An Introduction to Domain Names

Overview: Domain names were invented to fill a similar need on the Internet. Most computers connected to the Internet are identified by a unique number called an IP address (for instance, 213.197.65.82). IP addresses are neither intuitive (they don't correspond to a geographical location) nor easy to remember. If you type the IP address into the URL bar of your browser you will be taken to the web site it relates to. As well as being hard to remember, however, IP addresses are also FIXED (if you change web hosting companies you'll need to get a new IP address for your site). Domain names offer a more intuitive way to name and find a website. Each domain name replaces IP address with a simple word or expression.

Definitions of Domain Name on the Web:

The unique name that identifies an Internet site. Domain Names always have 2 or more parts, separated by dots. The part on the left is the most specific, and the part on the right is the most general. A given machine may have more than one Domain Name but a given Domain Name points to only one machine. For example, the domain names: helpline4it.net mail.helpline4it.net workshop.helpline4it.net can all refer to the same machine, but each domain name can refer to no more than one machine. Usually, all of the machines on a given Network will have the same thing as the right-hand portion of their Domain Names (helpline4it.net in the examples above). It is also possible for a Domain Name to exist but not be connected to an actual machine. This is often done so that a group or business can have an Internet e-mail address without having to establish a real Internet site. In these cases, some real Internet machine must handle the mail on behalf of the listed Domain Name. The unique name that identifies an Internet site. On the Web, the domain name is the part of the Uniform Resource Locator (URL) that tells a domain name server where to forward a request for a Web page. For example, the domain name of this web site is helpline4it.com. Strings of letters used to name organizations and computers and addresses on the internet; "domain names are organized hierarchically with the more generic parts to the right."

Types of Domain Names: We categorized domain names in to two types. 1. Top Level Domain (TLD) 2. Country Code Top Level Domain (ccTLD)

1. Top Level Domain (TLD): The last (right-hand) part of a complete Domain Name. For example in the domain name www.helpline4it.com ".com" is the Top Level Domain. There are a large number of TLD's, for example .net, .biz, .com, .edu, .gov, .info, .int, .mil, .org, .tv, .pro etc.
       

.com stands for commercial .edu stands for education .gov stands for government .biz stands for business .info stands for information .tv stands for television .org stands for non-profit organizations .mil stands for military

     

.pro stands for professional .museum stands for museums .name stands for individuals .net stands for networks .coop stands for cooperative associations .aero stands for air-transport industry

2. Country Code Top Level Domain (ccTLD): ccTLD is typically a two-letter domain name extension, such as .uk or .de, that corresponds to a country, territory or geographic location. A country code Top Level Domain also referred to as non-US ISO country codes. Below is the complete detail about ccTLD's.
• • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • •

.ac – Ascension Island .ad – Andorra .ae – United Arab Emirates .af – Afghanistan .ag – Antigua and Barbuda .ai – Anguilla .al – Albania .am – Armenia .an – Netherlands Antilles .ao – Angola .aq – Antarctica .ar – Argentina .as – American Samoa .at – Austria .au – Australia .aw – Aruba .ax – Aland Islands .az – Azerbaijan .ba – Bosnia and Herzegovina .bb – Barbados .bd – Bangladesh .be – Belgium .bf – Burkina Faso .bg – Bulgaria .bh – Bahrain .bi – Burundi .bj – Benin

• • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • •

.bm – Bermuda .bn – Brunei Darussalam .bo – Bolivia .br – Brazil .bs – Bahamas .bt – Bhutan .bv – Bouvet Island .bw – Botswana .by – Belarus .bz – Belize .ca – Canada .cc – Cocos (Keeling) Islands .cd – Congo, The Democratic Republic of the .cf – Central African Republic .cg – Congo, Republic of .ch – Switzerland .ci – Cote d'Ivoire .ck – Cook Islands .cl – Chile .cm – Cameroon .cn – China .co – Colombia .cr – Costa Rica .cs – Serbia and Montenegro .cu – Cuba .cv – Cape Verde

• • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • •

.cx – Christmas Island .cy – Cyprus .cz – Czech Republic .de – Germany .dj – Djibouti .dk – Denmark .dm – Dominica .do – Dominican Republic .dz – Algeria .ec – Ecuador .ee – Estonia .eg – Egypt .eh – Western Sahara .er – Eritrea .es – Spain .et – Ethiopia .fi – Finland .fj – Fiji .fk – Falkland Islands (Malvinas) .fm – Micronesia, Federal State of .fo – Faroe Islands .fr – France .ga – Gabon .gb – United Kingdom .gd – Grenada .ge – Georgia .gf – French Guiana .gg – Guernsey .gh – Ghana .gi – Gibraltar .gl – Greenland .gm – Gambia .gn – Guinea .gp – Guadeloupe .gq – Equatorial Guinea .gr – Greece .gs – South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands .gt – Guatemala .gu – Guam .gw – Guinea-Bissau .gy – Guyana .hk – Hong Kong .hm – Heard and McDonald Islands .hn – Honduras .hr – Croatia/Hrvatska .ht – Haiti .hu – Hungary .id – Indonesia .ie – Ireland

• • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • •

.il – Israel .im – Isle of Man .in – India .io – British Indian Ocean Territory .iq – Iraq .ir – Iran, Islamic Republic of .is – Iceland .it – Italy .je – Jersey .jm – Jamaica .jo – Jordan .jp – Japan .ke – Kenya .kg – Kyrgyzstan .kh – Cambodia .ki – Kiribati .km – Comoros .kn – Saint Kitts and Nevis .kp – Korea, Democratic People's Republic .kr – Korea, Republic of .kw – Kuwait .ky – Cayman Islands .kz – Kazakhstan .la – Lao People's Democratic Republic .lb – Lebanon .lc – Saint Lucia .li – Liechtenstein .lk – Sri Lanka .lr – Liberia .ls – Lesotho .lt – Lithuania .lu – Luxembourg .lv – Latvia .ly – Libyan Arab Jamahiriya .ma – Morocco .mc – Monaco .md – Moldova, Republic of .mg – Madagascar .mh – Marshall Islands .mk – Macedonia, The Former Yugoslav Republic of .ml – Mali .mm – Myanmar .mn – Mongolia .mo – Macau .mp – Northern Mariana Islands .mq – Martinique .mr – Mauritania .ms – Montserrat

• • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • •

.mt – Malta .mu – Mauritius .mv – Maldives .mw – Malawi .mx – Mexico .my – Malaysia .mz – Mozambique .na – Namibia .nc – New Caledonia .ne – Niger .nf – Norfolk Island .ng – Nigeria .ni – Nicaragua .nl – Netherlands .no – Norway .np – Nepal .nr – Nauru .nu – Niue .nz – New Zealand .om – Oman .pa – Panama .pe – Peru .pf – French Polynesia .pg – Papua New Guinea .ph – Philippines .pk – Pakistan .pl – Poland .pm – Saint Pierre and Miquelon .pn – Pitcairn Island .pr – Puerto Rico .ps – Palestinian Territory, Occupied .pt – Portugal .pw – Palau .py – Paraguay .qa – Qatar .re – Reunion Island .ro – Romania .ru – Russian Federation .rw – Rwanda .sa – Saudi Arabia .sb – Solomon Islands .sc – Seychelles .sd – Sudan .se – Sweden .sg – Singapore .sh – Saint Helena .si – Slovenia .sj – Svalbard and Jan Mayen Islands .sk – Slovak Republic

• • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • •

.sl – Sierra Leone .sm – San Marino .sn – Senegal .so – Somalia .sr – Suriname .st – Sao Tome and Principe .sv – El Salvador .sy – Syrian Arab Republic .sz – Swaziland .tc – Turks and Caicos Islands .td – Chad .tf – French Southern Territories .tg – Togo .th – Thailand .tj – Tajikistan .tk – Tokelau .tl – Timor-Leste .tm – Turkmenistan .tn – Tunisia .to – Tonga .tp – East Timor .tr – Turkey .tt – Trinidad and Tobago .tv – Tuvalu .tw – Taiwan .tz – Tanzania .ua – Ukraine .ug – Uganda .uk – United Kingdom .um – United States Minor Outlying Islands .us – United States .uy – Uruguay .uz – Uzbekistan .va – Holy See (Vatican City State) .vc – Saint Vincent and the Grenadines .ve – Venezuela .vg – Virgin Islands, British .vi – Virgin Islands, U.S. .vn – Vietnam .vu – Vanuatu .wf – Wallis and Futuna Islands .ws – Western Samoa .ye – Yemen .yt – Mayotte .yu – Yugoslavia .za – South Africa .zm – Zambia .zw – Zimbabw