You are on page 1of 4

http://cafe.daum.

net/satact

SAT

JJ SAT Grammar Essentials
CONTENTS
Chapter

Page

1. The Parts of Speech (품사)

1

2. The Part of a Sentence

2

자동사, 타동사, 연결동사

3

도치 (가정법 도치 포함)

7

3. Phrases and Clauses (구와 절)

11

IC or DC

11

명사구, 전치사구, 동격

14

Absolute Phrase

15

4. Verbs (동사)

15

consider, regard

15

5. Tense (시제)

16

6. Subject- Verb Agreement (주어 동사 일치)

17

Indefinite pronouns (부정 대명사)

18

7. Sentence fragment & Run-On

21

8. Pronouns

22

Relative Pronouns

23

Pronoun-Antecedent Agreement

26

9. Verbals (준동사)

27

choice between gerund and infinitive

30

10. Mood and Voice

36

demand, require, request, or suggest

36

가정법

37

11. Modifiers—Dangling, Misplaced

38

12. Prepositions & Conjunctions

40

Conjunctive adverbs

41

등위 접속사

41

Subordinating Conjunctions

42

Ellipsis (생략)

42

상관 접속사

43

Prepositions

45

전치사 Complete List

45

13. Comparison

48

14. Parallelism (병렬구조)

49

15. Redundancy

50

16. Idioms (숙어)

51

17. Correct Usage (Diction)

54

18. Writing Terms

57

1

강사: John Jin

http://cafe.daum.net/satact

SAT Grammar Essentials

강사: John Jin

Chapter 1: The Parts of Speech (품사)

1. Noun (명사): Describes a person, place, thing, or idea
Ex. John, teacher, house, stone, democracy

2. Pronoun (대명사): takes the place of a noun
Ex. I, him, her, which, who, that
Note: 1) 대명사는 주로 pronoun-antecedent agreement 와 ambiguous pronoun 문제에 많이 나옴
-

The lamp hit the table when it was knocked over.

-

The parents told their children that they would be leaving soon.

2)

관계대명사 질문도 많이 나오니 어떻게 쓰이는지 꼭 알아야 함. (who, whom, whose, that, which)

3. Verb (동사)
A verb is a word or group of words that expresses action or being.
-

The plane crashed in Chicago. (action)

-

Soccer is a popular sport. (being)

Note: 동사는 주어 동사 일치 문제뿐 아니라 동사 시제 문제에서도 많이 나온다.
-

I have lived in Chicago since 1997.

4. Adjective (형용사)
An adjective is a word that modifies a noun or pronoun.
Ex. green, nice, mean, amazing

5. Adverb (부사)
An adverb is a word that modifies the meaning of a verb, an adjective, another adverb, or a whole sentence.
-

I ran up the stairs quite fast.

Note: 부사는 형용사를 수식하고 형용사는 명사를 수식한다는 점을 꼭 기억하자.
-

A beautifully designed house

6. Preposition (전치사)
A preposition is a word that connects a noun or pronoun to another word in the sentence.
The mayor campaigned throughout the city.
Note: 전치사는 idiom 문제에서 매우 중요하다.

I am aware of the situation.

그리고 무엇보다 전치사구 라는 개념을 꼭 알아야한다.

7. Conjunction (접속사)
A conjunction is a word that joins words, phrases, or clauses.
Alan’s father and mother are divorced. (two words joined)
Note: 가장 많이 나오는 문제 중 하나로서 종속 접속사, 등위 접속사 등 꼭 차이점을 알아두어야 한다.
그리고 무엇보다도 전치사와 접속사의 차이를 알아야한다.

1

http://cafe.daum.net/satact

SAT Grammar Essentials

강사: John Jin

8. Interjection (감탄사): SAT 시험에는 안 나오므로 알아둘 필요는 없다.
An interjection is a word (or group of words) that expresses surprise, anger, plea sure, or some other emotion.
Aha! I’ve caught you.
Oh no! What have you done now?

Note: 단어가 같아도 사용도에 따라 품사가 달라진다.

Example 1
Everyone but Sam was invited to the wedding. (preposition)
The Orioles won the pennant, but the Angels came close to winning. (conjunction)
Harry has but ten dollars left in his bank account. (adverb)

Chapter 2: The Parts of a Sentence

1. A sentence is a group of words that has a subject and a verb. (주어와 동사)
The concert began at midnight.

2. The parts of a sentence
The basic parts of a sentence are a subject, a verb, and a complement.

subject

verb

complement

The waiter brought the soup.

compound subject

verb

complement

Mason and Lucy sold me their stereo.

3. Subject
A subject of a sentence is the word (or group of words) that tells who or what is being talked about.
A simple subject –different from complete subject- is the subject of a sentence stripped of modifiers.
The simple subject of the following sentence is….
The really important issue of the conference, stripped of all other considerations, is the morality of the nation.

4. A subject may be a noun, pronoun, verbal, phrase, or clause.
1) A subject may be a verbal. (준동사)
To begin is the hardest part of the job. (infinitive used as the subject)
Jogging is good exercise. (gerund used as a subject)
Note: A participle cannot be used as a subject.

2

http://cafe.daum.net/satact

SAT Grammar Essentials

강사: John Jin

2) A subject may be a phrase.
Smoking cigarettes is unhealthy. (gerund phrase used as a subject)
To obey the law is everyone’s duty. (infinitive phrase used as a subject)

Exercise 1: Find the subject.
1.

The wedding will take place at the church.

2.

He is always busy.

3.

To see is to believe.

4.

Seeing is believing.

5.

Jogging is good exercise.

6.

Smoking cigarettes is not good for the health.

7.

What he had already forgotten about computer repair could fill whole volumes.

8.

Across the river is my house.

9.

Written on the wall is my name.

5. Verb
1) A verb is a word or group of words that usually tells what the subject does.
Annie skated down the street.
Your baby has dropped his toy.

2) A verb may express a state or condition.
Lynn appears puzzled. (Or: Lynn appears to be puzzled.)
The stew tastes delicious.
Jason and Martha are good friends.

6. The three kinds of verbs are transitive, intransitive, and linking.
1) An intransitive verb tells what its subject does. The action of the intransitive verb does not affect someone or
something else.
The old man slept in his chair.
The audience applauded.
All of the job applicants waited patiently.

7. A transitive verb tells what its subject does to someone or to something.
The cat caught the mouse.

3