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You are on page 1of 16

Student ID: 100312522

Module Title: Computational Fluid Dynamics

Module Code: 6ME505

Module Leader: Dr. Dani Harmanto

Lecturer: Dr. Dani Harmanto and Dr. Yiling Lu

Derby

December 2014

CONTENTS

Abbreviations .......................................................................................................................................... 2

Figures ..................................................................................................................................................... 3

Tables ...................................................................................................................................................... 3

Introduction ............................................................................................................................................ 4

Modelling technique ............................................................................................................................... 4

CFD Technique processes ....................................................................................................................... 5

Critical Analysis ....................................................................................................................................... 8

Geometric displayer ............................................................................................................................ 9

Scalar Displayer ................................................................................................................................... 9

Streamline displayer ........................................................................................................................... 9

Vector displayer ................................................................................................................................ 10

Conclusion ............................................................................................................................................. 10

References ............................................................................................................................................ 10

Bibliography .......................................................................................................................................... 11

Appendix ............................................................................................................................................... 11

Abbreviations

Reynolds number

Fluid density

V

velocity

chord

Drag coefficient

Drag force

Free stream velocity

Frontal area

Lift coefficient

Lift force

k-

k-

turbulence model

turbulence model

Figures

Figure 1: Wing Shape of the NACA aerofoil studied in this paper. ......................................................... 5

Figure 2 bounding box of the wing analysed. ...................................................................................... 5

Figure 3: Volumetric control for the refined mesh. ................................................................................ 6

Figure 4: Geometric displayer ............................................................................................................... 12

Figure 5: Pressure displayer .................................................................................................................. 13

Figure 6: Streamlines ............................................................................................................................ 14

Figure 7: Vector displayers.................................................................................................................... 15

Tables

Table 1: Study cases for the simulations performed. ............................................................................. 4

Table 2: Wing characteristics of the NACA aerofoil used in this paper. ................................................. 4

Table 3: Mesh specifications for the NACA wing analysed. .................................................................... 5

Table 4: Results for each scenario of the simulations ............................................................................ 8

Introduction

The National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics (NACA), the forerunner of NASA (that

countrys aerospace agency) was founded in 1915 by the United States of America to undertake

aeronautical research (NASA, 2009). The NACA research and development gave a large contribution

to aerodynamics such as the series of NACA aerofoils. The NACA aerofoils were developed to the

aircraft but it is large used among other industries as motorsport such as F1 wings. The Figure 1 shows

an example of NACA profile.

Aerodynamics downforce also known as a negative lift is a vertical aerodynamic force that

increases loads on the tires without increasing the vehicles weight. Thus, the cornering ability is

increased which gives a better lap in motorsport races. On the other hand, the drag resistance is also

increased. Using aerofoils are, therefore, a challenge in order to equilibrate the maximum downforce

with the minimum drag (Katz, 1995).

Performing tests in computational programs are a cheaper way to improve cars aerodynamic.

According to Hirsch, C. (2007), Computational Fluid Dynamics (also known as CFD) is defined as a set

of methodologies that enable the computer to provide a numerical simulation of fluid flows. Star

CCM+ is a CFD software used in this assignment, which will allow an application of the fluid dynamics

to conduct engineering design analysis of a wing profile. The aim of this report will be performing a

wing through different scenarios of mesh in a 2D simulation, numerical method and volume meshes

and make an evaluation for the best configuration for motorsport. Each scenario is showed in Table

1.

Table 1: Study cases for the simulations performed.

Mesh

refined

Volume Meshes

trimmed

polyhedral

Scenario

coarse

Numerical method

k-e

k-o

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

Modelling technique

This research will be conducted using a NACA wing modelled on the SolidWorks. The data to

plot the profile points on CAD program will be achieved with the help of Air Foil tools website

according to requirements below:

Table 2: Wing characteristics of the NACA aerofoil used in this paper.

Maximum Camber position

Thickness

Angle of attack (pitch)

Naca 1 Series

Max Camber 10%

20%

1 degree

4

chord

200 mm

Using the Air Foil Tools website, the wing shape is displayed on Figure 2. The angle of attach,

also know as pitch is also set on the website.

A bounding box was created around the wing to define computational domain. The domain

should to be designed to be suitable to render the same conditions as when the wing is performing

on the car. The simulation is performed in the computational domain of 50 L from the inlet to the front

of the wing (Leading edge), 100 L from the rear (Trailing edge) to the outlet boundary, 50 L from the

top of the car to the top wall, and 50 L the clearance to the ground. As it will be assumed that the sides

is infinite, the span does not need to be large in order to use its surfaces as a symmetrical plane. In

this way, it is possible to save memory from CPU and obtain the same results from the complete width.

This measure was set to 50 mm. The Figure 3 shows the location of the wing in the bounding box.

Firstly, on the setup section, it is necessary to create the mesh. It will be used two types of

mesh: the first one is a coarse mesh and the second is a refined one. The Table 2 shows the parameters

of the meshes.

Table 3: Mesh specifications for the NACA wing analysed.

Base size

Target surface

Minimum surface

Mesh 1

1m

100%

1%

Mesh 2

1m

10%

1%

5

Prism layer stretching

Prism layer total thickness

Volume growth rate

CYLINDER

BLOCK

Relative size

2

1.5

33.33%

Fast

2

1.2

1

Slow

0.08m Radius

L 250mm and H100mm

0.6%

On the refined mesh, it was created a volumetric control according to the Figure 2 and

specifications on Table 2.

Mesh

According to the StarCCM+ Help, the base size is a characteristic dimension of the model that

you set before using any relative values. These relative values include most of the variables on the

Table 2. The target surface size is the aims of the mesh for meet in absence of any refinement.

According to the Table 2, the coarse mesh aims to meet 100% of the base size. On the other hand, the

minimum surface size is the lower limit that the surface aims. Decreasing this two surface sizes allow

more refinement of the mesh, however, this refinements increase the CPU time and the size of the

surface mesh.

Prism layer

The number of prism layers controls the number of cell layers that are generated in boundary

with the wing shape. In the same way, the prism layer stretching determines a formula, which the next

layer will be generated using the layer before. According to the Table 2, the second layer it will be 1.5

times the first layer in the coarse mesh. The Prism Layer total thickness controls the overall thickness

of all the prism layers.

The volume growth rate is Fast, Medium and Slow in the Mesh 1, Mesh 2 and Mesh 3,

respectively. This measure means the rate at which cell sizes increase from one cell size to another

within the trimmed cell mesh. The Figure 4 shows an example of the growth rate for the medium and

slow growth. A slow rate indicates a more refinement mesh with the high usage of CPU.

Regions

The next step to setup the wing profile on StarCCM + is to determine the regions of the

surfaces created. We need to set the inlet, outlet, symmetry, walls and the wing region. The inlet will

6

be set to velocity inlet, the outlet to the pressure outlet and the symmetry to symmetry plane. The

other regions will be walls. Under inlet, the velocity magnitude was set to 90kph.

Physics setup

The physics setup can be controlled under continua and are the mathematics choice to solve

the program. In this research, it will be performed a constant density. Two models of turbulence are

treated in the simulations: the two-layer and the SST .

Turbulence

The fluid dynamics describes the motion and behaviour of fluids. When the fluid flow

separates from the wing, it creates a pressure region that can be turbulent or laminar. Having attached

flow is extremely important in decreasing aerodynamic drag and/or increasing downforce. Thus,

knowing whether the flow is laminar or turbulent is very important for race car engineers (Katz, 1995).

According to Katz (1995), The Reynolds number (Re), a nondimensional number, can

determine if the flow is mostly laminar or turbulent. The Reynolds equation can be seen at Eq. 1. For

aerofoils chord, the Reynolds number less than 10 the flow over wings will be laminar. Higher values

for Reynolds number indicates a turbulent flow.

(1)

For the NACA aerofoil used in this report the Equation 2 prove its turbulence.

90

3.6

1.8 10

1.18415

0.2

(2)

= 328931

Turbulence models

The most complex computer codes include the effect of viscosity, and in principle should be

capable of predicting surface friction and flow separation. These codes are based on solving the

complete momentum equations that are derived from the Newtons second law, which are called

Navier-Stokes equations. The Reynolds Average Navier-Stokes (RANS) is the code used as it is the

appropriate solution that model the turbulence in the flow. It is a turbulence model to simplify and

translate the effects of the Reynold stresses into the time averaged Navier-Stokes equation. The

, a type of RANS turbulence models, is a two transport equation, regarding turbulent kinetic energy

and dissipation . This model works well for general purpose rather than the other RANS models

(Nyberg, 2012).

The y+ wall treatment is a tool to appreciate whether your mesh is sufficient or not. To acquire

the correct wall shear the viscous sub layer needs to be resolved (Nyberg, 2012).

Two-layer

The two-layer model represents an improved treatment of the near-wall region for turbulent

flows at low Reynolds number. It is less grid dependent and more numerically stable than the standard

, and has become quite popular in more complex flow simulations where integration to the wall

of the flow equations is necessary (Versteeg and Malalasekera, 2007).

7

SST k-

The k- is a RANS turbulence model as well, regarding as the turbulence frequency. It is a

hybrid model, proposed by Menter in 1992, using different models for near and far from the wall. The

model is the most general for external aerodynamics and can be used for general purpose on CFD,

likewise. However, it fails to include accounts of more subtle interactions between turbulent and

mean flow when compared with the Reynolds Stress equation Models (RSM) (Versteeg and

Malalasekera, 2007).

Critical Analysis

The results of the analysis for each scenario are showed in Table 4. Inside the green rectangle

are located the coarse mesh, and outside the refined one. Inside the red rectangle is located the

polyhedral volume meshes, outside the trimmed ones. The blue cells refer to the k- turbulence

model, and the other ones are the k- model.

Table 4: Results for each scenario of the simulations

Scenario

Drag

Lift

Cd

Cl

1

2

3.30

-13.71

0.04

-0.19

3.29

-13.69

0.04

-0.19

3.73

-12.92

0.05

-0.18

3.73

-12.95

0.05

2.01

-12.70

0.03

-0.18

-0.17

2.15

-12.26

0.03

-0.17

1.66

-10.55

0.02

-0.14

1.81

-10.18

Coarse

0.02

8

Polyhedral

-0.12

k-o

According to Katz (1995), a similar NACA aerofoil with 0 degrees of camber has 0.00 of lift

coefficient and 0.04 of drag coefficient. However, the wing studied in this report has a 1 degree of

camber, and the drag and lift coefficient are calculated below:

The theoretical value for drag coefficient on the first case are shown on Equation 4.

=

(3)

1

2

3.3

1

2 1.18415 25 0.2

= 0.04

(4)

Likewise, the theoretical lift coefficient for the first case are shown on Equation 6.

=

(4)

1

2

1

2 1.18415 25 0.2

= 0.19

(4)

The results for coarse mesh are showing higher drag coefficients, which are expected to be

the worst results. On the other hand, results for refined meshes are expected to be approximated to

the theoretical values.

The negative lift indicates that the direction of force action is reverse. This indicate a

downforce, and thus, the simulations can be validate.

Geometric displayer

In the geometric displayer it is possible to visualize how refined is the mesh in all scenarios.

The Figure 4, on Appendix, shows the differences between the scenarios. The coarse meshes have a

weak refinement in the prism layers, located in the boundaries of the wing. It is clearly shown on this

figure the difference between the trimmed and polyhedral volume meshes. For this case in particular,

the trimmed mesh is showed more usable, due to the fast achievement of the results. The polyhedral

mesh can adapt itself better for the surface, but both meshes acquired sufficient resolution.

In addition, it can be seen that the turbulence models do not interfere in the mesh building.

Scalar Displayer

The scalar displayer located in Appendix by Figure 5 shows the differences between the

Pressure displayers from the different scenarios. According to the literature, the centre of this

pressure vary with angle of attack, whereas the aerodynamic centre will be near the quarter chord.

Comparing the coarse mesh with the refined one, it is possible to see that the transitions from

the high pressures to the slow pressures are more highlighted in the coarse mesh. in the front of the

wing, the high pressure zone can explain the high drag, instead of a slow pressure zone at the rear.

It is expected that the wing could have more pressure underneath the wing causing a negative

lift, also known as downforce, which is wanted in motorsport. Both, coarse and refined meshes,

have this characteristic, what can validate the technical review and the simulations.

The areas of high pressure are the areas of the low velocity and vice versa.

Streamline displayer

Two characteristics are first noticed in Figure 6 that shows the streamlines, on Appendix. The

first one is the refined meshes have the lines more attached with the boundary layers what could

explain the better results. The attached line means more definition and the areas of more interesting

can be deeply investigated. The second noticeable thing is the separation of the flow, also known as

stall. The stall occur in the difference of pressures in the flow path. The separation of flow early

usually causes a vortex wave on the rear of the body. In this case, due to the NACA wing be a

streamlined body, this early separations caused by the weak refinement cannot cause any vortex

behind the aerofoil.

It is possible to see from the streamlines in the refined meshes, that viscosity entrains the flow

to follow the wings surfaces; this in turn causes it to accelerate below the wing, creating static pressure

reduction and downforce (McBeath, 2006).

Vector displayer

The vector displayers are shown in Figure 7 on the Appendix. Due to the shape of the wing, it

is easy to see on figure there are no recirculation zones caused by the vortex waves. However, the

vortex zones are caused by a 3D flows and, therefore, it is not possible to analyse in this report.

The vortex displayers can show the direction of the velocity in each case.

Conclusion

Flow analysis, using CFD, has been widely used in engineering. Performing tests in

computational programs are a cheaper way to improve cars aerodynamic. In motorsport, it is always

required high speed in curves. In order to increase the speed car potential in curves, the drag and lift

coefficient are important factors to consider. The downforce increase the grip of the car without any

increment of its weight. However, it is necessary to balance it with the drag due to the relations

between each other.

During the analysis, the method of simulation construction was detailed in CFD Technique

processes section. The report was based on a 2D simulation in order to save computational memory.

However, a wing, like any solid body, alters the airflow around it in all three dimensions, and this

makes a big difference, for example, to calculations of drag, because vortex drag is the result of a 3D

flow change as explained by Mcbeath (2006).

During the simulations, possible mistakes can happen. One of them can be the frontal area for

drag calculations. The area used was the same as the lift one. However, the frontal area in Drag

coefficient is different and this can alter the results. The meshes in turn contribute to the results

resolution. As it is seen in the Geometric displayers, the refined meshes gives more accuracy.

This work could evaluate the best configuration to analyse a NACA aerofoil with motorsport

using. The refined meshes always bring better results, but it is important to notice that better results

bring additional costs, so it is important to measure how amount of refinement is valuable to

determined work. The trimmed results showed more usable in this calculations due to its facilities to

be a fast approximation, in spite of polyhedral meshes showed more adjustable to the shape. The

turbulence models showed approximated results and so, both can be used for this model.

References

Versteeg, H. and Malalasekera, W. (2007). An introduction to computational fluid dynamics. Harlow,

England: Pearson Education Ltd.

NASA history program office. Available at: http://history.nasa.gov/naca/. [Accessed: 16 Nov. 14]

Hirsch, C. (2007). Fundamentals of

Elsevier/Butterworth-Heinemann.

Nyberg, K. (2012). Flow analysis of Apache wingsuit. Linkpings University.

Serre, E., Minguez, M., Pasquetti, R., Guilmineau, E., Deng, G., Kornhaas, M., Schfer, M., Frhlich, J.,

Hinterberger, C. and Rodi, W. (2013). On simulating the turbulent flow around the Ahmed body: A

FrenchGerman collaborative evaluation of LES and DES. Computers & Fluids, 78, pp.10-23.

McBeath, S. (2006). Competition car aerodynamics. Sparkford, Yeovil, Somerset, UK: Haynes Pub.

10

Bibliography

Star CCM+ CD Adapco, 2014. Available at: http://www.cd-adapco.com/products/star-ccm%C2%AE

[Accessed: 16 Nov. 14]

Kieffer, W., Moujaes, S. and Armbya, N. (2006). CFD study of section characteristics of Formula Mazda

race car wings. Mathematical and Computer Modelling, 43(11-12), pp.1275-1287.

Appendix

11

COURSE

REFINED

TRIMMED

k-

TRIMMED

k-

POLYHEDRAL

k-

POLYHEDRAL

k-

12

COURSE

REFINED

TRIMMED

k-

TRIMMED

k-

POLYHEDRAL

k-

POLYHEDRAL

k-

13

COARSE

REFINED

TRIMMED

k-

TRIMMED

k-

POLYHEDRAL

k-

POLYHEDRAL

k-

Figure 6: Streamlines

14

COARSE

REFINED

TRIMMED

k-

TRIMMED

k-

POLYHEDRAL

k-

POLYHEDRAL

k-

15

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