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Personnel Review

Career advancement of hotel managers since graduation: a comparative study
Thomas N. Garavan Fergal O'Brien Deborah O'Hanlon

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PR
35,3

252
Received 27 March 2003
Revised 23 June 2004
Accepted 7 July 2004

Career advancement of hotel
managers since graduation:
a comparative study
Thomas N. Garavan
Department of Personnel and Employment Relations, Kemmy Business School,
University of Limerick, Limerick, Ireland

Fergal O’Brien

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Department of Accounting and Finance, Kemmy Business School,
University of Limerick, Limerick, Ireland, and

Deborah O’Hanlon
International College of Hotel Management, Shannon, Ireland
Abstract
Purpose – To investigate the factors predicting the career progression of hotel managers working in
international hotel chains in Ireland, Europe and Asia.
Design/methodology/approach – The study uses a cross-sectional questionnaire design
consisting of 337 respondents. It investigates individual- and organisational-level factors that
potentially explain the career progression of hotel managers.
Findings – The study reveals significant differences in managerial progression in the three
sub-samples. A multiplicity of factors explains differences in advancement. These include
demographic, human capital, psychological characteristics of the manager and organisational
characteristics. The model developed in the paper explained significant variance in three measures of
managerial advancement: salary level, number of job moves, and position reached in the hierarchy.
Research limitations/implications – The study is based on self-report data and the response
rates are slightly below those reported for behavioural science research. The study does not gather the
perceptions of the managers’ superiors. The findings indicate that managerial advancement is
explained by a complex set of factors, which would benefit from further investigation.
Practical implications – The study findings suggest important practical implications for the
provision of training and development, individual and organisational career strategies, the role of
networking in advancement and the respective roles of managers and organisations in managing
careers.
Originality/value – The paper has a cross-cultural dimension which to date is largely absent from
this area of research.
Keywords Career development, Hotel and catering industry, Managers
Paper type Research paper

Personnel Review
Vol. 35 No. 3, 2006
pp. 252-280
q Emerald Group Publishing Limited
0048-3486
DOI 10.1108/00483480610656685

Introduction
Career research continues to thrive. The majority of this research in recent years has
focused on how the shape of traditional career paths has changed in the face of
increasing environmental uncertainty. It has also focused on changing organisational
career management practices, individual career planning strategies and the emergence
of new career models such as the boundaryless and protean careers (Arthur et al., 1989;

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Barrett et al., 2000; Blair-Loy, 1999; Phillips, 2001; Van der Heijden, 2002; Hall and
Moss, 1998; Flores et al., 2003). It is argued that flexibility and change have replaced
stability as key career planning and counselling concepts (Sharf, 2002; Bolles, 2001)
There is however an alternative perspective that argues that irrespective of these
environmental changes, for many individuals there is a significant amount of stability
within their careers over time (Betz and Voyten, 1997). For this reason it is legitimate to
study how managers advance within an organisation setting and to explore an
advancement model of career rather than an employability model. Feldman (2002)
argues that managerial career dynamics are best understood only by examining
managers’ experiences over time. Careers are neither static nor exceptionally dynamic;
they evolve over time and are influenced by characteristics of the individual as well as
by organisational factors (Tharenou, 1997; Sullivan, 1999). The literature conveys
conflicting and different messages concerning the locus of responsibility for career and
the extent of job tenure. While there is evidence of declining job tenure (Allred et al.,
1996) managers are still likely to stay in organisations that provide advancement and
learning opportunities (Carbery et al., 2003). There is lots of evidence that managers
expect career advancement as a norm in organisations and consider that the
organisation has the primary responsibility to ensure that it happens. On the other
hand contemporary career models emphasise that the individual manager has
responsibility for managing career and employability (Hall and Moss, 1998).
The study of managers in international hotel and hospitality organisations
represents a novel context. These organisations are increasingly under immense
pressure to develop and maintain managerial talent. International hotel managers are
also expected to understand and manage in different cultural contexts and different
corporate cultures (D’Annunzio-Green et al., 2002). There is an abundant literature
highlighting that hotel managers report both dissatisfaction with their career
progression and intentions to leave (Carbery et al., 2003). Furthermore, managerial
advancement in hotels is frequently unplanned and unsystematic (Deery, 1999), there
are fewer training and development opportunities (Baum, 1995b), managers experience
work overload (Riley et al., 1998), have low levels of remuneration (Price, 1994) and
experience managerial stress (Zohar, 1994).
This paper builds on previous research in a number of ways. We used a
combination of individual- and organisation-level variables. Previous studies have less
frequently combined them. We measured these variables through the lens of the
respondent. We asked for their self-reports. We utilised three objective measures of
managerial advancement: number of job moves within the managerial hierarchy, the
level of management reached and the number of salary increases. These measures were
considered effective objective indicators of career success. We acknowledge the large
literature and body of research findings on subjective or intrinsic career measures.
They were not however the focus of this study. We captured a cross-cultural dimension
in our study. We categorised respondents by the location of the hotel in which they
currently worked and by country of birth. We consider the cross-cultural feature to be
an important extension on previous research, which has not explicitly included it as a
study variable. Finally we confirmed the importance of factors previously highlighted
and identified a number of variables that are unique to the context we studied.
We structured the paper as follows: We review the literature on managerial
advancement and develop hypotheses. We then describe our methodology and report

Career
advancement of
hotel managers
253

A small number of studies in the hospitality context illustrate differences in hospitality managers’ role expectations. Leong (2002) highlight different behavioural expectations across cultures in the degree of personal interaction expected in a managerial relationship. for example. indicates a relationship between age and managerial career advancement. 1992). The impact of gender on career advancement is strong. 1995. Individual-level variables typically include demographic and human capital variables and psychological concepts such as career motivations. satisfaction with the psychological contract. Kim and Atkinson (2002) points out that in Asia. There are . Riley. good service relates to a high level of personal attention or customisation. 1990). 1997). Nordic. Female managers do not reach as high a managerial level as their male counterparts (Huffman and Torres.. In the hospitality context. Organisation-level variables typically include career systems. in general. Thus we hypothesise: H1a. Hofstede et al. and participation in career development activities.Downloaded by Johnson & Wales University At 18:04 08 October 2014 (PT) PR 35. Latin Europe and Latin America clusters.3 descriptive and analytical statistics on our sample. Ronen and Shenkar (1985) for example illustrate that countries can be clustered according to similarities on certain cultural dimensions. Finally. we discuss the support for our hypotheses and outline the implications of our findings. Individual-level variables Demographic characteristics. There is limited research investigating these differences in a career context. These differences relate to styles of management and notions of service. There is a much lower concern with efficiency and timesaving. female managers gain more promotions to middle management but are less likely to reach senior management and in particular general management positions (Nebel et al. which stem from cultural differences. These are more likely emphasised in European cultures. German. 1997). H1b. There is evidence of cross-cultural differences in careers and managerial advancement. Age appears to be more important in explaining a particular objective measure of career success. The age of the manager is positively associated with the three measures of managerial advancement. The gender of the manager is positively associated with the three measures of managerial advancement. (1990) in their pioneering research identify cross-cultural differences in values and managerial practices. These findings suggest the cultural background of the manager and the location of the hotel maybe important factors in explaining career advancement. however the relationship appears not to be strong. Managerial level increases with age to a certain point at which stage it slows significantly (Cox and Nkomo. Higher standards may be used when organisations consider women’s managerial career advancement (D’Annunzio-Green. There is strong support for Anglo. There is modified support for Far East and Arabian clusters. It is not as yet comprehensively studied.and organisation-level variables are relevant in explaining managerial career advancement. the level of pay achieved (Tharenou. The research. 254 Theoretical background and hypotheses development Individual. 2001). organisation size and sector and the way in which job roles are defined.

(2002) found differences in proactive career management as well as goal setting orientation. The relationship is moderated by gender. Chew et al. The relationship is however complicated. the extent to which managers are motivated to plan their careers and differences in individual self-efficacy. Human capital theory postulates that managers who invest in education. (1995) found that managers who reached a general manager position within a hotel had acquired significant experience in general and functional management positions. Directly it influences advancement and indirectly it influences participation in training and development. In contrast. The human capital characteristics of managers are important in explaining career advancement. Significant breadth and depth of managerial experience is positively related to career advancement (Stroh et al. found that participation in training and development was more strongly related to the development of managerial skills than progression. 2000) indicate that the possession of particular Career advancement of hotel managers 255 . 1993. Whitely and Coetsier. The career patterns of managers with or without a degree were substantially similar. Being prevented from participating in training and development is related to a lack of promotion. There is a significant level of support for this proposition in the general and hospitality-specific literatures.Downloaded by Johnson & Wales University At 18:04 08 October 2014 (PT) cross-cultural differences in career expectations. The competency literature suggests that experience and skill is positively related to advancement (Howard and Bray. The relationship between participation in training and development and career advancement is stronger (Tharenou and Conroy. A number of hospitality-based studies (Gliatis and Guerrier. 1992. career advancement and remuneration prospects. 1993). Tharenou et al. Women had higher self-efficacy for artistic. (1994) and Johnsrud and Heck (1994) provide evidence of direct and indirect effects. (2002) found that men in Singapore reported higher levels of self-efficacy for careers that were based on enterprising and realistic orientations than did women. Jayawardena. Baruch and Peiperl (2000) found that participation on an MBA programme added value to the graduate and improved the graduate’s employability. 1994). There are gender effects and Baum (1989). Studies by Turner and Lapan (2002) and Wiese et al.. There is some evidence that the type of qualification and the educational institution are relevant. 1990). with some important qualifications. (2003) concluded that country and cross-cultural factors influence approaches to career development as well as career expectations. investigative and social orientations. in a hospitality context. Thus we hypothesise: H1c. Investment in management development has a more potent effect (Roberts and Biddle. Human capital characteristics. Baruch and Peiperl (2000) and Baruch and Leeming (2001) report a positive relationship between education and career development. Country/region of origin of the manager is positively associated with the three measures of managerial advancement. There is strong support for this relationship in the hospitality management literature. Albion and Fogarty (2002) found that adults in Australia reported fewer difficulties in making career decisions. off-the-job training. Baum (1995b) and Ruddy (1998) found little support for the proposition that completion of a Diploma or Degree enhances promotion prospects within the Irish hospitality industry. Flores et al. Education is moderately associated with career advancement. Nebel et al. acquire planned work experience and enhance managerial competencies will have increased levels of career advancement. 1994).

The breadth and depth of general and functional experience is positively associated with the three measures of manager career advancement. front office and housekeeping. accounting and marketing activities. A relatively small percentage of general managers spent time in housekeeping. These include language. Investment in education since graduation is positively associated with the three measures of manager career advancement. Scandura (1998) found that some mentoring relationships could be dysfunctional from a career advancement perspective. usually related to direct customer contact. Scandura. 1992). Ladkin and Riley (1996) found that a significant number of general managers spent time in food and beverage. A small percentage of managers were promoted to a general manager position from outside the hotel and hospitality sector. 1995a) found that operational skills. The influence of mentors and the acquisition of social capital are significant. Managers self-report of competencies is positively associated with the three measures of manager career advancement. Thus we hypothesise: H2a. food and beverage. 1991. Depth of the managerial role is not significant for advancement to middle level positions but is significant for career advancement to general managers positions (Forbes and Piercy. Baum (1989.. 1995). 2003. 1991. 1995). bar and kitchen.3 Downloaded by Johnson & Wales University At 18:04 08 October 2014 (PT) 256 competencies enhanced managerial career advancement. H2d. marketing. Participation in training is positively associated with the three measures of manager career advancement.. Operational considerations took priority in how managers allocate their time. Younger general managers were more likely to work in operational departments and accumulated limited experience in generalist roles such as sales. restaurant. Managers who advance are likely to have personal contacts in diverse groups within and beyond the . Managers are most likely to be involved in supervision in areas such as front office. Education level at graduation is positively associated with the three measures of manager career advancement. Judge et al. in a study of hotel general managers in the USA. found that 80 per cent of respondents had performed assistant general manager roles for on average three years. people management. Mentoring processes are more significant in the early career however there is little research highlighting their value in the later career (Raabe and Beehr. Mentor presence and mentor career support is positively related to managers’ promotion in early career (Whitely et al. (1995). however age differences were significant. H2b. They tended to work in a very narrow stream of roles. networking and commitment to development. Front-office and personnel function experience was also significant. H2e. are considered by managers to be most relevant to the current job and to future training requirements. finance and human resources. These three departments were the most significant to a general manager’s career. Mentors. Hotel grade was not significant in explaining variation. entrepreneurial and competencies in managing cultural differences. Nebel et al. such as. Yuen. Managerial jobs in the hospitality and hotel sector have unique characteristics. H2c.PR 35.

Managerial and interpersonal career anchors are positively associated with the three measures of manager career advancement. 1998). A related career concept is the career orientation of the manager.. Strong commitment to development is positively associated with the three measures of manager career advancement. 2000. Thus we hypothesise. development and career orientations. moving jobs to gain knowledge and skill. 1996. Whitely et al. There is modest support for this proposition in the literature. Several studies highlight a positive relationship between commitment to development. Howard and Bray (1990) and Ruddy (1998) found support for the proposition that commitment to career predicts advancement. The commitment of the manager to development is related to the level of managerial advancement (Noe and Steffy. Career commitment and commitment to development are relevant individual-level variables.. Schein (1996) postulated that managers who possess career anchors that match their occupational role are more likely to experience progression. 1984. H4b. Satisfaction with the psychological contract. Whitely et al. 1996). Ruddy. 1999.. Strong career commitment is positively associated with the three measures of manager career advancement. task performance. 1987. Mentor support and networking activities are positively associated with the three measures of managerial advancement. 2002). Commitment to career. He postulated that the use of a career strategy by managers is likely to encourage developmental behaviour. The psychological contract is considered a relevant variable in explaining career advancement (Turnley and Feldman.. Meyerson (1994) found that managers who have strong external ties had better advancement. Noe (1996) highlights the importance of career development strategies. It appears that managerial and interpersonal orientations are more predictive of advancement (Sharf. Jones and Whitmore (1995) found that career commitment predicted advancement to division-level management. 1996. 1995). 1992). and advancement (Chew et al. 1995). Ragins and Sundstrom (1989) found that male managers had more favourable social networks and personal contacts than females. Research (Cooper et al. Coyle-Shapiro and Kessler. Quinones. Downloaded by Johnson & Wales University At 18:04 08 October 2014 (PT) H3a. They provided more information. Thus we hypothesise: H4a. Gender effects exist. Facteau et al. availing of organisational training opportunities. Specific elements of commitment to development include continually taking courses to improve skills. 1991) highlights the variability of career orientations and the influence of organisational experiences in modifying a manager’s self-concept. Mathieu et al. Gould and Penley (1984) found that the use of interpersonal career strategies resulted in senior manages thinking more positively about the manager. utilising a mentor and emulating a role model (Noe. Ruddy (1998) found that successful hotel managers were interpersonal networkers. 2002. (1991) found that the career orientation will be manifest in attitudes to short and medium-term career prospects. support and access to jobs.. H4c.organisation (Gould and Penley. Rousseau. There is limited empirical investigation concerning the influence of the psychological contract on career Career advancement of hotel managers 257 .

Allred et al. There is little evidence demonstrating a link between the grade of the hotel and managerial progression in a hospitality context. Organisation-level variables Organisation size. Anakwe et al. for example. H6b. If we take growth as a measure of organisation size. Thus we hypothesise: H5a. The hotel grade is positively associated with the three measures of manager career advancement Organisational career systems and support for development. Satisfaction with the psychological contract is positively associated with the three measures of manager career advancement. career management. goal setting. the evidence is significantly less clear. Schalk and Freese. no universal agreement amongst researchers on how the psychological contract should be measured. continuous learning and change. This second more unilateral view is prominent in the literature on managerial advancement. the selection of career strategies and career decision making. (1996) highlight a number of elements that characterise the modern psychological contract from the employee’s perspective. The size of the hotel is not associated with the three measures of manager career advancement. Organisations differ in the way they develop career systems and the levels of support for career development. There may be indirect effects due to characteristics of the internal labour market.3 Downloaded by Johnson & Wales University At 18:04 08 October 2014 (PT) 258 advancement. Some commentators (Rousseau. found no association. There is however. however there is doubt concerning whether organisation growth is significant for managerial career advancement. Baum (1999) found that managers in top graded hotels had more opportunities for career development and more and better quality training and development opportunities. In the career context. 1996. 1993) contend that it can be measured by focusing on the employee’s perceptions of both the obligations of the employee to the organisation and the employer to employees. Sullivan (1999) provides a strong argument that the content of the psychological contract is important in explaining attitudes and commitment to career management. Gunz (1988) postulated that organisations have different career logics. growth and hotel grade. self-knowledge and utilisation of skills are associated with personal learning. Gilbert and .PR 35. ownership of career development. (1996) focused on the increased emphasis on self-managed careers. Periods of high growth have inconsistent links with promotion rates for all managers (Hurley and Sonnenfeld. both Kram (1996) and Allred et al. Thus we hypothesise: H6a. This consists of managers proactively diagnosing career issues and engaging in coaching activities in collaborative learning environments. Ruddy (1998). Kram (1996) argues for a relational approach to careers. 1994). There is some tentative evidence concerning the extent of advancement in differently graded hotels. (1987) studied the expectations of potential hospitality managers and found that work and advancement opportunities were key elements of their psychological contract. The general finding is that organisation size (numbers employed) is not directly significant in explaining managerial advancement. Blumenfeld et al. (2000) found that manager’s expectations concerning development.

Fifty two percent were male and 48 per cent female. Fifty eight percent of managers had acquired additional qualifications since graduation.Downloaded by Johnson & Wales University At 18:04 08 October 2014 (PT) Guerrier (1997) hypothesised that the hospitality sector is likely to have a command-centred career logic in which managers develop by taking on an additional level of command. Career encouragement by superiors and peers is related to promotions. explain the managerial level achieved. They argue that hotels typically have a fortress system. priorities and actions that organisations use to manage people. however. Sonnenfeld and Peiperl (1988) suggest organisations vary in the types of career systems they implement. Cultural issues likely influenced the response rates in addition to the length of the questionnaire and the use of a postal survey. European. They define career systems as the collections of policies. These are statistically significant samples for each group of respondents. This system is characterised by limited investment in training and development and there is an expectation that managers will be flexible to handle multiple tasks. and 600. Ladkin and Riley (1996) found that hotel managers’ careers develop through a sequence of moves between functions and units usually in the same hotel. Seven percent of respondents reported a post-graduate third-level qualification. 17 per cent Degree-level at graduation. 60 per cent Diploma-level. 22 per cent a Degree qualification and 24 per cent a Postgraduate Career advancement of hotel managers 259 . 17 per cent of managers reported a Diploma qualification. Of those who achieved a qualification post graduation. They are less likely to work in other business sectors. restaurant or bar and 9 per cent indicated that their parents or siblings worked within the hospitality or hotel industry. 33 per cent were married. Forty percent of managers had no family connections with the hotel industry. 425. Asian). 47 per cent single with the remaining 19 per cent not categorised. Thus we hypothesise: H7a. Irish. The mean age of managers was 34. Managers are likely to reinforce the same narrow set of skills but may utilise them in different settings.400 managers stratified by country of birth (375. Both schools provided detailed alumni lists. European – 25 per cent and Asian – 21 per cent. Thirty two percent of managers reported that their socio-economic background as professional with 36 per cent indicating that it was employer or manager. The level of perceived support for career development is positively associated with the three measures of manager career advancement. We sent a questionnaire to a sample of 1. We are conscious that our response rates are somewhat lower than those reported in the literature for this type of research (Baruch. 1999). We achieved the following response rates: Irish – 28 per cent. Of those mangers who had connections with the hotel industry 57 per cent indicated that their family owned a hotel. survive under stress and be willing to change. bed and breakfast. Research methodology Sample Data were obtained from graduates of two major hotel and hospitality management schools in the Republic of Ireland and Switzerland. the range was 22-48 and the modal age 37. Sixteen percent of managers had achieved Certificate-level qualifications. Tharenou and Conroy (1994) found that career encouragement increased women’s training and development much more so than men and the increase in training and development opportunities in turn led to career advancement. It does not.

Sixty one percent of managers reported six or more years experience in hotel management.65 years. Irish. 2. In addition we created a number of new scales to measure mentoring and networking activities. Almost 20 per cent of Asian respondents had worked 10 þ years within the industry. 3. The career commitment. and breadth of hotel work experience. Schalk and Freese (1993).65 years of graduation. Managers had acquired significant levels of managerial experience since graduation. The response and sample items are presented in Table I. Several other characteristics of the sample may reduce the generalisability of the study results. however the Irish sample were more likely to have invested in education since graduation. Asian respondents were promoted to the position of manager at a significantly slower pace. correlations and coefficient alpha reliability estimates are presented for all variables in Table II. European respondents were promoted to the position of manager significantly quicker than other respondents. commitment to development. This is a significant limitation. We derived our sample from two highly reputable hotel management schools. Differences were revealed across our sub-samples. and the managerial competencies variables were measured using existing published scales by Carson and Bedeian (1994). respondents became managers within 3. The majority of Asian respondents had family connections within the industry. Reliabilities for all scales except career anchors are well above the generally accepted level of 0. Asian. Asian respondents were relatively more qualified at graduation than Irish respondents.35 years. psychological contract. The response rate was modest and fell slightly below the response rates that were reported for organisation behaviour and management surveys. Analysis indicated that over 60 per cent of respondents had worked as international hotel managers for between 1-10 years. This possibly introduced bias into our study because graduates from these schools would expect to have significant managerial advancement. We isolated the upper quartile to identify . The majority of respondents were in the early. 4. This pattern of ownership is also the case for the European sample. Eighty five percent of respondents had graduated between 1-15 years. For the hotel management specific measures we use the work of Ladkin and Riley (1996). On average. career anchors. European respondents were more likely to undertake Masters-level qualifications. The means for each sub-group were: European. We relied on the honesty of respondents to report accurately the number of job moves and salary increases. The data for the Irish sample indicates that the family is likely to own a hotel.3 Downloaded by Johnson & Wales University At 18:04 08 October 2014 (PT) 260 qualification. Measures The study variables were measured using multi-item scales. We derived the measures from two main sources of literature. Sixty two percent of respondents had graduated within the past ten years. organisational support for development. and Tallieu and Franchimont (1991).PR 35. Schein (1996).95 years. Results Descriptives.or mid-career stages.70. Limitations of the study The study relied on self-reports. It exposes the data to common method variance.

65 years.77) how quickly that group of respondents achieved a managerial position. Asian managers tended to change jobs more frequently Table I. 6. Respondents were likely to hold a number of different job positions during their careers. Asian respondents had relatively longer job tenure than Irish or European respondents. Asian respondents had significantly longer tenure than Irish respondents.71) “I have worked at a strategic level in food and beverage” (Cronbach Alpha 0. 4.25 years. 5. European.Variable Scale development Sample item/alpha reliability Career commitment A 7-item abbreviated version of Carson and Bedeian’s (1994) scale “I have created a plan for my development in this line of work/career” (Cronbach Alpha 0. The mean number of positions for respondents in this study was 3. Sixty-six percent of respondents were in their current positions for less than two years.85 years.75 years) indicated statistically significant differences in tenure for the three sub-samples. The mean was 1. The mean scores (Irish.64) “I have responsibility for dealing with human resource issues” (Cronbach Alpha 0.75) “I regularly play internal politics to get noticed” (Cronbach Alpha 0.71) “In my organisation there is an opportunity to formulate structured career development plans” (Cronbach Alpha 0.74) “I want to build a career to enable me to manage across functions” (Cronbach Alpha 0.85 years. This indicates that a significant proportion of respondents operated on a fast-track mode.5 years.72) “To what extent do you have expectations concerning your job in respect of career development?” (Cronbach Alpha 0.76) Downloaded by Johnson & Wales University At 18:04 08 October 2014 (PT) Satisfaction with psychological contract A 22-item scale measuring transactional and relational dimensions of the psychological contract developed by Schalk and Freese (1993) A 20-item scale measuring Perception of managers’ perceptions of the management possession of competency relevant to competencies hotel work developed by Tallieu and Franchimont (1991) and authors Mentoring and An 11-item scale measuring networking activities managers’ networking activities developed by the authors Career An 18-item scale measuring career anchors/orientations anchors/self-concepts developed by Schein (1996) Depth of manager role An 8-item scale measuring the importance of different strategic and operational aspects of hotel management developed by Ladkin and Riley (1996) Commitment to A 7-item scale measuring the development commitment of the manager to development developed by authors A 7-item scale measuring the extent Organisational career systems and support for to which the hotel implements various career management policies development and practices developed by authors Breadth of work A 20-item scale measuring extent of experience work experience developed by authors Career advancement of hotel managers 261 “I am confident to deal with situations that involve multiple work demands” (Cronbach Alpha 0. Asian. This finding was relatively consistent for the three sub-samples. Description of the measures used and reliabilities . Respondents had significant levels of organisational and job tenure. The average organisational tenure for respondents was 5.67) “I am continually taking courses to improve my skills” (Cronbach Alpha 0. Respondents demonstrated significant levels of loyalty to the organisation.

16 0.10 0.21 312 3.59 * * 0.67 0.11 0.64) 0.36 * 0.86 0.31 * 0.11 0.77 325 330 320 310 325 318 1. correlations and reliabilities N 262 Variable Downloaded by Johnson & Wales University At 18:04 08 October 2014 (PT) PR 35.15 8 9 0.11 (0. Means.45 (0. 0:01 (two-tailed) coefficient alpha.31 * 0.37 * 0.07 0. Depth of managerial role 9.25 * (0.78 321 3. standard deviations.76) 1.10 (0.3.05 0.67 M 1 2 3 4 5 6 0. Mentoring and networking activities 5.11 * 0.58 * * (0.85 4. Satisfaction with psychological contract 3.31 * 0.72) 1.71 3.78 0.3 .34 * (0.67) 0.17 0.62 * * (0.08 (0.75) 0. Perception of managerial competency 4.07 0.25 1.49 * * (0.27 * 0.21 * 0.71) 0. Commitment to development 7.10 0. all of the scales included in this study have a five-point response 0.26 * 0.21 * 0. 0:05.16 0. reliability estimates are presented in the diagonal. * * p .67 3. Career commitment 2.46 0.47 * * 0. Career anchors/orientations 6.71) SD 311 3.46 * * 0.09 0.41 3. * p .25 3. Breadth of work experience Table II.11 0.01 0.77) 7 Notes: n ¼ 327.74) 0.57 * * 0.08 0.18 0. Organisational career systems and support for development 8.02 0.

Downloaded by Johnson & Wales University At 18:04 08 October 2014 (PT) (mean ¼ 4:75) whereas Irish respondents had significantly fewer positions (mean ¼ 3:15). Irish. There were significant differences for the three sub-samples. The grade of the hotel was important in explaining the type of experience that managers acquired.000.25.30 years in front office. Irish respondents were significantly more likely to work in budget hotels at some point in their careers. This pattern was relatively consistent for the three sub-samples. European and Asian respondents were more likely to work in general management positions (Asian.15). Respondents from Asia were significantly more likely to work in general management positions most likely in luxury hotels. However the results also indicated that many respondents worked within a bounded career and reported significant levels of organisational tenure. Asian. Irish respondents received significantly more salary increases than Asian and European respondents (Irish. e27. e33. Irish respondents were significantly more likely to acquire experience outside of the hotel sector. Certain functions within the hotel were more important than others in the careers of hotel managers (Table III). It should however be pointed out that this was likely to be within the same hotel group. Food and beverage. Respondents had a significant number of salary increases since graduation.75 years in food and beverage and 3. 3. European respondents were more likely to work in human resources. European. Irish mean salary. Respondents gained significant experience in general management positions. Respondents were significantly less likely to work in specialist functional areas. 6. Respondents who worked in luxury-graded hotels were more likely to work in specialist functional areas and general management positions.3 years in housekeeping.75 years).000. 8. increased responsibilities. The extent of organisational mobility was significant. Asian respondents in food and beverage and European respondents in front office. Where respondents had specialist experience they were more likely to work in sales and marketing. Respondents from Ireland were more likely to work in housekeeping.21 salary increases. Asian respondents were paid a significantly lower salary when compared to Irish and European respondents (Asian mean salary. European.25. whereas Irish and European Career advancement of hotel managers 263 . The overall mean for respondents was 7. e44. The findings revealed that respondents’ job and organisational tenure patterns and levels of salary progression correspond to some characteristics of the contemporary career model. Respondents spent on average 4.75. European mean salary. These specialist functional areas were non-core activities. in particular frequent job moves. 2. The majority of respondents worked in mid-range or luxury graded hotels.000).25. front office and housekeeping were the three functional areas that the majority of respondents gained experience in at some point in their career. and enhanced competencies. 7.000. The average organisation tenure for the respondents was 4. 3. Asian respondents had significantly longer organisational tenure (mean ¼ 4:85) when compared with European (mean ¼ 4:45) and Irish (mean ¼ 4:25). 3. Respondents were more likely to acquire front office experience in budget-graded hotels. and less likely to work in human resources and accounting and finance positions. numerous salary increases.5 years. Forty five percent of respondents received an annual salary of over e33.

85 1.26 2.62 3.16 3. duration and hotel grade differences Area of experience 264 No.3 . % No.25 4.21 1.61 1.21 26 9 3 9 0 0 4 – 52 64 77 34 33 23 66 – 22 27 20 57 67 77 30 – 14 16 18 5 12 16 24 – 61 67 48 49 41 40 67 – 25 17 44 46 47 44 9 – 12 6 6 14 14 10 – – 36 56 37 84 77 77 52 – 52 38 57 2 9 13 48 – 56 41 63 34 15 22 86 42 Front office Housekeeping Food and beverage Sales and marketing Accounting and finance Human resources General management Non-hotel management experience Table III. % Mean Mean Mean B % M % L % B % M % L % B % M % L % Downloaded by Johnson & Wales University At 18:04 08 October 2014 (PT) PR 35.45 Notes: B ¼ Budget (not rated).06 1.25 1.31 1.75 1.41 3. L ¼ Luxury (4-5 star) 53 61 57 79 63 39 52 49 60 48 60 67 63 90 72 32 49 46 30 24 14 14 13 10 8 21 18 17 10 8 82 101 94 118 94 40 31 29 47 38 5.25 1.62 3.01 1./% of respondents with Duration of experience by sub-sample experience Experience by hotel classification Irish Eur Asian Irish Eur Asian Irish Eur Asian No.41 3.21 1. % No.25 4.45 2. Patterns of job experience: type. M ¼ Mid range (1-3 star).25 4.75 1.3.95 3.

the level of management reached (b ¼ 0:41. We used hierarchical regression to test hypotheses 1-7. Due to sample size characteristics and the relatively small independent variable to sample size ratio. likely to work in food and beverage at various points during their career. p # 0:05) and the number of salary increases (b ¼ 0:28. Table IV presents the results in the prediction of the three measures of the dependent variable. It provides a better indication of the amount of variance explained by the variable. Investment in education since graduation is positively associated with the level of management reached (b ¼ 0:27. Education level at graduation is positively associated with two measures of managerial advancement: the level of management reached (b ¼ 0:21. Gender is positively associated with one measure of managerial advancement: number of managerial job moves (b ¼ 0:26. Asian respondents achieved general management positions as a third or fourth job move. p # 0:01). the level of management reached (b ¼ 0:21. H1b was only partially supported. p # 0:01). we used the adjusted multiple correlation. the level of management reached (b ¼ 0:21. p # 0:01).Downloaded by Johnson & Wales University At 18:04 08 October 2014 (PT) respondents were likely to work in specialist functional areas. The most frequently reported first specialist functional position was sales and marketing. such as accounting and finance. Participation in training did not reveal any significant relationships with the three measures of advancement. Therefore. p # 0:01). or fifth job move. p # 0:01) and number of salary increases (b ¼ 0:39. front office and housekeeping made up early career job experiences. second or third job. Food and beverage. Breadth of Career advancement of hotel managers 265 . and the number of salary increases (b ¼ 0:24. p # 0:05). Respondents were. Respondents reported particular job experience sequences that were relatively consistent for the three sub-samples. p # 0:05). The breadth and depth of the manager’s work responsibilities and experience is positively associated with three measures of managerial advancement. human resources and sales and marketing. Respondents were more likely to work in specialist functional areas as the fourth. p # 0:01) and the number of salary increases (b ¼ 0:48. A small percentage of respondents achieved general managerial positions early in their career. p # 0:05). Demographic variables have been demonstrated to affect the three measures of the dependent variable utilised in this study. The country of origin of the hotel in which the manager worked was very significant. H2b was only partially supported. p # 0:05). H2a was only partially supported. p # 0:05) and the number of salary increases (b ¼ 0:18. H1c was supported. however. They were less likely to work in specialist functional areas at any point in their career. These positions were more likely to be the first. to serve as control variables. It had a strong positive influence on the three measures of managerial advancement: number of managerial job moves (b ¼ 0:37. p # 0:05). Therefore H2c was not supported. H2d was supported. The analysis suggests that age is positively associated with the three measures of managerial advancement: number of job moves (b ¼ 0:16. so these were entered in the first steps in all subsequent analyses. Respondents’ self-report of competencies is positively related to the three measures of managerial advancement: number of managerial job moves (b ¼ 0:17. p # 0:05). H1a was supported. p # 0:01) and negatively associated with two measures: level of management reached (b ¼ 0:41. however such a position was likely to be a fifth or sixth job move.

62 * 7.29 * * 0.71 * 0.17 * 0.15 0.39 * * 0.15 * 0.17 * 0.61 * 0.18 2 0.11 0.07 0.63 4. * * p .74 0.29 * * 0.21 0.17 * 0.41 * * 0.16 0.36 3.26 * * 0.21 0.27 * * 0.71 * 4.64 3.17 * 0.11 0.45 0.17 * 0.39 0.45 * Block 2.46 * 308 .20 * 0. Organisational level variables Size of hotel Grade of hotel Organisational support for career development R R2 DR 2 R 2 (adjusted) F change F overall n Notes: * p .24 * 0.24 * 0.75 0. 0:01 0.11 0.17 * 0.08 0.01 0.67 0.57 * 5.16 * 0.19 0.18 0.48 * * 0.44 0.62 0.23 * 0. Human capital variables Education level at graduation Investment in education since graduation Investment in training Mentoring and networking activities Managerial competencies Depth manager role Breadth of work experience R R2 DR 2 R 2 (adjusted) F change F overall 0.24 * 0.28 * * 0.48 9.11 3.63 0.14 3.22 3.26 8.38 0.12 3.24 * * 0.43 * 0.29 * 4.36 * Block 1.61 * 5.21 0.44 0.71 * Block 3.17 0.42 0.27 * 0.23 * 0.78 0.61 0.11 0.16 * 2 0.12 * 0.08 0.66 0.81 * 2. 0:05. Manager psychological variables Career orientations/anchors Satisfaction with psychological contract Commitment to development Career commitment R R2 DR 2 R 2 (adjusted) F change F overall 0.24 * 0.27 0.58 * 0.21 * 2 0.21 * 0.39 6.27 * 0.41 * * 0.12 2.17 2.61 0.97 * 2.18 0.36 * 5.67 0.86 0.15 * 0.82 * 325 0.20 0.27 * 0.87 0.3 Downloaded by Johnson & Wales University At 18:04 08 October 2014 (PT) 266 Table IV.23 * 0.22 * 0.PR 35.17 * 0.17 * 0.97 * 2.45 0.14 0.21 * 0.18 * 0.14 0.21 * 330 0.18 * 0. Hierarchical regression models Number of managerial job moves b Level management reached b Number of salary increases b 0.21 * 0.81 0.37 * * 0. Demographic variables Age Gender Country of work R R2 R 2 (adjusted) F Block 4.26 * * 0.40 0.

the number of managerial job moves (b ¼ 0:23. p # 0:05). The size of the hotel is positively associated with the three measures of the advancement. p # 0:05).05) and the number of salary increases (b ¼ 0:15. p # 0:05) and the level of management reached (b ¼ 0:20. p # 0:01). Organisational-level variables explained some variance. p # 0:05). p # 0:05) and the number of salary increases (b ¼ 0:18. Career advancement of hotel managers 267 .17. the number of managerial job moves (b ¼ 0:27. number of managerial job moves (adjusted R 2 ¼ 0:36. human capital and manager psychological variables explained the most significant variance. The strength of the manager’s managerial and interpersonal career anchor is positively associated with the three measures of career advancement. p # 0. H2e was supported. the number of managerial job moves (b ¼ 0:24. Three organisational-level variables are positively associated with some of the advancement measures included in the study. p # 0. H6b was partially supported. p # 0:05) and the number of salary increases (b ¼ 0:27. p # 0:05). p # 0:05). The complete regression model accounted for significant variance in the three dependent variables. p # 0:05). p # 0:01).05). Therefore. p # 0:05) and the level of management reached (b ¼ 0:17. p # 0:05) and the number of salary increases (b ¼ 0:15. The extent of networking and mentoring activities is positively associated with two measures of managerial advancement. H4c was particularly supported. H4b was supported. p # 0:05) and the number of salary increases (b ¼ 0:26. H4a was supported. The grade of the hotel is positively associated with the number of managerial job moves (b ¼ 0:22. The manager’s perceived level of career commitment is positively associated with the three measures of advancement. the number of managerial job moves (b ¼ 0:24. the level of management reached (adjusted R 2 ¼ 0:32. H3a was particularly supported. number of managerial job moves (b ¼ 0. The depth of the manager’s role is positively associated with the number of managerial job moves (b ¼ 0:17. the level of management reached (b ¼ 0:23. the level of management reached (b ¼ 0. p # 0:05) and the number of salary increases (b ¼ 0:18. p # 0:01) and the level of management reached (b ¼ 0:29.05). the level of management reached (b ¼ 0:17. H5a was supported. p # 0:05). the level of management reached (b ¼ 0:17. p # 0:01). p # 0:05) and the number of salary increases (b ¼ 0:29. The analysis indicated that demographic. p # 0:05). p # 0:05). p # 0. level of management reached (b ¼ 0:17. The commitment of the manager to development is positively associated with two measures of managerial advancement. p # 0:01). the level of management reached (b ¼ 0:24. H6a was supported. however they did not add significantly to the power of our model to explain the career advancement of hotel managers. Each block of variables explained significant variance in the three measures of the dependent variable. p # 0:05). p # 0:05) and the number of salary increases (adjusted R 2 ¼ 0:16. p # 0:01). Perceptions of organisational support for career development is positively associated with the number of managerial job moves (b ¼ 0:16.23. Satisfaction with the psychological contract is positively associated with the three measures of managerial advancement.Downloaded by Johnson & Wales University At 18:04 08 October 2014 (PT) work experience is positively associated with the number of managerial job moves (b ¼ 0:24. number of managerial job moves (b ¼ 0:27. H7a was partially supported. P # 0:05).

European respondents also participated in more short courses than Irish and Asian respondents. Irish respondents reported greater use of short-course based activities. and mentoring. Respondents had two pronounced career anchors or orientations. Cross-cultural differences in career anchors were revealed. The data on investment in training and development by managers revealed an interesting picture. such as the emulation of role models.3 Downloaded by Johnson & Wales University At 18:04 08 October 2014 (PT) 268 Discussion The overall question that runs through this study is as follows: What factors explained the career advancement of hotel managers? The answer to this question is important given that hotels frequently experience difficulties in retaining managers. Irish respondents were less committed to learning a foreign language but were strongly committed to utilising their college education in the job. Such respondents were more focused on availing of training opportunities within the hotel. Asian respondents were less likely to participate in training and development relative to Irish and European respondents. They also relied on more traditional training strategies such as short management courses. It follows that the motivation and quality of management is important in determining the level of service quality provided to customers.and organisation-level variables and a cross-cultural dimension. The study included measures of individual. There was significantly less evidence of the use of more innovative and work-based learning activities such as special projects. Irish respondents placed more emphasis on entrepreneurship. Managers tended to rely on short-term. special projects and assignments. a desire to manage people and an emphasis on service and dedication. They were more committed to enhancing their foreign language capabilities. it incorporated a combination of individual. a feature absent from many previous studies. Hotel managers invested in significant levels of post-graduate education. European respondents placed more emphasis on social learning activities. work expectations and perceptions of their managerial strengths. European respondents placed more emphasis on the technical/functional dimensions of the managerial career and in life style issues. European respondents were more committed to career development than Irish and Asian respondents. The analysis revealed cross-cultural differences in respect of attitudes to development. The data indicated that managers working in different cultural settings placed different emphasis on the value of learning and have preferences for particular ways of learning. Hotels are service-type organisations. The sample is significant and we achieved a sufficient response rate for our three sub-samples. The research design utilised was unique. well educated and male. European respondents reported greater use of mentoring activities. The analysis indicated significant cross-cultural differences in the use of training development and education activities. hardship assignments and mentoring processes. The data revealed a picture of the hotel manager who was relatively young. They were significantly less committed to utilising a mentor or continually investing in skill enhancement activities.PR 35. on autonomy in the form of opportunities to do things in a . Asian respondents were committed to utilising their college education and to learning a foreign language. in providing opportunities for participation in training and development and in implementing sophisticated career management policies and practices. Hotel managers placed emphasis on particular dimensions of career. organisationally provided training and development.and organisational-level variables.

emphasis on collaboration and teamwork and a superior salary as important issues. Asian respondents make greater use of family contacts within the industry.Downloaded by Johnson & Wales University At 18:04 08 October 2014 (PT) particular way and a concern to have freedom to act. search job adverts. Asian respondents were more prepared to make personal sacrifices to learn and to relocate if necessary. Irish respondents made greater use of networking. Irish and European respondents reported similar priorities. They were less concerned with the characteristics of the job and the culture of the hotel. the study provided moderate or partial support for the majority of them: . They prioritised clear managerial growth possibilities. a strong commitment by the hotel to service. Looking at our hypotheses. Managers differed significantly in their willingness to network. They had a longer-term goal focus. in contrast. post-graduation education. Age is similarly associated with the three measures of managerial advancement. The content of hotel managers’ psychological contracts is interesting and it in many ways the findings from this study reflect the emerging contract as advanced by Rousseau (1996) and others. There is partial support for this group of hypotheses. They reported less clarity in respect of career goals. level of management reached and the number of salary increases. European respondents were more committed to their careers than Asian and Irish respondents. Age and gender are associated with hotel manager advancement. Gender is associated with all three measures of managerial advancement. Investment in education. The relationships identified in this study are stronger than indicated in the managerial advancement literature. placed significantly more emphasis on service and dedication to others and on job security. This suggests that male respondents have more opportunities on both of these measures of advancement. We found strong support for both age and gender impacting managerial advancement. It does reinforce the general finding that there are significant gender differences in managerial advancement: . They placed significantly less emphasis on life-style. Education level at graduation is positively associated with the number of salary increases and the level of management reached. There is no support for the investment in training Career advancement of hotel managers 269 . They made greater use of contacts within the industry and actively searched for external labour market opportunities. Respondents placed strong emphasis on pay and promotion. They were less likely to actively circulate CV or to search job adverts. Investment in education since graduation is positively associated with the level of management reached. Asian respondents. training are positively associated with managerial advancement. entrepreneurship and autonomy dimensions. career development opportunities and the quality of job assignments. European respondents were more likely to utilise external networking. Asian respondents were more concerned about issues related to pay and promotion and the reputation of the hotel. hands-on leadership. They were more likely to circulate CVs. number of managerial job moves. The relationship is however negative for the level of management reached and the number of salary increases. they kept a record of contacts and were less likely to wait to be told about promotion opportunities. Managers overall reported high levels of career commitment. and to continually look for a higher salary.

3 Downloaded by Johnson & Wales University At 18:04 08 October 2014 (PT) 270 hypothesis. This finding provides support of the value of the outcomes of training and development and planned job and functional experience early in a manager’s career: . The finding would suggest that formal qualifications have more value for advancement than short-term training and development initiatives carried out in-house. Higher levels of networking and mentoring support were positively related with the number of managerial job moves. It is perhaps the case that training and development is of more value for short-term performance rather than the long-term career advancement of a manager: . relational and founded on the work experiences that the manager encounters: . There is good support for the hypothesis that the accumulation of managerial competencies and the breadth and depth of managerial experience is positively associated with managerial advancement. were more likely to achieve advancement. Commitment to development is positively associated with the number of job moves. the idea that development is continuous. achieved better managerial advancement. There is strong support of this group of hypotheses. Mentor support and networking are positively associated with managerial advancement. Satisfaction with the psychological contract is positively associated with the three measures of managerial advancement included in this study. Career anchors in the form of a managerial and an interpersonal career orientation are positively associated with the three measures of career advancement utilised in this study. and the level of management reached. A protean model “emphasises” the need for self-management.PR 35. Satisfaction with the psychological contract is positively associated with managerial advancement. This finding provides support for the importance of social capital and relationship or network building in a manager’s career. The more surprising result concerns the role of training and development. Enhancement of competencies and breadth/depth of experience are positively assessed with managerial advancement. Commitment to career is positively associated with the three measures of advancement included in this study. It also provides some support for the ‘new career’ concept. which is based on the notion of discrepancy between the . This finding provides support for a psychological contract model. The study provided solid support for the view that investment in education enhances career prospects. which advocates a self-managed career and the use of external and internal resources: . There is good support for the hypothesis that managers who engaged in networking activities and utilised the support of a mentor. Commitment to career. 1998). the greater the managerial advancement. self-directed. Managers who rated their managerial competency set to be higher and who reported a broader and deeper set of functional experiences within the hotel. commitment to a managerial career and commitment to development is positively associated with managerial advancement. This finding provides support for the new career in particular the concept of the protean career concept (Hall and Moss. There is strong support for the hypothesis that where the manager is satisfied with his/her psychological contract.

the employment relationship and career. A particular feature of our study was the inclusion of respondents who worked in different countries. There is no support for the hypothesis that the breadth and depth of the organisation’s managerial role definitions is positively associated with managerial advancement: . The size of the hotel is positively associated with the number of managerial job moves and the level of management reached. It is likely that where the discrepancy is perceived to be low. The grade of the hotel is associated wit the number of managerial job moves and the number of salary increases. There is partial support for the hypothesis that the level of organisational support for career development is positively associated with managerial advancement. 2002): . The quality of the psychological contract can shape various aspects of the career and improve career commitment. For example. the availability of development opportunities and commitment to development: . Cultural background strongly associated with the three measures of advancement included in the study. Career advancement of hotel managers 271 . We had a good representation of Irish. The cultural background of the manager is positively associated with managerial advancement. It is positively associated with one measure of advancement – the level of management reached. The results suggest scope to investigate cross-cultural influence in more detail. There is evidence to indicate that managers in higher graded hotels have more varied work experience and are likely to be better paid (Watson et al. to date. the availability of formal mentoring support and the opportunity for regular lateral job moves to broaden and deepen managerial experience. There is. There is very strong support of the hypothesis that the manager’s country of origin (in terms of where he/she is currently working) is positively associated with managerial advancement. There is partial support for the hypothesis that the size and grade of the hotel are positively associated with hotel manager career advancement. This finding provides support for the view that national cultural differences in values influence how individuals think about the task of management. will be important in predicting managerial advancement. limited empirical evidence that organisational support for careers. The organisation’s career management system and scope of managerial roles are positively associated with managerial advancement. respondents born in Asia tended to work in Asian countries. It is more likely that organisational support for careers will be reflected in the provision of training and development opportunities. European and Asian respondents.Downloaded by Johnson & Wales University At 18:04 08 October 2014 (PT) manager and the organisation. then the manager will engage in innovative behaviours and be more willing to pursue a career within the hotel.. without a similar level of individual manager career commitment. We should point out that there was a strong relationship between the current work location of the respondent and his/her country of birth. These findings are not surprising in the context of hotels and hospitality. Size and grade of the hotel are positively associated with managerial advancement.

Are they sufficiently broad in task and skill terms? The second dimension concerns the extent to which job roles provide a sufficient level of responsibility to the manager in order to acquire the necessary experience before promotion. Psychological characteristics of the manager including commitment to . Organisationally provided career development activities can help managers achieve greater career maturity and commitment. It makes sense that graduates should be encouraged to pursue careers in which they have a greater interest. motivation and development of managers. Career commitment appeared to be particularly important. flexibility and visibility. This concerns the extent to which the organisation has in place a comprehensive career management system and provides career planning interventions. Conclusions We found that managerial advancement within hotels is predicted by a combination of demographic. Human capital variables explained significant variance in the three advancement measures. It makes sense for organisations to design mentoring and coaching programmes to build commitment to work and organisation and to use training and development interventions to reduce turnover and prepare the manager to avail of advancement opportunities that are likely to arise. human capital. Demographic variables were significant in explaining the extent of managerial advancement on the three measures included in this study. By empowering managers and encouraging self-development. mentoring and networking activities. organisations can help mangers grow professionally within the organisation. The first concerns the extent to which managerial job roles are defined. however it is pertinent to point out that managers who spend time developing their networking competencies are more likely to advance faster.PR 35. Networking has particular significance to the level of management reached as well as the number of job moves. managers’ perceptions of competencies and the breadth and depth of managerial experience were positively associated with managerial advancement. The study highlights the role of networking activities. Education since graduation proved to be a useful predictor of managerial advancement. Two elements of the job role are also important. We did not investigate whether networking led to greater social recognition by key decision makers in the hotel. It is also important that managers are concerned to diagnose their skill and talents in a systematic fashion and to match them to appropriate career opportunities.3 Downloaded by Johnson & Wales University At 18:04 08 October 2014 (PT) 272 Implications for individuals and organisations The findings highlight a number of important implications for individuals. The country in which the graduate works was particularly significant in explaining advancement. There are advantages to be gained from investment in education. training and development. The study revealed cross-cultural differences. psychological-variables and to a lesser extent organisation-level variables. Organisations also have a role to play in managing the career commitment. The study results reveal that a number of organisation-level variables are relevant in explaining managerial career advancement. Three particular dimensions require the attention of organisations. Commitment to development and career are important. The nature of the organisation’s career system is important. Spending time in social networks is beneficial to the manager’s adaptability. Investment in education since graduation.

it could be that the variables pertaining to a number of career advancement predictors are clustered because they may have overstated the level of advancement achieved.E.. It is also clear that hotel managers’ careers were bounded rather than boundaryless. However. given that managers are a competitive resource it is incumbent on hotels to facilitate the development of managers and move towards a model of learning that focuses on the creation of a continuous learning culture. Vol. It is likely that managers will increasingly focus on general transferable knowledge and skills to meet both individual and employer demands. The size of the hotel was positively related to the three measures of advancement whereas the grade of the hotel was significantly related to the number of job moves and the number of salary increases. and Miles. “Knowledge-related skills and effective career management”. self-managed career activities. Our findings provide some support for the protean career model. While managers strove to achieve consistency in their self-reported response patterns. “Factors influencing career decision making in adolescents and adults”. Career advancement of hotel managers 273 . Hall. The findings suggest that managerial advancement is complex and multidimensional. satisfaction with the psychological contract and particular career anchors were also important. enhancement of competencies and networking.J. Journal of Career Assessment. The findings indicated that for many hotel managers there is a significant amount of stability in their careers. Vol. Perceptions of the organisation’s career system and support for development were positively related to the number of and level of job moves but not to salary. (2002). pp. 91-126. hotels need to formulate clear policies that emphasise the importance of continuous learning for managerial effectiveness and provide rewards in the form of advancement to those who utilise their skills and competencies. 17-27. Vol. The “traditional” career has not ceased to the extent suggested in the literature. It would be interesting to have the organization’s perspective on the significance of the predictor variables.Downloaded by Johnson & Wales University At 18:04 08 October 2014 (PT) career and development. There was less evidence of turnover than might have been anticipated. Particular elements of the protean model practised include investment in training and development.C. A weakness of our study is that as far as both independent and dependent variables are concerned.. however in this study there is strong support for the total model presented. education and career development activities for both individuals and organisations. Anakwe. U. S. (2000). 4. 21 No. and Schor. References Albion. (1996). fewer training opportunities and promotion prospects. J.B. we relied on self-report measures. 10. pp.J. and Fogarty. G. Academy of Management Executive. International Journal of Manpower. C. Critics have advocated that the protean model is a convenient ideology for employers who wish to place ownership for careers with employees and use it as an excuse for less job security. Snow. 566-79. In order to create this culture. Instead we detect in the context of hotels an evolution towards new ways of thinking about career and career management but not a fundamental shift in the nature of career. Organisation-level variables did not consistently explain variance in the three measures of advancement.M. B. Allred. It is interesting to observe that managers demonstrated strong loyalty to the hotel. 7. “Characteristics of managerial careers in the 21st century”. Evolution towards a new career model does suggest implications for management development.P. M.C. R. pp.

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she then went on to forge a career with many Irish hotel companies. Deborah O’Hanlon has vast experience in the hotel industry and is the Head of Hotel Operations at the Shannon College of Hotel Management. He is also interested in multi-disciplinary research on the employability. Her particular area of expertise has been in the linking of theory and practice and the holistic approach to the development of the students.emeraldinsight. Policy and Practice. He is considered the leading academic and researcher in the field of training and development in Ireland.PR 35. Deborah graduated from the Dublin Institute of Technology with a Diploma in Hotel Management and a MSC in Hospitality Management. He is co-author of the leading academic text Training and Development in Ireland: Context. Republic of Ireland.3 Downloaded by Johnson & Wales University At 18:04 08 October 2014 (PT) 280 About the authors Thomas Garavan is an academic working with the Department of Personnel and Employment Relations. which is widely used by students in Irish universities and institutes of technology. where she has been involved in lecturing and the development of student placements in over 15 countries. sentiment analysis in equity markets and testing asset pricing models. Kemmy Business School. He has acquired a significant world wide reputation as an author of over 60 academic articles.ie Fergal O’Brien is a Lecturer in Finance and Course Director for the MSc in Financial Services at the Kemmy Business School. His research interests include the empirical investigation of financial option returns. He is currently studying for a PhD at Lancaster University. To purchase reprints of this article please e-mail: reprints@emeraldinsight. Thomas Garavan is the corresponding author and can be contacted at: thomas. University of Limerick.garavan@ul. University of Limerick. as Editor of the Journal of European Industrial Training and Associate Editor of Human Resource Development International.com/reprints . careers and job progression of University graduates.com Or visit our web site for further details: www.

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