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2012 International Conference on Traffic and Transportation Engineering (ICTTE 2012

IPCSIT vol. 26 (2012) © (2012) IACSIT Press, Singapore

Evaluation of Asphalt Mixes Containing Reclaimed Asphalt Pavement
for Wearing Courses
Arshad Hussain + and Qiu Yanjun
School of Civil Engineering, Southwest Jiaotong University, Chengdu, China

Abstract. The use of Reclaimed Asphalt Pavement (RAP) has been enormously increased from the last
two decades. In fact using RAP in pavement construction has now become common practice in many
countries. Using RAP not only economical and environmental friendly but also preserve the natural resources
and similar or even better in structural performance than virgin asphalt mixtures. This paper presents an
experimental study to evaluate the effect of various types and percentages of RAP on the properties of
asphalt mixtures.
Four mixtures, which were the combination of two different virgin aggregates (Limestone and Quartzite) and
two different RAP sources were studied in this research. The mixtures were designed by Marshall method at
a wide range of 0 to 100% RAP blends to handle low, medium and high traffic loads. RAP material was
blended with virgin aggregate such that all specimens tested had approximately the same gradation. Mixtures
containing RAP showed significant variability and the variability increased with the increase in RAP content.
The results indicate that low RAP content up to 30 % can be used successfully in wearing courses

Keywords: RAP, Marshall, Surface Course, Material Testing, Stability, Flow

1. Introduction
The use of reclaimed asphalt pavement (RAP) in the construction of new hot-mix asphalt (HMA)
pavements has increased in recent years. RAP is old asphalt pavement that is milled up or ripped off the
roadway (Kim, 2007). The Federal Highway Administration estimates that 100.1 million tons of HMA is
milled each year (MAPA, website). Rap material can be reused in new asphalt mixtures because the
components of the mix (the asphalt binder and aggregate) still have value. Using RAP in new mixtures can
reduce the amount of new material that has to be added, saving money and natural resources. In addition,
hot-mix asphalt mixtures with RAP can perform as well as mixtures made with all new material. Due to
these advantages of using RAP, many state highway agencies are moving toward rising the percentages
of RAP in their hot-mix asphalt pavements (EPA and FHWA, 1993). RAP has been used in hot mix
asphalt pavements in various percentages that reached in some cases up to 80% (EPA and FHWA, 1993),
and typically from 20-50% (Kim, 2007; Solaimanain, 1996; Lynn, 1992).
When RAP is reused in a new mixture, it is necessary to properly account for the old material in the new
design. The aggregate from the RAP has to be included with the new aggregate, and that blend of aggregate
has to meet certain physical properties. The experience with RAP in Marshall and Hveem mixtures has
shown that properly designed and constructed RAP mixes can perform as well as, or even better than,
mixtures made with all new materials. The mixtures with RAP designed by Superpave have also shown good
performance. In the current study only the Marshall method was used for the performance evaluation of

Corresponding author. Tel.: + 86(28 86465803); fax: +86(28 87600340).
E-mail address: (


43 Percent Passing Percent Passing Percent Passing 100 95 85 40 30 25 18 13 4 100 97 88 43 33 26 20 12 7 100 94 86 39 32 28 17 11 6 Sieve Size (inch) 25 19 12. virgin aggregates have been collected from two dominant aggregate sources (Margalla & Dina). All the testings were done in duplicate/triplicate and all the values mentioned in this paper were the average value.asphalt mixtures containing various RAP ratios. 20. 30%. 20%. asphalt binder 60/70 penetration grade which is being in use in most highways is acquired from Attock Refinery Limited (ARL) at Rawalpindi.75 2. 2. various aggregate and asphalt sources are available for making asphalt concrete.10 5. In order to access the percentage of the asphalt present in the RAP material. 45%. The Mandra RAP gradation is little finer than the Nowshera but contains less bitumen than the latter one. 10%. The purpose of this research was to design good wearing surface with high RAP content without compromising the performance. The binder content and gradation of RAP of both the sources after extraction and control gradations are shown in Table 1. Pakistan. Materials and Methods In Pakistan. The wearing course mixtures with 10.075 RAP Source Mandra Nowshera Two virgin and two RAP sources were used in various proportions (0.18 0.The laboratory testing for this research was limited to 19 mm nominal maximum aggregate size (NMAS) mixture.36 1. 60% and 100% RAP) results in four different combinations as shown below. which are considered to be the largest live aggregate quarries in the country. Control and RAP gradation and binder content (after extraction) Property Virgin Control Gradation Binder content (%) - 5. Before extraction of bitumen the 25mm size particles were removed as the control NMAS WAS 19mm. For this research.6 0. 45. Table 1. 30.3 0. 60 and 100% RAP content were made and compare the results with the control design (No RAP content). “Recovery of Asphalt from Solution by Abson Method”. Four different mixtures combinations of two virgin and two RAP sources were designed and tested as shown below. The RAP material was obtained in form of chunks from two sites (Mandra & Nowshera) along national highway N-5. “Quantitative Extraction of Bitumen from Paving Mixtures” and AASTHO T 170.5 4. Margalla Wearing + Nowshera Rap denoted in the paper by (MW+N RAP) Margalla Wearing + Mandra Rap denoted by (MW+M RAP) Dina Wearing + Nowshera RAP (DW+N RAP) Dina Wearing + Mandra Rap (DW+M RAP) 44 . asphalt extraction was done using AASTHO T 160. The RAP chunks were crushed and screened into different sizes to meet the specified grading requirements. The RAP materials were subjected to severe aging and weathering on the site. Similarly. Marshall mix design procedure was used for the design of mixtures for wearing course.

84 70. It was assumed that the total asphalt content in the mixture is equal to the 100% virgin wearing course control mixtures.96 20. asphalt content of RAP 3.84 3. Marshall Mix Design for all Mixtures Rap (%) Air Voids (%) VFA (%) 0 4 71. Table 2.40 11.75 4.36 72.18 14.38 78. The optimum asphalt content for the control mixes were 4.75 72.91 2358 2353 2353 2348 2348 2333 10.08 14.99 14.15 MW+N RAP 16.67 1.29 2. All the mixtures fulfill the minimum stability criteria of 6 kN and also satisfy the VMA and VFA requirements.66 2368 2363 2358 2408 2378 2373 Stability (KN) .92 18. The percentage of new binder was calculated by using the following equation for the 10 to 60% RAP mixtures.40 45 Flow (mm) Unit Weight (Kg/m3) 9.As NMSG for wearing course was ¾ inch. The 100% RAP mixtures were compacted without adding any virgin binder since the RAP binder present is higher than the optimum binder. After determining the bulk specific gravity of the test specimens.59 10.45 0.70 67.80 0. Bulk specific gravity and water absorption of the Marshall mixes were determined according to AASHTO T 166.56 3.66 74.18 68.73 14. Results and Discussions The Marshall Mix design of both RAP sources with Margalla and Deena aggregates are summarized in Table 2.96 1.98 21.69 74.47 15.07 2. The variability in the mixtures properties is due to the variability in RAP material which generally increases with the increase in RAP percentages.79 % for Margalla and Dina wearing courses respectively based on 4% air voids.48 13.87 3.44 7.22 10. the stability and flow tests were performed according to AASHTO T 245.10 1.19 2. 1986) Where Pnb = Percent of new asphalt binder in recycled mix expressed as whole number r = New aggregate expressed as a percent of the total aggregate in the recycled mix expressed as a whole number Pb = Percent.23 2.47 14. therefore all mixes have been compacted for heavy traffic criteria.39 2.93 4.20 16.5 10 20 30 45 60 100 4. As heavy traffic and overloading has been one of the main reasons behind early deterioration of our pavements. Pnb = {(1002-rPsb)Pb/100(100-Psb)}-{(100-r)Psb/(100-Psb)}------------(Asphalt Institute.09 83.47 10 20 30 45 60 100 3.63 2376 9.19 3.74 77.01 3.36 4. Generally the properties of the mixtures improve with the addition of RAP material which shows that recycling is a viable option for HMA design.04 2.37% and 4.66 VMA (%) Control Margalla Wearing 14.89 76. The first three mixtures did not meet the minimum flow criteria (>2mm) with high RAP contents.38 MW+ M RAP 13.89 2. estimated asphalt content of recycled mix assumed to be the same as that of 100 percent virgin HMA mix Psb = Percent.83 69.02 15.24 4.26 14.82 13.06 3.69 9.82 13.58 2. therefore conventional 4 inch diameter molds were used to make marshal specimens using 75 blows on each side for compaction.

444 4. Marshall Stability (kN) 25 20 15 MW+N RA AP 10 Min nimum MW+M R RAP DW+N RA AP 5 DW+M RA AP 0 0 10 20 3 30 45 60 100 RAP P (%) Flow (mm) F Figure 1 Marshhall Stability for f all mixturees 4.92 10 20 30 45 60 3.31 15.71 11.488 19.600 7.91 22.055 3.19 16.25 22.622 3.5 1 0.5 2 1.43 11.5 3 2.955 19.5 0 Maaximum MW+N RAP P MW+M RA AP Minnimum DW+N RAP P DW+M RAP P 0 10 20 30 45 4 RAP (%) 60 100 Figure 2 Marrshall Flow fo or all Mixturess 46 .744 20.0 4 75.79 7 77.80 7 73.80 13.31 11.35 7 76.5 4 3.655 22.133 4.5 10 20 30 45 60 3.83 15.54 17.75 7 76.70 7 73.922 774.64 11.26 7 71.18 6 67.32 7 74.56 14.11 14.30 22.2 F which indicated i thaat most of th he values aree within the specification s ns limits of 2 to 4mm whhen up to 30 0% RAP is used u in the m mixtures butt above 30% % RAP the miixtures fail too satisfy the minimum fllow limits off 2mm.788 22.544 3.63 12.03 22.555 19.34 12.25 DW+N RAP P 13.25 22. The low l flow vallues at high RAP R contentt is an indicattion of loadeed under stress and may be b due to lesss or no virginn binder in case of 100% % RAP.233 773.922 22.422 10.31 4.11 2433 2422 2328 2378 2358 7.03 DW+M RAP P 12.92 Conntrol Dina Weaaring 16.91 2354 11.65 2433 2413 2368 2353 2378 The flow values forr all the mixxtures are preesented in Fig.622 3.077 3.53 14.

20 (MS-20) Second Edition. (2007). It is recommended for future study to use modified binder and 25mm NMAS to see the RAP mixture performance as base course material. Overall the Nowshera RAP gives better performance with both the aggregate sources as compared to the Mandra RAP. Presented at the 75th Annual Meeting of Transportation Research Board. KY 2007. No. It is suggested to construct a trial section using virgin and RAP blends to verify the suitability of RAP mixtures to the country climate condition and traffic loadings. Conclusions Based on extensive laboratory evaluation of different Marshall Mixtures containing RAP concludes that the blending of virgin and RAP material overall improve the mixture properties. 6th Edition.C. The quality of the virgin aggregates and also the quality of RAP material greatly affect the mixture volumetric properties. The RAP content up to 45% can be used successfully for heavy traffic and higher RAP content can be designed for medium and low traffic. 1996. Asphalt Institute. 2 (MS-2). (1992). Florida. Thanks are extended to National Institute of Transportation (NIT) of National University of Sciences and Technology (NUST).. “Evaluation of Use of High Percentage of Reclaimed Asphalt Pavement (RAP) for Superpave Mixtures” Research Report FL/DOT/SMO/07-507. Three States OK More RAP in Recycling Specs: Asphalt Recycling and Reclaiming. [2] Lynn. [3] AI. The main conclusions drawn from this research are the following: • • • • • • • In laboratory the RAP mixtures designed using Marshall method perform the same or even better than the conventional mixtures. USA. reducing the HMA price and improve the performance. Washington. Islamabad for providing the testing facilities. The stability of the 100% RAP mixtures for Nowshera RAP is more than double the stability of the virgin mixtures and for the other RAP source also increases in the stability with 100% RAP. 4. 1986. The Asphalt Institute. most of the mixtures failed to satisfy the minimum flow criteria indicating that the aged binder not participating well and the mixtures are under stress during loading. When using RAP percentage above 45%.1543. 5. Generally the Marshall stability increases linearly with increase in RAP contents. And Tahmoressi. Transportation Research Record. National Research Council. References [1] Kim. [4] Solaimanian. L. "Mix Design Methods for Asphalt Concrete and Other Hot-Mix Types”. Manual Series No. Lexington. 47 . The higher RAP mixtures can be designed using modified binders and also adding some rejuvenating agents to reduce the aged binder stiffness. M. Thanks are also extended to ARL for providing the asphalt binders for testing. Manual Series No. M. S et al. Variability Analysis of Hot-mixed Asphalt Concrete Containing High Percent Reclaimed Asphalt Pavements. Roads and Bridges. 89-96. D. Acknowledgements The authors acknowledge the Pakistan-United States Science and Technology Cooperative Program for funding this research. Using RAP in design even up to 30% will help in conserving the natural resources.The laboratory testing confirmed that good quality mixtures can be design using RAP material. [5] Asphalt Hot-Mix Recycling. Even the 100% RAP mixtures of both the sources give good stability value.

“Recycling of Asphalt Pavements Using at Least 80 Percent Recycled Asphalt Pavement Engineering and Environmental Aspects of Recycled Materials for Highway Construction. FHWA-RD-93-088. “Recycling of Asphalt Pavement” (accessed online at www. 2011). Report [7] Missouri Asphalt Pavement Association (MAPA) website. 48 .[6] Environmental Protection Agency and Federal Highway Administration (1993) .moasphalt.htm on Sep 20.