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7. Configurable term applied to a device or system whose functional characteristics can be selected by a program or other methods. Board: English term which is interpreted as synonymous panel.Un varies its output automatically in response to a direct or indirect input of a process variable. . When used in its simplest form. but can be varied only by a manual procedure. is a general term transducer and its use for signal conversion is not recommended. Binary: A term applied to a signal or device that has only two discrete positions or states. 9. A manual controller is a manual loading station and its output is not dependent on a measurement of a process variable. which operates manually or by itself. and transmits one or more results to the output signals. in any form. Controller: A device with an output that varies to regulate a control variable in a manual controller específica. 8. Alarm: A device or function that detects the presence of an abnormal condition by means of an audible or visible discrete change. which directly manipulates the flow of one or more processes. the term denotes a state of "on-off" or "high-low". which have the purpose of attracting attention 2. most commonly used. Assignable: This term applies to a feature that allows the change (or direction) of a signal from one device to another without the need for activation of a switch or some other item. Control valve: A device. Converter: A device that receives information in a certain way to an instrument and transmits an output signal in another form. or may be both signals simultaneously. A converter is also known as a transducer. 6. 3. 4.1. Computable or computing device: A device or function that uses one or more calculations or logic operations. as in "binary signal" (which is opposite to analog). or both. 5. Auto-manual station: A term used as a synonym for control station.

status. 16. Programmable Logic Controller: A controller. 20. Parent: Synonymous sensor. The term process variable is used as a standard for application to all variables. control. 19. consoles or desks. Process: Any operation or sequence of operations involving a change of power. Final control element: A device that controls directly the values of the manipulated variable in a control loop. The term local instrument panel can not be confused with local instrument. Digital: A term applied to a signal or device that uses binary digits to represent continuous values or discrete states. Instrumentation: instrument collection or its applications in order to observe measurement.10. Process Variable: Any property a process variable. Usually the final control element is a control valve. 15. 12. Local panel: that is not on a center panel. or any combination thereof. Bow: A combination of one or more instruments or control functions that mark the passage from one to another for the purpose of measuring and / or controlling a process variable. 17. 18. composition. cubicles. 11. Panel: Structure which has an instrument cluster mounted thereon. Measurement: Determining the existence or magnitude of a variable. usually with multiple inputs and outputs containing a alterable program is called in this way or commonly known as PLC. 13. local panels are commonly in the field of plant subsystems or subareas. dimension. . or other properties that may refer to a data. 14. The panel may consist of one or more sections.

The sensor is also known as a detector or parent. predetermination. At one time it was common to include ActiveX controls in web pages. and intelligible state or output. 22. selects. ActiveX: a marketing name used by Microsoft for many types of software components implemented in the COM (Component Object Model) architecture (see COM). An ActiveX control is a small piece of software designed to be used as part of a larger one. Switch: A device that connects. Relay: A device whose function is to pass information without altering it or just change it in a certain way. Transducer: general term for a device that receives input from one or more quantifiers physical modifiers information and / or shape if required. Relay is commonly used to refer to computing devices. and produces a resultant output signal. their use for specific applications is not recommended. disconnects. The sensor may be integrated or separated from one functional element or tie. your connection is only temporary or intermittent to an instrument. 28. 24. a converter or other device. Its value is expressed in the same units as the controlled variable. Depending on the application a transducer can be a primary element.21. 23. Sensor: Part of a loop or an instrument that first detected the value of a process variable and assumes a correspondence. Some ActiveX controls are simply object libraries or subroutine libraries used by programmers— a more sophisticated kind of DLL. Set point: The set point or reference point can be set manually or automatically scheduled. a relay or a control valve. Because the transducer is not specific term. . 26. as programs to be executed on the client computer. Test Point: Process connection which is not permanently attached. 27.rity risks. The sensor may or may not be integrated into the transmitter. but because of secu. 25. one relay transmitter. or transfers one or more circuits and is not meant as a controller. many web browsers no longer accept them. Transmitter: A device that senses a process variable through a sensor and has an output which varies its value only as a predetermined function of the process variable. Others work more like Java applets (see APPLET).

On a monitor screen. including many subtle changes from earlier versions. CD-R. In the sample program. who worked with Babbage’s mechanical calculator in the nineteenth century. etc. Store your backup copies in a secure place. you will be able to restore your files. On a computer network. Table 3 (page 31) shows all the ASCII char. It is named for Augusta Ada Byron. In addition to printable characters. and printers. . Aluminum: chemical element (atomic number 13) added to silicon to create a P-type SEMICONDUCTOR. preferably a fireproof box. ASCII: (American Standard Code for Information Interchange) a standard code for representing characters as numbers that is used on most micro. Ada: a programming language developed in the late 1970s for the U. 34. programming computers to control automatic or semiautomatic equipment. the range of frequencies that an electronic system can transmit. computer terminals.S. For alternatives to ASCII. Graphics features such as transparency can be turned off to improve performance on slow CPUs. You should have a full backup copy of your hard disk on CD-R discs. see IBM PC (character set chart) and ANSI character set (Table 2. 33.29. Aero shows considerable influence from MAC OS X. the ASCII code includes control characters to indicate car. DVD-R discs. For two popular extensions of ASCII. High bandwidth allows fast transmission or the transmission of many signals at once.computers. or an external hard disk stored separately from the computer. more technically. see EBCDIC and UNICODE. 31. It’s a good idea to also make daily backups of work in progress. Aero: the new user interface of Windows Vista. bandwidth: the rate at which a communication system can transmit data.acter codes as decimal numbers. page 23). See also ARCHIVALSTORAGE. Department of Defense.dows can have transparent borders. HARD DISK MANAGEMENT. Toward this end. 32.riage return. the bandwidth of a connection is limited by the slowest link in the chain connecting two computers. backup copy: a copy of working programs and related files that can be used to restore lost or damaged programs and files. Compared to Windows 2000 and XP. Then. that is. in case of any hardware or software problems. the with and use statements specify that this program uses a library of precompiled subroutines called I_O_PACKAGE. GRANDFATHER TAPE.currently (see TIMESHARING) to pass signals from one task to another and to introduce controlled time delays. backspace. Ada allows the programmer to create multiple tasks that run con. the most noticeable of which is that win. Ada subprograms can be compiled separately and linked together before execution. Countess of Lovelace. Much of the original motivation for designing Ada was the need for a better language for real-time programming. high bandwidth provides a sharp image. 30.

See Table 5 for some common phrases. The web address is www. For instance. However. For example. The 486 and Pentium microprocessors have an internal instruction cache for program instructions that are being read in from RAM. . too. CAPTCHA: (Completely Automatic Public Turing Test to Tell Computers and Humans Apart) an on-screen device that presents a quiz requiring a human response. 40. you may have to RELOAD it to see its current contents. Cisco Systems. cache 1: a place where data can be stored to avoid having to read the data from a slower device such as a disk. Inc. chat room: an electronic forum in which users can communicate with each other in real time. an external cache is also used. but until you get the hang of it. One purpose of the CAPTCHA is to prevent ticket scalpers from using bots to cables (either coaxial or fiber-optic) rather than telephone lines. 39. The CAPTCHA often appears as a graphical image of a simple arithmetic problem or a word written along a wavy curve. 36. SOCIAL NETWORKING. a chat room can be a bewilder. The numeral 4 is used to replace four and for. L2 CACHE. INSTANT MESSAGE. including complete computer programs. If a web page has been changed recently. 38. Many times the abbreviations are recognized from their context.ten out—they are replaced by the numeral 2.35. consisting of RAM chips that are faster than those used in the computer’s main memory.: a company headquartered in San California that is the leading provider of high-speed networking hardware. up to a certain limit. so that the same pages can be redisplayed quickly when you go back to them. software advances may allow the bot to solve the CAPTCHA quiz. Most web browsers keep copies of all the web pages that you view. People in chat rooms use a lot of abbreviations so they can type as quickly as possible and to offer hints of their emotional reactions (see also EMOTICON).chase large amounts of tickets from Internet ticket place. 2. Acomputer reads the bar code by scanning it with a laser beam or with a wand that contains a light source and a photocell. cable modem: a MODEM that provides computer communication over tele. The most familiar bar code is the Universal Product Code (Figure 26).com. a set of files kept by a WEB BROWSER to avoid having to download the same material repeatedly. such as a web page selling tickets. The automated bot only sees a graphical image and can’t provide the answer to the math problem. but bar codes have been utilized to encode many kinds of data. bar code: a pattern of wide and narrow bars printed on paper or a similar material. to prevent an automatic BOT from gaining access to a location. See also ELECTRONIC MAIL. 37. See also L1 CACHE. Circular bar codes are sometimes used on boxes or pieces of luggage that may be scanned from many different directions. LEETSPEAK. used with cash registers in supermarkets. Chat rooms are found on the Internet (see IRC) and on online services such as CompuServe and AOL. a disk cache stores copies of frequently used disk sectors in RAM so that they can be read without accessing the disk. and to are almost never writ. the words two.

45. DVD MovieFactory. error does not necessarily denote a mistake made by a human being. (Dance Dance Revolution) a popular game for the Sony Playstation. See SDRAM.covingtoninnovations. See also CCD IMAGE SENSOR. digital camera: a camera that takes pictures with a CCD IMAGE SENSOR or CMOS image sensor and transmits them directly to a computer or records them on a memory card without using film. 44. HARD ERROR. The image on a TV screen is equivalent to about 400 × 600 pixels. 49. a situation in which a computer cannot follow its instructions. Error: a malfunction. a group of networked computers that share a server and a set of user accounts. For instance. CorelDraw. In 1996. 47. EULA: abbreviation for end-user license agreement. 2. FOCAL LENGTH. See ERROR MESSAGE.covingtoninnovations. the agreement that the user of a piece of software is required to accept when installing it. 43. which is a subdomain of . F-RATIO.corel. www. to run a computer program one step at a time while monitoring the values of and ftp. Other Corel products include a variety of computer programs and utilities such as Corel Painter. Nintendo Wii. it was one of the first video games to incorporate real exercise.mance by transmitting data on both the rising and the falling edges of each clock pulse. Corel acquired the WordPerfect Office business applications. DDR 1.ital image requires about 2000 × 3000 2. Corel: a corporation headquartered in Ottawa. a dig. and WinDVD. in which the player dances on a platform that senses his or her movements. Introduced in 1998. electronic paper: a display screen that has similar characteristics to ordi. See BUG. IMAGE PROCESSING. debug : to remove errors (bugs) from a computer program. In computing. A much lower resolution is sufficient for snapshots. or in which recorded data cannot be retrieved correctly. that introduced one of the first successful DRAW PROGRAMs. Domain: are two servers in the domain covingtoninnovations.nary paper. in Windows NT and its successors. CMOS IMAGE SENSOR. Datagram: a PACKET of information transmitted by NETWORK. The most important specification of a digital camera is the number of PIXELs in the image. See LICENSE. 2. Their web address is www. See DEBUGGER. in 1989. FOVEON. See MEGAPIXEL (table). To show as much detail as a good 35-mm slide.: (describing computer memory) (double data rate) term used to describe a type of SDRAM computer memory that gives faster perfor. . its toplevel domain (TLD). a portion of the Internet distinguished by a particular final part of the name. in an attempt to diagnose errors. SOFT ERROR. and other game machines. 42.41. 46.

originally released in 1985 by Microsoft for the Macintosh. Excel: a popular SPREADSHEET program. . and later adapted for Microsoft Windows.50.