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This article analyzes Maxwell tensor tangential and radial magnetic forces in permanent magnet synchronous machines (PMSM) in the no-load case. Using matrix notation in the complex domain, a simple expression of the Fourier harmonics of both radial and tangential forces is derived, including all space and time harmonics. These expressions prove that both the frequency content of cogging torque and zero-th order radial forces are linked to the least common multiple between the stator slot number and the rotor poles number, and that the optimal pole arc to pole pitch ratio to reduce cogging torque is also optimal for the reduction of average radial magnetic forces. It is also shown that both the smallest non-zero spatial order of tangential and radial force harmonics are given by the greatest common divider of the number of slots and the number of poles. These results can be used during design stage when choosing the pole and slot numbers combination.
These analytical results are then compared to calculations using MANATEE vibroacoustic and electromagnetic simulation software. Finally, some variable speed acoustic noise simulations are carried on three different designs to analyze the efficiency of different vibroacoustic design rules on the slot and pole numbers combination. An attempt to formulate a new vibroacoustic design rule choice is detailed. It is concluded that no simple analytical design rule can be used to evaluate noise and vibrations induced by magnetic forces, and that numerical simulation is necessary.

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**Airgap Magnetic Forces in Permanent Magnet
**

Synchronous Machines

Jean LE BESNERAIS

EOMYS ENGINEERING

121, rue de Chanzy

59260 Lille-Hellemmes, FRANCE

Website: www.eomys.com

Abstract—This article analyzes Maxwell tensor tangential

and radial magnetic forces in permanent magnet synchronous

machines (PMSM) in the no-load case. Using matrix notation in

the complex domain, a simple expression of the Fourier harmonics

of both radial and tangential forces is derived, including all

space and time harmonics. These expressions prove that both

the frequency content of cogging torque and zero-th order radial

forces are linked to the least common multiple between the stator

slot number and the rotor poles number, and that the optimal

pole arc to pole pitch ratio to reduce cogging torque is also

optimal for the reduction of average radial magnetic forces. It

is also shown that both the smallest non-zero spatial order of

tangential and radial force harmonics are given by the greatest

common divider of the number of slots and the number of poles.

These results can be used during design stage when choosing the

pole and slot numbers combination. These analytical results are

then compared to calculations using MANATEE vibroacoustic

and electromagnetic simulation software. Finally, some variable

speed acoustic noise simulations are carried on three different

designs to analyze the efficiency of different vibroacoustic design

rules on the slot and pole numbers combination. An attempt to

formulate a new vibroacoustic design rule choice is detailed. It

is concluded that no simple analytical design rule can be used

to evaluate noise and vibrations induced by magnetic forces, and

that numerical simulation is necessary.

**I. N OMENCLATURE AND ABBREVIATIONS
**

F

Magnetomotive force

fR

Rotor mechanical frequency

fs = ωs /(2π) Electrical fundamental frequency

gcd

Greatest Common Divider

g

Airgap width

hm

Radial magnet height

ks

Rank of permeance harmonic

lcm

Least Common Multiplier

Mc

gcd(Zs , 2p)

Nc

lcm(Zs , 2p)

na

Number of angular steps from 0 to 2π

nt

Number of time steps from 0 to TR

p

Number of pole pairs (2p poles)

qs

Number of stator phases

r

Spatial order (wave number)

t

Time

TR

Rotor rotation period

Zs

Number of stator slots

W

Fast Fourier Transform matrix

αp

Pole arc to pole pitch ratio

αr

Rotor angular position in stator frame

αs

Angular position in stator frame

ǫR

Rotation direction of the rotor (± 1))

Λ

Permeance

ωR

Rotor angular velocity

σ

Maxwell stress

mmf

magnetomotive force

PMSM

Permanent Magnet Synchronous Machine

SPMSM

Surface PMSM

II.

I NTRODUCTION

**The acoustic noise and vibration behaviour of Permanent
**

Magnet Synchronous Machines (PMSM) is an increasingly

important design criterion when optimizing the overall electromagnetic design of such machines. Among the forces responsible for noise and vibration, the contribution of Maxwell forces

can be significant [1]. They represent a fine band excitation

at some specific frequencies, generating high tonality noise

when resonating with the structural modes of the machine.

Some tradeoffs have sometimes to be made between the

electromagnetic and the vibro-acoustic performances. As an

example, minimizing material costs can lead to thinner stator

yoke, thus increasing radial vibration and acoustic noise levels;

The . called spatial orders) are verified by running electromagnetic and vibroacoustic simulations on several machines. For inset magnet permanent machines. Notations Vectors and matrices are written in bold. Illustration of the coordinate system on a surface permanent magnet synchronous machine skewing technique for the reduction of radial force harmonics responsible for magnetic noise lowers the fundamental torque and the electromagnetic efficiency. and matrices are preferably written in capital letters. the airgap magnetic field due to permanent magnets can be expressed using the following variable decomposition: Brm Bθm = = Λ r Fr − Λ θ Fθ Λ r Fθ + Λ θ Fr (9) (10) where Λr is the radial permeance per unit area. Λr. The understanding of the phenomenon of acoustic noise and vibration due to Maxwell forces is therefore important to fully optimize the design of electrical machines. operator on vectors and matrices works element-wise. The diagonal matrix operator D transforms a vector v of length n in a square diagonal matrix D(v) of diagonal v.e. The discussion of the physical meaning of these quantities along radial and tangential directions is out of this paper’s scope. if matrices or vectors are multiplied without any explicit operator it is the standard matrix multiplication operator. The complex Fourier transform ˜ The exponent symbol ∗ is the complex of F is noted F. accounting for the effect of stator slotting. as for induction machines [2]. σr = σθ = Br2 − Bθ2 2µ0 Br Bθ µ0 (1) (2) where Br and Bθ are respectively the radial and tangential flux density in the middle of the airgap. i. conjugate. simply called frequencies. Using complex notations one can write in a convenient way σr σθ = = R(σ) I(σ) σ = σr + jσθ = B = Br + jBθ (3) (4) B2 2µ0 (5) (6) This complex stress form also enlights the correlation between tangential and radial stress: when the complex stress is cancelled. The theoretical findings on the spectrum content (”time frequencies”. Topologies and coordinate system The present work deals with radial flux permanent magnet synchronous machines. When the airgap magnetic field lines are fully radial. with either surface permanent magnets or interior magnets. In the linear case.θ depends on t due to reluctance variation during rotation. the flux density can be decomposed as the superposition of stator and rotor magnetic fields: Br Bθ = = Bra + Brm Bθa + Bθm (7) (8) B a and B m respectively refer to the stator armature field and the rotor magnet field in the case of a synchronous permanent magnet machine. When there is no stator slots. Λθ would therefore correspond to a ”tangential permeance” and Fθ to a ”tangential mmf”. both radial and tangential stress components must be cancelled. M AXWELL STRESS Both rotor and stator global Maxwell forces aregiven by the integration along the airgap of a pressure σ (N/m2 ) that can be expressed as (with ”the external structure sign convention”. Indeed the change of the slot and pole numbers is a strong lever to modify the content of Maxwell forces. assuming that the magnet permeability . and Fr is the magnet magnetomotive force (mmf). B. IV. 1. For surface permanent magnet machines. and IN the square identity matrix of size N . The coordinate system is the cylindrical system as illustrated in 1. This paper aims at further understanding the nature of the harmonics of the airgap Maxwell stress. the term Λθ vanishes and the usual permeance / mmf decomposition obtained with the Ampere law along a closed contour (see for instance [4]) is obtained. and ”‘spatial frequencies”. 1N is the identity column vector of size N . integrating over an airgap cylinder whose normal is opposite to radial direction) Fig. M AGNET FLUX DENSITY EXPRESSIONS Based on the the complex relative permenance method [3]. Λr is constant and equals µ0 /(g+hm ) and Λθ is null.III. A. acting on both stator and rotor structures. while the exponent T is the real conjugate. The aim is to relate some of the machine design parameters (more especially the number of slots Zs and the number of poles 2p) with the force harmonics. by formalizing their expressions in the radial (component σr ) and tangential (component σθ ) directions.

corresponding to the cogging torque and the average radial airgap forces and given by k = 1. Λr only depends on αs .B 2µ0 The 2D Fourier transform of the complex stress is e σ = = 1 W∗ (Bm .Λ)W 2µ0 e .0 σ = 1 f2 g2 Λ . When squaring this function..(f g (Λ. σ = 1 g l )(f g (Λ. VI.f 0 )W D(Λ. when noting Λ g 2 and f 0 = g ˜: . In that case.f 0 )l 2µ0 (25) Here. D(Λ) is the na × na diagonal matrix with the complex permeance values Λ(αi ) along the diagonal (i = 0 to na − 1).w 0 . one can express the l-th column of σ harmonics of the lfs frequency) as e l. e (spatial Similarly. so one can write ∗ Bm . the squaring does not change the spatial harmonic content so the spatial harmonics of the permeance are of type ks Zs where ks is a positive integer.. Using complex notations. Λ) is here a line vector. the time spectrum of zero-th spatial order radial and tangential force harmonics is therefore given by the real part and the imaginary part of the multiplication of the squared complex permeance spatial spectrum and the squared magnet complex mmf spatial spectrum. shows that both radial and tangential zero-th order force non zero frequencies are naturally proportional to the least common multiple (noted lcm) between the number of pole 2p and the number of slots f2 = h ˜ Zs . This can be written in a matrix form Bm = FD(Λ) 1 g k ). Indeed.k−1 σ (12) (13) (14) where wk is the k-th line of W. M AXWELL STRESS F OURIER EXPRESSION When synchronizing time and space discretizations (n = nt = na . named Nc = lcm(Zs . one obtains an even function with 2kr′ p even harmonics. The multiplication of the spectra is a consequence of the convolution property of permance and mmf. we have B m (t. see Appendix X-B). αs ) = Λ(αs )F 0 (αs − ǫR ωR t) (16) where F is the nt × na matrix of magnet complex mmf in time and space. the airgap flux density distribution can be expressed by an equivalent surface magnet.f 0 ) 2µ0 (11) where Bm F Λ To further analyze the terms of this equation. and it only contains (2kr + 1)p odd space harmonics (due to North / South poles) where kr is a positive integer.f 0 )W D(Λ.f 0 2µ0 (24) where the square exponent corresponds here to a term by term multiplication.. The magnet mmf is an even function in the chosen angular frame.Λ.Bm ) W∗ 2µ0 1 ∗ ∗ D(f g 0 . For permeance. αs ) = Λ(αs )F (t. leading to an element-wise multiplication of the Fourier components. The rotor flux density evolution with time is given by a simple rotation: B m (t. V. one can e (time harmonics of the (k − 1)express the k-th line of σ th spatial order) as (21) (22) The 2D Fourier transform of the radial (resp. the complex mmf can be written with circulant matrix properties as F = WD(f˜0 )W∗ (19) In no-load case. αs ) = = = Brm + jBθm Fr + jFθ Λr + jΛθ e . the matrix of the complex Maxwell stress is given by 1 m m (20) σ= B . The middle of one north magnet is supposed to be aligned with the middle of a slot at αs = 0.w 0 . tangential) stress is still given by the real (resp.Λ. The convolution product. This is also the case for buried permanent magnet machines: as shown in [5]. and not a matrix multiplication. Note that the norm of this complex stress matrix is proportional to the airgap electromagnetic energy. wk = 1n and (15) where F 0 (αs ) is the rotor radial and tangential mmf along stator angle at t = 0.Λ) (23) (17) where f˜0 is the 1D Fourier transform vector of the magnet complex mmf F 0 (αs ). In the no-load case. Therefore: Bm = WD(f˜0 )W∗ D(Λ) = An interesting particular case is the zero-th order components.is close from the air and that the rotor lamination is circular.Bm = WD(fg 0 . imaginary) part of this expression. 2p). the left term is a column vector and the right term is a scalar. D ISCUSSION (18) The square of the complex magnet flux density is also a circulant matrix. which is an even function of αs if the poles are not shifted.

g.. Kac ≤ K0 = Nc . bn2p αp π = sin n2p 2p (27) e . Assuming that Fθ ≪ Fr (flux density lines mainly radial in the airgap). A new vibroacoustic design rule for the choice of the slot / pole combination could therefore consist in maximizing Kac instead of Nc . However. In particular.. both its real and imaginary complex Fourier transform of Λ parts are cancelled. 2. Nc /(2p) − 1. Additionally. 2. 0 g˜4p 0 . The cogging torque is given by the real part of the complex stress (24). 0 g˜2p 0 .Nc /(2p)−1 (30) This expression is exactly the one obtained empirically by [7].. . 2p) might lead to a reduction of the noise and vibration levels.h tiplication) are at the multiples of the least common multiple between Zs and 2p. the 6ω = 6pωR time harmonic corresponds to the n = 6p spatial order harmonic of the convolution product. space harmonics of magnet mmf (odd harmonic orders whose sum or difference equals to 6). Therefore. This formalism can also be used to prove analytically the optimum magnet pole arc width to pole pitch ratio αp with respect to cogging torque minimization. cancelling the first non zero complex element of g ˜ theoretically cancels all the harmonics and the overall cogging torque.0 ) ∝ f2 )ℜ(fg2 ) − ℑ(Λ f2 )ℑ(fg2 ) ℜ(Λ 0 0 g g f f 2 2 2 ℑ(Λ )ℜ(f ) + ℜ(Λ )ℑ(f 2 ) 0 0 (31) (32) So when a particular design cancels a particular term of the f2 . In order to cancel this term. . this correlation between radial and tangential force harmonics shows that when choosing the optimal pole arc to pole pitch ratio to cancel cogging torque. one can deduce that the lowest exciting force frequency (tangential or radial) of spatial order r > 0 is given by Kr fs /p with Kr = min (ks . . and the squared complex mmf is real.. and both the real part and the imaginary part of the complex Fourier transform of the stress are cancelled... one can see that when cancelling the tangential complex component of the stress. this rule tends to rejects the cogging torque harmonics at high frequencies. it is proportional to bNc .hr )/r=|2phr ±ks Zs | 2phr (33) where K0 = Nc . .. . 0 ˜ h Zs 0 ˜ h= . and the 6p spatial harmonic of squared magnet mmf. . both the least common multiple rule and the optimal magnet width rules help reducing radial and tangential 0-th order spatial harmonic at no-load. it also cancels 0-th spatial order radial force waves. and the magnitude of this component is given by the product of the 6p spatial harmonic of squared permeance. r = 2 which can excite the ovalization mode of the stator structure). A more arithmetic proof is detailed in Appendix. We have indeed ℜ(e σ . there must exist an integer k1 such as αp π Nc = πk1 (28) 2p (26) ˜ (element wise mulso the first non zero components of g ˜ .. [7]).. .0 The first non-zero coefficient of the complex stress σ is given by n2p = Nc . . A new vibroacoustic design rule. so the least common multiple rule is no longer valid. 5p/1p.. one has F ≈ Fr2 . 7p/1p etc. Similarly the 12f harmonic is given by the product of the 12p spatial harmonic of squared permeance. .. the radial component is also cancelled. For strictly positive spatial orders (e. h˜0 0 .. Due to trigonometric relationships the magnitude of the 6p component is linked to the interaction of 3p/3p. due to the term by term multiplication. 0 ˜ h2Zs 0 . This defines a family of optimum pole arc to pole pitch ratios αp. In particular. the harmonics of the airgap reluctance modulated by the function wk are no longer multiples of the number of slots. . might be therefore to maximize Kr for the radial spatial orders creating the highest yoke deflections.0 ) ∝ ℑ(e σ . This also shows that for synchronous machines where the vibroacoustic behaviour is dominated by the 0-th order circumferential mode of the stator lamination (breathing mode). given a certain speed range. . 0 g˜6p 0 . for instance for r ≤ rmax = 4: Kac = min r=0 to rmax Kr (34) By definition. the reduction of the cogging torque by maximizing lcm(Zs .k2 = Nc /(2p) − k2 k1 = Nc /(2p) Nc /(2p) k2 = 1. and the 12p spatial harmonic of squared magnet mmf. Due to the term by term multiplication in equation (24).. g ˜= g˜0 0 . The radial squared magnet mmf can be assimilated to a rectangular pulse wave whose Fourier real coefficients bn2p (n positive integer) are simply given by which means that αp = k1 2p Nc (29) As αp < 1 the possible values for k1 are therefore 1. Previous equations show that the same rule can therefore be used to reduce the effect of 0-th order radial forces. A design rule consists in maximizing the least common multiple between Zs and 2p to reduce the cogging torque magnitude (see for instance [6].

Therefore the validation calculations do not use the permeance / magnetomotive approach contrary to the analytical work of the first section. as analyzed in previous section. noting l = 2l′ . which means that smallest non-zero spatial order harmonic component in the complex stress spectrum is given by Mc . v)such as au + bv = 1 (Bezout theorem). [11]). there exist two positive integers (a. b) would be a common divider of Zs and 2p larger than Mc . ks ∈ N . A. The numerical simulations run in this validation part are either based on magnetostatic finite element method. and the resulting acoustic sound power level (SWL) at variable speed following similar analytical models as presented in [17]. resulting in higher vibration and acoustic noise. A first study aims at checking the correlation between zeroth order radial and tangential force harmonics cancellation on a PMSM. and reducing the risk of resonances at a given speed. This software is dedicated to the fast optimal electromagnetic design of electrical machines including acoustic noise and vibration due to Maxwell forces. b) such as Mc a = Zs and Mc b = 2p. All these calculations are done in the MANATEE software [15] (Magnetic Acoustic Noise Analysis Tool for Electrical Engineering) simulation environment. but to the author’s knowledge. the airgap flux density of interior permanent magnet machines can be expressed using an equivalent surface magnet [5]: all the conclusions that are done in this paper on synchronous machines therefore apply to both surface and interior magnet synchronous machines. Similarly to what has been done in the frequency domain. However. the greatest common divider between the number of stator slots and the number of poles. and |aks ± bl′ | > 0} (38) (39) When sweeping all l′ ans ks values for all spatial order r. r0 = min{Mc |aks ± bl′ |/ l′ ∈ N . [18].The second study runs some full electromagnetic and vibro-acoustic calculations on 3 different PMSM designs in order to check the findings on the LCM and GCD. 2p)lcm(Zs . the non-zero minimum of |aks ± bl′ | reaches 1 for ±l′ = v and ks = u. but can potentially increase acoustic noise and vibrations due to lower non-zero spatial orders of tangential and radial force harmonics. In [12]. Their greatest common divider is 1. The expression of r0 becomes r0 = min{|ks Zs ± 2pl′ |/ (36) ′ ′ l ∈ N . it is easier to run numerical calculations in order to simulate PMSM with different slot and pole combinations rather than manufacturing and testing several prototypes. The maximization of Mc therefore allows to increase the lowest non-zero spatial order of both radial and tangential force waves during the design process. it is here interesting to look at the smallest non-zero spatial order r0 with a nonzero complex stress magnitude. when sweeping all frequencies and spatial orders.Let’s now focus on expression (25). By definition r0 = min{r/∃l ∈ N .g. the criterion is also used for the design of interior permanent magnet synchronous machines. The minimization of Mc is often used to minimize the magnitude of cogging torque. Note that only the smallest non-zero spatial order harmonic is of interest because one already knows that some 0-th spatial order tangential and radial force harmonics occur at multiples of Nc fs /p. or on subdomain electromagnetic models. this single criterion does not prevent the electrical machine to be noisy due to a radial force harmonic of order 0 exciting the breathing mode of the structure at a certain speed. Mc is closely linked to Nc due to the following relationship gcd(Zs . As the theoretical findings are general. neither its application to tangential force harmonics. The lowest spatial orders of radial forces lead to higher deflections of the yoke [8]. and some analytical models have already proven this dependence. The evaluation of the airgap flux density can be based on analytical models (permeance / magnetomotive force and winding function approaches[3]. there exists two relative integers (u. Cogging torque cannot generate radial vibrations of the stator yoke. 2p) = Mc Nc = Zs 2p (40) Generally. which can be written r = |ks Zs ±2pl′ |. As discussed previously. and |ks Zs ± 2pl | > 0} (37) If the greatest common divider between Zs and 2p is noted Mc . Minimizing Mc reduces cogging torque magnitude. p = 4) surface permanent magnet machine (named M0) with radial magnetization as described in [14] is simulated. Besides that. thus increasing the frequencies of the 0-th spatial order radial and tangential force harmonics. no rigourous proof of it has been demonstrated yet.r 6= 0 and r 6= 0} (35) σ el. .r 6= 0 if and only if l is even (as the squared mmf only contains non zero even harmonics) and that there exists an integer ks such as r = |ks Zs ± lp|. [1]. the electromagnetic behaviour of a 12-slot 8pole (Zs = 12. otherwise Mc gcd(a. minimizing Mc maximizes Nc . VII. and therefore acoustic noise [13]. and therefore cannot radiate significant acoustic noise. ks ∈ N . [9]. [4]). The identification of the lowest spatial order is therefore interesting in order to maximize it during the design process. semi-analytical subdomain models (e. which have been themselves validated with finite element method [14]. some numerical calculations are carried to support the theoretical findings of previous sections. Correlation of radial and tangential force harmonics magnitude In this part. As a consequence. σ el. Some analytical models allow to calculate the radial vibration level of the yoke. The identification of the integers u and v allows to identify the permeance and rotor mmf harmonics responsible for the lowest spatial order of both tangential and radial force harmonics at no-load. [14]) or finite element models (based on a coupling with FEMM [16]). However. This criterion has been already used to minimize vibration and noise due to magnetic forces in some previous papers (see for instance [10]. contradicting its definition. tangential force non-zero spatial harmonics can generate radial deflections of the yoke. VALIDATIONS In this part. and see if some simple vibroacoustic design rules could be used to assess their respective acoustic behaviour.

Fig. FEM model of the SPMSM (flux lines at no load) To confirm the correlation between radial and tangential force 0-th order minimization. both radial and tangential forces of spatial order 0 should be respectively proportional to 12fs . as they only differ by the number of slots.95 inside MANATEE. 4. are displayed at 2230 rpm for the three machines in Fig. Vibroacoustic study of three different designs (44) Three different surface permanent magnet synchronous machines are simulated using MANATEE [15] using the same slot and pole combinations as defined in [19]. M0 8 12 6 4 24 8 M1 14 12 12 2 84 14 M2 10 12 12 2 60 10 M3 14 15 30 1 210 14 M ACHINE PARAMETERS Geometry of the three studied SPSM M1. 10. One can see that the tangential and radial spectra are very similar. M2 and M3. One can see that numerical results are The two dimensional Fourier transform of the radial and tangential Maxwell stress. 7 to Fig.θ [N/m ] 9000 7000 6000 5000 4000 3000 2000 radial 1000 tangential 0 0 0. The theoretical optimal values of αp from (30) are (12/4-1)/(12/4)=2/3=0.6 0. 5. 2. the zero-th order Frrip Fθrip = = max Fr0 (t) − min Fr0 (t) max Fθ0 (t) − min Fθ0 (t) (41) (42) where Fr0 (t) = Fθ0 (t) = Z 2π 1 σr (t. Following the least common multiple rule. 2p)/p Mc = gcd(Zs . as suggested by the correlation between tangential and radial harmonics of equation (24). Fig.10000 8000 rip 2 ripple Fr. 12fs and 30fs on these machines names M1.8 pole arc to pole pitch ratio α 1 p Fig. 5. As predicted by the least common multiple rule. The results are given in Fig 4 for a surface PM machine with Zs = 12 slots and 2p = 8 poles (Nc = 24). The machine parameters and geometry are presented in Tab. M2 and M3 [19] close from the theory. These two quantities represent the harmonic content of the zero-th spatial order of radial and tangential force. αs )dαs 2π 0 (43) . computed based on subdomain models. 2p) Nc = lcm(Zs . the pole arc to pole pitch ratio is varied from 0. radial) force order is calculated based on B. they represent different slot and pole numbers combination for the same output power. Fig. FEM model of the 12s-8p SPMSM as per [14] Force ripple as a function of pole arc to pole pitch ratio 2p Zs lcm(Zs .05 to 0. The electromagnetic calculations are here based on subdomain models which are as accurate as finite element methods.66 and (12/42)/(12/4)=1/3=0. 2p) Kac TABLE I. I and Fig. the gap between analytical expression and numerical results coming from the tangential field as also noticed in [7].4 0. αs )dαs 2π 0 Z 2π 1 σθ (t. The ripple magnitude of the 0-th tangential (resp.33.2 0. 3. The three machines have very close stator natural frequencies.

although the values of Nc and Kac are very different. The no-load sound power level at variable speed from 300 to 3500 rpm is also calculated using MANATEE software [15]. On machine M1. 8. A secondary resonance occurs close to fs = 265 Hz speed with the structural mode of order 4 due to a force of spatial order 4 at 4fs . the . 12. 12fs and 30fs (out of the calculated frequency range) for machines M1 to M3. 8000 Fourier transform of the radial Maxwell stress of machine M1 2000 1000 Frequency [Hz] Fig. the lowest non-zero order of radial and tangential force harmonics are respectively 2. On machine M2. 9. 6 4 5 2 3 0 1 −1 −2 −4−3 −6−5 Spatial order [r] 30fs 6000 4000 2000 0 6000 4000 2000 Frequency [Hz] 5 6 3 4 1 2 0 −2−1 −4−3 −6−5 Spatial order [r] Fourier transform of the radial Maxwell stress of machine M2 Fig. 10. 6. Results are illustrated in Fig. 7. One can notice that the maximum sound power level is very similar for three motors. 2. 11. Fourier transform of the tangential Maxwell stress of machine M2 Airgap radial force FFT2 4000 2000 5000 0 6000 0 3000 6 4 5 2 3 0 1 −1 −2 −4−3Spatial order [r] −6−5 2000 1000 Frequency [Hz] Fig. the main resonance occurs close to fs = 120 Hz speed due to a resonance of the ovalization mode with a radial force of order 2 at 2fs . and 1 for machines M1 to M3. Fourier transform of the radial Maxwell stress of machine M3 (30fs >6400 Hz) Airgap radial force FFT2 Airgap tangential force FFT2 s 8000 σθ [N/mm2] σr [N/mm2] 12f 15000 10000 5000 0 3000 2000 1000 Frequency [Hz] Fig. 30fs 10000 12fs σr [N/mm2] σθ [N/mm2] Airgap tangential force FFT2 6000 6 4 5 2 3 0 1 −1 −2 −4−3 −6−5 Spatial order [r] Fourier transform of the tangential Maxwell stress of machine M1 4000 2000 Frequency [Hz] 6 4 5 2 3 1 0 −2−1 −4−3 Spatial order [r] −6−5 Fig. As predicted by the greatest common divider rule.Airgap tangential force FFT2 10000 12f 10000 s σθ [N/mm2] σr [N/mm2] Airgap radial force FFT2 5000 0 3000 12f 6000 s 4000 2000 0 3000 6 4 5 2 3 0 1 −1 −2 −4−3 −6−5 Spatial order [r] 2000 1000 Frequency [Hz] Fig. Fourier transform of the tangential Maxwell stress of machine M3 (30fs >6400 Hz) radial and tangential force harmonics are at 12fs .

is used to analyze the tangential and radial airgap magnetic harmonic forces in surface permanent magnet synchronous machines in no-load operation. the main resonance occurs close to fs = 60 Hz speed due to a resonance of the ovalization mode with a radial force of order 2 at 4fs . αna −1 = 2π. Indeed. Numerical vibroacoustic simulation is therefore necessary in the predesign phase. 12. F UTURE WORK Future work aims at deriving and validating the formulas for the loaded case. This is interesting as the higher the spatial order of radial force. nt −1] and j ∈ [0. αj ) with i ∈ [0. . 40 IX. The discrete 2D Fourier transform of F is: nX a −1 t −1 nX 1 F˜kl = √ Fuv e−j2π(uk/nt +vl/na ) nt na u=0 v=0 Finally. Similarly. Wa and Wt are square orthogonal matrices of size na × na and nt × nt . A resonance with the ovalization mode occurs for the three machines with similar magnitude at no-load. This close relationship between tangential and radial force harmonic content is also demonstrated when varying the magnet angular width based on numerical calculations. We have in particular t0 = 0. 1pW] 80 M1 M2 M3 70 60 50 common divider between slot and pole numbers could make a valid vibroacoustic design rule. na −1] (uniform discretization of time and spatial spaces). Sound power level as a function of speed at no load for the three machines main resonance occurs close to fs = 180 Hz speed due to a resonance of the ovalization mode with a radial force of order 2 at 2fs . 30 20 0 500 1000 1500 2000 2500 Speed [rpm] 3000 3500 4000 Fig. Discrete FFT If f is a function of time and angle with a time periodicity of TR and a spatial periodicity of 2π. it is shown that the frequency content of both cogging torque and zero-th order radial magnetic forces are linked to the least common multiple between the stator slots and rotor poles number. (48) (49) Wt ∗ F is a nt × na matrices that represents the spatial evolution of the magnitude of F time harmonics (only time integration). Nc and Kac have different values. although the design parameters Mc . A PPENDICES (46) l=0 which gives in a matrix form ˜ = Wt ∗ FWa ∗ F ˜ a F = Wt FW (47) where ∗ is the real transposition operator (no conjugate transform). and at further analyzing the general correlation between tangential and radial magnetic force harmonics. Similarly. X. and see whether 0-th order tangential forces and radial forces are minimized at the same time. the lower the radial displacement of the yoke is [9]: the maximization of this greatest common divider between slot and pole numbers could therefore be the basis for a new vibroacoustic design rule for the choice of the slot and pole combination. and whether the rule of maximizing the greatest (45) The inverse transform is: Fuv nX a −1 t −1 nX 1 =√ F˜kl ej2π(ku/nt +lv/na ) nt na k=0 Based on the property of convolution.SWL magnitude [dBA re. FWa ∗ represents the time evolution of the magnitude of F spatial harmonics (only spatial integration). Interestingly. tnt −1 = TR = 2π/fR and α0 = 0. this criterion is opposed to the minimization of the greatest common divider between slot and pole numbers in order to reduce cogging torque magnitude. let F be the matrix of Fij = f (ti . given by (Wt )kl = (Wa )kl = 1 l √ exp(j2πk ) nt nt 1 l √ exp(j2πk ) na na with k from 0 to na − 1 and l from 0 to nt − 1. not only the magnetic force spatial orders and frequencies. VIII. This shows that there is no simple vibroacoustic design rule helping to choose the best slot per pole combination. based on the synchronization of time and space discretizations of the airgap quantities. it is shown that the greatest common divider between the stator slots and rotor poles numbers gives the lowest non-zero spatial order of both radial and tangential force harmonics at no-load. A second objective consists in expressing the optimal current injection pattern in the d-q frame to cancel or minimize a given radial or tangential force harmonic. On machine M3. the change of stator slot changes the reluctance harmonics magnitude. that is to say whether torque ripple minimization and acoustic noise minimization are contradictory objectives when using active current injection techniques. It is shown that these simple vibroacoustic design rules do not work to minimize the acoustic noise radiation at variable speed because they do not take into account the magnitude of the interfering force waves. some numerical calculations at variable speed are done on several design in order to check the theoretical findings. A. or some alternative simple rules based on these numbers. C ONCLUSION A special matrix formalism. Some numerical simulations at variable speed including electromagnetic and vibroacoustic models are therefore necessary.

. ... starting on equation (24). α) Fourier transform. so all the radial and tangential force waves of order 0 have frequencies written where W = Wa = Wn ..0 f0 R and as u is prime with v udivides hs (Gauss’s theorem) and = there exists n positive integer such as hs = nu with uZs = Nc F= . This leads to hr u = (hs Zs /(2p))u = (uZs )(hs /(2p)) = hs v. Ri D(v)R−i = D(Ri v) (53) . αs − ǫR ωR t) = f0 (αs − ǫR ωR t) (51) where f0 is defined as the function f at time t = 0. (52) R= 0 0 0 0 0 .0 f0. αs (50) In particular. αs ) = f (t′ . 0 0 −1 na −1 1 X fk−j gj na j=0 (56) T which is a cyclic permutation operator. so in anti-clockwise direction. . fn−3. 0 0 1 .0 f1.0 fn−2. so u divides hs v f0 f0.When doing a 1D FFT. . Therefore there exists two strictly positive integers u and v such as Nc = uZs = v2p and u ∧ v = 1 (their greatest common divider is 1). αs )g(αs )dαs (59) 2π 0 We can write when discretizing in time and space domain By synchronizing the spatial discretization with the time discretization (αj = ωR tj ) it means that each column of the matrix F can be obtained by a shift of the adjacent column : all the information can be either obtained by having a full time data of f at a given location. fn−2. no stator or rotor geometrical asymmetries). αn ). αn ) is represented by squared permeance contains Fourier harmonics of order hs Zs the vector f0 Ri where f0 is the vector of size 1×n of f (0. . n−1 f1. f0 Wa ∗ is the row vector f˜0 of size 1 × na . The interesting property a null spatial order.. and hr = hs Zs /(2p) = nNc /(2p). .0 fn−1. .0 . of waves can lead to a zero-th spatial order if there exist The matrix F is then given for ǫR = 1 by hs and hr such as 2phr = hs Zs . Let’s define Nc as lcm(Zs . 2p). As Z 2π 1 f0 (θR − αs )g(αs )dα(58) (f0 ∗ g)(θR = ωR t) = s 2π 0 Z 2π 1 = F (t. t′ . As a consequence..0 . F = nWD(f˜0 )W∗ (55) where fs is the fundamental supply frequency. .0 f2.. αs ) = f (0. C. so of f˜0 = f0 W∗ . then 2phr − hs Zs = 0 so there exist This is called a circulant matrix.0 . f (t. When synchronizing space and time discretization (na = nt = n). αs + ǫR ωR (t′ − t)) ∀t. Ri AR−i 6= A. or the full spatial data of f at a given time.. . . However the following property holds f0 ∗ g = 1 Fg = WD(f˜0 )W∗ g n (60) f0 ∗ g is the vector of size n × 1 with the values of (f0 ∗ g)(ωR tj ) when j varies. . α → f (0. for instance on the function f0 (α) = f (0. the effect of time on vectors can be modelled by the following n × n matrix ǫR 0 1 0 0 . Time and space equivalences In case of a full cylindrical symmetry around the rotation axis (no pole shifting. F˜kl are the coordinates of the function in the orthogonal basis emn (t.0 fn−1. The interaction of these groups ǫR = 1. if there exists n positive integer such as hs = (54) nu and hr = nNc /(2p). (57) When space and time discretization are synchronized. Note that for a matrix A. . fn−1. and D(f˜0 ) is a diagonal matrix as nNc fs /p. they are therefore given by the product of the whose diagonal contains the values of the row vector of f0 : rotor mechanical frequency and multiples of the least common multiple between Zs and 2p. We have R = R and RT R = In . of the circulant matrix is that it can be decomposed as The electrical frequency of the squared mmf wave is 2hr fs . We can then write that (f ∗ g)k = B. . 0 . . space and time convolution become equivalent and f ∗ g = g ∗ f . ..... αs ) = exp(−jmωR t − jnαs ): Let’s define the spatial convolution operator ∗ as Z 2π 1 f (Φ − α)g(α)dα (f ∗ g)(Φ) = 2π 0 Extracting the magnitude of a wave of a given spatial order and given frequency therefore consists in projecting F on two successive different subspaces using (47). The The function f (ti = αi /(ǫR ωR )[TR ].... and the squared mmf contains harmonics of order hr 2p where This operator moves the values of f0 in the increasing αs for hs and hr are positive integer.˜ g (61) where the . the following relation can be used for some quantities such as SPMSM rotor mmf: f (t. .0 f0. . . α). . . . 0 1 1 0 . the time Fourier transform of the convolution product is given by f0 ˜∗ g = W∗ (f0 ∗ g) = D(f˜0 )˜ g = f˜0 .0 f0 R Reciprocally. operator stands for element wise vector multiplication.. Arithmetic proof of the least common multiple effect An arithmetic proof of the expression of the cogging torque (zero-th space order tangential Maxwell forces) or zero-th space order radial Maxwell forces is here proposed..

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