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Hydraulics of
Spillways and
Energy Dissipators

Copyright © 2005 by Marcel Dekker.

DK1222_half-series-title

9/15/04

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Civil and Environmental Engineering
A Series of Reference Books and Textbooks
Editor

Michael D. Meyer
Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering
Georgia Institute of Technology
Atlanta, Georgia
1. Preliminary Design of Bridges for Architects and Engineers
Michele Melaragno
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3. Multilayered Aquifer Systems: Fundamentals and Applications
Alexander H.-D. Cheng
4. Matrix Analysis of Structural Dynamics: Applications
and Earthquake Engineering
Franklin Y. Cheng
5. Hazardous Gases Underground: Applications to Tunnel Engineering
Barry R. Doyle
6. Cold-Formed Steel Structures to the AISI Specification
Gregory J. Hancock, Thomas M. Murray, Duane S. Ellifritt
7. Fundamentals of Infrastructure Engineering: Civil Engineering Systems:
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Patrick H. McDonald
8. Handbook of Pollution Control and Waste Minimization
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Copyright © 2005 by Marcel Dekker.

Khatsuria Marcel Dekker Copyright © 2005 by Marcel Dekker. M.DK1222_half-series-title 9/15/04 1:13 PM Page 3 Hydraulics of Spillways and Energy Dissipators R. New York .

U.A. neither the author(s) nor the publisher.S. shall be liable for any loss.A. 270 Madison Avenue. Monticello. Neither this book nor any part may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means. Current printing (last digit): 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 PRINTED IN THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA Copyright © 2005 by Marcel Dekker. ISBN: 0-8247-5789-0 This book is printed on acid-free paper.com Copyright  2005 by Marcel Dekker. or by any information storage and retrieval system. Trademark notice: Product or corporate names may be trademarks or registered trademarks and are used only for identification and explanation without intent to infringe. All Rights Reserved. . The material contained herein is not intended to provide specific advice or recommendations for any specific situation. including photocopying. microfilming. or liability directly or indirectly caused or alleged to be caused by this book. fax: 845-796-1772 World Wide Web http://www. electronic or mechanical. U. New York. NY 10016.Although great care has been taken to provide accurate and current information. Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data A catalog record for this book is available from the Library of Congress. nor anyone else associated with this publication. tel: 212-696-9000. tel: 800-228-1160. New York 12701. Headquarters Marcel Dekker. fax: 212-685-4540 Distribution and Customer Service Marcel Dekker. Cimarron Road. without permission in writing from the publisher. and recording. damage.dekker.S.

.To My Parents Copyright © 2005 by Marcel Dekker.

to understand hydraulics of the phenomenon. Emphasis has been on discussing first the hydraulics of different types of spillways and energy dissipators and to illustrate its application to practical design problems. are seldom disseminated wide enough for application on a general scale. energy dissipators. A few to mention include: spillway construction stages. cavitation and air entrainment. prediction of and protection against detrimental forces such as uplift. the rift between the advancements in knowledge and its formal documentation in the books and treatise grows wider. it was not until the eighties that aeration devices became an integral part of spillway design. and reference sources remained scattered in journals and proceedings. generally published through papers presented at the specialty conferences and journals. The present book is the outcome of such an attempt. a typical one is the aerator on spillways to mitigate cavitation damage. illustrative examples have been included at appropriate places. the beneficial effects of aeration were known in the early fifties. v Copyright © 2005 by Marcel Dekker. spillways serving dual purpose of flood as well as sediment disposal. Of the many examples illustrating this lag. cavitation. Although. as several topics of vital significance have not been embodied comprehensively and coherently into any of the book literature. scour etc. text books on hydraulics and open channel flow and handbooks of hydraulics. Consequently. This practice of lag continues.Preface The need for a comprehensive book dealing in hydraulics of spillways and energy dissipators has been realized since long. It is obvious that such a book would be the easiest way for a reader to access the information on the latest developments in the field. considerable research had been pursued. from the sixties and aeration devices were installed on the existing structures in the late seventies. . advances in research and design. and hydraulic modeling. overtopping protection of earth dams used as spillways. To this end. However. It is noteworthy that no book on spillways published until the late eighties included the topic of aeration. Various topics pertaining to the spillways and energy dissipators are available in the sources devoted mainly to the design of dams. The book has been organized into four sections dealing with spillways.

which is hydrologist’s regime and the selection. beyond which the references listed at the end of the chapters will be useful for locating additional details. In the field of technology. with the Central Water and Power Research Station. Energy dissipators for shaft and tunnel spillways warrant a special chapter in view of peculiar hydraulic conditions at the outfalls. . Separate chapters have been devoted to the discussion of impact type energy dissipators and some unconventional or special designs of energy dissipators. Similarly. The difficult task was therefore to evaluate every piece of information from the standpoint of practical utility. shaft. The chapter on spillway design flood defines two distinct aspects: the estimation. siphon. inflatable rubber weirs and overtopping protection of dams used as spillways have also been included. Hydraulic modeling of spillways and energy dissipators has been covered in section IV. It is hoped that this will be useful. Pune—an institution of international reputation and discussions with several experts in the field of their own specialist knowledge. trajectory buckets and submerged roller buckets in section II. Special features such as spillways for flood and sediment disposal. obviously in view of the large amount of information published during recent years. nothing can be claimed as exhaustive or final. nor a handbook. have greatly contributed to writing of the book. dynamic flow measurement and aspects of analysis and interpretation of model results. Section III includes chapters on the topics of cavitation and air entrainment and aerators concerning the design of spillways and energy dissipators. found in many books. Subsequent chapters have been devoted to discussion on hydraulics and general design features of different types of spillways such as ogee. tunnel. While this book is not intended to be a textbook to cater to any specific curriculum. have been quite elaborate. it is equally difficult to decide what is old or obsolete. It is hoped that the reader will be able to obtain an extensive exposure of the topic. which is the responsibility of the designer. On the other hand. practicing engineer or student. Thanks are also due to friends and colleagues for their help and encouragement which lent a strong Copyright © 2005 by Marcel Dekker. stepped. chute and side channel. but also to the designers and practicing engineers directing the model studies. No attempt has been made to discuss the theory of similitude and hydraulic models. to not only research engineers. viz. be it for the researcher. designer. Separate chapters on spillway crest gates and spillway construction stages have been written. Therefore. it is expected to serve as a comprehensive reference source for all concerned. a continuous stream of development and improvement adds to the knowledge. Discussions on the three most common types of energy dissipators for spillways. of nearly four decades. labyrinth and duck bill. free jet and fuse plug etc. emphasis has been placed on topics of scale effect. hydraulic jump stilling basins.vi Preface The first two chapters in section I introduce the topic and broad design philosophy. Experience gained during my association.

R. Feedback from the readers in respect of any omission or error as also their comments and suggestions to improve upon the contents of the book. Senior Production Editor and Ms. Book Editorial.com Copyright © 2005 by Marcel Dekker. Kerry Doyle. Krutarth Society Behind Sharda Bank Off: Satara Road.rmkhatsuria@rediffmail. Marcel Dekker. Inc. and son-in-law Praveen extended support throughout the writing of the book. . Clark. My wife Kala. Khatsuria 5/4. Executive Acquisitions Editor. B.411 037.J. I have pleasure in placing on record. PUNE . Stannard. daughters Pallavi. Reshma. E. INDIA Email . my appreciation for the excellent coordination by Mr. M. at various stages of publication of the book.Preface vii impetus toward the completion of this book. shall be gratefully appreciated.F. Director. Mr.

UK – Canadian Society of Civil Engineers. Spain (Jnl of Hyd Res. Japan – Jongeling.A and Barrionuevo. Pune. Switzerland – Iguacel. C. USA – Aqua-Media International Ltd. New York. JiZhang. Beijing. the following institutions. J. Paul. . London. India ix Copyright © 2005 by Marcel Dekker. New Delhi. (The University of Glasgow. Tokyo. The details of the materials have been listed in the appropriate reference sections within the chapters.M. B (LZUU. India – Chanson. T (Delft Hydraulics). Paris. organizations and individuals who permitted to refer/reproduce their publications in this book. Kolkata. Fattor. IWHR. The Netherlands – National Hydroelectric Power Corporation Ltd. (IAHR). C. Madrid.A. China – Hager. (XXI IAHR 1985) – Institution of Engineers (India). – American Society of Civil Engineers. H. Cranfield. Berks. VI–VII IAHR. CEDEX. Australia) – Damulevicius. Melbourne. UK – Institution of Engineers Australia. Lithuania) – Ervine. UK (Jnl of Hydropower and Dams) – Bacchiega. Argentina) – Back. France (ICOLD Publications) – Japan Society of Civil Engineers. D. V and Ruplys. 1955. W. India – Institution of Civil Engineers. Spain – Indian Institute of Science. UK) – Gao. Canada – Central Board of Irrigation and Power (CBIP). UK – BHR Group Limited. India – International Association for Hydraulic Research. India – Indian Society for Hydraulics..D. Bangalore.Acknowledgments The author acknowledges with thanks.H. ETH. 1957) – International Congress on Large dams (ICOLD). H (The University of Queensland. New Delhi.C (INA.

A (Wasser-und Schiffahrtsamt. Serbia – Yasuda. India Schleiss. Germany (XVII IAHR 1977) United States Army Corps of Engineers (USACE). A. The Netherlands Technische Akademie Esslingen (TAE). UK (XXVI IAHR 1995) Plate. London. Gandhinagar. USA United States Society on Dams (USCOLD). Lianxiang IWHR. China (XXIX IAHR 2001) Wilmington Publishing. USA Wang.x Acknowledgments – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – National University of Singapore (IX APD-IAHR. University of Minnesota. USA Sardar Sarovar Narmada Nigam Ltd (SSNNL). Paris. Germany (IAHR Symp 1984) Thomas Telford Publishing. USA UNESCO Publishing. France United States Bureau of Reclamation (USBR). E. (Balkema Publishers). UK (Jnl of Water Power and Dam Construction) – Wilmington Publishing. EPFL. UK (Dam Engineering) – Yugoslav Association for Hydraulic Research (YAHR). 1994) Rathgeb. Y (Nihon University). Belgrade. . Kent. Germany SAF Laboratory. USA Virginia Polytechnic Institute. University of Karlsruhe. Kent. Stuttgart). Switzerland (XXII IAHR 1987) Swets and Zeitlinger Publishers. Japan Copyright © 2005 by Marcel Dekker.

Empirical and regional formulas .......4..................................................................................3.................... Spillway Design Flood: Estimation and Selection ..1................... Methods based mainly on flow data ........................... Classification of spillways ............ 3......4................................... Topography and geology ... Acknowledgments ... Introduction .................. Analysis of existing structures ..................... 3............. Economic analysis .................... 1. Spillways: Functions and Classification ..... Spillway Design: An Overview .................. Introduction ....................... Utility and operational aspects ........1.................. Envelope curves .... Introduction ............2.........4.......................3..........3.................... Necessity of a spillway ......... 2............... 3....... 1..................................... Various aspects involved in a spillway design .1................................2............................3................3............. 1............................................2............3..... Functions of a spillway .............. 3...............................................................................................Contents Preface ......................3............................ Estimation of spillway design flood ................................................. Historical method ... 2..............4............... Hydrology ...........1.............. 2... 2............ 2............................................................ Constructional and structural aspects ......3...3. 1 1 1 2 5 2....3.......................2.... v ix Section I: Spillways 1....... Flood frequency analysis ............... 3..... 15 15 16 16 16 17 17 18 xi Copyright © 2005 by Marcel Dekker.........................................3.............. 7 7 7 9 9 10 10 12 13 3.....1....................................3..........3.... 3........................................... 2.... 2....2.. 2...................................................... 1............. .................................. 3...........................

..........1...................... Downstream slope or rear slope ................... 6.6................................................. 41 41 41 48 55 57 59 59 59 60 5............................. Estimation of design flood for the Sardar Sarovar Dam on River Narmada.... Approach channel ..................4......... Introduction .... Introduction .................................4................ 63 63 64 64 67 69 78 79 86 89 89 91 91 Stepped Spillways ........ Flood estimation methods: Critical analysis ...... Contraction and Expansion .......6... Ogee 4....... Longitudinal profiles ................ Development of the PMS and PMP ....... 5.......... Crest piers ....................................... 3.................2.................. 5.............................. 4........................1...6...... 4............................................. 3.............. Design flood standards and regulations ................................. Quantitative risk assessment ....... 3.......3.......................2............................. 95 95 5.... Gradex method ....... and Side Channel Spillways .......................4...............................5......6...4........... Water surface profile ... 3..................................................................2...... 5...5...... 3..6.......5............................. Spillway structure .. 3........ Numerical and physical modeling ............................... Special layouts ....4.................. Spillway toe ... or Overflow Spillways ............................5...................9............................4...... Introduction ......... Curvature in plan ..... Chute ..7.5....4............ Principal elements ............................ Economic risk analysis (ERA) ............6......8............................ Discharge coefficient versus crest pressures ...........1........... 4.................................... 4... 3.. Hydrologic modelling ............. Copyright © 2005 by Marcel Dekker............3.......... 5........ 3................................. 3.......... Side channel spillway-trough and control section ...4........6........ Discharge characteristics .........2....................................................1.........................6.6..............................................................................6... Methods based mainly on rainfall data ................... Determination of design head ........... 5..... Tail channel ............. 4.... 3.... ..........4.........................1.................................. 5.................................3....3.................... Comments on design standards .........6............ Unit hydrograph method .... Comments on ERA ..1............ 6.............. 3................................................5.................................................................................... 19 20 22 22 24 24 25 27 28 29 30 34 34 35 4...................................3.2..................... Selection of spillway design flood ....6............... 3.......6. 4...............................xii Contents 3...... 4........... Chute 5. 5.................... India .......... Incremental hazard evaluation .....................................................6.... 5................................................. 4.................1......................... 5........... 3............ 5........ The spillway crest profile ...6......7........................4..................

.........4................................6......... 7... Transition flow regime ....................... 6...3............................................9............................................2.......................................... 7.............................................................................................2................... Estimation of flow resistance .................................................................4....................................................1... Pooled step cascades ...............4.............. 6. Characteristics of the skimming flow .................4....3............5...... Guidelines for design of stepped spillways ...2................. Transition from crest to shaft . 6..11...1.............. Spillways ..... Effect of waves .... Hydraulic model studies ...........7........ .................................... 8............. Hydraulic design considerations ........................3.... 6......... Crest profile ....... 7...... Energy dissipation and residual head for nappe flow 6..................................... 6........................ 8...... 8............................... 7.......... 7........... 7............. Introduction .................................. Types of shaft spillways ................. Energy dissipation . Flow regimes on a stepped chute ............... 7................. Types of siphon .....2........ Stability of functioning .......4.... Shaft 8........................................................................3............ 129 129 129 131 133 134 140 141 143 143 143 147 8..2................ 6................................. Hydraulic action .............2. 6................................................. 7...............7................................. 6. 7.10....... 6..... 8...............4........................4. Characteristics of the nappe flow .... Flow regulation .... Analysis of alternatives .......... 6.... 6.......2................................... Priming depth ......6........ 6......5... Hydraulic action ......3........4..................... Nappe flow occurrence ............5........................ Discharging capacity ..............1......................................... Shaft spillways with axial flow .................... 6......4... 8.Contents 6..................................6.......................................... Crest profile and the transition .................. 7.......... Siphon Spillways ............... Freeboard for sidewalls ..........4......5....3............5...........................................................................1......8.............1.............1. Copyright © 2005 by Marcel Dekker.......4....................................................................1.............................. 6.2................ 8.....................4....... Design of energy dissipator ....................... Vibration ....................................6.......3............................................ Introduction .................................................................................6........... Pressure fluctuations and cavitation susceptibility ....... 7...................... 151 151 151 152 154 154 156 157 159 6.... Cavitation ......................6............................... 8................ Air entrainment ........ Free shaft spillways ......................... 95 95 96 98 98 101 105 106 107 110 114 121 122 122 123 124 124 124 7....3. xiii Historical background .. 6............ Step height ..5.....

2........................1.... Free Jet and Straight Drop Spillways .....................5..........2................6..4.............. Air entrainment in drop shafts .................2..6... 10............. 188 188 190 192 ...3............... Other forms of discharge tunnels ............... 9............ Free jet spillways: Design considerations ..1...............xiv Contents 8.......1..... 11.......3..... 9.... Shaft spillways with swirling flow in outlet tunnel ..........1...5................................................ 8................................................. 8....................5...... 11............8... 8........ 217 217 217 217 220 222 223 225 226 227 11................................. Copyright © 2005 by Marcel Dekker...........5... 8.......... 9.............................................................. Full bore flow (Pipe culverts) ................1................ 197 197 197 199 202 207 209 213 10................................................................1............ Configuration of vortex-flow intakes ..... 8.... 8............. Culvert spillway .. 231 231 231 232 232 8..... 8...... 8....................................2..................3........................................................4...........2. 8............. Overflow crest ....... Box and MEL culverts ............................................ 9.. Tunnel and Culvert Spillways .. General characteristics of labyrinth weirs .......... Discharge tunnel .......6.....................................3............................... 10.............. 160 162 171 172 173 174 179 181 181 186 Labyrinth and Duckbill Spillways . Duckbill spillway .. Tunnel spillways: Design considerations ................................ 10................... 9................................. Air entrainment and transport in vortex drops ...............2............2......4....................................................3......2........................... Parameters affecting performance . 8. Stilling basin .....2................5........ Pressure shaft spillways ....6...........2............... 10....1......... Air entrainment in tunnels flowing partly full .................7..................2.......................................... Conduit pressures ........ Design of labyrinth spillway ....................... 10............4............... The vortex drop .....3.. Siphon-shaft spillway ..................... Devices to ensure pressurized flow in the shaft ................6........................... Discharge characteristics ...4... Introduction ....... Release of air in pressurized tunnels .............................. Discharge characteristics ............... 8............... 9.2........... Designs of drop shafts to increase discharge capacity ....3......6...... Control structure ............ Introduction .............. Standard scroll intake .... 8.... 11.... Tangential vortex intake .............. Designs relevant to existing and new structures .......... 9.................5................1.............................6................ 10............2..... 11. 10......................... 10..........4.4..............7........... 10..... 9.......................................................................... Introduction .............................

..............6.....................2.............................................. Alternatives available ............................ 13..............3........ 13.... Flushing discharge ...3............ 12................... 11...... Stability of fuse gates ............................ Bottom outlets: Design considerations ................. 13..............3....................... Fuse plug ........................ Gated overflow spillway .......................8.... Bottom outlets ........... Discharge characteristics of spillway ........... 14...........8...............2....7... 13...........8................................. 261 261 261 262 262 266 266 269 269 271 274 280 13... 11... Protection of flow surfaces ..............8.... Nappe splitters and dispersers ......................4.. Unlined cascade spillways ...............................................7.. 12..................4.Contents 11.............................................................................................................................. Energy dissipator ........... Reservoir sedimentation and flushing ...............................3.................2.................................. .3.................... 13..............................9.........................3.............1............................8............ 12..............................................4...............2... 12... Fuse Plugs and Fuse Gate Spillways .. xv Characteristics of the free falling jets .................2......... Design considerations .5............. 13...6............ 13...................... Spillways for Flood and Sediment Disposal ..................2....... 11......7..........3..........................5.. 299 299 299 300 Copyright © 2005 by Marcel Dekker......... 12................ Providing a fuse plug in an existing dam ................................ 14.................... 14.................. Orifice spillways .........1..................8......2. 13..............4..... Guidelines for the design of a stilling basin ...................1..... Criteria for selection of fuse plug ....... Fuse gates . 12..... 12..........1....................... 12.........3....................... 13................................. 13................................. 232 241 244 248 254 12.....8................................ Introduction . Design considerations ........................................ Mathematical and physical model studies ........... Introduction .............. 12..2....... Introduction ........ 12....................................... Design of fuse gates .. 13.... Recoverable fuse gates ....3................4.5.................................. Size and dimensions of structures ... 12........... Power intakes ..............6............1.................................................................. Unlined Spillways ...............2.................. 13...1...3................................................2.............................. Waterway of the structures .... Gates ......... Straight drop spillway .......... Hydraulics of flood discharge through fuse plug opening ................................... 283 283 283 284 284 285 286 286 288 288 289 289 293 295 295 296 297 14.......... 13................................ 13.. Unlined rock spillways .........................8........................................... 13............................ 11... Functioning of fuse gates .......................... 13............................3...............

. 16...........3........................... Stop log gates .....2. 16.................. Design considerations ....10............................ 333 333 333 334 334 335 335 335 336 337 337 343 345 346 346 346 350 350 355 Copyright © 2005 by Marcel Dekker................................. Problems associated with rubber weir installation .................................... Operational problems ......3...........4....................4........... 14.....1....8................................ Spillway Crest Gates ............ Roller compacted concrete (RCC) ............................................ Semi-mechanical gates ........ 16...... 323 323 323 325 325 327 327 327 328 17............................3.......... Concrete dam overtopping protection ..... Inflatable Rubber Weirs ........... Downstream conditions ...9..........2....................... Mechanical gates .......... Flap gates ............. 17................... Safety of the dam ...........................................................................4.....1........................... 307 15..... Factors influencing the decision ................... 17........................... 17..........2..... ..................... 17.......5.............. 15......... 16.......................2.............................4... 300 Conceptual framework ........................... 313 313 313 315 315 320 321 16............1...... 17.6........ 17....................................... Introduction ...... 15..............1.........................2.. 17................................. Precast concrete block system ............1.........5................................ Cast-in-place concrete .............. Types of gates ................................................................ Principal elements of a rubber weir .. Radial gates . 17...... 15.......... Cost economics ..... 17............... 16.............2....... Some considerations on operating pattern of gates ........................................5...2. 17......................................... Introduction .............................. 17................ 17.. 15.............4....2...................5...................................................xvi Contents 14...............6........................................ 15..5..........7...........2............. Structural design ............................ 17.................3.................... Hydraulic design ............. Special considerations .................................. Automatic type: fusible ... 14................ Automatic type: restoring .....................................2.........4............ 17.... Overtopping Protection of Dams Used as Spillways ..... Design considerations .. General considerations .........................................................5............3........ Embankment dam overtopping protection ...........3.......................5...... 17...............................2.........................1................. Introduction .................................... 15.2.......................4........... 17................ Slope protection lining .... Vertical lift gates .........................................................................3........................ 16....1......... 17.................4....... 16............................3..... 17........................ 301 Rock-fill spillways ............................... Vibration of gates ................................. 16................................

......................... 20........... 20...................................... 20..... 20.......... 20..............2............. 18..............3.... Principal types of energy dissipators .....2................ Environmental considerations .......1..........................4.1.........................................2............... Basins with horizontal aprons ................................................. 20..................................................... Basins with sloping aprons ............... 18..........................4.....1.......................3.... Spillway construction program ................................1.. Hydraulic Jump Stilling Basins ...................1.....................2..................... Energy Dissipators for Spillways ... 20............................. 20.....5...... 359 359 359 360 360 361 364 366 Section II: Energy Dissipators 19. Discharge characteristics of partly constructed spillways ............................5......... Analysis of Parameters ....2....... Uplift .................1............... Hydraulic jump characteristics ............................................... 387 387 387 388 390 390 392 399 401 401 409 411 411 411 423 428 431 432 433 434 Copyright © 2005 by Marcel Dekker..........2............................5....... 20.......................2. Introduction ..........5. Introduction .........4..................... 18.............Contents xvii 18. 19........ Flow downstream of partly constructed spillways .................... Construction flood ................................ Hydraulic jump stilling basins ......5.. 19......... Air entrainment by hydraulic jump . 20...5.......3..... Reservoir levels during construction stages ...3................. 19............ 371 371 371 372 373 375 20...... Hydrodynamic forces ...................... Optimization of designs ....................... Classification of energy dissipators ..............................5........................ 18............................... Vibrations ............. 20.. Spillway construction stages ...............7. 20.... Abrasion .. Length of the jump ..................... Classification of hydraulic jump ............................ Spillway Construction Stages ......................... 20..5.............. 19.2....2.......5....................... 18.......3...................1............................ Conjugate depth and energy loss .. Implications of various factors ...... Selection of the type of energy dissipator ..... 20............... 19........................................ . 20...... 18..2........ 20..........5.......... Cavitation ...........................3.........5............................ Introduction .....................6..............................................6...............4...................................................................... 20...... Turbulence characteristics of hydraulic jump ............ 20...................3.........2.................................... 20.................................4.............................. 18................................ Structural design problems .............

......... 21............. Solid 22.................2.................. Introduction ... Lip angle .....3................................. 22...............5.................................. Protection against scour .................. 21....1....4.............1................5... Scour downstream of trajectory buckets ........................... 519 519 519 520 520 522 Copyright © 2005 by Marcel Dekker..........3.................... Hydraulic characteristics of trajectory buckets ..........4........4...........................3..............3....................2..............5... 24.... Classification of impact-type energy dissipators ..........5.......3............ 21........... Scour control and remedial measures ...........2....5....................... Baffled apron drops ......................................... Free trajectory and throw ............. Full-bore pressurized flow ............. Comparative performance based on prototype experience ..... Impact-Type Energy Dissipators .........................2..3..................................... 23.2..... 21............................................ 21..................................4...... Pressures on buckets and sidewall .................................4............ Effect of submergence by tail water ....................... Dissipation by head loss .. 21..... 21..............1.. .... 22................. Flip buckets ...................................... 441 441 441 443 444 445 445 446 448 449 453 455 465 465 469 470 471 472 22...... 21...... Invert elevation ................... Shape of the bucket ......... and Slotted Roller Buckets ...................................................2......... 24...... 21.............2.................. 21......... Design of bucket components .... Introduction ... 21... 23...............3........................ Free surface flow ....................................1....... Bucket radius ......3.................................. 22................. Introduction ........................3....xviii Contents 21....... 503 503 503 505 505 505 507 507 509 24......... 483 483 483 491 495 499 23.2..............3...............3. 24....................................... 23....... 23............. 21............... 24.. 23.... Analysis ..................................... Energy Dissipators for Shaft and Tunnel Spillways ..........1... Dissipation by friction ................2.................1..............1.......................... 23... Introduction .................. Swirling devices ...............................2.2.................. 22....................3...........6............. Energy dissipation by induced tumbling flow ............1......... Solid roller bucket ................ 21................5..1............................................... 21.......... Hydraulic jump stilling basin ......................4............................................. 21........................3...... Alternative designs for improvements ......... Special forms of buckets .................. Slotted roller bucket ........ Baffled chutes .........................4................................... 23......................... 21............................................... 23....3.............2....... Computation and prediction .......1....... Trajectory Buckets ...................... 21..... Types and classification .......3................................3....................... 24..2......................................................

............. 26.................. 27.....3............1...3.2............ Cavitation damage ......................... 27................3.......... 26..... Design .................................. 26.............. 25.2..... 26................ 26...........9...9............................. 531 531 531 532 535 538 Section III: Cavitation and Air Entrainment 26............ Prevention of cavitation in spillways and energy dissipators 26..... 26.........................................7........................... 26...................................... 25...............2....... Air entrainment on spillways .......... 541 541 541 542 544 545 546 547 548 550 552 553 556 560 562 562 563 564 564 27..2..... Misalignment ............. 569 569 569 572 579 584 586 586 Copyright © 2005 by Marcel Dekker....................................3................3.....5......4.............................9........................ 25. Cavitation index ...................................... Prediction of cavitation damage .4................1...................... 27..............7.1......2........................5.................... Forced aeration .............................................5.... 26........5.6.......... Cavitation due to sheared flow and vortices .. Interaction within the region of flow ...... 26............ 26................. 27........... Hydraulic model studies ..................................... Introduction .......................... Air Entrainment and Forced Aeration ................Contents 24..............2........................... Fluctuating pressure depressions ... 26........................................................ Bhavani-type stilling basin .................................................................5............................................ Remedial measures and repairs . Properties of aerated flow .... 27.............................................. Cavitation on spillway surfaces ... 27..........5........... Introduction ................................... Effect of entrained air on stilling basin performance .............. 526 25............. Location of point of inception .................l0..1.. Unconventional Designs .................................................................................................................................... 26....... 26................................... Cavitation ............ USER Basin VI ..............2....................... 26.........1.......................................................... Introduction .. ... 524 24.4..... Cavitation in energy dissipators ......................... Inadequate design ..... Cavitation in Spillways and Energy Dissipators ......... 524 24......... 27. 26..... 25............1.. 25.. 26............ Bifurcation/bypass of flow .............6.............. Dissipating part of the energy on a spillway slope ......... Operation of structures ....................4.......................1..................... Flow separation and reattachment .4................. Surface roughness ..............6..................................................4..................... The region of varied flow ......... Construction . xix Energy dissipators for spillways and outlets ...... 26..................9.......................6.......8...........

.............5...........4........... Air entrainment and release ........... 28................................................................9..........4.. Design of an aerator system .... A review of dimensionless numbers .. Analysis of results ......2. 28....... 28........................ 28........ Mechanism of aeration ............................9...................5...........xx Contents 27..............3..3......2........... 27............... Introduction ........................1.............. Interpretation of results ........................................3....4.............. 27.... Types of aerators ................... Air supply systems ........... Aerators for tunnel spillways and outlets ................. 587 590 590 591 591 596 597 601 604 Section IV: Hydraulic Modeling 28........2.. 27.. Fluid-structure interaction ....... 28........ Copyright © 2005 by Marcel Dekker... 27.............3....... Cavitation ............................ 28..................... Hydraulic Modeling of Spillways and Energy Dissipators ........................4....... 27. 28...9........................1.............1................. Hydraulic modeling and scale effect .................... Aerators on existing structures ...........................9.....10......9................ Aerator spacing ................................4...... Turbulence .. 28....... 27..... Location of the aerator .3.... 28.9.......1.............................................................................................................................................................11....3..... 27............ Measurement .2...................4..... 28................. 28........................... 28....... Volume of air entrained by an aerator ...... 27......................8.................3.....3....................................... Dynamic-flow measurement .... Friction ..........................3..................... 609 609 609 611 611 615 617 617 621 624 624 627 629 ...............