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BINARY BRANCH-AND-BOUND

integer programs with only binary variables

The algorithm has the advantage that it

requires no linear-programming solutions.

In the ordinary branch-and-bound procedure,

subdivisions were analyzed by maintaining the

linear constraints and dropping the integrality

restrictions relax the variables

Here, we adopt the opposite tactic of always

maintaining the 01 restrictions, but ignoring

the linear inequalities relax the constraints

General idea

The idea is to utilize a branch-and-bound (or

subdivision) process to fix some of the variables

at 0 or 1.

The variables remaining to be specified are called

free variables.

Note that, when the inequality constraints are

ignored, the objective function is maximized by

setting the free variables to zero, since their

objective function coefficients are negative.

This is mandatory to apply this algorithm.

Example

maximization problem

subject to:

less than or equal to

inequalities

consequently every variable is free and set to

zero.

The solution does not satisfy the inequality

constraints, and we must subdivide to search

for feasible solutions.

One subdivision choice might be:

For subdivision 1 : x

For subdivision 2 : x = 0.

inequalities are ignored, the optimal solution over each

subdivision has

x = x3 = x4 = x5 = 0.

The resulting solution in subdivision 1 gives

z = 8(1) 2(0) 4(0) 5(0) + 10 = 2

and happens to satisfy the inequalities, so the optimal

solution to the original problem is at least 2, z*

Also, subdivision 1 has been fathomed:

The above solution is best among all 01 combinations

with x

No other feasible 01 combination in subdivision 1 needs

to be evaluated explicitly.

These combinations have been considered implicitly.

subdivision 2 is the same as the original

solution with every variable at zero, and is

infeasible.

Consequently, the region must be subdivided

further, say with x

or x = 0, giving:

For subdivision 3 : x = 0, x

For subdivision 4 : x = 0, x = 0.

Completing it

Complete

tree

Note that

1. At , the solution x = 0, x = x3

with free

variables x4 = x5 = 0, is feasible, with z = 4, thus

providing an improved lower bound on z.

2. At , the solution x = x3 = 0, x = x4

and

free variable x5 = 0, has

so that no

solution in that subdivision can be as good as

that generated at .

3. At and , every free variable is fixed. In each

case, the subdivisions contain only a single

point, which is infeasible, and further

subdivision is not possible.

Note that

4. At , the second inequality (with fixed

variables x = x = 0) reads:

x3 4 + x 5

No 01 values of x3, x4, or x5 completing

the fixed variables x = x = 0 satisfy this

constraint, since the lowest value for the

lefthand

x3 =

and x5 = 0.

x4

The subdivision then has no feasible solution

and need not be analyzed further.

Generalizing

Subdivisions are fathomed if any of three

conditions hold:

i.

the subdivision, for example, by the previous

infeasibility test;

ii. the 01 solution obtained by setting free variables

to zero satisfies the linear inequalities; or

iii. the objective value obtained by setting free

variables to zero is no larger than the best feasible

01 solution previously generated.

Once again

This algorithm is designed for problems in

which:

1. the objective is a maximization with all

coefficients negative; and

2. constraints are specified as less than or equal

to inequalities.

If not, then

Problem transformation

Minimization problems are transformed to

maximization by multiplying cost coefficients by

If xj appears in the maximization form with a

positive coefficient, then the variable substitution

xj

xj everywhere in the model leaves the

binary variable xj with a negative objectivefunction coefficient.

Greater than or equal to constraints can be

to constraints.

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