powerful nation, and
oldest

the

language

other; and
any
their origin, or
any
which

been

They

unlike

they had
of their

Their
of

that

tradition

no

having

ever

of

occu-

territory than the domain


found.
they were
They have
the
Mississippi by the
beyond

other

pied
on

and

driven

of

pressure

civilization, and

have

become

Their
partially absorbed
by the Creeks.
the
language is almost
forgotten, and
Uchees
of the extinct
are, practically,one

Uhl,

Springs,
by his parents in 1846; graduated
gan
at
the
University of Michigan in 1861 ;
began the practice of law in 1866; apin
Secretary of State
pointed assistant
to
ambassador
in
1893; was
Germany
1896-97.
He died in Grand
Rapids, Mich.,
May 17, 1901.
JJlke, HENRY, portrait-painter;born in
Frankenstein, Prussia, Jan.
29,
1821;
N.

studied

in the

Professor

employed

Royal Museum,
to

came

in

under

1842-46;
the

United

and

portraits of
Gen.
Elaine,

General

in

Sea

of Cortez, and

discovered

ern

California

the

on

was

in 1851;
works

Grant,

Pacific

district

extremity

coast
or

in the
of

many
years
whalers.

the
a

in

Ounalaska,
Aleutian
Alaska
base

of

settled
include
G.

John

Spanish
as

in 1733
and
navy
in 1735; came
to the

governor

forced

to

of Louisiana
leave

because

lieu

became
United

States

in 1766, but
he

failed

to

was

win

UNCAS'S

149

southdied

He

an

island
at

the

peninsula;
supplies

for

group,

for

in
the
Tineas, Mohegan
chief; born
1588;
Pequot Settlement, Conn., about
was
originallya Pequot sachem, but about
he
revolted
1635
and
against Sassacus

Charles
Sherman,
M.
Sunmer, Secretary Edwin
Stanton, At
torney-General Garland, etc.,for the Unit
ed States
government.
Ulloa, ANTONIO
officer; born
DE, naval
in
entered
the
Seville, Jan.
12, 1716;
tenant

that

1540.

Berlin,

James

the

to

peninsula.

fresco-painting

His

corn-

to

He

Berlin, in 1846-48;

States

in 1857.

Washington

Wach,
in

had

sent

join an
neglected to open his orders
and
tried by court-martial
in 1780,
was
and
acquitted. He died on the island of
Leon, July 3, 1795.
Ulloa, FRANCISCO
explorer; born
DE,
in Spain; became
lieutenant
of Cortez
a
in his explorations in America,
and
was
left by him.
in 1535, in charge of the
In 1539-40
he corncolony of Santa Cruz.
manded
the expedition that explored Caliof
fornia, giving to the gulf the name

and

F., lawyer; born in Avon


to MichiY., in 1841; taken

EDWIN

He

proceed to
expedition against

TJnalaska,

nations.

in

Havana

Florida.

claimed

continent.

the

on

harsh,

was

the

along

headwaters

the

once

be

to

the

diminutive
the colonists
to Spain.
nation, over
of a
fleet which
was
country, in Georgia, mand
at
Savannah
River
sealed
orders
Azores, with

Milledgeville and

to

of

of the
were

in the beautiful

MONUMENT.

gathered

of

band

the

Indians
of

UNDERWOOD

SAM"

UNCLE
who

business, because

were

that

the

Mohegans,

known

by

ancient

title of his nation.

He

joined the

with

the

in

in their

English
of

war

was

the

from

for

Indians
this

time; but

distinction

much

so

tried

him.

conquered

was

See

was

in

England
Elbert

declaration

the

after

ment

Anderson

"U.

initials

vast

the

same

of

extent

initials

of

garded
been

in

song

says:

in the

ished

in

latter

tion

over

it.

States

of
and
the

popular parlance

since.

ever

Sam

the

enough

to

give

us

all

D.
in

1852.

died

in

slave
from

the

original
who

of

was

Kentucky

Josiah

Ontario,

Dresden,

5, 1883, at
the

Rev.

age
Uncle

of

Ohio

scendants

by Indians

mitted

on

to

his

the

lived

herst;

war

between

the

in

I., about

Enfield, Mass.;

taught
to

in

Flush-

the

Dutch

BaFy
in

He

died

in

His

de-

given
See

HENRY,
educated

Kentucky;

and

to
bar; returned
active
1850, and was

the

was

in
the

1672.

still possess lands


on
Long Island.
FRANCIS

Stam-

at

troops, and

Hempstead.
L.

freely chusetts in
go
master's
anti-slaverycause;
150

of

to

went

1646

commanded

he

assembly at
Oyster Bay,

Tom.

was

in

represented Oygter

he

born

He

In

I.

Underwood,

who

and

Court

confession

afterwards

He

Indians

May
ninety-three,was

permitted
to

Henson,
Canada,

General

the

novel, first

The

claim

the

the

ford, Conn., and

Beecher
Cabin, Harriet
serial
as
a
published
in
the
National
Era,
Washington,
C., in 1850, and completed in Boston

in

treated

abject

most

municated.

Tom's

Uncle

goywith-

lay

politicaljurisdic-

Underbill

The

Stowe's

chosen
it

of Massachusetts,

limits

has

farm."

was

that

charges. He did the same


excompublicly in the church, and was
of

truth

ing, L.
is rich

he

as

persecuted,re-

the

claimed

before

went

made

and
"Uncle

from

H., regarded

N.

contempt at first,but, being accused


alarmed,
immorality, he became
gross
not
only yielded his power, but urged
Massachusetts.
to
people to submit

He

on

re-

name

history

News

with

marked

were

which

Sam,"

of

command

entitled

for

chartered

the

associated

was

published

discovered

was

the

possessions. The joke


not
long before the

United

Uncle

(see HUTCHINin

Underbill, and

and

"

Sam.'

rallied

was

as

refuge

repre-

Court;

Ban"
War, in 1637.
a
heretic, he went to

Pequot

Dover,

It

1630;

and

Mason,

Boston

of

ceived

afterwards

he

from

place

latter

Uncle

mean

and

was

the
"

as

forces

ernor.

Wilson's

property
Wilson's
hands,

way,
his

it

and

spread,

of

and

The

LAW.

General

the

Hutchinson

Mrs.

Captain

marked
name,

of

passed through
the

'

they

amount

in

CONTROVERSY),

America.

they meant,
answered, " I don't

fellow

appointed
slave,

in

Winthrop

with

inquired what

who

unless

now,

SONIAN

named

to

as

SLAVE

FUGITIVE

England, and there


of
the Pequot War,
against

were

familiar

not

facetious

in

barrels

the

favored

Its

quantity

the

sold

was

Boston

the

pork,

war

before

govern-

contractor

purchased

were

workmen,

of

A.," the initials of his


States.
S.," for United

E.

1812.

provisions,and
"

and
the

N.

Troy,

sented

Sam,"

Uncle

inspector of beef
Y., purchased for

an

in

"

called

commonly

son,

See

with

land

Wil-

Samuel

follows:

as

at

died

promise

escape, on
certain
time;

in
colonist; born
Underbill,
JOHN,
soldier
a
Warwickshire,
England; was
to
New
the
on
Continent; came
Eng-

what

is now
Conn., in 1682.
Norwich,
PEQUOT.
MIANTONOMOH;
of
Uncle
a
Sam,
popular name
United
States.
of
the
government

origin

had
given
attempt to

freedom

Henson

friends.

he
took

Narragansets and
prisoner. He died in

Miantonomoh

of

master

and

time

of the
1643

the

overpowered

his

but

he
not

Railroad, a popular desUnderground


by which
ignation of the secret means
Eng- slaves, fleeingfrom the slave-labor States
their
of
the
for
liberty, escaped through the
Northern
States
into Canada
during the
people
law.
treated
operation of the
fugitive slave
kinds
of
various
were
jealous These secret means
For
aid given to the slaves by their Northern

one

in

and

Connecticut,

in

that

assassinate

to

treachery Uncas

sachems

white

the

their confidence, and

him

gave
with

enmity

would

of

many
the

of

wrath
the

he

pledge

porthe

When

shielded

the

incurred

colonists

services

his

Uncas

over,

Pequots

him

for

Pequots

Pequot territory.

the

lish, and
soon

war

received

1637, and
tion

name

clerk

to him

PEQUOT.
author;
in

Amad-

was

Massa-

of the

in

the

State

UNIFORMS

UNDERWOOD"
Senate

in

1852,

of

ment
years;
Boston

clerk

consul

to

of

years;
in 1885;

American-

of

of

sketches

biographical

of

Court

Superior

States

and

the

wrote

Rensselaer

at

istitutein

1862;

Literature;

were

Longfellow,

ton

,ate

as

army
ginia, but

was

close of the

the

in

Fort
He

war.

in

mayor

his

arrival

In-

uniform

ades

faced

wore

with

of

the

the

field-officers brown

tion

between

in

Veterans

and

1891-95;

superintendent and

secretary of the

federate

Association

He

Memorial

published

lished

the

ganized

various

company
issued

nati, O., in 1881; and


he was
News, of which
Uniforms

of

the

and

Con1896.

estabdocuments;
Intelligencer; or-

Kentucky

publishing

in

in
the

managing
American

Cincin-

Daily
editor,

Army,

of

tume

dress

rank.

to

to

the

the
color,

enemy,

convenient

to

prescribed
be

rank

for

distinc*

marked

and

trousers

or

cock
Browr

recommended

Washington remarked
justly supposed to

terror
such

riflemen

the

the

across

coats, the

regiments

ing Green, Ky., in 1870-72; city,county, the facings. He also


and
(consulting) State engineer in 1866general adoption by the
75; lieutenant-governor of Kentucky in the hunting-shirt,with
This
at the ankle.
1875-79;
was
major-general of the United
Confederate

Their

buff, and

different-colored

being then the color most


be
procured, Washington

of Bowl-

officers

separate

distinguish their

to

Washinghis

ribbon

grade

Field-officers

for

afterwards.

wore

each

"

(Breed's) Hill there

companies.
soon

blue

were

generals each

1863

till

of Bunker

prescribed a

breast

of the

constitutional

of

uniformed

no

coats

Vir-

in

Warren
was

on

Confeder-

military engineer
taken
prisoner

confined

and

Polytechnic
in

served

colors

battle

that

ARMY

English Whigs,
liberty,
Whigs naturally adopted
for a military uniform.
In

American

The
these

died in EdinHe
Whittier, Lowell, etc.
1894.
7,
burgh, Scotland, Aug.
JOHN
Cox, engineer; born
Underwood,
'in Georgetown, D.
C., Sept. 12, 1840;

graduated

AMERICAN

THE

signia became
or
champions

managefor two

United

Glasgow

Hand-book

the

Monthly

the

eleven

for

in

assisted

Atlantic

the

OF

by
the

file of

buttoned

always the cossharp-shooters;


that

"

no

carry
think
who

it is

small
every

These
complete marksman."
of
black, white, or
hunting-shirts were
of Washingneutral
colors.
The uniform
ton's Life-guard, organized early in the
blue coat faced with
was
a
buff,red
war,
person

black
breeches, and
provincial troops serving waistcoat, buckskin
with
British regulars in the colonial wars
felt hat bound
with white
tape,
different
colonies
uniformed
The
had
but
were
uniforms;
generally without
there
were
exceptions. The New
Jersey companies in the earlier period of the
Colonel
infantry, under
struggle. The prevailing color of their
Schuyler, were
clad in blue cloth, and obtained
coats
the name
was
blue, with buff or white facings.
of
The Jersey Blues."
Their
coats
For
not
a
were
long time the artillerywere
blue faced with
uniformed, but in 1777 their regulation
red, gray stockings,and
buckskin
"a
dark-blue
black
costume
breeches.
The portraitof Washcoat
or
was
ington,painted by Charles Wilson Peale in reaching to the knee and full-trimmed,
1772, shows his dress as a Virginia colonel the lapels fastened
back, with ten openof infantryto be a blue coat
in yellow silk on
buttonholes
worked
the
faced with
buff
waistcoat
and
of each
ten
and
breeches,
breast
buff, and
lapel,
large regiThis was
his uniform
mental
at equal distances
during the Revoluyellow buttons
each side, three large yellow regimental
tion, and in it he appeared at the session
on
of the second Continental
each
on
cuff, and a like number
Congress (1775), buttons
construed
each
indicating, as Mr. Adams
it, on
pocket-flap; the skirts to hook
his readiness
of
for the field in any
station,
back, showing the red lining; bottom
In this costume
cut
cuff
he appeared when, early coat
red
lapels,
-linings,
square;
in July, 1775, he took
command
of the
and
standing capes; single-breastedwhite
at Cambridge.
waistcoat
twelve
small
with
regimental
army
There
is a politicalsignificancein the
halfwhite
buttons;
breeches, black
and
blue-and-buff-colored uniform.
coats
The
stock, ruffled bosoms
gaiters, white
of the soldiers of William
bound
and
black
cocked
of Orange who
hat
wristlets,
invaded
Ireland
in 1689
with
blue faced
were
yellow; red plume and black cockwith orange
in- ade; gilt-handled small-sword, and
or
buff, and this Holland
gilt
The

American

"

151

UNIFORMS

OF

THE

ARMY

AMERICAN

the
The
officers,blue retain their uniforms.
navy
cavalry had
facings, red waistcoats, brasg helmets, with white horse-hair. It
found
blue breeches, and yellow buttons ; and for wa"
difficult to procure
the
prescribed
its marine
color for clothing,and
a
the order
officers,
green coat with white
White
only partiallycomplied with.
facings,white breeches edged with green, was
white
waistcoat, white
buttons, silver facings were
generally used; the buff
rarely, excepting by the general officers.
epaulets,and black gaiters.

epaulets."

For

with

coats

red

distress

The

of

American

the

soldiers

At

the

close of the

Revolution

of the

some

black, round
height colonels of infantry wore
black and red feathers.
at Valley hats, with
during their winter encampment
During
the period of the Confederation
deSteuben
The
wrote :
the troops
Forge. Baron
of the
scriptionof the dress is most easilygiven, retained substantiallythe uniform
Continental
naked
of
The
In
1787
the
shouldersome
men
were
literally
army.
in the fullest extent
them
blue edged with
of the word,
red first
strap of dark
for

of

want

clothing

its

at

was

"

"

The

officers who
color

every

grand parade
guard in a sort

at

old blanket

an

or

October,

chief.

The

facings

for

red, and
scarlet
faced

linings.

faced

white;
this

be

blue, and

varied

time

ones,

first issued

the

infantry

white

cocked

scarlet, with

helmets

uniforms

and
of

the

to

had

bear-skin-

painted

troops.

dark-blue

under-dress, black

hats

half-gaiter.

buttons

1792

of linen

In

coats

reaching to the knee and


full-trimmed,
scarlet
lapels,cuffs,and standing capes,
retaining white buttons, white trimmings,

artilleryand

the

In

knapsacks, instead
were

1796

and
the

light dragoons

white

covered

white, buff, top-boots now

"

with

of the

army
issued

its appearance.

made

the

with

musicians

with

white

replaced the
In

1794

the

plumes.

red

stocks, and

binding.
shoe

and

Black
black

artillerywore
The

coats

of

red, with
pale-blue
waistcoats
and breeches, and
were

facings,blue
a silk epaulet for

chief musician.

the

This

the uniform
in the
of the drummers
variegated, was
In the summer
at
Washington pre- royal regiments of the British army
scribed the uniforms
of the general officers,an
early period, it being the royal livery,
and of the staff generally. The
The
red coat was
of ths
the uniform
coats and
drummers
in
the
until
the
those
American
were
same
as
facings
already
army
1857.
In 1799 the white
The
plume was
prescribed blue, buff, and white.
prescribed for the infantry. The cavalry had
two epaulets,with
major-generals to wear
coats
white
and
stars
two
and
black
a
facings, white
each, and
green
upon
white
feather
in the hat; the brigadiers vests and
breeches, top-boots,and leather
In Jeffera
single star and a white
feather; the helmet with black horse-hair.
administration
son's
the
two
the
colonels,
infantry wore
epaulets;
captains, an
brim
epaulet on the right shoulder; the sub- round
("stove-pipe") hats, with
a
alterns, an epaulet on the left shoulder; three inches wide, and with
strip of
the
bear-skin
the crown.
of
their
across
Artilleryoffiaides-de-camp,the uniform
rank
and
those
of the major-gen- cers had gold epaulets. The infantry wore
corps;
erals
and
white
and across
belt over
the shoulder
a
a
brigadier-generalsto have
feather
oval
in
with
the
those
of
the
the
an
hat;
breast,
breastplatethree
green
-in
commander
ornamented
with
and
half
white
feather,
two
a
a
inches,
chief,
by
Cockades
in the hat by an. eagle. In 1810
to be worn
were
high standing collars
all military men.
In the field,such of the
for the coats were
prescribed,and in 1812
to
ordered
reach the tip of the
regiments as had hunting-shirtswere
rethey were
them.
quired to wear
ear, and in front as high as the chin would
At that time
In the summer
of 1782 the uniform
of permit in turning the head."
in
uniform.
made
the
the infantry and
were
cavalry were
changes
prescribed many
cocked
follows :
Blue
red
Officers of the general staff wore
as
ground, with
blue
facings and white linings,and buttoned," hats without feathers ; single-breasted
the artilleryand
and
with
miners
ten
to
coats
gilt buttons; vest and
sappers
the

Continental

order

commander-in-

the

of the

Those

Until

of

them

officer at

bed-cover."

to

was

linings,and
with

an

general

a.

infantry

were

saw

Continental

the

1779, by

blue.

artificers

woollen
of

coat

had

coats

Valley Forge mounting


of
dressing-gown made

prescribed by

was

in

of

uniform

The

had
make.

and

had
army
of 1780

been

"

"

"

152

UNION

UNION"
or
or
pantaloons, white
military boots and gilt spurs

buff;

breeches,

Mgh

and

took

leather, but no sashes,


and file were
The rank
put into blue coatmedical
whose
The
officers,
ees, or jackets.
blue
from
had been dark
coats
1787, were
black

put into

in

coats

the

tier

compelled by

regulationsin
be

to

in

1832,
"

which

facings

was

ful.

When

the

1861

some

Civil

in

gray.

adopted

the

same

butternut

United
with

States
black

the
Revo-

the

success-

in

out

troops

for their

on

without

that

In the

21, 1775)

in

the

in

St. John's

Georgia
the

making

carried

to

the

on

led

soon

to the

of

number

to

Continental
colonies

thirteen,

war

petitionof the Continental


King (July, 1775), written by John
Dickinson, negotiation was
thus proffered,according to Duane's
proposition:
"We
beseech
Majesty to
your
direct
mode
the
united
some
by which
applications of your faithful colonists to
the throne
be improved into a happy
may
second

for

to

the

reconciliation; and

permanent

in the

regulars,

of

(March

Congress, and he
the third day of the sesthe privilegeof voting,

movements

Union,

and

were

Confederates

the

color

time

mean

preventing

measures

the

further

that

be taken
may
destruction
of

militia, the the lives of your Majesty's subjects,and


clad in blue, that
such
statutes
as
more
immediately

for their

brown

troops

felt hats

for

epaulets

As

Jack-

broke

War

volunteer

the

dressed

and

in

worn

only partially

lution, but

of

army
declared

restore

seat

Congress

the

President
to

were

to

color.
tried

his

the accession

circumstances

In
gray.
dark blue was

1821

The

fron-

to

national

the

son,
**

army
blue

from

change

on

1814

Hall

Lyman

sion, but

Niagara

the

portion of
were

In

1812.

chosen

represent them

of black

waist-belts

DEVICES

were

and

officers.

feathers

After

the

and
close

gilt
of

distress
may
cial

be

of

any

your
This

repealed."

Majesty's
the

was

colonies
first offi-

white
had
to
the
announcement
infantry coats
King of the
and
and
plumes union of the colonies, and their refusal to
facings,
edgings, stripes,
the artillerythe
and
treat
it.
It was
of the Revolution;
a
separately confirmed
towards
red plume, red facings,and yellow buttons
great step
independence. The
of the same
period. General officers alone King could not consistentlyreceive a docubuff sashes and buff-colored body- ment
from
retained
whose
a
legality he
congress
denied.
belts.
They thought to have it received
the
United
between
if the
members
During the war
individually signed it.
suband
in
the
Dickinson
believed
States and
be received,
it would
Spain (1898),
He
word
in
it
sequent military operations consequent
deplored one
Congress
the soldiers
and
is the
thereon
that proved fatal to it. "It
were
provided with
stiff-brim soft hats, leather
leggings,and
only word which I wish altered," he said,
of khaki, a
It is the only word
I wish to retain," was
jackets and pantaloons made
clay-coloredlinen cloth first used for mili- the reply of the stanch patriot Benjamin
in Harrison, of Virginia. Richard
tary purposes
Penn, a
by the British
army
India.
proprietary of Pennsylvania and recently
AMEBICAN.
The
first official its governor
Union,
a
was
loyal Englishman
intimation
that
the
selected to bear this second
English-American
petitionto the
in throne.
colonies
were
was
politicallyunited
the
Union
institution
of
following resolution
adopted by the
College, an
second
Continental
7, learning in Schenectady, N. Y.; estabCongress, June
1775:
"On
Christian
lished by several
sects in 1795,
motion, resolved, that Thursfact it received
its corday, the 20tb of July next, be observed
owing to which
Colonies
first non-secIt was
the
throughout the .twelve United
porate name.
in
United
as
the
a
day of humiliation, fasting, and tarian
college founded
"United
States.
In 1873 the Dudley Observatory,
prayer." After that the term
Colonies
was
frequentlyused ; and in the the Albany Medical
College, and the AlDeclaration
of
School
united
to the colIndependence the term
were
bany Law
United
States"
Unifirst used.
Union
then renamed
was
Georgia lege,which was
not
having sent delegatesto the first and versity.
second
twelve
Union
Devices.
When
the quarrel bewere
congresses,
oniy
alluded
to in the expression.
The
inhabithe British Parliament
and the Engtween
tants of St. John's parish, in Georgia, had
the
lish-American
colonies
became
warm,
the

the

war

"

"

"

"

"

"

*"

"

153

"

UNION
in

patrioticnewspapers
One

union.

America,

snake, disjointed,each

namely,
part representingone
a

of the

"

separate
Eng-

the

LEAGUE

warfare, and

of

thirteen

colonies, with

lish-American

well

favorite

especially a

was

as

emblematic

devices

handbills, bore

as

UNION

DEVICES"

words

ing

out

their

strength

chain

the

heart

chain.

from

was

above.

divine

in

emotions

hearts

the

was

poised, with
held

SC

in

couchant.
ized

ggp

in

British

DIE

UNION

die."

or

This

device

snake

first

that

the

the

their

and

the

justice.

Americans,

who

of the

Brit

cause.

shining

Americans

lion

connection,

British

the

sun,

"Unite

power;

of

DEVICE.

symbol

yet
part
nation, invoked

were

ish
A

naked

of
paw
lion
The

valor;

These

OR

equi
sword,

that

balance,

UNITE

this

balance

British

sword,

engaged
Above

the

of those

were

cause.

device

N^^

Within

heart, and within


lighted candle, denoting the
sincerity, truth, rectitude,
and

graspall

arms

radiant

was

whose

G m

by

These

clouds, indicating that

the

of

came

the

union

symbolizing

endless

an

near,

stood

in

aid

noon-day
indicated

manfully,

in

in dedaylight, before the world


fence
of
their
invited
at its height. John
and
the
the
was
rights,
Holt,
patriotic
closest scrutiny of their conduct,
publisher of the New York Journal, varied
Union-Jack.
The originalflag of Engit after the adjournment of the first Conof St. George
tinental
land
the banner
had
i. e.,
He
was
a
Congress in 1774.
white
with
red cross, which, April 12,
column
a
standing upon Magna Charta, and
I. ascended
firmly grasped, as a pillar indicating in- 1606 (three years after James
throne ) was
the
alienable rights,by the
incorporated with
when

appeared

the

Act

Stamp

broad

excitement

"

(Georgia
ing had

not
a

in

sentative

UNION

of

out

DEVICE.

hav-

the

reprethat

of

clouds,

the

union

union

jack

"

of

name

Union-

Jack," in
Scotland; and

with

is considered

corruption

word

Jacobus, Jacques, or James.


continued
until
the
arrangement
with Ireland, Jan. 1, 1801, when
the

banner
a

i. e., blue
with
This
combination

"

cross.

the

to

word
the

This

belonging to
arms
coming

bare

the

allusion

The

Congress).

diagonal

obtained

colonies

twelve

Scotland

of

white

the

representing

hands

banner

hands,

twelve

of

St.

diagonal

Patrick

red

i. e., white

"

with

amalgamated

was

cross,

the
forms
it, and
present British
denoting heavenly with
union
The
surrounded
flag.
was
union-jack of the United
by
strength.
American
two
or
in
and
States,
coils,
jack,is a blue field with
a
large serpent,perfect,
white
of the
whose
the following words;
stars, denoting the union
on
body were
States.
is the
It is without
the fly,which
alive and free,
"United, now,
stripes of
part composed of alternate
The

Firm

on

whole

basis Liberty shall stand,


bless our
land,
supported, ever
becomes
Till time
eternity."
this

white

And, thus

tion
After

the

Declaration

of

print appeared in London


combining a part of Holt's
a

thirteen
arms

of

they

Independence
with

(the

device

hands,

of

Northern
person
could

red.

League,
clubs

cities
who
affirm

patriotic organiza
in the principal

established

during

had

the

"absolute

the

Civil War.

right
and

to

vote

Any
and

unqualified

instead
but
of bare
loyalty to the government of the United
heavily mailed, denoting States," was
eligibleto membership.

them),
were

and

Union

154

UNITED

UNITARIANS"

fans

from

Bect

in

Trinity

the

to

worship of
distinctlyUnithe Plymouth

the

acknowledged
death.

his

(1780-1842)

The

sociation

was

quarters

at

Unitarian

American

formed

colonies

had

which

the
was

had

Congress,
a
delegate
Recognizing this fact, the Congress, on
June
7, in ordering a fast, "Resolved,
that Thursday, July 20 next, be observed

as-

Western

The

Mass.

various

the

to

yet sent

not

head-

24, 1825;

May

Boston,

was

until

of this church

head

the

pressed upon their notice, made


representatives feel that the union
complete, notwithstanding Georgia

been

Dr.

Unitarian.

Ellery Channing

William

in

delphia on

all

and

itself

declared

in

events

reference

from

Christ; his church became


1801
In
in 1787.
tarian
Church

action

Prayer

Continental

Deity

or

second
The
Colonies, THE.
Philaat
assembled
Congress
of
The
1775.
harmony
May 10,
that
body, and the important

United

the

Prayers

Common

of

31,-

members,

churches, 895;

236.

King's Chapel, Bos-

1783, removed

in

ton,
Book

of

Freeman,

Minis-

reports showed:

the official

1904

ters, 437;

America

In

1546.

about

Italy

Dr. James

founded

who

Socinus,

Laelius

ENGLAND

NEW

or

In

Socin-

termed

frequently

Unitarians,

COLONIES

Colonies
United
throughout the Twelve
York
at New
conference
City, as
a
al Unitarian
day of humiliation, fasting, and
1903
for
showed:
April 5, 1865.
Reports
prayer." When, exactly one year later, a
540
ministers, 452 churches, and 71,000 resolution
declaring these colonies "free
members.
and independent States
was
adopted, the
and

organized 1852,

conference

nation-

"

United
ORDER

American

OF,

United
in

JUNIOB

Mechanics,

fraternal

States, founded

committee

organization in the
in 1853; reported

councils, 33; sub-councils,


disbenefits
1,382;
116,106;
members,
bursed
since
organization, $4,695,265;
benefits disbursed
in 1903, $406,345.
United
American
ORDER
Mechanics,
a

fraternal

organization in the United


in 1845; reported in 1903,

States, founded

the

that
The

of America,

consider

to

common

Manhattan

danger
and

the

and

against

measures

Dutch

the

from

the

assembled

of Massachusetts,

Court

Boston

Connecti-

from

Plymouth,

and

Haven,

England.

New

of

1643, delegates

May,

General

to

government

declaration

a
new

Colonies

cut, New
at

the

States

United
In

draft

to

entitled

United

State

1903,

OF,

effect

in

Delegates

Indians.

Rhode
invited
from
Island, for
not
councils, 15; sub
councils, 663; were
"
"
schismatic
last
considered
that colony was
43,582 ; benefits disbursed
members,
for adfiscal year, $121,086.
it asked
When
intruder.
and
an
United
Brethren
in Christ, a religious mission, it was
refused, unless it would
sect
established
States
in the United
Plymouth.
by acknowledge
allegiance to
obWilliam
it applied for a
Otterbein, a missionary of the Then
charter, and
A
German
Martin
Reformed
and
RHODE
in
tained
it
1644
ISLAND).
(see
Church,
State

Bohm.
1789

The

meeting

general

conference

when

rules

of

faith

were

adopted.

ditions
and

held

was

Baltimore, Md., but it was


till 1800.
by its present name

known
first

first

in

have

order

been

in the Northwest.

held

was

and

The

made

in

in

in

confederacy

The

1815,

confession

was

of

principal adPennsylvania

the

under

formed

title,and continued
(1643-1686),
years

not

for
while

above

than

more

the

forty
government

changed three times durEngland was


a
confederacy of
ing that period. It was
union
like
(see ARTICLES
States
our
early

of

OF

CONFEDERATION),

and

local

supreme

by
jealously reserved
jurisdiction
the doctrine
Ministers, 1,931; churches, each colony. Thus
report showed:
early was
3,966; members, 248,878.
of State
developed (see STATE
supremacy
United
in Christ, OLD
Brethren
CONThe
general affairs of
SOVEREIGNTY).
a
were
by a
managed
confederacy
religious body formerly a the
STITUTION,
CHRIST
BRETHREN
of commissioners
IN
board
part of the UNITED
consisting of two
each
from
(g. u. ) but owing to an act of the general church
members
colony, who
conference
in 1885
in a congress
to meet
annually, or
were
appointing a commisto
sion to revise
Confession
the
of Faith, oftener
if required. Their
duty was
recommend
and
circumstances
Bishop Milton
Wright and eleven dele- consider
withdrew
for the general good. They had
gates who
measures
opposed the measure
and
formed
executive
legisnor
an
independent organization, no
supreme
power,
In

1903

the official

155

was

UNITED
lative

were
propositions

Their

power.
to and

finally acted upon


assuming
war
pendent sovereignty. But
to
declared
be
colony
by one
ferred

several

of

the^ consent
missioners,

this

the

indenot

was

ed:

without
of

congress

province

whose

to

an

Presbyterian Church, and


their first general assembly met at Xenia,
O., in May, 1859.
Reports for 1903 showReformed

sociate

re-

by

colonies, each

STATES

UNITED

LOYALISTS"

EMPIRE

churches, and

ministers, 919

939

118,-

734

members.
United

com-

CONSTITUTION

States,

GOVERNMENT

Indian

OF

See

THE.

AND

JOHN

CALHOUN,

CALDWELL.
and
foreign relations were
espeSEAL
United
THE.
OF
of
commissioners
States, GREAT
cially consigned. The
GREAT.
See
SEAL
UNITED
the
far
OF
THE
STATES,
Massachusetts, representing by
United
LAWS
IN
most
States, SUFFRAGE
powerful colony of the league, and
See
ELECTIVE
SUFFRAGE.
THE.
be
to
a
assuming
perfect republic,"
United
claimed
States, THE, a frigate of the
precedence,which the others readAmerican
the weakNew
Haven
was
ily conceded.
navy, built in Philadelphia,Pa.,
in
1797.
On
Oct
est member
of the league,Plymouth next,
10, 1812, Commodore
in the Presiof the ConFort
Rodgers sailed from Boston
Saybrook, at the mouth
the
United
necticut
States,
River, was
independent dent, accompanied by
yet an
FORT.
See SAYBROOK,
settlement.
forty-fourguns, Captain Decatur, and the

affairs

"

United

Empire

the

Loyalists,

sixteen

Argus,

name

Lieutenant

guns,

corn-

in
Sinclair, leaving the Hornet
loyalistsmandant
by
with
were
who, after the Revolutionary War,
port. The President parted company
States and had
the United
her
banished
from
companions on Oct. 12, and on the
confiscated.
be- 17th
British
their estates
They were
packet. The
captured a
States
and Argus also parted comlieved to number
United
over
30,000, and many
settled in Canada, Nora
of them
Scotia, pany, the former
sailingto the southward
societies

assumed

Brunswick.

and
New
United

Labor

ganization
out

in

of

and

Party,
the

actively entered

the

same

source

National

Union

members

of

these

merly identified
party. In the
1888

the
H.

United

politicalorStates

which

the

labor

societies

which

United

politicallife. From
also developed the
was
Labor
party. Many
fortwo
parties were

with

the

Greenback-Labor

campaign
party nominated

Labor

ward

all his

the

United

up

heard
At

on

about

sails

sail

and

gave
drew

States

British

the

nearer

at

British

from

ship, such
decks

her
the

Decatur

A.M.

Decatur

chase, and,
and

loud

shouts

they

of

had

wind-

to

nearer

that

vessel

board

West

Sunday morning,
the maintop of the

English ship-of-war.

an

spread
as

on

discovered

States
"

of

search

dawn,

the

got

were

enemy.
se

near

the
opened a broadside
upon
W.
H.
T.
effect.
It was
Vicestrange vessel,with much
President, and this ticket received
2,808 responded to in kind, both vessels being
the
votes.
tack.
National
the same
The
Union
Labor
on
popular
They continued
cannonade
nominated
and
Alson
J.
Streeter
a
(111.)
steady
party
fight by
heavy
f or President
and C. E. Cunningham (Ark.)
of each, the distance
with
the long guns
for
and
this
ticket
musVice-President, and
rebeing so great that carronades
ceived 148,105 popular votes, both parties kets were
avail,
of no
hour
the Britof half an
In the course
receiving support from the same
source,
of
want
Presiish
vessel
In the
showing
was
harmony.
fearfullyinjured, and her
dential campaigns of 1892, 1896, and 1900, commander,
perceiving that her only safeneither
of these
in close
to engage
from
destruction
under
was
parties appeared
ty
their
Social
and

(111.) for President


Wakefield
for
(Kan.)

of

At

25th, the watch

went

Presidential

in

eastward

Indiamen.

United

several

grew
had

R.

British

of

Cowdry

former
Labor

names,

party

received

but
made

in

each

that

and

year
nominations

action, drew

39,537

up

purpose.
sent
21,164, gunnery,
mizzen-mast

Very
were

No
Her

156

soon

gone
colors

her
and
were

main-mast

which

that
main

her

States

latter, with

shots
so

United

the

to

The

that

of
popular votes
respectively.
United
United
The
Presbyterians.
Church
of
North
America
was
Presbyterian
formed
in May, 1858, by the union
of the
Associated
and
AsPresbyterian Church

36,274, and

he

it
and

fore-mast

seen
was

cut

her

fell
fore
was

for

splendid
enemy's

overboard.

top-masts
tottering,

floatingover her deck.


severely damaged*

UNITED
while

the

unhurt.

STATES"

United

remained

States

Decatur

bore

UNITED

antagonist, supposing his


badly crippled,was
withdrawing, set up
To their astonishment
an
exulting shout.
the United
States
tacked
and
brought up
in a position of greater advantage than
before.
British
The
commander, perceiv
be use
ing that longer resistance would
less,struck
The

his colors

and

vessel

captured

frigate Macedonian,
Capt. J. S. Garden.
less than
of them
had

100

the

She

wind

rendered

were

guns,
received
no

had
in her

hull, many
water, and she

and

nothing standing but


masts
and
fore-yard.

main

useless

her

fore

All

but

six

men

were

wounded.

The

five

was

Macedonian
rated

at

and

loss

killed

of

and

her
Of

one.

and
boats
her

number

six

wounded.

"Then

returned

riving off New


Macedonian,

in

Allen, arrived

at

the
both

same

time.

vessels

Sound, and,
nian

was

the

to

London

United
Dec.

charge
Newport
At

the

Jan.

anchored

singing

4,
of

snatches

of

met

nation's

our

eyes,

of

States

gave

Decatur

each
him
thanks, and two of them
gave
sword.
a
So, also, did the city of Phila
delphia. The authorities of New York, in
addition
to a splendid banquet to Hull,
Jones, and Decatur
(Jan. 7, 1813), gave
the

latter

the

freedom

of the

city and

United

at about

close of the

in the

UNITED

THE

United
See

harbor

month
Island

Macedo-

of New

Bank.

States

See

Hall,
and

BANKS

OF

STATES.
States

CHRISTIAN

Christian

Commission,

COMMISSION,

UNITED

STATES.
United

Lieutenant

re-

MEDAL.

technical

1, 1813, the

noblest

Legislatures

The

Harbor

com-

Neptune,5'
The
boys

sight in nature,
first-rate frigate as
a
prize,
home
Brought
Decatur."
by brave

States, ar1812.

passed through Long


on

newspapers.

were

quickly
The

The

new

The
action
occurred
not far from
guns.
the island of Madeira.
After
the contest
Decatur

old

"

ship, and though


thirty-eight,carried
forty-four
was

the

from

New

the

thirty- quested his portrait for the City


him
national
The
Congress thanked
sixty-eight were
medal,
him
a
the United
States
gold
gave

in

300

"

killed

of

streets

"a

as

with

song:

DECATUR'S

officers and

one

the

greeted
comes

British

thirty-eight

round-shot

between

said
in

surrendered.
was

COUPS

she was
York, where
while, year'e gift." "She
vessel, pliments of the season

his

and

ENGINEER

almost

for

away

STATES

States

Engineer
under

command

Corps,
of

the

body
the
to
engineers and attached
is
The
charged
War
Department.
corps
all duties
with
relating to construction
and
perrepair of fortifications,whether
manent
or
temporary; with torpedoes for
of defence;
coast defence j with all works
chief

157

of

S.

U.

with

all

with

such

field.

be
may
movement

as

surveys

LEGISLATION"
and

military roads
the

objects,or

these
in

HOMESTEAD

bridges, and
required for
of

armies

It

this
the

S.

committee

light of

The

is also

charged with the


harbor
improvements, with mili
geographical explorations and

the

U.

OF

AMEEICA

is generally accepted in
compromise by both Houses.

membership

of the

House

is based

on

the

population of the country as ascer


tained
river and
and
decennially by the census,
and
therefore
ten
In
tary
changes every
years.
with the survey
of the lakes, and
the
Fifty-seventh Congress (March
surveys,
4,
with any other engineer work
1901-March
357 Repre
speciallyas
4, 1903) there are
198 are
signed to the corps by acts of Congress sentatives, of whom
Republicans,
orders of the Secretary of War.
151 Democrats,
or
and
eight Populists and
United
States
Homestead
Silver
See
Legisla
NATIONAL
men.
CONGRESS,
tion.
See EXEMPTIONS
FROM
TAXATION;
(The Fifty-seventh Congress) j SPEAKER
HOMESTEAD

LAWS.

United

of the

tives, one
known

OF

States

the

as

lar

House.

are

elected

branches
House

Lower
The

Representa
of the Congress
and the Popu
of

members

this

branch

In
directlyby popular vote.
national
the
Constitution
by
right to originate laws concern

sole

ing

finances

the

committee

on

is the

House

of

the
and

ways

The

country.
of

means

original source

of

United
See

the

all tariff

States

MILITARY

United
United

it is Tested
the

HOUSE.

THE

of

House

Military

States
States

Mints.

was

mints

the

only

put
mint

were

of

STATES.

into

money

until
full

until

established

of

mint
in

Congress

coin

not

was

established

was

delphia, Pa., by act


1792, and began to
year, but it
that
it was

Academy,

UNITED

ACADEMY,

in
the

the

Phila

April,
next

January, 1795,
operation. It

1835, when
at

other

Charlotte,

bills providing for N. C., Dahlonega, Ga., and


New
Orleans,
In 1854 another
located
at San
was
expenditure of public La.
their origin in the House.
have
in 1870
Francisco, CaL, and
at Carson
moneys
forms
of legislationCity, Nev., and
In each of these two
shortly after at Denver,
the House
has the limited
been
co-operationof Col., although no minting has ever
latter
viz. : the Senate
done
the
the Senate
amend
at
place,
only
may
assay
tariff bill or
resolution
a
appropriating ing. The mints at Charlotte, N. C., and
in the line either
discontinued
of in
in
Dahlonega, Ga., were
public moneys
See COINAGE; MINT,
1861.
FIRST
AMER
creasing or decreasing specificamounts.
The
has
House
the privilege of passing ICAN.
United
States
Senate
Naval
these
if it
and
See
amendments,
Academy.
upon
declines
NAVAL
UNITED
STATES.
of
such
to
ACADEMY,
accept any
part
United
States
Naval
See
Ships.
changes, it is customary to appoint a con
SHIPS.
committee
ference
consisting of an equal NAVAL
United
States
Conven
number
of members
from
and
the House
Nominating
NOMINATING
See
the disputed subject of tions.
Senate, to whom
CONVENTIONS,
is referred,and
the report of NATIONAL.
legislation

legislation,and
the
raising or

all

"

United

given

States

to

colonies

the
in

of America.

had

table

The

name

the

increased

English-American
Declaration
of Indepen
to

In

1901

their

forty-fiveStates

num

(see

opposite page) and


Ter
seven
ritories
of
(Alaska, Arizona, District
Columbia, Hawaii, Indian Territory,New
with
Mexico, and Oklahoma)
the Philip
pine Islands, Porto
Rico, Guam,
Wake,
Samoa, and Isle of Pines, etc.
For
de
on

tails of

population in

1900

see

AMERICA
PROGRESS

thirteen

dence, July 4, 1776.


ber

OF

STATES

UNITED

CENSUS.
158

IN

POPULATION.

IN

STATES

On

Sept. 9, 1776,

the

Continental

resolved
"that
in all
gress
commissions
where
heretofore
'

United

be

Colonies

altered

States."

for
This

Porto

have

the

been

future

domain

fire States, six

trict,and

'

now

UNION

THE

DATE

miles.

Con

most
to

words

THEIR

OF

to

for

United

the

numbers

fortyone

125"

20'

in

"

possessions,"Hawaii,
Philippine Islands, Guam,
Samoan
Islands,etc. The area

Rico,

is

W.,

of the

had

The
in 1890

States

increased

exclusive

if Atoo,

the

of

most

Islands, be taken

limits, it extends

meridian.

1900

and

Aleutian

its western

174th
United

Dis

ADMISSION.

from
In longitude it extends
the
easterlypoint of Maine, 66" 48' W.,

used, the style westerly

Territories, and

various

AND

continental
the

AMERICA

OF

STATES

UNITED

population
was

to

to

the

of

the

63,069,756, and
76,295,220. This

Philippine Islands,
and
Wake,
Rico, Guam,
of the States is 2,718,780 square
Islands.
The
miles; of Samoan
government is a
the Territories,883,490; and
of the Dis
representativedemocracy. Each State has
trict, seventy; in all, 3,602,340 square
an
independent legislature for its local
miles.
it
In latitude
from
extends
affairs, but all are
legislatedfor, in na
Key
West, its most southerly point, 24" 33' N., tional matters, by two Houses of Congress;
to the forty-ninthparallel of north
elected for
lati
the Senate, whose
members
are
tude.
From
this latitude, on
six years
the Pacific
by the State legislatures,and
of Representatives,elected for
the House
eoast, the territory belongs to Canada
to
54" 40', where
Alaskabegins, ex*- two years by the people of the different
Ocean
and
States.
tending to the Arctic
em
Representation in the Senate is by
without
of
bracing an area
over
577,000 square
States,
regard to population;in
Wake,

and

Hawaii,

159

Porto

the

the

of

House

tation

of

President

United

the

States

electors

fourth

year by
State
having

people, each

as

by

onies

be America

to

Hui

Shen's

mission
for

Fu

priestsyisit

Buddhist

of

Sang,

and

States

sup-

and

160

458

ried

women)

Buddhist

the
Chinese

to in the

colony
[Landing

rover

by Nadodd,

in Vinland

Norsemen

settlement

by
Grumbiorn
sights a
Land
discovered
by
named

the

861

.............................

First

Snorri,

Norse

Eric

land.
.

in

876

Greenland

Second

also

to

Green-

for

Green-

985

sails

from

is driven

land

Iceland
south

by

Cod

Cape

at

Newfoundland,

at

storm

and

returns

Greenland

three

of

Voyage

sails in

He

in search

Lief,

ship

one

of the land

Boston, Mass.,
he

He

returns

with
seen

the Labrador

Touching
winter.

of

son

his vessel

eries

the

tery
ern

the

land

from

Vinland,

Bay,
party

of

Thorwald
and

of 1003

In the

skirmish

its

island

these

discov-

the

of

Flato,

li-

royal

in

monas-

the

on

west-

of Iceland.]

coast

in

appear
Zeno

Greenland

1349

.....

of the Atlantic.
with

three

Henry Sinclair,Earl

Islands, visits

Greenland

.1307-73

ships belonging
of the Orkney
and
poasibly
1394

he sent

Communication

with

Greenland

ceases

about

1400
............................

Berthancourt

the natives

with

settles the

islands

Canary

1402

return

to

Machan,

Greenland

Karlsefne

sails with

born

England

OF
1435-36

and

in

three ships

rediscovered

previously
Englishman

Claudius

the

1418-