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Entrepreneurship is one of the important factors of industrialization, in the absence of
entrepreneurship industrialization cannot take place. Entrepreneurs are playing an important
role in the economic development of underdeveloped countries. Economic development is
possible only with the help of planned and unrelenting business activities. Entrepreneurs are
the human agency at the back of such activities. Entrepreneurship is the skill or quality of
such human resource, which is snatching opportunities and organizing endeavor for their
commercial exploitation. They initiate changes to do ventures in a better way, to get more
return from them or to impart more satisfaction to the consumers. Entrepreneurs bring
together the productive resources and act as a catalytic agent in the process of economic
development. Economic growth of any nation has been attained through the commercial
exploitation of inventions by utilizing its available resources-both physical and human-,
especially those that are not utilized so far. Entrepreneurship is the skill and ability, which
initiate innovations and undertake the risk (Ebran, 2003).
Entrepreneurship refers to the act of setting up a new business or reviving an existing
business so as to take advantage of new opportunities. Thus, entrepreneurs shape the
economy by creating new wealth and new jobs and by inventing new products and services.
However, an insight study reveals that it is not about making money, having the greatest
ideas, knowing the best sales pitch, applying the best marketing strategy. It is in reality an
attitude to create something new and an activity which creates value in the entire social ecosystem. It is the psychic makeup of a person. It is a state of mind, which develops naturally,
based on his/ her surroundings and experiences, which makes him/ her think about life and
career in a given way.
Definition of an Entrepreneurship
An individual who, rather than working as an employee, runs a small business, and assumes
all the risk and reward of a given business venture, idea, or good or service offered for sale.
The entrepreneur is commonly seen as a business leader and innovator of new ideas and
business processes. One who starts or assumes control of a business or other independent
enterprise, often employing innovation and more than an ordinary degree of risk.


An entrepreneur is a person who organizes and manages a business undertaking, assuming
the risk for the sake of profit. An entrepreneur: Sees an opportunity, Makes a plan, Starts the
business, manages the business and Receives the profits.
According to H.N. Pathek, Entrepreneurship involves a wide range of areas in which series of
decision are required which can be grouped into three categories:
 Perception of an opportunity;
 Organizing an industrial unit and;
 Running the industrial unit as a profitable, going and growing concern”.
According to Muscleman Jackson, “Entrepreneurship is the investing and risking of time,
money and efforts start a business and make it successful”.
According to Peter F. Drucker, “Entrepreneurship is neither a science nor an art. It is a
practice. It has a knowledge base. Knowledge in entrepreneurship is a means to end. Indeed,
what constitutes knowledge in practice is largely defined by ends, that is, by the practice”
Concept of Women Entrepreneurship
The educated women do not want to limit their lives in the four walls of the house. They
demand equal respect from their partners. However, Indian women have to go a long way to
achieve equal rights and position because traditions are deeply rooted in Indian society where
the sociological set up has been a male dominated one. Women are considered as the weaker
sex and always made to depend on men folk in their family and outside, throughout their life.
The Indian culture made them only subordinates and executors of the decisions made by
other male members, in the basic family structure. While at least half the brainpower on earth
belongs to women, women remain perhaps the world„s most underutilized resource. Despite
all the social hurdles, India is brimming with the success stories of women. They stand tall
from the rest of the crowd and are applauded for their achievements in their respective field.
The transformation of the social fabric of the Indian society, in terms of the increased
educational status of women and varied aspirations for better living, necessitated a change in
the lifestyle of Indian women. She has competed with man and successfully stood up with
him in every walk of life and business is no exception for this. These women leaders are


willingness to take risks and chances. While in push factors women engaged in business activities due to family compulsion and the responsibility is thrust upon them. women entrepreneurs are a significant part of the global expedition for sustained economic development and social persuasive and willing to take risks. her persuasiveness. In this dynamic world. Saddled with household chores and domestic responsibilities women want to get independence. The Government of 3 . Women entrepreneurs engaged in business due to push and pull factors which encourage women to have an independent occupation and stands on their own legs. Such a situation is described as pull factors. diligence and perseverance. The Government of India has defined women entrepreneurs as an enterprise owned and controlled by women having a minimum financial interest of 51 per cent of the capital and giving at least 51 per cent of the employment generated in the enterprise to women (www. open style of problem solving. ability to motivate people. Under the influence of these factors the women entrepreneurs choose a profession as a challenge and as an urge to do something new. organize and operate a business enterprise. They manage to survive and succeed in this cut throat competition with their hard work. Women Entrepreneurs may be defined as the women or a group of women who initiate. 2009) Women Entrepreneurship is an act of business ownership and business creation that empowers women economically increases their economic strength as well as position in society. Ability to learn quickly from her abilities. Figure: 1 Entrepreneurial Women and her multidimensional roles (Deshpande & Sethi. A sense towards independent decision-making on their life and career is the motivational factor behind this urge. knowing how to win and lose gracefully are the strengths of the Indian women entrepreneurs.

when women are empowered. Skill. knowledge and adaptability in business are the main reasons for women to emerge into business ventures. good society and ultimately a good nation” (Mundra & Sharma. as more women opt to leave the corporate world to chart their 4 . Empowerment of women is essential as their thoughts and their value systems lead to the development of a good family. such as divorce. or in which she / they individually or jointly have a share capital of not less than 51 Percent as Partners of Share Holders/Directors of Private Limited Company/Member of Co-operative Society (Embran. A strong desire to do something positive is an inbuilt quality of entrepreneurial women. 2003). managed by one or more women entrepreneurs in Proprietary concerns. 2013). With the advent of media. The challenges and opportunities provided to the women of digital era are growing rapidly that the job seekers are turning into job creators. The National Standing Level committee on women entrepreneur (Ministry of Industry) defines “women entrepreneurs as those who operate and control an enterprise and whose holding in the enterprise is at least 51 percent” (Sharma.India has defined a women entrepreneur is “an enterprise owned and controlled by a women having a minimum financial interest of 51% of the capital and giving at least 51% of the employment generated in the enterprise to women”.e. Powder and Pappad. Energy. discrimination due to pregnancy or the corporate glass ceiling. Government of India defined a women Enterprise as "An SS1 unit of industry related service or business enterprise. Many women start a business due to some traumatic event. But with the spread of education and passage of time women started shifting from 3P‟s to modern 3E‟s i. mainly 3P‟s. The entry of women into business in India is traced out as an extension of their kitchen activities. Electronics and Engineering. In the words of Former President APJ Abdul Kalam "empowering women is a prerequisite for creating a good nation.. rights and also the work situations. who is capable of contributing values in both family and social life. or economic reasons such as a layoff. society with stability is assured. 2013). Reasons for Women becoming Entrepreneurs The glass ceilings are shattered and women are found indulged in every line of business. The Ministry of SS1 & ARI. Pickle. women are aware of their own traits. Women Entrepreneur is a person who accepts challenging role to meet her personal needs and become economically independent. the health of a family member. But a new talent pool of women entrepreneurs is forming today.

Women entrepreneurs in large scale and small scale industries. publishers. The following flow chart shows the reasons for women becoming entrepreneurs: Figure : 2 Reasons For Women Becoming Entrepreneurs (Goyal & Prakash. Women entrepreneurs in organized & unorganized sector 2. garment manufacturers and still exploring new avenues of economic participation. Women entrepreneurs in traditional & modern industries 3. Women entrepreneurs in urban & rural areas 4.own destinies. Single women and joint venture entrepreneurs 5 . exporters. 2011) The Various Types of Women Entrepreneurs are: 1. interior decorators. 5. They are flourishing as designers.

health clinic etc. BARRIERS In general. schemes. based on 6 . Training programs and workshops for every type of entrepreneur is available through the social and welfare associations. Dairy. The family members and the society are reluctant to stand beside their entrepreneurial growth. Women must be educated and trained constantly to acquire the skills and knowledge in all the functional areas of business management. Handloom.Table: 1 Different Category of Women Entrepreneurs in India Category-I Category-II Category-III Established in big cities Established in cities and Illiterate women towns Having technical a higher & level Having a sufficient education Financially weak professional qualifications Nontraditional Items Both traditional and Involved in family business nontraditional items such as Agriculture. loans. Self motivation can be realized through a mind set for a successful business. Various institutions in the financial sector extend their maximum support in the form of incentives. parlors. Fisheries. Animal Sound financial positions Undertaking women's Husbandry. etc. beauty Agro Forestry. crèches. attitude to take up the risk and behavior towards the business society by shouldering the social responsibilities. women lack confidence in their strength and competence. Power looms etc. Stiff competition in the market and lack of mobility of women make the dependence of women entrepreneurs on middleman indispensable. Even then. Women‟s family and personal obligations are sometimes a great barrier for succeeding in business careers. every woman entrepreneur may not be aware of all the assistance provided by the institutions. services-kindergarten. Horticulture.

and the schemes from the government side. 2008) 7 . working in survival activities or as casual wage workers or home workers. 18 million are in the urban areas while 106 million are in rural areas. Table 2: Number of women entrepreneur in Punjab State Number of women entrepreneurs Percentage Punjab 110 24. 2011). which found that 98 out of 100 enumerators did not even put questions regarding the work of women: it was simply assumed that women did not work.4 (Source: The ICFAI University. Status of Women Entrepreneurship in India Women workers account for about 1/3 of all workers. women are not enterprising and dynamic to optimize the resources in the form of reserves. only 4 women were asked about any work they had done in the past year (Census Report. technically sound and professionally qualified women should be encouraged for managing their own. out of which 123 million are women workers. There are over 397 million workers in India. assets mankind or business volunteers.duration. The unexplored talents of young women can be identified. skill and the purpose of the training program. Women are hesitant to find out the access to cater their needs in the financial and marketing areas. trained and used for various types of industries to increase the productivity. Only a small proportion. A good example of the enumerator‟s perception is highlighted in a small survey commissioned by UNIFEM India. institutions. Not only do a higher percentage of women than men work in the informal economy. Highly educated. women are concentrated in the lowerincome segments. Out of the 2002 women in the 1000 households covered. In spite of the mushrooming growth of associations.

Small. Schemes of Kerala State Women‟s Development Corporation 8 . they contribute 3. 2008) Women-Owned Micro. Support to Training and Employment Program for Women (STEP) 5.Table 3: Number of women entrepreneurs on the basis of age Age of Women Entrepreneurs Age No Of Women Entrepreneurs Percentage Below 30 27 12% 30-40 58 43% 41-50 36 26% Above 50 29 19% Total 150 100% (Source: The ICFAI University. Mahila Coir Yojana 3.01 million women-owned enterprises represent about 10 percent of all MSMEs in the country.09 percent of industrial output and employ over 8 million people. Collectively. Swayam Siddha 6. as almost 98 percent of women-owned businesses are micro-enterprises. 2011) Schemes of Ministry of MSME (HRD 2011) 1. Approximately 90 percent of womenowned enterprises are in the informal sector. Trade related entrepreneurship assistance and development (TREAD) scheme for women 2. Women entrepreneurship is largely skewed towards smaller sized firms. (Census Report. and Medium Enterprises Around 3. Approximately 78 percent of women enterprises belong to the services sector. Schemes of Ministry of Women and Child Development 4.

Marketing support for women entrepreneurs 12. Some relevant studies are briefly discussed below:Kumar & Gill (2006) discussed a larger study undertaken to evaluate the viability of entrepreneurial trades for women in agriculture in Punjab completed by AERC. which proved to be very useful for getting an insight into the main objectives of the study and finalizing the research methodology. Amongst the different 9 . Self employment loan programmes 8. Women in Punjab are actively involved in agricultural as well as non-agricultural activities/enterprises . 2008. Educational loan schemes 9.7. Pudhucherry Government 18. Incentives to Women Entrepreneurs Scheme. Kerala Government‟s Women Industries Programme 14. Ludhiana with financial support from Ministry of Agriculture. Various libraries in the region were visited. Delhi Government‟s Stree Shakti Project 15. New Delhi. Schemes of Delhi Commission for Women (Related to Skill development and training) 16. viability and constraints and prospects for various entrepreneurial trades for women in agriculture was collected through a well-structured questionnaire for the period 2004-05. Government of Goa 17.The primary information on different aspects like socio-economic characteristics. Job oriented training programmes 11. Auto rickshaw / school van‟s driver scheme 13. Single women benefit schemes 10. Magalir Udavi Scheme. Financing Schemes by Banks/ Financial Institution's REVIEW OF LITERATURE A research involves an in depth knowledge of the key factors which are important to the study.

.. A strong entrepreneurial environment and available credit are important for countries in all levels of women‟s participation in business. periodicals. It was also observed that women enterprises are concentrated in the micro segment of the MSME sector. whether it is an urban area or rural area or district or block. In societies where there is government support. paper/Badi making was the most successful/viable enterprise for the women entrepreneurs. It further suggests that the formal banking institutions must finance their input costs and make a reduction in the formalities for providing credits Choudhary (2007) made an attempt to analyze women‟s participation in entrepreneurial activities so as to highlight the contribution of women entrepreneurs towards economic development. Cultural norms that support a belief in hard work. pickles making and the dairy enterprise. Women entrepreneurs will be better understood and encouraged by studying and focusing (I) their social and cultural background including family system (ii) religion and caste and (iii) location where they are staying. internet sources. and that too at their doorsteps or within the district. it summarizes the performance of the women enterprises in terms of certain characteristics such as employment generation.g. gross output. In the process it further attempts to examine the facilitating factors as well as impediments that this class faces in running their units. a review of some selected articles. It is found that economic. Their study is based on secondary sources of data provided by government reports. Most of the women entrepreneurs had gained expertise in different operations by learning from the family members but still about 15 per cent of them felt the need of training on different aspects of the enterprise. market value of fixed assets and exports. Young female entrepreneurs should share their success stories in the world of e-commerce to speed up entrepreneurial movement in India. From their paper it is observed that as observed the success of women entrepreneurs differs from State to State in India. e. Policies and programmes of the government also exist to promote and strengthen the development of women entrepreneurship in India. To enlarge their participation in small and medium segments a stronger coordinated role of Indian Government. a belief 10 . financial institutions. voluntary agencies and educational institutions with an integrated approach is necessary. women will gravitate towards business leadership. etc. Bullough (2008) described what macro and micro forces are hindering or advancing women in selected for the study. political and gender empowerments are significant forces across the board for women‟s participation in business. followed by bee-keeping.

it is concluded that there various motivational factors in an enterprise like attitude change. 11 . support and cooperation by society members. Her paper suggests the various ways to develop women entrepreneur like Right efforts on from all areas are required in the development of women entrepreneurs and their greater participation in the entrepreneurial activities it studies the present position of Women Entrepreneurship in Indian Economy Deshpande & Sethi (2009) described the encouraging and motivational factors in an enterprise. The worklife balance is not given priority as the challenge in establishing or diversifying the business. Rao (2012) focused on identifying the variables that are more challenging to the women entrepreneurs which need to be addressed for the sustainable development of the women entrepreneurs of the region. finding the skilled labor and increased competition. changes and relaxations in government policies. what else is required is to continue with the above changed trend. daring and risktaking abilities of women. The findings could help the educational institutions to develop an educational strategy for training the women entrepreneurs. risk taking behaviors. and important position in the society and the great contribution they can make for their industry as well as the entire economy. emphasizing on educating women strata of population. The important challenges faced by women entrepreneurs in establishing and growing the business were financed. making them realize their strengths. challenges global markets and also be competent enough to sustain and strive for excellence in the entrepreneurial arena. and participative leadership is indicative of women‟s participation in business. Economy Women entrepreneurship must be molded properly with entrepreneurial traits and skills to meet the changes in trends. spreading awareness and consciousness amongst women to outshine in the enterprise field. Thus. Most the women entrepreneurs surveyed were married women who feel confident in running and expanding the business with the support from the family members. Of the 69 entrepreneurs spread across Coastal Karnataka.liftment schemes to women entrepreneurs personal ability. individualism. The results reveal that success of women enterprises depends on the formal education and the training received. granting various up. diverted conservative mindset of society to modern one. The first section of the questionnaire was in the demographic details and the second section was pertaining to the specific challenges in running the business with reference to the different stages in the life cycle of the business. Ankurita (2008) studied the present position of Women Entrepreneurship in India.

. A study was thus done to analyze the performance of women entrepreneurs in Tamil Nadu.Bhatnagar (2012) found that what problems hinder women – in these case women entrepreneurs – in creation and maintenance of their own enterprise. Women entrepreneurs are aware of opportunities available to them. Dutta & Gailey (2012) examined the problems and constraints faced by self-employed women in the Pondicherry region. workplace facility and health problems. Women entrepreneurs faced constraints in aspects of finance. and attempts to identify the strength of these two forms of enterprising in empowering women. the difficulty in getting loans. production. coaching center. distance from markets. Samples of 120 women were personally interviewed during the period from June to July 1999. general stores. Women entrepreneurs were questioned about the problems they faced when starting up an enterprise and problems they face in the day-to-day running of their businesses. marketing. Nachimuthu & Gunatharan (2012) discussed the differences between women in other forms of enterprises and the Self Help Groups. loans availed. P. Enterprises taken up for the study were boutiques. and marketing problems. Pandian et al. of which 42 belonged to rural and 78 to urban areas. but there is scope for improvement in it. The results show that profitability of the enterprise.C. In addition factors influencing the performance of women entrepreneurs were also analyzed. and ignorance about agencies and institutions. self worth. Women entrepreneurs in SHGs are more empowered than other (Non SHG) entrepreneurs. confidence of women entrepreneurs to succeed are important determinants of the growth of net worth of the enterprises of SHG women over the years of their existence. They seem to be right in their attitude because the model of women 12 . beauty parlors. The problems for urban entrepreneurs were. (2012) focused in their studies on the issues regarding women in right perspective. self confidence and social status of women entrepreneurs are the variables that define empowerment of women. irrespective of the size of entrepreneurs at present. An attempt was also made to find if there is any difference in performance between SHG women entrepreneur and self supporting women entrepreneurs.O‟s. The least problems faced by both rural and urban self-employed women were ignored about schemes. Economic status. The major problems faced by the rural self-employed women were competition for better quality products. Entrepreneurship of women has enhanced their economic status and decision making power. apart from the competition from better quality products.

and problems. health. But with growing awareness about business and spread of education among women over the period. In India. What women need for enterprises little training. Random technique was adopted for the selection of study areas. Gujarat.entrepreneurial leaders and professional executives are plenty. growth in respect of the number of units registered. marketing. Pickles. state financial corporations. Entrepreneurial work has also been predominantly a man's world in India. financial support and motivation at all levels-home. growth. Kaushik (2013) found out various motivating and de-motivating internal and external factor of women entrepreneurship. Women‟s entry into business is a new phenomenon. Powder & Pappad. yet business spheres such as trade. Maharashtra and Karnataka have more women entrepreneurs. district industry centers and voluntary agencies like FICCI‟s ladies organizations. state industrial corporations. Electronics & Energy. Women entrepreneurs faced so many problems in aspects of financial. they have started shifting from 3Ps to engross to 3 modern E‟s viz Engineering. The study was conducted in four zones of Hisar. commerce and industry is still considered a male preserve. Their study has depended on the secondary as well as primary data regarding the functions. Powder and Pappad. It can be traced out as an extension of their kitchen activities mainly to 3Ps viz Pickles. a national alliance of young entrepreneurs which have been engaged in protecting and developing women entrepreneurs in the country In the case of Punjab and Maharashtra States registered moderately around 8 per cent out of 100 per cent.One of the important factors which reflects the progress of women's empowerment. There are several institutional arrangements both at the Centre and the state levels like nationalized bank. one could single out a substantial number of successful and entrepreneurial women. From managing the tiny petty shop to level of chairing the position of Prime Minister of a country. A sample of 100 women respondents. Among the states. Some guidelines should be given by the govt. The success stories of Women Entrepreneur role model will definitely stimulate the prospective women folk in the years ahead! Kaur & Singh (2013) suggested that around 50 per cent of India's population is women. are women. 13 . family. and the financial institution to the women entrepreneur at time to time. the society and the government. In India. Recent Trends and Development of women Entrepreneur in India . women‟s entry into business is a new phenomenon and entrepreneurship is traced out as an extension of their kitchen activities mainly the three Ps viz.

2011.Its hope that suggestion forwarded in the article will help the entrepreneurs in particular to look this problem and develop better schemes by the govt. the challenges they have experienced. The findings from his research. Saudi Arabia. there is no reason why women cannot excel and be successful. technological challenges. Newman. focus group discussions and the Case study have strongly demonstrated that there was no gender bias in successful entrepreneurship in the East Khasi Hills region. Saudi Arabia. While not everyone can become an entrepreneur. those officially registered with the Women‟s Business Center in Alkhober. In the analysis of the working lives of Khasi women in northeast engaged in trade. about how they founded their businesses. success in entrepreneurship requires certain inherent traits as well as a few supporting factors such as finance [Gopinath. 2004]. detailing the challenges they face when trying to open their own businesses and how they overcame these challenges. social challenges. and the effects of business ownership. While training is helpful. Maheshwari & Sahu (2013) focused on the challenges and opportunities available in the Indian market by en-cashing the possibilities and prospects of the same to be a successful women entrepreneur. etc. Giannetti and Simonov. even in indigenous and low resource countries. In India the challenges faced by women entrepreneurs comprises family challenges. using in-depth individual interviews. 2007. His study was focused on a group of seven women from Alkhober. financial challenges and policy challenges. But a part of that the facts presented in the study make it clear that Khasi women as important agents of entrepreneurial growth would lead to economic development of the region. Alhabidi (2013) in his thesis discussed the extent to which entrepreneurship is possible for women in Saudi Arabia. Nongbri (2008) states that “given the opportunity Khasi women do not lack in communication or the ability to carry out their entrepreneurial tasks”. which is located in the eastern region of the Kingdom and is the largest commercial center in the eastern region. Kurbah (2013) investigated the multi-factorial nature of women‟s role in economic development. industry and contractual activities. His study uses interviews and an online survey to gather information from recognized female entrepreneurs. For such transformation to happen there needs to be support both at the governmental and societal level. The purpose of his study was to examine the experiences of women entrepreneurs in Saudi Arabia. His study was identifying the opportunities that Saudi women have to develop 14 . There are ample opportunities in small businesses in India and such opportunities will transform India in the coming future.

The four divisions consist of Ambala. The choice of selecting all districts of Kerala emerged due to the reason of higher educational status. and primary prevention. The objective of their paper was to analyze the various problems faced by women in private sector and factors affecting women in their work environment. Rohtak. Their study provided a brief review of the prevalence and consequence that women face. Ambala. namely. For analyzing the financial problems faced by women entrepreneurs.43 percent of total MSM enterprises of Haryana (2007-08). Kurian & Kumar (2014) were conducted their research among women entrepreneur in Kerala state.the Saudi economy in the same ways as their male counterparts. Haryana has four divisions which are divided into 21 districts. For selection of enterprise different divisions (mandals) are considered. Secondly. Information was gathered from 189 enterprises. work–family conflicts. The Primary objective of their study was to understand the problems encountered by the women employees in private shops and business enterprises. 15 . Chander & Arora (2013) were conducted their research among women entrepreneurs in Haryana state. social constrains. Gurgaon and Hissar. his study provides a depth of information regarding the personal experiences of women entrepreneurs in Saudi Arabia. and experiences in the workplace. decision-making. In depth interviews and closed-ended questionnaires were used for a number of compelling reasons employment attitudes. sexual harassment. one relating to start-up obstacles and second relating to the problems faced in running up of the enterprise. economic precariousness. legislation. gender discrimination. occupational health and psycho social problems relating to their work and outlines social policy implications for research. Gurgaon and Rohtak were selected for the survey as these divisions constitute about 93. Three divisions. Data was gathered using in-depth and face to face interviews and the sample consisted of 700 women employed in the private sector at different occupational levels in the 14 districts of Kerala. The enterprise included from both urban and rural areas. two separate types of questions were prepared.

So there is a need to study the role of government and non – government institutions for promoting women entrepreneurs in Punjab & Chandigarh. What motivates a woman to become an entrepreneur is an important aspect of the study. Very few of the studies mentioned earlier have been conducted in the region of Punjab and Chandigarh. Maharashtra and Karnataka. and ignorance about agencies and institutions. Around 50 per cent of India's population is women. Tamilnadu have more women entrepreneurs.Gap analysis aims to find out the difference between what has been done and what has to be done on this topic. distance from markets. commerce and industry is still considered a male preserve. self confidence and satisfaction among women. Women‟s participation in entrepreneurial activities so as to highlight the contribution of women entrepreneurs towards economic development. It is hoped that such a study will generate new body of knowledge useful to our policy formulators. planning small business promoter‟s academicians. There are several institutional arrangements both at the Centre and the State levels like nationalized bank. 16 . it will help our understanding of how motivational factors may be used to enhance women self. By analyzing the schemes provided by Govt. a national alliance of young entrepreneurs which have been engaged in protecting and developing women entrepreneurs in the country . Furthermore. Among the states. It will also help in creating a working environment. to women. yet business spheres such as trade. state financial corporations. state industrial corporations.Research Gap It is clear from above mentioned review related studies pertaining women entrepreneurship that no comprehensive study has been conducted so far in Punjab & Chandigarh . existing & potential women entrepreneurs. Gujarat. the difficulty in getting loans. in this way this study will be helpful for the women entrepreneur in Punjab & Chandigarh. The problems for urban entrepreneurs were apart from the competition from better quality products. In order to host of other related issues & to gain a deeper understanding & insight into this relatively recent phenomenon of women entrepreneurship in this research study will take up.expression & self confidence. The least problems faced by both rural and urban self-employed women were ignored about schemes. So. district industry centers and voluntary agencies like FICCI‟s ladies organizations.

The aim of the present study is to identify challenges and opportunities of women entrepreneurs in Punjab & Chandigarh. To study the role of women entrepreneurship in empowering the women. 3. Encouraged with the efforts made by different agencies. 4. The scope of the study encompasses women entrepreneurs in three regions of Punjab & Chandigarh. To study the motivational factors influencing women entrepreneurs. 2. For the study purpose only active women entrepreneurs will be considered. SCOPE OF THE STUDY The present study will be restricted to the Punjab & Chandigarh only. However. 5. This study will also attempt to find the motivational factors that drove these women to become entrepreneurs.NEED OF THE STUDY Till now very few efforts have been made in exploring the women entrepreneurship in Punjab & Chandigarh. it is also a fact that more and more women are getting into the domain of entrepreneurial activities. To identify the problems and challenges for the women entrepreneurs. To examine the growth trends of women entrepreneurs in Punjab & Chandigarh. Ministry of Commerce and Industry and hosts of other agencies have started looking after and helping the efforts of women entrepreneurs. 17 . non government agencies. The data available on these aspects are scattered and not very authentic and doesn‟t help inaccurate decision –making. PROPOSED OBJEVTIVES OF THE STUDY This topic has been selected for study with the following objectives: 1. To explore the role of government and NGO‟s for promoting women entrepreneurs. This study will highlight many factors that will motivate women entrepreneurs in starting an entrepreneurial career. This study basically tries to focus on understanding the role of various activities that are performed to promote women entrepreneur. The efforts of Government of India through various welfare organizations.

Research methodology describes the method of conducting the research study. So. sample of 500 women entrepreneurs operating in urban areas will be used to collect primary data by using stratified random sampling. Research methodology is a way to systematically solve the problem. Addresses of women entrepreneurs will be collected from a number of sources viz. The population will consist of women entrepreneurs of Malwa. Exploratory personal investigations involving original field interviews with the women will help to have a greater insight into all possible practical aspects of the research problem. The adoption of the descriptive design may be very effective in the later stage of the present study. Manufacturing & Service in which all the Micro & Small enterprises will be included of respective district.e. Research Design Research design should be such that it leads into logical conclusion. Majha regions of Punjab (two districts from each region will be taken where female population is maximum ) & Chandigarh (UT). Further. 100 from Majha. Doaba. various commercial banks and District Industrial Centers. Punjab Financial Corporations. Sample unit and Sample design In this study. A sample of 500 women respondents (200 from Malwa. 100 from Doaba (Punjab) & 100 from Chandigarh will be selected). women respondents will be divided on the basis of nature of activities i. It shows the logical sequence of the steps of the research process from beginning till the completion. etc. The combination of exploratory research and Descriptive research will be undertaken to achieve the stated objectives of the present study. 18 .RESEARCH METHODOLOGY Research is the systematized effort to gain new knowledge.

2 50.100 Patiala Manufacturing -50% Service-50% 3 Doaba 4 Jalandhar.50 Hoshiarpur Manufacturing -50% Service-50% 4 Chandigarh(UT) 100 Manufacturing -50% Service-50% Total 22 6 500 Source:www. 2 Final Report of all India census-(2006-2007) 19 . India http://censusindia. Gurdaspur of activities Manufacturing -50% Service-50% 2 Malwa 14 Regions Number District Number of Total no of Nature of selected district respondent selected selected 2 50.50 districts 1 Majha 4 http://en.Table No: 4 Region & District Wise Sample size

2005) Data Collection The present study will be based upon the primary data and secondary data. The data will be processed and analyzed with the use of various statistical/graphical techniques available. Data will be collected from women respondent to study the response about government and non government initiatives taken for women entrepreneurship and will be judged to see actual implementation. newspapers. Internet Browsing etc. At an individual level data will be collected by personally interviewing the women respondents. Punjab State Corporation for development of women in Punjab. The Analysis of the women respondents will be done on the basis of the demographic attributes of women and age of the women respondents as suggested by the various past studies. the final questionnaires will be formulated. SSI Reports. The secondary data which will be collected from the published reports of RBI. Thailand. 20 .Table 5: Grouping of Women Entrepreneurs Enterprises Group 1 Group 2 Micro enterprises Less than 5 25 (maximum) Small enterprises 5 or 10 to 20-50(minimum no 100 (maximum) of workers) Medium enterprises 20-50(minimum) 300-500(maximum) (Source: Trade and Investment Division UNESCAP Bangkok. Annual Reports. journals. Data Analysis Appropriate statistical tools and techniques will be used for analyzing data to meet the objectives. The questionnaire will be pre-tested on a small sample of women respondents. websites. Census Surveys. As a result of pretested questionnaire.

Review of Literature and Conceptual Framework 3. Introduction and Design of the study 2. Major Findings 6.TENTATIVE CHAPTER SCHEME The Tentative chapter scheme for proposed thesis is as follows: 1. Conclusions & Future Research References & Bibliography Appendices 21 . Suggestions & Recommendations 7. Research Methodology 4. Data Analysis and Interpretation 5.

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