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LECTURE 06

ORGANOGENESIS AND SOMATIC EMBRYOGENESIS
The development of an adult organism from a single cell (zygote) is the result of
the integration of cell division and cell differentiation. Isolated cells from differentiated
tissues are generally non dividing and quiescent but to express totipotency, the
differentiated cells first undergoes differentiation and then re-differentiation. The
phenomenon of a mature cell reverting to a meristematic state and forming a
dedifferentiated callus tissue is called dedifferentiation whereas the ability of
differentiated cell to form a whole plant/plant organs is termed as re-differentiation.
Organogenesis
Organogenesis is the development of adventitious organs or primordia (embryoid)
from undifferentiated cell mass (callus) in tissue culture. It is controlled mostly by a
balance between cytokinin and auxin. A relatively high ratio of auxin:cytokinin induces
root formation in callus tissues whereas, a low ratio induces shoot formation.
Caulogenesis is a type of organogenesis by which only adventitious shoot bud initiation
takes place in the callus tissue.
When it is applicable for root, it is known as rhizogenesis. Anomalous structures
when develop during organogenesis is called organoids. The localizecd meristematic cells
on a callus which give rise to shoots and/or roots is termed as meristemoids.
Non-zygotic embryogenesis
Somatic embryogeneisis
Somatic embryogenesis is the process of a single cell or a group of cells intiating
the developmental pathway that leads to reproducible regeneration of non-zygotic
embryos capable of germinating to form complete plants. Under natural conditions this
pathway is not normallsy followed, but from tissue cultures somatic embryogenesis
occurs most frequently and an alternative to organogenesis for regeneration of whole
plants. Adherence to this pattern of morphogenesis depends on co-ordinated behaviour of
a cells or cells to establish polarity as a unit and therby initiate gene action sequenctially
specific to emerging tissue regions. Non-zygotic embryos have been shown to be
functionally equivalent to zygotic embryos.
The bipolar structure of the somatic embryo contains both shoot and root
meristems. Generally induction of somatic embryogenesis in most species requires a high
concentration of auxin, usually 2,4-D, in the culture.

As the embryos (both zygotic or

After 30 to 60 min. heart. Those with a single embryo are collected. c) Culture environment d) Bacterial compounds Synthetic seeds: Synthetic seeds /Artificial seeds are the living seed like structure derived from Somatic embryo in vitro after encapsulation by a hydro gel. the drops are gelled completely. Such seeds are contaminated with microbes and desiccate quickly when subjected to field conditions.non-zygotic) develop. b) Medium Components. they progress through the distinct structural steps of the globular. . and mature stages. cotyledonary. So. High costs of production and very low field germination are the main reasons why the artificial seeds are not widely used until now. The preserved embryoids are termed as synthetic seeds. Steps Induction of SE ↓ Maturation of SE ↓ Encapsulation of SE ↓ Evaluation of Embryoid and plant conversion ↓ Planting Procedure Somatic embryos are mixed with 3 % sodium alginate solution and the mixture is added drop by drop into CaCl2 solution with a pipette. Induction Factors  Effects of gene expression  Effect on intercellular interactions  Role of Cytokinins  Miscellaneous factors: a) Genotype and explant characteristics. torpedo. Nutrients and/or pesticides may be added to the alginate solution. encapsulated in Calcium alginate.