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FALL 2014

3) Window type: The window sequence may be of shape different than a pulse. Sampling frequency of the input signal. it is possible to generate spectrogram of a signal with a delay equal to the window signal duration. The spectrogram is obtained by taking FFT of the input signal multiplied by the window function for various delays on the window sequence. the spectrogram is plotted upon usage of the function. The output is a 3D surface. Such window functions are useful to emphasize some samples of the input signal for each step while constructing the spectrogram. Same amount of delay on the window function is used for each time step of the spectrogram and the procedure is applied as long as the input sequence is available. 5) Fs: Sampling frequency. . The spectrogram works as follows: The input signal is used along with a window function. By fixing the point of view at 0 to 90 degrees. Such an application can be used to determine the frequency components included in a signal throughout the time. The proposed function includes a selection of seven different window functions. the function outputs the spectrogram as a topological map. Using spectrogram. Function Output No explicit output of the spectrogram is presented to the user. it is possible to obtain real-time frequency domain information about the signal. y-axis is the frequency in hertz and the ‘amount’ of each frequency is represented by the z-axis. Also note that it is possible to obtain the raw data of spectrogram too. Is used to plot the output in seconds. The spectrogram is useful for visualizing the frequency components of a signal. Window function is of finite length and its duration is generally preferred to be much smaller than the duration of the input signal. 2) Window size: Duration of the signal to be used as the window sequence. yet.General Overview The pre-project was to write a MATLAB function that demonstrates the spectrogram of a signal. 4) Window shift: In samples. Amount of the delay on window function for each time step. Function Inputs Function written to satisfy the requirements of the pre-project includes 5 inputs: 1) Input signal: Input signal whose frequency components will be analyzed. where x-axis is the time in seconds.

Also with increasing window size. T = 0:0.100. a more localized region.'q'). The input sequence: Generated using. only one FFT will be computed and thus the resolution of the spectrogram output will be 1 in x-axis. by decreasing the window size. The span of the window function also affects the frequency resolution of the spectrogram.200. . Thus the window size effects the resolution of the spectrogram in x-axis. X = chirp(T. Below figures demonstrate the effect.Effects of Inputs  Window size The window size determines the number of FFTs to be taken if all other parameters are fixed.001:2.1. if the window size is equal to the input signal duration. For the extreme case. the time. In other words. it is possible to obtain a spectrogram that shows the frequency components of a smaller region of the input signal. the spectrogram will be constructed considering the frequencies included in a wider sub-signal of the input thus resulting decreased localization.



it is easy to decide that the resolution and thus the number of FFTs to be taken will be increased for decreased window shift since with a smaller window shift. for the third 2*windowShift and so on. Window shift affects the time resolution of the spectrogram. the window sequence starts at sample 0 and for the second it starts at sample windowShift. Hanning. it is expected for the window function to take more time to ‘travel’ through the input signal. Intuitively. The offered window types are intended to be inputted as strings and the available window types are also included in the help section for the proposed function. Gaussian.  Window shift Window shift is the amount of delay on the window sequence for each time step. The window type determines how the spectrogram will be constructed since the values of the delayed window function will be multiplied by the value of the input signal thus changing the values for input samples. Blackman and Kaiser windows. For example for the first step. Below. Window Type The proposed function offers 7 different window types: Hamming. Tukey. there are some results of the function for different window shift values. Triangular. .