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Brief introduction of project method:

In 1865, the project is introduced by William Barton Rogers at the Massachusetts
Institute of Technology into the United States. Later Calvin Milton (1880–1918)
Woodward adapts the project concept to schoolwork .Gradually this idea spreads
in various field of education.
According to William Heard Kilpatrick “Dewey argues that the purpose of
education is to provide students with experiences that sustain and enhance their
growth. (Dewey does not use the term “project.”)
Kilpatrick took Dewey’s rather abstract discussion of experiences and thinking
and made it more concretely and developed techniques of project method.
Kilpatrick generalized project method as a “wholehearted (completely
enthusiastic) purposeful activity proceeding in a social environment.
Kilpatrick believes that the best way to prepare children for later life is through
practice in living now. He thought that the best way to practice was by doing

Principles of utility:-

How to utilize the abilities of human being to get the core solution of the given
scenario, how we can use the talent and mental approach to solve the problem is
concern with principle of utility. Utility is the activity for the learner to enhance
their abilities to solve the matter in logically and proper way.
Principle of readiness:-

It is the attitude of learner to bring the desire fruit while studying and reading
with great zealous to make performance to accomplish the desire goals. It is the
tendency to read the facts and figures according to given criteria.

Principle of learning by doing:

According to the John Dewey “learning to do by doing” learning is a students

performance on the experience.

Learner gets freedom to work:

Learner feels free during the carried out the project and gets new experiences.

Principle of socialization:-

Learner meets the society and gets innovative experiences from the environment
which deals to perform the task while gazing the socialization.

William Heard Kilpatrick has classified four different types of this method.


Constructing or tending to construct or improve or promote development, a good

opportunity for the student and their activity and ability to utilize.

Artistic: It refers to a diverse range of human activities and artifacts, and may be
used to cover all or any of the arts, visual arts, painting. Student show their
project in such colourful.
Problem centered:

The teacher should be able to identify the student’s interests and then guide them
through projects that will allow them to apply their interest to the demands of
society. Because the “project method “of teaching is student-centered, there
should be more of a focus on the students and less of a focus on formal
instruction and lecture.

Group practice:

Sometime teacher create a student’s group, Students do work together to solve

problems and student or sometime not student works individually nevertheless it
all that process will be under the teacher counseling.

Evaluation, feedback:
At the end of process teacher evaluate the student progress and judge the student
abilities then both the teacher and student check their feedback and in so far as
the student feedback identifies the learning deficiencies and that need correction,
and feedback to teacher their affecting counseling and guiding.

1. We learn the searching methods.
2. Learners enhance his confidence while doing project implementations.
3. Learner gets the inner psychological experience to resolve the matter.
4. Learner gets the opportunity to make preparation for upcoming tasks.
5. Psychological and sociological activities
6. Errors and mistakes of the learner get positive and constructive treatment.

1. Time wastage happens and it take much concentration towards one object
2. References and proper materials scarcely found.
3. Students feel burden while performing project because of its tedious nature
and inefficient way of implementing at graduation level.
4. It’s expensive way because to collect the material with limited sources the
matter of major concerns and finding such a huge material is not possible.
5. Reward of the student hard work is not managed according to rules and
regulation and he might be ignored from his project examiner.

1. It should be started from the master level of education.
2. It should be according to student level and teacher must do delimit of the
project work so that student don’t feel burden.
3. Teacher should consider learners level.
Active Method
Active learning involves providing opportunities for students to meaningfully talk
and listen, write, read, and reflect on the , ideas, issues, and concerns of an
academic subject.

1. Develop cognitive skill
2. Helps groups reach consensus
3. Develops leadership, teamwork, Communication and collaboration skills
4. Promotes critical thinking
5. Provides immediate feedback learner abilities and attention
6. Focused on specific details rather than general b theories
7. Every teaching method would be utilize to make of this fruitful
8. Provides opportunity for both learner and teacher to identify what is clear
and what needs work?
9. Self-Awareness Exercise/Test

1. Sometime can be frustrating for participants when they are at significantly
2. Different levels of knowledge and skill time-consuming
3. Expensive
4. Lack of sufficient teacher
5. May not be effective with large groups
6. In audio video or computer activity May be difficult to identify/access
appropriate materials
7. May be presented at the teacher’s level of understanding rather than at the

Different types of active method


Active learning involves students in course material through carefully constructed

activities. It is about learning from doing, performing, and taking action and
usually contrasts with the conventional lecture method. The action can be either
mental or physical


Constructivism is a set of assumptions about learning that guide many learning

theories and associated teaching methods. This is a theory concerned with
learning and knowledge, which suggests that human beings are active learners
who construct their knowledge from personal experiences and on their efforts to
give meaning to these experiences.


In the active method whereas involve various techniques so this provides the
animation activities, related to learners real life in which like field trip , arts,
designing, debates, interview etc. Active method is entirely based on the
awareness .its raise the learner halfbaked knowledge or abilities.

1. Active Listening
2. Active Writing
3. Question , answer activities
4. Visual-based Active Learning
5. Art Spiral
6. Map making
7. Drama Techniques
8. Jigsaw
9. Debates
10. Memory Game
11. Group discussion
12. Open discussion
13. Field trip
14. Interviewing