Massimo Rossetto
Politecnico di Torino
Dipartimento di Meccanica
Springs
Outline
• Spring characteristic
• Types of spring (Italian: molla, German: feder)
–
–
–
–
–
–
Torsion bar (or torsion spring, barra di torsione)
Helical spring (or coil spring, molla ad elica cilindrica)
Leaf spring (or laminated spring, molla a lamina & molla a balestra)
Belleville spring (or spring washer, molla a tazza or molla Belleville)
Spiral torsion spring (or hairspring or balance spring, molla a spirale)
Compression spring and other types
• Spring systems
• Usage of springs
Fundamentals of Machine Design and Drawing
1
Massimiliano Avalle
Massimo Rossetto
Politecnico di Torino
Dipartimento di Meccanica
Main Types of Springs
Torsion bar
Leaf spring
Helical spring for
compression
Belleville
spring
Helical spring for
tension
Compression spring
Spiral torsion spring
Volute spring
Examples of Spring Applications
Suspension Systems
Helical spring (in a multilink
car suspension)
Fundamentals of Machine Design and Drawing
Leaf spring (in a heavy
vehicle suspension)
2
Massimiliano Avalle
Massimo Rossetto
Politecnico di Torino
Dipartimento di Meccanica
What are Springs?
• Springs are elastic members that exert forces or torques and
absorb energy (elastic potential energy) which is usually
stored and later released
• Springs are characterized by their capacity to be subjected to
very large elastic deformations under the action of external
loads
• Applications are various:
–
–
–
–
Absorb shocks and impact, and instantaneous overloads
Store (elastic) energy
Connect parts
Used as the sensing element in transducers of forces (load cells),
acceleration (accelerometers) and other quantities
Spring Rate
• It is the relation between force and displacement (or momentrotation)
• The characteristic parameter is the elastic constant or spring
stiffness k:
– F (M)
– f (ϑ)
– k (kT)
F=k×f
M = kT × ϑ
Force (Moment)
Displacement (or deflection) (Rotation)
Stiffness (Stiffness)
(N) (N m)
(m) (rad)
(N/m) (N m/rad)
• For the case of linear characteristic, the stored energy is:
W = ½ F × f = ½ k f² = ½ F² / k
F
• (it is the area under the characteristic,
stressstrain curve)
f
Fundamentals of Machine Design and Drawing
3
Massimiliano Avalle
Massimo Rossetto
Politecnico di Torino
Dipartimento di Meccanica
Spring Rate
Different Characteristics
• The characteristic can be of type:
– Linear
– Hardening
– Softening
hardening
F (M)
linear
softening
f (θ )
Torsion Springs
Torsion Bar
τ max =
θ=
Mt
Fr
= 3
wt πd 16
Support, to
remove
bending
clamp
d
M tl
Frl
=
GI p G πd 4 32
32 Fr l
πd 4G
F πGd 4
E
, G=
k= =
2
2(1 + ν )
f 32r l
f = θr =
r
θ
2
Mt
Fundamentals of Machine Design and Drawing
rigid
arm
F
l
f
4
Massimiliano Avalle
Massimo Rossetto
Politecnico di Torino
Dipartimento di Meccanica
Torsion Springs
Torsion Bar
• Torsion load (torque) is applied by means of a spline
• A wide fillet radius is necessary to avoid stress concentration
in the diameter variation
Torsion bar with splines at
the ends (type used in
automotive suspensions)
Spline
Wide fillet radius
Spline
Citroën Traction Avant
(1935)
Torsion Springs
Torsion Bar
• Other solutions for the ends of torsion bars
• Typical configuration of a torsion bar
• Length AB works in torsion but
is also subjected to bending
• The supports make the system
hyperstatic reducing deflection
Fundamentals of Machine Design and Drawing
5
Massimiliano Avalle
Massimo Rossetto
Politecnico di Torino
Dipartimento di Meccanica
Helical Springs
Definitions
• They can be considered as torsion bars
helically wound around a cylinder of
diameter D = 2 r
• According to the direction of the load,
they are improperly called:
α
p
– Tension Helical Springs
– Compression Helical Springs
L0
• Spring deformation is mainly due to
torsion of the wire (like in torsion bar)
• Transverse shear and wire curvature are
taken into account by means of correction
coefficients applied to formulas
equivalent to the torsion bar
r
Helical Springs
Loads Acting on the Wire
• Load on the
wire
V
N
M
N
F
V
• Definitions
Leq =
C=
N
πD
N ≈ πDN equivalent length
cos α
D
d
D
D
≈F
2
2
V = F cos α ≈ F
D
M = F sin α ≈ 0
2
N = F sin α ≈ 0
T = F cos α
spring index (typically 6  12)
number of effective coils (excluding inactive ones)
Fundamentals of Machine Design and Drawing
6
Massimiliano Avalle
Massimo Rossetto
Politecnico di Torino
Dipartimento di Meccanica
Helical Springs
Formulas
• Corrections to the torsion bar formulas:
Fr
8 FD
8 FC
= KW
= KW
3
3
πd 16
πd
πd 2
τ max = KW
f = KW '
Fr 2 Leq
πd G 32
4
= KW '
8 FD 3 N
8 FC 3 N
= KW '
4
Gd
Gd
• For 6 ≤ C ≤ 12:
4c − 1 0.615
+
(Wahl factor)
KW ' = 1
C
4c − 4
• For C < 6 the spring is too rigid and the material overstressed
• For C > 12 the spring is too compliant and the material poorly
used
KW =
Helical Springs
Formulas
KW =
4c − 1 0.615
+
C
4c − 4
(Wahl factor)
KW ' = 1
1.8
1.7
1.6
Kw
Kw’
Kw, Kw’
1.5
1.4
1.3
1.2
1.1
1
0.9
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
C=D/d
Fundamentals of Machine Design and Drawing
Renato Giovannozzi “Costruzione
di Macchine”, Vol. 1
7
Massimiliano Avalle
Massimo Rossetto
Politecnico di Torino
Dipartimento di Meccanica
Helical Springs
Meaning of Correction Factors
Torsion
Torsion bar,
bar, with
with straight
straight axis
axis
• Corrections due to curvature:
τ max,tors =
4c − 1 F ( D / 2 )
4c − 4 πd 3 16
τ max,tors = 1.23
Torsion bar, with curvilinear axis
F
0.615 F (D / 2 )
=
2
πd 4
C πd 3 16
Helical Springs
Effective Coils Number
• For a given value of the stiffness k the required effective
number of coils N can be obtained from the forcedeflection
relation:
8 FC 3 N F
f = KW '
=
Gd
k
→
k=
Gd
8 KW ' C 3 N
• Since for 6 ≤ C ≤ 12 the Wahl factor KW’ for deflection is
negligible (≈1):
k=
Gd
8C 3 N
→
N=
Fundamentals of Machine Design and Drawing
Gd
8C 3 k
8
Massimiliano Avalle
Massimo Rossetto
Politecnico di Torino
Dipartimento di Meccanica
Helical Springs
Spring Lengths
Helical Springs
Spring Lengths
• The (linear) elastic spring action must hold even at the
maximum design load
• To this aim, it is necessary not to bring the spring to its solid
height when all coils are packed together
• This is obtained by assuring that a minimum clearance
remains between each couple of coils:
LF max ≥ LS + g res i
g res ≈
d
4
Residual clearance
between active coils
• Notice that when the length at maximum load LFmax and the
deflection fmax are defined, the free length L0 is determined
and, consequently, the pitch p
Fundamentals of Machine Design and Drawing
9
Massimiliano Avalle
Massimo Rossetto
Politecnico di Torino
Dipartimento di Meccanica
Helical Springs
Length under the Action of the External Load
Fmax
Fs
i gres
Δf
LFmin
LFmax
Ls
Fmin
L0
Given d, i & k
Materials for Springs
Static Verification: Cold Formed Springs
τ nom = KW
8 FD
≤ τ adm
πd 3
τ adm = 0.5 Rm
Data from DIN 17223
Tempered Steels
d (mm)
Rm (MPa)
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
Highstrength Tempered Valve spring
non alloy steel spring steels
steels
2266
1766
1668
2021
1619
1521
1825
1521
1432
1697
1481
1403
1599
1403
1344
1521
1403
1344
1452
1364
1305
1403
1295
1354
1295
1324
1256

Fundamentals of Machine Design and Drawing
10
Massimiliano Avalle
Massimo Rossetto
Politecnico di Torino
Dipartimento di Meccanica
Materials for Springs
Static Verification: Hot Formed Springs
τ nom = KW
τ adm = 0.9
8 FD
≤ τ adm
πd 3
R p 0.2
3
Data from DIN 2076
Material
Rm (MPa)
Rp0.2 (MPa)
A%
C40
C60
C70
C75
C90
C100
50Si7
55Si8
60SiCr8
50CrV4
52SiCrNi8
12001550
12501550
13001600
13501600
13501650
13501650
13001600
14001700
15001750
14001700
16001850
1050
1050
1050
1050
1100
1100
1150
1250
1350
1250
1350
8
6
5
5
4
4
7
5
5
6
5
Materials for Springs
Highcarbon and Alloy Spring Steels
Table 104
Constants A and m of Sut = A / dm for estimating minimum tensile strength of common spring wires
Source: Design Handbook, 1987, p. 19, Associated Spring.
Material
ASTM
No.
Exponent
m
Diameter (mm)
minimum
A,
Relative Cost of
m
wire
maximum MPa mm
Music wire
A228
0.145
0.1
6.5
2211
2.6
OQ&T wire
A229
0.187
0.5
12.7
1855
1.3
Harddrawn wire
A227
0.190
0.7
12.7
1783
1.0
Chromevanadium wire
A232
0.168
0.8
11.1
2005
3.1
4.0
Chromesilicon wire
A401
0.108
1.6
9.5
1974
302 Stainless Wire
A313
0.146
0.3
2.5
1867
0.263
2.5
5
2065
2911
Phosphorbronze wire
B159
0.478
5
10
0
0.1
0.6
926
0.028
0.6
2
913
0.064
2
7.5
932
Fundamentals of Machine Design and Drawing
7.611.0
8.0
11
Massimiliano Avalle
Massimo Rossetto
Politecnico di Torino
Dipartimento di Meccanica
Materials for Springs
Highcarbon and Alloy Spring Steels
Table 10.4
Graphical representation of data from the previous table
Minimum Tensile Strength (MPa)
3500
3000
2500
A228
A229
2000
A227
1500
A232
A401
1000
A313
B159
500
0
0
5
10
Wire diameter, d (mm)
15
Materials for Springs
Highcarbon and Alloy Spring Steels
From DIN 17223:1984
Tensile Strength (MPa)
3000
2500
2000
Grade A
1500
Grade B
Grades C & D
1000
500
0
0
5
10
15
Wire diameter, d (mm)
Fundamentals of Machine Design and Drawing
20
25
12
Massimiliano Avalle
Massimo Rossetto
Politecnico di Torino
Dipartimento di Meccanica
Materials for Springs
Steels and other Materials
Table 105
Material Properties of
some Spring Wires
Elastic Limit,
Percent of Sut
Material
Tension
Torsion
Music wire A228
6575
4560
Harddrawn wire A227
6070
4555
8590
4550
Oil Tempered A239
Valve spring steel A230
Chromevanadium wire A231
Chromevanadium wire A232
Chromesilicon wire A401
Stainless Steels
A313
177PH
414
420
431
Phosphorbronze wire B159
Berylliumcopper B197
Inconel alloy X750
Diameter
(mm)
<0.8
0.81.6
1.613
>3
<0.8
0.81.6
1.613
>3
E (GPa)
G (GPa)
82.7
81.7
81
80
80.7
80
79.3
78.6
77.2
77.2
77.2
77.2
77.2
69
75.8
77.2
77.2
79.3
41.4
44.8
50.3
77.2
8893
6575
8593
6575
203.4
200
196.5
193
198.6
197.9
197.2
196.5
196.5
203.4
203.4
203.4
203.4
6575
7580
6570
6575
7276
75180
70
75
6570
4555
5560
4255
4555
5055
4550
50
5055
4045
193
208.4
200
200
206
103.4
117.2
131
213.7
Materials for Springs
Steels and other Materials
Table 106
Maximum Allowable Torsional Stresses for Helical
Compression Springs in Static Applications
Material
Maximum Percent of Tensile Strength
Before Set Removed
After Set Removed
(includes KS)
(includes KW or KB)
Music wire and colddrawn carbon steel
45
60–70
Hardened and tempered
carbon and lowalloy steel
50
65–75
Austenitic stainless steel
35
55–65
Nonferrous alloys
35
55–65
Fundamentals of Machine Design and Drawing
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Massimiliano Avalle
Massimo Rossetto
Politecnico di Torino
Dipartimento di Meccanica
Materials for Springs
Fatigue Verifications
• Fatigue verification follows general procedures
0.8
0.72 Estimated Haigh Diagram
0.7
τa / Rm
0.6
Cycles
0.54
0.5
103
104
105
106
0.39
0.4
0.3
0.29
0.2
0.1
0
0
Please note that:
0.2
0.4
τD1 ≈ 0.58 σD1 (σD1 ≈ 0.5 Rm ) = 0.29…
0.6
0.8
τm / Rm
1
Materials for Springs
Fatigue Behavior: Effect of Surface Treatments
• Fatigue strength depends strongly on the production process and surface
treatments
800
• Shotpeening strongly
affects fatigue strength
τa (MPa)
600
400
200
(345, 345)
(255,255)
Infinite life without
shotpeening
0
0
Fundamentals of Machine Design and Drawing
200
400
Infinite life with
shotpeening
862
600
800
τm (MPa)
965
1000
14
Massimiliano Avalle
Massimo Rossetto
Politecnico di Torino
Dipartimento di Meccanica
Fatigue Verification according to DIN 17223:2010
Cold Formed Helical Springs
• The verification is on the basis of an admissible stress amplitude:
Δτ nom = KW ΔF
• With:
8D
≤ Δτ adm
πd 3
Δτ adm = bd Δτ 0 − btτ min
ΔF = Fmax − Fmin
8Fmin D
πd 3
4C − 1 0.615
+
Wahl factor
KW =
4C − 4
C
Δτ 0 Tabulated limit value
τ min = K s
bd , bt
Tabulated coefficients
KS = 1+
0.5 2C + 1
=
Shear  stress correction factor (10  4) Shigley
2C
C
Fatigue Verification according to DIN 17223:2010
Cold Formed Helical Springs
Δτ nom = KW ΔF
Δτ₀ (MPa)
bτ
d (mm)
15
6
7
8
10
12
14
17
8D
≤ Δτ adm
πd 3
Δτ adm = bd Δτ 0 − bττ min
Highstrength Tempered spring
non alloy steel
steels
shot
shot
peened
peened
390
490
315
410
0.22
0.2
0.2
0.18
bd
1
1
0.95
1
0.91
0.97
0.88
0.92
0.83
0.89
0.78
1.89
0.75
2.89
0.69

Fundamentals of Machine Design and Drawing
Valve spring
steels
shot
peened
450
570
0.27
0.26
1
1
0.97

15
Massimiliano Avalle
Massimo Rossetto
Politecnico di Torino
Dipartimento di Meccanica
Fatigue Verification according to DIN 17221:1988
Hot Formed Helical Springs
8D
≤ Δτ adm
πd 3
Tabulated limit value for pulsating fatigue (Fmin = 0)
Δτ nom = K w ΔF
Δτ adm
ΔF = Fmax − Fmin
KW =
4C − 1 0.615
+
C
4C − 4
Wahl factor
Laminated steel
Rectified steel
120
110
100
90
80
Δτadm (MPa)
320
290
260
230
200
d (mm)
10
20
30
40
50
Shotpeened
rectified steel
380
345
310
275
240
Cylindrical Helical Springs
Instability (ingobbamento)
• In helical springs in compression without lateral support
there is a critical load giving instability, equal to:
C2'
'
Fcrit = kycr = kL0C1 1 − 1 − 2 = kL0 K L
λeff
Fcrit
C2'
'
ycr =
= L0C1 1 − 1 − 2 = L0 K L
k
λeff
• Where is:
L
effective slenderness ratio
λeff = α 0
D
1 +ν
E
=
C1' =
2(E − G ) 1 + 2ν
2π (E − G )
1 + 2ν
=π2
2G + E
2 +ν
(1010)
(1011)
2
C2' =
Fundamentals of Machine Design and Drawing
16
Massimiliano Avalle
Massimo Rossetto
Politecnico di Torino
Dipartimento di Meccanica
Cylindrical Helical Springs
Instability (ingobbamento)
• For the validity of the equation (1) it is necessary that
the argument is positive:
F
C'
(1010)
ycr = crit = L0C1' 1 − 1 − 22 = L0 K L
λ
k
eff
• Absolute stability occurs when C2’ / λ2eff is greater than
unity. This means that the condition for absolute stability
is that:
L0 π (E − G ) π 1 + 2ν
(1012)
<
=
D α 2G + E α 2 + ν
Table 102
End condition
constant α for helical
compression springs
End condition
Constant α
Spring supported between flat parallel surfaces (fixed ends)
One end supported by flat surface perpendicular to spring axis
(fixed), other end pivoted (hinged)
0.5
0.707
Both ends pivoted (hinged)
1
One end clamped, other end free
2
Cylindrical Helical Springs
Instability (ingobbamento)
• Critical load giving instability, equal to:
Fcrit = kL0 K L
• Practical values
L0 / D
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
Free ends (pivoted,
Clamped ends
or hinged)
KL
0.72
0.72
0.63
0.71
0.38
0.68
0.20
0.63
0.11
0.53
0.07
0.38
0.05
0.26
0.04
0.19
Fundamentals of Machine Design and Drawing
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Massimiliano Avalle
Massimo Rossetto
Politecnico di Torino
Dipartimento di Meccanica
Cylindrical Helical Springs
Resonance (sfarfallamento)
• It occurs when a spring is subjected to alternate loads at a
frequency near the resonance frequency (frequenza propria)
of the spring itself:
gk
m gk
f m,spring =
m = 1,2,3...
W
2 W
• We are interested in the first frequency (Hz = 1/s):
ωm,spring = mπ
d
G
1 gk
=
(1025)
2
2 W πD N 8 ρ
• To avoid this problem, the spring resonance frequency must
be more than 1520 times the frequency of the load
f1,spring =
f1,spring ≥ (15 − 20 ) f load
• Note: the angular frequency ω (rad/s) is: ω = 2 π f = 2 π / T
(with T period, in seconds; f frequency in hertz, Hz = 1/s)
Helical Springs
Design Procedure
• It is an iterative process
• Usually, these data are known:
Tentative
choice
– Size of the seat ≈ D
– Deflection fmax and maximum load Fmax
– Sometimes maximum length LF,max
1) Compute the Stiffness: k =
modifications
No
ΔF Fmax
=
Δf
f max
verification
Ok
Stop
2) Chose a standard wire diameter (D / 12 < d < D / 7),
a material (Rm, Rp0.2), and a forming method
3) Compute C = D / d
4) Compute the maximum static stress:
τ max = KW
8 Fmax D
8F C
= KW max2
3
πd
πd
Fundamentals of Machine Design and Drawing
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Massimiliano Avalle
Massimo Rossetto
Politecnico di Torino
Dipartimento di Meccanica
Helical Springs
Design Procedure
5) Perform static check:
–
Tentative
choice
If negative change d or the material
and come back to 3)
6) Perform fatigue check (if necessary):
–
If negative change d or the material
and come back to 3)
modifications
verification
No
Gd
Ok
7) Compute the effective number of coils: N =
Stop
8C 3 k
8) Compute the solid length Ls
9) Compute the length under maximum load (or the residual clearance):
LF max ≥ Ls + Ng res
10) Compute the free length (F = 0): L0 = LF max + f max
11) Check resonance frequency (if necessary)
12) Check instability (if necessary)
Spring Systems
Springs in Parallel
• Springs in parallel have the same deflection:
F1 = k1 f1 , F2 = k 2 f 2
F
f = f1 = f 2 , F = F1 + F2
F = (k1 + k 2 ) f = kf
k = k1 + k 2
f
Equivalent stiffness
spring 1
• The stiffness of a system of m
springs in parallel is given by:
spring 2
m
k = ki
i =1
Fundamentals of Machine Design and Drawing
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Massimiliano Avalle
Massimo Rossetto
Politecnico di Torino
Dipartimento di Meccanica
Spring Systems
Springs in Series
• Springs in series have the same applied load:
F1 = k1 f1 , F2 = k 2 f 2
f = f1 + f 2 , F = F1 = F2
F
F F 1 1
f = 1 + 2 = + F =
k
k1 k1 k1 k 2
1 1 1
Equivalent stiffness
= +
k k1 k 2
• The stiffness of a system of m
springs in parallel is given by:
F
f
spring 1
spring 2
1 m 1
=
k i =1 ki
Helical Springs
Extension Springs
• The critical point is the hook (bending+torsion)
• Small curvature radii bring high stress concentrations
Figure 106
Types of ends used
on extension springs
Figure 107
Ends for extension springs. (a) Usual design; stress at A is due to the
combined axial force and bending moment. (b) side view of part a, stress is
mostly torsion at B; (c) improved design; stress at A is due to combined axial
force and bending moment. (d) Side view of part c; stress at B is mostly torsion
Fundamentals of Machine Design and Drawing
20
Massimiliano Avalle
Massimo Rossetto
Politecnico di Torino
Dipartimento di Meccanica
Helical Springs
Extension Springs
• Extension spring are made with the coils in contact and preloaded during
construction. They require an initial force F0 before deformation occurs.
Usually F0 is chosen to have an internal stress of τi ≈ 15 MPa:
Fi =
πd 2
τi =
πd 3
τi
8C
8D
L0 = ( N + 1)d + 2 × 0.8 × Di
Length at the interior of the hooks
• The force F required to have a specific value of displacement f is then:
F=
Gdf
+ Fi
8C 3 N
Figure 107
(a) Geometry of the force F and
extension y curve of an extension
spring; (b) geometry of the
extension spring; and (c) torsional
stresses due to initial tension as a
function of spring index C in
helical extension springs.
Variable Pitch Helical Springs
Tapered Helical Springs
• Are used to obtain nonlinear characteristics (hardening or
softening)
…
p3
p2
p1
Fundamentals of Machine Design and Drawing
21
Massimiliano Avalle
Massimo Rossetto
Politecnico di Torino
Dipartimento di Meccanica
Helical Coil Torsion Spring
• The wire in torsion springs is in bending
• Used in clothespins, windows shades, animal traps,
counterbalance mechanisms, ratchets, etc.
Figure 109
Table 109
Torsion springs
torsion springs (for D / d ratios up to and
including 16)
Total Coils
Tolerance: ±Degrees*
Up to 3
8
Over 3 to 10
10
Over 10 to 20
15
Over 20 to 30
20
Over 30
25
* Closer tolerances on request
Helical Coil Torsion Spring
• The bending stress can be obtained from curvedbeam theory:
Figure 1010
The freeend location angle is β. The rotational
coordinate θ is proportional to the product F l.
Its back angle is α. For all positions of the
moving end θ + α = Σ = constant
32 M
32 Fl
= Ki / o
3
πd
πd 3
6M
6 Fl
σ = Ki / o 2 = Ki / o 2
bh
bh
2
4C − C − 1
4C 2 + C − 1
Ki =
Ko =
4C (C − 1)
4C (C + 1)
σ = Ki / o
• The spring rate is computed by integration of the elastic deformation,
taking into account the number of coils Nb but also the length l1 and l1 of
the loading ends, computing an equivalent number of active turns Na:
k=
Fl
ϑt
=
M
ϑt
=
d 4E
64 DN a
Fundamentals of Machine Design and Drawing
N a = Nb +
l1 + l2
3πD
22
Massimiliano Avalle
Massimo Rossetto
Politecnico di Torino
Dipartimento di Meccanica
Helical Coil Torsion Spring
Strength Verification
• Static strength: values in table 106 can be divided by 0.577 (from
distortion energy theory) to give:
0.78S ut
S y = 0.87 Sut
0.61S
ut
Music wire and cold  drawn carbon steel
OQ & T carbon and low − alloy steel
(1057)
Austenitic stainless steel and nonferrous alloys
• Fatigue strength: results using the Gerber fatiguefailure criterion and
results from Associated Spring, give equation 1061 and data from table
1010
1 σa
Fs =
2 Se
Sut
σm
2
Table 1010
Maximum recommended
bending stresses for
helical torsion springs in
cyclic applications as
percent of Sut
2
− 1 + 1 + 2 σ m S e
S σ
ut a
Fatigue
life,
cycles
(1061)
ASTM A228 and Type 302
ASTM A230 and A232
Not shotpeened
Shotpeened
Not shotpeened
Shotpeened
105
53
62
55
64
106
50
60
53
62
Bending Springs
Cantilever Springs
• Used when the elastic element must work in limited space
• They behave as clamped plates, they are subjected to bending
• According to the shape (rectangular, triangular, trapezoidal)
they can have good utilization factors
• Material utilization factor of a spring is the ratio between the
energy stored in the spring and the theoretical (maximum)
amount of energy that can be stored in an equal volume of
material (subject to pure uniform tension)
Fundamentals of Machine Design and Drawing
23
Massimiliano Avalle
Massimo Rossetto
Politecnico di Torino
Dipartimento di Meccanica
Utilization Factor of Springs
Case
Utilization factor, m
1
1/3
>1/9
<1/3
1/9
1/2
<1/2
Bending Springs
Rectangular Cantilever Spring
σ=
Mf
wf
Mf
dα =
EI
l
f = x
0
k=
=
b0 h 2 6
dx =
Fx
dx
EI
, I=
l
b0
dx
3
Fx
Fl
dx =
3EI
EI
3EI
l3
Fx
h
F
x
b0 h 3
12
Fundamentals of Machine Design and Drawing
24
Massimiliano Avalle
Massimo Rossetto
Politecnico di Torino
Dipartimento di Meccanica
Bending Springs
Increasing Utilization of the Material
• Stress σ is not uniform and equal to the
Fl
σ max ( x = l ) =
maximum value σmax:
b0 h 2 6
• The spring utilization is not optimal
• It would be convenient to use a spring said to have uniform
strength, that is with constant value of σmax along the axis:
Fx
σ max = 2 = constant
bh 6
• This can be achieved by either:
1) Varying the thickness along the longitudinal axis
h2 ∝ x
(parabolic spring) while maintaining constant width
2) Varying the width along the longitudinal axis
b∝ x
(triangular spring) and maintaining constant thickness
• The second option is generally preferred due to simpler manufacturing
Bending Springs
Triangular Cantilever Spring
b = b0
x
l
Fx
Fl
=
= cost
2
x 2
b
h
6
0
b0 h 6
l
Fl 3
f =
2 EI
b h3
2 EI
k= 3 , I= 0
l
12
σ=
• The utilization factor is much greater
(1/3)
• The pointed end makes difficult the
load application: the trapezoidal
shape can be used
Fundamentals of Machine Design and Drawing
b0
dx
F
x
h
l
25
Massimiliano Avalle
Massimo Rossetto
Politecnico di Torino
Dipartimento di Meccanica
Bending Springs
Triangular Cantilever Spring (constructed)
I ( x) =
b( x ) h 3
12
b( x ) = b0
x
l
1 M
12 Fl
Fx
=
=
=
= constant
r EI Eb x h 3 12 Eb0 h 3
0
l
Radius of curvature is
constant: deformed
shape follows an arc of
circumference
Bending Springs
Trapezoidal Cantilever Spring
α=
3
3b0
=
2 + b0 ' b0 2b0 + b0 '
σ=
Fx
Fl
, σ max =
2
bh 6
b0 h 2 6
Fl
3EI
3EI
b h3
k= 3 , I= 0
αl
12
f =α
b0
3
• The utilization factor is:
2αb0
9(b0 + b0 ')
dx
h
l
F
x
b0′
• And tends to the value of (1/3) for b’0 → 0
Fundamentals of Machine Design and Drawing
26
Massimiliano Avalle
Massimo Rossetto
Politecnico di Torino
Dipartimento di Meccanica
Bending Springs
The Leaf Spring
• Can be considered deriving from a
couple of trapezoidal spring
• It reduces the transverse space
with respect to the simple
trapezoidal shape
• It is made of overlapping leafs of
different length and with the same
width b’0
• Each leaf can be seen as two joined
halfleafs symmetrical with respect
to the middle
• Originally called laminated or
carriage spring (balestra =
crossbow)
f/2
h
f
e
f
d
e/2
d/2
c/2
b/2
a
b
e
b0 ′
b0 ′
c 2
a
d
c
b
b0 ′
2l
a
Bending Springs
The Leaf Spring
Elliptic
shackle
tie hole or eye
axle
Semielliptic
rebound clip
¾  elliptic
¼  elliptic
Transverse
Fundamentals of Machine Design and Drawing
27
Massimiliano Avalle
Massimo Rossetto
Politecnico di Torino
Dipartimento di Meccanica
Bending Springs
Leaf Spring Analysis
• In a triangular cantilever spring the deformed shape is an arc of
circumference
• in the leaf spring it is reasonable to assume that the leafs maintain the
same behavior, and same deformation
• The total clamping moment is:
M = FL
• In each leaf, the applied moment is:
M leaf =
M
n
n, number of leafs
b0 / n
• The stress in each leaf is then:
σ=
M leaf
Wleaf
=
6( M n) 6 FL
=
(b0 n)h 2 b0 h 2
• The stress in each leaf is the same as the
equivalent trapezoidal equivalent
Bending Springs
Leaf Spring Design
• As a first approximation the evaluation of the maximum
stress and deflection can be referred to the equivalent
trapezoidal spring (n, number of leafs):
b0 ' 1
b0 h 3
3
α=
,
= → b0 = nb0 ' , I =
2 + b0 ' b0
b0 n
12
f =α
Fl 3
Fl
3EI
, σ max =
, k= 3
2
αl
3EI
b0 h 6
• The error which is made is towards safety because both
deflection and maximum stress are overestimated
Fundamentals of Machine Design and Drawing
28
Massimiliano Avalle
Massimo Rossetto
Politecnico di Torino
Dipartimento di Meccanica
Bending Springs
Leaf Spring Design
• Correction for reduction of stress and deflection due to the nonlinearity
% reduction of σ
% reduction of f
14
12
b0'
=0
b0
Triangular
shape
10
6
4
= 0.2
14
= 0.4
= 0.6
= 0.8
b0'
=1
b0
12
Rectangular
shape
0
0
0.2
0.4
0.6
0.8
1
b0'
=0
b0
= 0.2
= 0.4
= 0.6
18
Triangular
shape
16
8
2
20
10
8
= 0.8
b0'
=1
b0
6
4
Fl
EI
2
2
0
0
0.2
0.4
Rectangular
shape
Fl 2
0.6 0.8 1 EI
Belleville Springs
(molle a tazza or molle Belleville)
• Also known as coneddisc spring, conical spring washer, disc
spring, Belleville washers or cupped spring washer
d
t
h
0.00
0.50
1.00
1.41
1.6
2.00
2.50
2.83
3.50
1.4
F / F0
D
h/s
1.8
2.0
1.2
1.0
0.8
0.6
0.4
• Stiffness vary with displacement:
0.2
they are typical nonlinear springs
0.0
0.0
0.5
1.0
1.5
2.0
• Stiffness value is taken as the value
f/h
at zero force
• Since a single disc spring is often too stiff, it is possible to have
more compliance by linking springs in series or in parallel
Fundamentals of Machine Design and Drawing
29
Massimiliano Avalle
Massimo Rossetto
Politecnico di Torino
Dipartimento di Meccanica
Belleville Springs
Usage in Series and in Parallel
Parallel = stiffer
Mixed = adaptive
Series = more compliant
Progressive
Coneddisc Springs
Clutch Discs and Other Applications
Fundamentals of Machine Design and Drawing
30
Massimiliano Avalle
Massimo Rossetto
Politecnico di Torino
Dipartimento di Meccanica
Miscellaneous Springs
Spiral Springs
• Loaded in bending; they are used in measurement devices
• Usually with rectangular wire section and archimedean profile
5 turns spring, external
end hinged
5 turns spring
5 turns
5 turns
spring,
spring,
external
external
end
end
hinged
hinged
Dimensionless Stifness
5 turns spring, external
end hinged
5 turns spring, external
end hinged
5 turns spring,
external end hinged
Rotation of central pin (rad)
Miscellaneous Springs
Spiral Springs
• With a high number of turns (n > 4):
M = Pro or M = Pri
6M
external end clamped
bh 2
12 Pro
σ=
external end hinged
bh 2
M MI
k=
=
ω El
r2 − r2
h+a
l= o i m=
2m
2π
ro = ri + (h + a )n
σ=
Fundamentals of Machine Design and Drawing
ro
ri
a
h
n=2¼
31
Massimiliano Avalle
Massimo Rossetto
Politecnico di Torino
Dipartimento di Meccanica
Miscellaneous Springs
Friction Springs
• Made of a series of overlying thin rings of two types, alternated:
– Internal, with external tapered surfaces (internal surface cylindrical)
– External, with internal tapered surfaces (external surface cylindrical)
• Rings are in contact on the tapered surfaces
• When an external axial force F is applied, a contact pressure
develops between each couple of rings:
– The pressure expands the inner rings and contract the outer rings
– The rings slide, one with respect to the other
– The small axial slips, added altogether give the total displacement
Miscellaneous Springs
Friction Springs
• Due to the relative displacements between the ring surfaces, friction
occurs
• The spring, once compressed (OA), does not return to its original shape
unless the force is reduced below a restore force FR (point B)
• The area OAB represent dissipated energy
• These springs are used in heavy duty situations under shock loading
• Parallel and serial arrangements are also possible
A
Parallel arrangement
Serial arrangement
B
O
Fundamentals of Machine Design and Drawing
32
Massimiliano Avalle
Massimo Rossetto
Politecnico di Torino
Dipartimento di Meccanica
Miscellaneous Springs
Pure Compression Springs
• Exploiting the low elastic modulus of plastics it has been
possible to obtain pure compression springs
• They are usually made of thermoplastic polyurethane (TPUR,
also used for gaskets, Orings, etc.)
• Advantages:
–
–
–
–
High load capacity, long life
Insulating materials, nonmagnetic
Resistance to wear
High damping, noise reduction capability
• Disadvantages:
– low temperature range (from 30°C to +90°C)
Miscellaneous Springs
Pure Compression Springs
• Typical compression spring characteristics
• Data can be obtained from the manufacturers catalogs
600
0.14
D.i = 4.3 mm; D.e = 17.5 mm
Stress (MPa)
Tensione
(MPa)
Load (N)
Forza
(N)
D.i = 4.3 mm; D.e = 17.5 mm
0.12
500
400
300
12.5 mm
19.0 mm
25.4 mm
31.8 mm
200
100
0.1
0.08
0.06
12.5 mm
19.0 mm
25.4 mm
31.8 mm
0.04
0.02
0
0
0
2
4
6
8
10
12
Stroke(mm)
(mm)
Corsa
Fundamentals of Machine Design and Drawing
0%
10%
20%
30%
40%
Strain () (m/m)
Deformazione
33
Massimiliano Avalle
Massimo Rossetto
Politecnico di Torino
Dipartimento di Meccanica
More Miscellaneous Springs
Figure 1013
Figure 1014
Constantforce spring
A volute spring
• Made of slightly curved strip steel,
not flat, so that the force required
to uncoil it remains constant. This
is equivalent to a zero spring rate.
• Wide, thin strip, or “flat,” of material
wound on the flat so that the coils fit
inside one another. Since the coils
do not stack, the solid height of the
spring is the width of the strip
References and UNI (Italian) standards
[1] Bongiovanni, G., Roccati, G. Le molle  tipi e criteri di calcolo, Levrotto &
Bella, Torino, 1994
[2] Niemann, G. Elementi di Macchine, ETS, Milano (Springer, Berlino), 1983
[3] De Paulis, A., Manfredi, E. Costruzione di Macchine, Pearson Milano, 2012
• UNI 7900, Molle ad elica cilindrica di compressionee trazione, 19781981
• UNI 8525:1984 Molle ad elica cilindrica di compressione con filo a sezione
circolare. Caratteristiche costruttive e dimensionali
• UNI 8526:1984 Molle ad elica cilindrica di trazione con filo a sezione
circolare. Caratteristiche costruttive e dimensionali
• UNI 9061:1987 Molle ad elica cilindrica di torsione
• UNI 3961:1974 Prodotti finiti di acciaio laminati a caldo. Piatti rigati per
molle a balestra di rotabili di ferrovie, metropolitane e tranvie. Dimensioni
e tolleranze
• UNI 3962: 1974 Prodotti finiti di acciaio laminati a caldo. Piatti lisci per
molle a balestra ed a bovolo per rotabili di ferrovie, metropolitane e
tranvie. Dimensioni e tolleranze
• UNI 8736:1985 Molle a tazza. Tipi, calcolo e collaudo
• UNI 8737:1985 Molle a tazza. Caratteristiche costruttive e dimensionali
Fundamentals of Machine Design and Drawing
34
Massimiliano Avalle
Massimo Rossetto
Politecnico di Torino
Dipartimento di Meccanica
References: UNI EN & ISO standards
• UNI EN 10089:2003 Hotrolled steels for quenched and tempered springs
• UNI EN 10270:2011 Filo di acciaio per molle meccaniche (parts 13)
• UNI EN 15800:2009 Molle ad elica cilindrica fabbricate con filo a sezione
circolare – Prescrizioni di qualità per molle di compressione con
avvolgimento a freddo
• UNI EN 13906:2003 Molle ad elica cilindrica fabbricate con filo a sezione
circolare e barra – Calcolo e progetto – Parte 1 Molle di compressione;
Parte 2 Molle di trazione; Parte 3 Molle di torsione
• UNI EN ISO 2162:1998 Documentazione tecnica di prodotto – Molle. Parte
1 Rappresentazione semplificata; Parte 2 Presentazione dei dati per le
molle ad elica cilindrica di compressione
References: DIN and other standards
• ISO 11891:2012 Hot formed helical compression springs – Technical
specifications
• ISO 26909:2009 Springs – Vocabulary
• ISO 269101:2009 Springs – Shot peening – Part 1: General procedures
• ISO/DIS 16249 Springs – Symbols (under development)
• ISO/CD 181371 Leaf springs – Part 1: Technical requirements and test
methods (under development)
• ISO 8458:2002 Steel wire for mechanical springs (parts 13)
• DIN 17221:1988 Hot rolled steels for springs suitable for quenching and
tempering  Technical delivery conditions (replaced by EN 10089:2003)
• DIN 17223:1984 Round steel wire for springs – Patented cold drawn,
carbon steel wire for springs
• DIN 2092 Disc springs  Calculation
• DIN 2093 Disc springs  Quality specifications  Dimensions
• DIN 6796 Conical spring washers for bolted connections
Fundamentals of Machine Design and Drawing
35
Massimiliano Avalle
Massimo Rossetto
Politecnico di Torino
Dipartimento di Meccanica
References: retired UNI standards
• UNI 3545:1980 Prodotti finiti laminati a caldo in barre e vergella di acciaio
legato speciale per molle bonificate. Qualità, prescrizioni e prove (ritirata,
sostituita da UNI EN 10089:2006)
• UNI 3823:1975 Prodotti finiti in acciaio non legato trafilati  fili per molle
(ritirata, sostituita da UNI EN 102701:2003)
• UNI 3871:1984, Prodotti finiti di acciaio laminatia caldo. Tondi e vergella
per molle. Dimensioni e tolleranze, 1984 (ritirata senza sostituzione)
• UNI 3960:1974 Prodotti finiti di acciaio laminati a caldo. Piatti lisci per
molle a balestra ed a bovolo (ritirata, sostituita da UNI EN 100921:2004)
• UNI 7064:1982, Prodotti finiti piatti laminati a freddo di acciaio speciale
non legato e legato. Nastri per molle. Qualità, prescrizioni e prove (ritirata,
sostituita da UNI EN 101324:2002 & UNI EN 101321:2002)
Fundamentals of Machine Design and Drawing
36