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Sofia • 2008

Vera Behar 1, Boriana Vassileva1, Christo Kabakchiev2

1

Mathematical Methods for Sensor Information Processing, IPP, 1113 Sofia

E-mails: behar@bas.bg bvassil@bas.bg

2

Department of Information Technologies, Sofia University “St Kliment Ohridski, 1164 Sofia

E-mail: kabakchiev@fmi.uni-sofia.bg

GPR (Ground Penetration Radar) is presented. It is intended for data simulation,

image formation and basic GPR signal and image processing.

The designed software can be useful for the researchers to help them analyze

the performances of the different algorithms for data acquisition, signal processing

and image processing. A part of the results, achieved using this package, is

presented in this work.

analysis.

1. Introduction

Typically, GPR data are basically processed with commercial packages (such as

Radan Geophysical Survey Systems Ins. or Haescan Roadscanners), which are

aimed more at the commercial users than the researchers. The software source

codes of these packages are often not open and they are not always available for the

researchers. These facts make commercial packages less useful for research needs.

Because of this, a mini-package for realizing the most important basic processing

algorithms is developed. There are different algorithms for noise and spice events

suppression, direct and air waves removing, attenuation losses correction. The input

data can be real or simulated radargram. These data can be the output radargram of

new currently investigated processing algorithm as well.

The general algorithm for B-mode image (radargram) simulation and

processing includes: calculation of the amplitude and two-way time delay of a

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signal reflected from each layer of a multi-layered media; simulation of useful echo

signals, clutters, speckle and impulse noise; construction of the synthetic range

profile; image formation.

The experimental results obtained enable to conclude that the software tool

presented in the paper can be successfully used for analysis and parameter

optimization of the basic signal processing algorithms.

2. Software tool blockscheme

The general block-scheme of the developed software tool is presented in Fig. 1. The

input data can be real radargram or radargram model (simulated data). These data

can be the output radargram of a new currently investigated processing algorithm as

well (see Section V). There is the possibility of adding active noise (pulse jamming)

environment. The simulation algorithms are described in Section III.

The analysis of GPR data is carried out by processing the data using different

filtering techniques and gains. Filtering is the use of mathematical processing

algorithms to clean noise from the data and/or enhance certain characteristics of the

data. Gain is a value by which raw data are multiplied to enhance low-amplitude

reflections. Signal amplitude commonly decreases exponentially at increasing

travel. This was compensated by designing a custom time gain that increases the

signal strength.

The developed software tool allows flexible and iterative processing for

realizing the most important basic processing algorithms. These algorithms are:

• mean filter (vertical working low-pass filter);

70

• running average (horizontal working low-pass filter);

• stack traces (compression in horizontal direction);

• median filter (pulse jamming and speckle noise reduction);

• background removal (spatial high-pass filter which make visible the

shallow objects);

• gain adjustment (corrects the attenuation losses and makes visible the deep

objects).

The general algorithm for simulation and processing of GPR B-mode images

(Fig. 2) includes:

• Calculation of the amplitude of a signal reflected from each layer of a

multi-layered media.

• Calculation of the two-way time delay of a signal reflected from each layer.

• Simulation of echo signals reflected from the multi-layered media, clutters,

impulse noise and speckle noise.

• Construction of the synthetic range profile. It is done for each of N

positions of the transmitter-receiver system. At this stage, the matrix of M columns

is simulated. Each column of this matrix contains the echo signal simulated for one

of M transmissions.

This signal matrix is used for construction of a synthetic range profile by the

stepped-frequency approach:

• Basic signal processing (removing clutters and interference, wow, so on).

• Image formation. The GPR B-mode image is formed on the base of N

constructed synthetic range profiles. This stage includes also interpolation,

logarithmic-compression and visualization.

model

Sub-surface media

parameters

m-th emission (m=1, …, M)

profiles using the М echo-signals

Repeat for N locations of а

Transmitter-receiver system

Image formation

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A. Simulation of echo-signals

The complicated convolution model is used for simulation of signals reflected from

a multi-layered sub-surface media.This model takes into account both, the GPR

parameters and the sub-surface media parameters. For the m-th transmission of a

pulse, the signal reflected from a multi-layered media with L layers can be

mathematically described as:

L

(1) r ( m , t ) = ∑ µ m , k SNR k s ( m , t )δ k ( m , t − τ k ) + N 0 ( m , t )

k =1

where:

s (m, t ) is the m-th transmitted pulse with an unity envelope;

SNR k – the signal-to-noise ratio of a signal reflected from the geological

interface between layers k and (k+1);

µm , k – the multiplicative (speckle) noise (the Rayleigh noise with unity mean);

δ k (m, t ) – the impulse response of the geological interface between layers k

and k+1 after transmission of the m-th pulse;

τ k – the two-way time delay of a signal reflected from the geological interface

between layers k and k+1;

L – the number of geological layers;

N 0 ( m , t ) – the normalized Gaussian noise with zero mean and unity variation.

For construction of a synthetic range profile by the stepped-frequency approach, the

time-domain method or the frequency-domain method can be exploited.

The time-domain technique, proposed in [2] for SAR applications, uses a

sequence of stepped-frequency narrowband waveforms to produce a high-resolution

synthetic range profile. In the time domain, a long wideband chirp is constructed

from M narrowband chirps, each of duration Tp, separated in time by a repetition

interval T. The central frequencies of narrowband chirps are spaced by step ∆f.

Since the spectrum of each narrowband chirp is a fraction of a constructed

wideband chirp, all transmitted chirps should have the same frequency rate. The

total bandwidth of a reconstructed wideband pulse equals ∆f = ∆fM. The

construction of a synthetic range profile is performed by the following processing

steps: upsampling, frequency shift, phase correction, time shift, coherent summing,

and pulse compression.

The frequency-domain technique, proposed in [3] for SAR applications,

constructs a wideband target reflectivity spectrum by combining the spectra of the

transmitted narrowband pulses. In the frequency domain, a wideband target’s

reflectivity spectrum is formed by concatenating together M adjacent sub-portions

of the spectrum, each obtained by separate transmission and reception of

narrowband pulses of bandwidth ∆f. The reconstructed spectrum at baseband

M −1

is V ′( f ) = ∑Vm ( f − δf m ) where V m ( f ) is the frequency spectrum at baseband of

m =0

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the m-th narrowband pulse. The frequency shift of each spectrum in the positive

direction is determined by δfm.

The reconstruction of a synthetic range profile is performed by the following

processing steps: upsampling, fast Fourier transform, frequency shift, wideband

spectrum construction, and pulse compression.

C. GPR image formation

The process of GPR image formation includes the following stages:

• 2-D Interpolation. Between each two neighboring range profiles are

additionally included ID synthetic range profiles in order to improve the final

quality of GPR images;

• Normalization. The image intensity is normalized;

• Log-compression. This operation is performed in order to reduce the

dynamic range of the image intensity to 50 dB;

• Quantization. The image intensity is quantized in the diapason from 0 to

255.

4. Experimental results

In this section some results achieved using the above presented software tool are

shown.

The simulated radargram with four layers (Fig. 3) is masked by pulse

jamming. It can be seen that after pulse compression, the pulse jamming looks like

the speckle noise. In order to remove this noise, a median filter can be applied over

the selectable time/range area for each time step Fig. 4 shows real GSSI SIR [1]

radargram contaminated with noise (a) and “cleaned” by mean and running average

filtering (b). The image presents five underground fuel storage tanks.

-8

x 10 GPR image before median filtering

0 250

200

0.5

Time [ss]

150

Time,

100

1

50

5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45

Number of range profiles

-8

x 10 GPR image after median filtering

0

200

0.5 150

s [s]

Time

100

Time,

1

50

5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45

Number of range profiles

makes visible the deep objects. The simulated radargram with three layers is shown.

The gain acts on each trace independently. The algorithm parameter forms a

jumping window. The time window samples are normalized in the range [0, 1].

73

Fig. 4. Noise filtering (number of time samples 7; number of traces 9)

should be applied only for displaying the GPR radargram.

-8

x 10 GPR image before gain adjustment

0 250

200

s [s]

150

0.5

Time

Time,

100

50

1

5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45

Number of range profiles

-8

x 10 GPR image after gain adjustment

0

0.8

s [s]

0.6

0.5

Time

Time,

0.4

0.2

1

5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45

Number of range profiles

Fig. 5. Gain adjustment corrects the attenuation losses (window length = 30)

The developed software tool is used to investigate the performances of novel

algorithms for image improvement based on Singular Spectrum Analysis (SSA)

algorithm followed by some conventional (see Section II) basic processing

algorithms.

The SSA method [4, 5] was developed as a tool for time series analysis. This

method is partially suited to short, noisy time series. It operates in the time domain

74

and as such is suited to time series containing quasi-periodic signals, rather than

strict sinusoids. This is the typical situation for GPR traces. The aim of SSA is to

make a decomposition of the original series (GPR traces in the considered case) into

the sum of a small number of independent and interpretable components such as:

low-frequency trends, narrowband quasi-periodic signals and noise.

SSA operates by examining the system dynamics using only the information

that comes from a time series of observations, in this case the voltages of the

receiver antenna by applying time-lagging (embedding) method. The single

parameter of the embedding is the window length L. The shorter length of the

window leads to the smaller frequency resolution of each component. The longer

window leads to the higher frequency resolution of each component, but the greater

the chance that noise is mistaken for signal.

Fig. 6 illustrates some benefits of the SSA algorithm followed by running

averaging and background removal.

The first radargram (a) presents sewerage shaft before processing. Fig. 6 (b)

shows the same radargram after SSA processing with L=30, using eigenvalues in

75

range 2-9. This filtering make shaft lid visible. After running average (number of

traces = 9) and background removal, the horizontal lines which are produced by

antenna ringing and reflections between the antenna and the ground surface, are

removed (c). The image improvement is significant.

Conclusions

The designed software toll is intended for researchers in order to help them analyse

the effectiveness of the different variants of the algorithms for data acquisition,

signal processing and image processing. Some results, achieved using this package

are presented in this work.

The experimental results obtained enable to conclude that the software tool

presented in the paper can be successfully used for analysis and parameter

optimization of the basic signal processing algorithms.

Acknowledgment. This work was partially supported by the Bulgarian National Science Fund (Grant

MI-1506/2005).

References

1. REFLEXW – the GPR and Seismic 2D Processing and 2D/3D Interpretation Software with Modular

Arrangement. Sandmeier Scientific Software, 2007.

2. Z h a n g, Q., Y. J i n. Aspects of Radar Imaging Using Frequency-Stepped Chirp Signals. –

EURASIP Journal on Applied Signal Processing, 2006, 1-8.

3. N e l, W., J. T a i t, R. L o r d, A. W i l k i n s o n. The Use of a Frequency Domain Stepped

Frequency Technique to Obtain High Range Resolution on the CSIR X-Band SAR System. –

In: Proc. of 6th IEEE AFRICON Conf., AFRICON’02, George, South Africa, Vol. 1, 2002,

327-332.

4. A l l e n, M. R., L. A. S m i t h. Monte Carlo SSA: Detecting Irregular Oscillations in the Presence

of Colored Noise. – J. Climate, 9, 1996, No 12, 3373-3404.

5. M o o r e, J., A. G r i n s t e d, Singular Spectrum Analysis and Envelope Detection: Methods of

Enhancing the Utility of Ground-Penetrating Radar Data. – Journal of Glaciology, Vol. 52,

2006, No 176, 159-165.

6. Geophysical Survey Systems. Inc. Software Utilities.

http://www.geophysical.com/Downloads/Radview.zip

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