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AOL

A.O.B.2.

3420 TOEIC Vocabulary Words

A1.

A.O.B.

AOL

abbr. used at the end of the list of subjects to be

abbr. American corporation headquartered in Virginia,

discussed at a meeting or conference

owner and operator of on line and interactive computer


services
Forms: America Online

a.m.

ASAP4.

3.

Forms: any other business

ASAP

a.m.

abbr. quickly; immediately; swiftly; speedily; fast

abbr. morning; time before noon; hours between midnight


and noon

abide

abbreviation6.
able

ability8.

7.

5.

Forms: as soon as possible (asap, a.s.a.p., A.S.A.P.)

Forms: ante meridiem (am, A.M, AM)

abbreviation

abide

n. shortened form of a word or word combination

v. to comply; to obey; to conform; to stay; to tolerate

Forms: plural: abbreviations

Forms: abided; abided; abiding

ability

able

n. skill; talent; aptitude; capacity; power

adj. competent; talented; apt

abound

abolish10.
above

above12.

11.

9.

Forms: plural: abilities

abolish

abound

v. to cancel; to revoke

v. to be plentiful; to be filled with; to overflow with

Forms: abolished; abolished; abolishing

Forms: abounded; abounded; abounding

above

above

prep. over; higher than; more than

n. something previously mentioned or indicated

above

above14.
abroad

abreast16.

15.

13.

Forms: no plural

above

above

adj. mentioned earlier in the same text

adv. overhead; over; in a higher place

abreast

abroad

adv. side by side; in alignment; on top of; up-to-date;

adv. in another country; outside; widely

absent

absence18.

17.

well-informed

absence

absent

n. failure to appear; state of being away; state of being

adj. preoccupied; lost in thought

not present

absorbed

absorb20.

19.

Forms: no plural

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3420 TOEIC Vocabulary Words

absorb

absorbed

v. to suck up; take up; take in

adj. treated as an expense

abuse

abundant22.

21.

Forms: absorbed; absorbed; absorbing

abundant

abuse

adj. plentiful; copious; profuse; full abounding with

v. to injure; to harm; to mistreat

accelerate

abuse24.

23.

Forms: abused; abused; abusing

abuse

accelerate

n. maltreatment; corrupt practice; foul language

v. to hasten; to increase the speed of something; to


speed something up
Forms: accelerated; accelerated; accelerating

accept

accelerator26.
access

acceptance28.

27.

25.

Forms: no plural

accelerator

accept

n. gas pedal of a motor vehicle

v. to receive; to agree; to consent

Forms: plural: accelerators

Forms: accepted; accepted; accepting

acceptance

access

n. act of receiving; approval; state of believing in

v. to gain entrance to; to get at

something

accident

access30.

29.

Forms: no plural

Forms: accessed; accessed; accessing

access

accident

n. approach; entry; permission to enter a computer

n. casualty; misadventure; mishap; failure

system or network and/or retrieve data

accommodation

accommodate32.

31.

Forms: no plural

Forms: plural: accidents

accommodate

accommodation

v. to adapt oneself; to host guests; to provide lodging

n. housing; residence; lodging; arrangement; adjustment

accomplish

accompany34.
accord

accomplishment36.

35.

33.

Forms: accommodated; accommodated; accommodating Forms: no plural

accompany

accomplish

v. to go along with; to go together with; to join; to attach

v. to complete; to achieve; to attain; to perform

Forms: accompanied; accompanied; accompanying

Forms: accomplished; accomplished; accomplishing

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accordance

accord38.
account

account40.

39.

37.

3420 TOEIC Vocabulary Words

accomplishment

accord

n. fulfillment; realization; attainment; achievement

v. to give; to match; to fit; to complement

Forms: plural: accomplishments

Forms: accorded; accorded; according

accord

accordance

n. agreement; settlement; harmony

n. conformity; agreement; coordination; suitability

Forms: no plural

Forms: no plural

account

account

v. to explain; to give a report; to cause; to regard

n. business arrangement; client; funds deposited in a


bank
Forms: plural: accounts

accounting

accountant42.
accrue

accredit44.
achieve

accuracy46.
acquaint

achievement48.

47.

45.

43.

41.

Forms: accounted; accounted; accounting

accountant

accounting

n. a person who keeps financial records; a person who

n. a system of recording and analyzing financial

conducts financial audits

transactions; auditing; a detailed financial statement

Forms: plural: accountants

Forms: no plural

accredit

accrue

v. to certify; to recognize; to assign; to license

v. to compile; to increase; to accumulate; to grow

Forms: accredited; accredited; accrediting

Forms: accrued; accrued; accruing

accuracy

achieve

n. preciseness; exactness

v. to obtain; to attain; to perform; to accomplish

Forms: no plural

Forms: achieved; achieved; achieving

achievement

acquaint

n. performance; operation; attainment; mission; success

v. to make familiar; to present someone; to introduce


someone

acquainted

acquaintance50.

49.

Forms: plural: achievements

Forms: acquainted; acquainted; acquainting

acquaintance

acquainted

n. person that you have met but do not know well;

adj. familiar; close; intimate; informed; aware

knowledge of something; familiarity

acquisition

acquire52.

51.

Forms: plural: acquaintances

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3420 TOEIC Vocabulary Words

acquire

acquisition

v. to buy; to obtain; to purchase; to attain

n. purchase; something that has been purchased or


obtained
Forms: plural: acquisitions

actual

acronym54.

53.

Forms: acquired; acquired; acquiring

acronym

actual

n. a word which is formed from the first letters of several

adj. substantial; real; tangible; current

words; i.e. TOEIC or NATO

ad

ad56.

55.

Forms: plural: acronyms

ad

ad

n. informal word for a commercial announcement

pref. toward; at

adamant

adamant58.

57.

Forms: plural: ads

adamant

adamant

n. something unyielding; something hard; stone similar to adj. unyielding; firm; hard; unbending
diamond

addiction

adapt60.

59.

Forms: plural: adamants

adapt

addiction

v. to conform; to change; to make suitable; to match; to fit n. devotion to a certain habit; dependency

additional

addition62.

61.

Forms: adapted; adapted; adapting

Forms: plural: addictions

addition

additional

n. supplement; mathematical operation

adj. extra; supplemental

address

additive64.

63.

Forms: plural: additions

additive

address

n. supplement

v. to direct to; to speak to; to direct to a specific


destination; to refer to

adept

address66.

65.

Forms: plural: additives

Forms: addressed; addressed; addressing

address

adept

n. location; description of a location

adj. proficient; skilled; expert

adequate

adept68.

67.

Forms: plural: addresses

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3420 TOEIC Vocabulary Words

adept

adequate

n. person who is an expert; person who is skilled

adj. sufficient; suitable; appropriate; proper

adjourn

adhere70.
rate

adjustable

adjust72.
administer

adjustment74.
administrative

administration76.

75.

73.

71.

69.

Forms: plural: adepts

adhere

adjourn

v. to stick to; to cling to; to be devoted to (an idea, group,

v. to postpone; to delay; to end a meeting; to move to

organization etc.)

another place

Forms: adhered; adhered; adhering

Forms: adjourned; adjourned; adjourning

adjust

adjustable rate

v. to modify; to adapt; to fit; to arrange; to settle

n. an interest percentage that changes over time

Forms: adjusted; adjusted; adjusting

Forms: plural: adjustable rates

adjustment

administer

n. adaption; settlement of an insurance claim

v. to manage; to supervise; to supply; to dispense

Forms: plural: adjustments

Forms: administered; administered; administering

administration

administrative

n. management; supervisors; leadership

adj. managerial; executive

admiration

admirable78.

77.

Forms: plural: administrations

admirable

admiration

adj. worthy of adoration; impressive; wonderful;

n. enchantment; affection; adoration

marvelous

admit

admission80.

79.

Forms: no plural

admission

admit

n. entrance; permission to enter; confession

v. to confess to something; to allow entrance; to accept


as valid

ado

admonish82.
adorn

adopt84.

83.

81.

Forms: no plural

Forms: admitted; admitted; admitting

admonish

ado

v. to warn; to scold; to reprove

n. commotion; flurry; excitement

Forms: admonished; admonished; admonishing

Forms: no plural

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adult

adroit86.

85.

3420 TOEIC Vocabulary Words

adopt

adorn

v. to form a relationship with another person

v. to decorate; to beautify

Forms: adopted; adopted; adopting

Forms: adorned; adorned; adorning

adroit

adult

adj. alert; clever; ingenious; skillful; adept

n. opposite of child; a grown-up; a mature person

advance

adult88.
advance

advance90.

89.

87.

Forms: plural: adults

adult

advance

adj. mature; full grown

adj. beforehand

advance

advance

n. progress; modernization; promotion

v. to progress; to promote; to make a payment before it is


due

advantage

advancement92.
opinion

adverse

advantage94.

93.

91.

Forms: plural: advances

Forms: advanced; advanced; advancing

advancement

advantage

n. forward movement; progress; promotion

n. benefit; profit; utility; avail

Forms: plural: advancements

Forms: plural: advantages

advantage

adverse opinion

v. to help; to assist; to promote; to be beneficial to

n. one of several separate payments into which a debt


has been divided; section; portion

adversity

adversely96.

95.

Forms: advantaged; advantaged; advantaging

Forms: plural: adverse opinions

adversely

adversity

adv. unfavorably; in a manner that works against;

n. misfortune; hardship; distress; suffering

antagonistically

advert

advert98.

97.

Forms: plural: adversities

advert

advert

v. to refer to; to comment on; to draw attention to

n. public announcement or printed notice designed to


attract attention

advertisement

advertise100.

99.

Forms: adverted; adverted; adverting

Forms: plural: adverts

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3420 TOEIC Vocabulary Words

advertise

advertisement

v. to promote; to draw attention to; to publicize

n. commercial information designed to attract attention;


commercial
Forms: plural: advertisements

advise

advice102.
affect

advisor104.

103.

101.

Forms: advertised; advertised; advertising

advice

advise

n. counsel; guidance; specific information; hint

v. to counsel; to offer guidance; to notify; to inform

Forms: no plural

Forms: advised; advised; advising

advisor

affect

n. a person who provides guidance; consultant; counselor v. to influence

affiliate

affiliate106.
affinity

affiliation108.
age

afford110.
agency

age112.
agent

agenda114.
aggregate

aggregate116.

115.

113.

111.

109.

107.

105.

Forms: plural: advisors; other spelling version: adviser

Forms: affected; affected; affecting

affiliate

affiliate

n. partner company; distributor

v. to join with; to connect to; to become attached to

Forms: plural: affiliates

Forms: affiliated; affiliated; affiliating

affiliation

affinity

n. connection; attachment

n. attraction; closeness; liking; likeness

Forms: plural: affiliations

Forms: plural: affinities

afford

age

v. to be able to pay for; to supply; to provide

n. period; era; generation

Forms: afforded; afforded; affording

Forms: plural: ages

age

agency

v. to grow older; to mature

n. office; bureau; institution; franchise; method

Forms: aged; aged; aging

Forms: plural: agencies

agenda

agent

n. schedule; calendar; outline of things to be done

n. representative; rep; factor; cause

Forms: plural: agendas

Forms: plural: agents

aggregate

aggregate

v. to accumulate; to gather; to collect; to assemble

adj. collective; total; taking all units as a whole

schedule

aging

aggregate118.

117.

Forms: aggregated; aggregated; aggregating

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agreement

agree120.

119.

3420 TOEIC Vocabulary Words

aggregate

aging schedule

n. combination; conjunction; group; mixture

n. a list of accounts receivable

Forms: plural: aggregates

Forms: plural: aging schedules

agree

agreement

v. to consent; to concur; to suit; to have the same

n. pact; contract; accord; consent; concurrence

opinion; to fit
Forms: plural: agreements

aid

ahead122.

121.

Forms: agreed; agreed; agreeing

ahead

aid

adv. forward; in advance

v. to help; to assist

aim

aid124.
aircraft

aim126.

125.

123.

Forms: aided; aided; aiding

aid

aim

n. help; assistance; accessory

n. purpose; goal; objective; target

Forms: plural: aids

Forms: plural: aims

aim

aircraft

v. to try or to intend to achieve something; to direct; to

n. any vehicle which can be flown (i.e. helicopter)

plan; to aspire

airways

airport128.
alert

aisle130.

129.

127.

Forms: aimed; aimed; aiming

Forms: no plural

airport

airways

n. place used by planes for takeoff and landing

n. route through traveled by vehicles above ground level

Forms: plural: airports

Forms: no plural

aisle

alert

n. passage; walkway (between rows of seats or shelves)

adj. ready; attentive; quick; agile

alert

alert132.
allay

alive134.

133.

131.

Forms: plural: aisles

alert

alert

n. warning; alarm; attitude of readiness

v. to warn; to put on standby; to alarm

Forms: plural: alerts

Forms: alerted; alerted; alerting

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3420 TOEIC Vocabulary Words

alive

allay

adj. active; attentive

v. to relieve; to calm; to alleviate pain

alliance

alleviate136.
allow

allot138.

137.

135.

Forms: allayed; allayed; allaying

alleviate

alliance

v. to allay; to soothe; to relieve; to soften; to lessen

n. pact; treaty; connection; relationship

Forms: alleviated; alleviated; alleviating

Forms: plural: alliances

allot

allow

v. to give out; to distribute; to ration; to set aside for a

v. to permit; to enable

special purpose
Forms: allowed; allowed; allowing

already

allowance140.

139.

Forms: allotted; allotted; allotting

allowance

already

n. grant; pocket money; stipend; discount; deduction

adv. previously; before a certain time

alternate

alter142.

141.

Forms: plural: allowances

alter

alternate

v. to change; to modify

adj. rotating; one after the other; interchanging

alternative

alternate144.
altitude

although146.

145.

143.

Forms: altered; altered; altering

alternate

alternative

v. to interchange; to take turns; to rotate; to substitute

n. choice; option

Forms: alternated; alternated; alternating

Forms: plural: alternatives

although

altitude

conj. despite the fact that; in spite of the fact that

n. height; distance above sea level

ambiguous

ambiguity148.

147.

Forms: plural: altitudes

ambiguity

ambiguous

n. vagueness; lack of clarity

adj. open to dispute; obscure; vague

ambitious

ambition150.

149.

Forms: plural: ambiguities

ambition

ambitious

n. aspiration; hope; goal; dream

adj. aspiring; desirous of success; requiring great effort

amend

ambivalence152.

151.

Forms: plural: ambitions

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3420 TOEIC Vocabulary Words

ambivalence

amend

n. state of having both positive and negative feelings

v. to change; to alter; to improve

towards a subject
Forms: amended; amended; amending

amount

amortization154.

153.

Forms: no plural

amortization

amount

n. gradual payment of debt; the reduction of the value of

v. to come to a sum; to become; to total

an asset
Forms: amounted; amounted; amounting

ample

amount156.

155.

Forms: plural: amortizations

amount

ample

n. quantity; sum

adj. much; plenty; large; spacious

analyze

analysis158.
anchor

anchor160.
anger

anger162.
angle

angle164.
announcement

anniversary166.
annoying

annoy168.

167.

165.

163.

161.

159.

157.

Forms: plural: amounts

analysis

analyze

n. process of breaking down a subject and studying it;

v. to examine; to break down into parts and study (as in a

examination

subject)

Forms: no plural

Forms: analyzed; analyzed; analyzing

anchor

anchor

v. to attach firmly; to fasten tightly

n. newsreader; broadcaster

Forms: anchored; anchored; anchoring

Forms: plural: anchors

anger

anger

v. to irritate; to infuriate; to enrage

n. rage; fury

Forms: angered; angered; angering

Forms: no plural

angle

angle

v. to bend; to turn sharply in a different direction

n. point of view; perspective

Forms: angled; angled; angling

Forms: plural: angles

anniversary

announcement

n. yearly date commemorating a special event; birthday

n. declaration; notice; the act of informing the public

Forms: plural: anniversaries

Forms: plural: announcements

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3420 TOEIC Vocabulary Words

annoy

annoying

v. to bother; to trouble; to disturb; to upset

adj. bothersome; troublesome; worrisome; harassing

anticipate

annual170.

169.

Forms: annoyed; annoyed; annoying

annual

anticipate

adj. occurring once a year; yearly

v. to expect; to predict; to assume

anxious

anticipation172.

171.

Forms: anticipated; anticipated; anticipating

anticipation

anxious

n. expectation; hope; intuition

adj. fearful; worried; worrisome; eager; keen

anyway

anyhow174.
apart

apart176.
apologize

apartment178.
apparatus

apology180.

179.

177.

175.

173.

Forms: plural: anticipations

anyhow

anyway

adv. in some way

adv. in whatever manner; however

apart

apart

prep. besides; but; excluding

adv. separately; aside; into pieces

apartment

apologize

n. flat

v. to express regret; to say sorry

Forms: plural: apartments

Forms: apologized; apologized; apologizing

apology

apparatus

n. expression of regret or sorrow; excuse; defense;

n. device; system; machine; gadget; appliance

justification

apparel

apparel182.
appeal

apparently184.

183.

181.

Forms: plural: apologies

Forms: plural: apparatuses

apparel

apparel

v. to dress; to adorn wear

n. clothing; garments; clothes; garb

Forms: appareled; appareled; appareling

Forms: plural: apparels

apparently

appeal

adv. evidently; obviously; allegedly; seemingly

v. to plead; to request; to petition for a new trial or


judgment

appealing

appeal186.

185.

Forms: appealed; appealed; appealing

11

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3420 TOEIC Vocabulary Words

appeal

appealing

n. request; plea; petition for a new trial or judgment

adj. begging; attractive; interesting

appearance

appear188.
applicant

appliance190.
apply

application192.
appointment

appoint194.
approach

appreciate196.
appropriate

approach198.

197.

195.

193.

191.

189.

187.

Forms: plural: appeals

appear

appearance

v. to come into view; to show up; to seem

n. impression; the way a person looks; image; semblance

Forms: appeared; appeared; appearing

Forms: no plural

appliance

applicant

n. tool; gadget; device; apparatus

n. candidate; nominee

Forms: plural: appliances

Forms: plural: applicants

application

apply

n. software program; written request; formal letter;

v. to make a request; to implement; to realize; to put into

implementation

practice

Forms: plural: applications

Forms: applied; applied; applying

appoint

appointment

v. to nominate; to designate

n. official date; meeting; interview; nomination

Forms: appointed; appointed; appointing

Forms: plural: appointments

appreciate

approach

v. to esteem; to regard highly; to become more valuable

v. to come near to; to tackle (a problem or situation)

Forms: appreciated; appreciated; appreciating

Forms: approached; approached; approaching

approach

appropriate

n. access; method; system; procedure

adj. suitable; fitting

approval

appropriate200.
list

approved

approve202.

201.

199.

Forms: plural: approaches

appropriate

approval

v. to set aside; to allot; to adapt; to embrace; to accept

n. confirmation; endorsement; positive opinion

Forms: appropriated; appropriated; appropriating

Forms: plural: approvals

12

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3420 TOEIC Vocabulary Words

approve

approved list

v. to agree; to concur; to confirm; to endorse

n. inventory of legal investments for savings banks and


trust funds
Forms: plural: approved lists

apt

approximately204.
arbitrary

aptitude206.

205.

203.

Forms: approved; approved; approving

approximately

apt

adv. nearly; about; around; circa

adj. suitable; appropriate; intelligent; savvy; capable

aptitude

arbitrary

n. ability; skill; talent

adj. optional; uncertain; changeable; open; unrestricted

argue

area208.
arrange

argument210.

209.

207.

Forms: plural: aptitudes

area

argue

n. region; domain; field; category

v. to dispute; to claim; to give reasons

Forms: plural: areas

Forms: argued; argued; arguing

argument

arrange

n. dispute; claim; rationale; cause

v. to organize; to settle; to structure; to order; to


systematize

array

arrangement212.
arrest

arrest214.
arrive

arrival216.

215.

213.

211.

Forms: plural: arguments

Forms: arranged; arranged; arranging

arrangement

array

n. organization; order; selection; range; assortment

n. display; layout; clothing; menu

Forms: plural: arrangements

Forms: plural: arrays

arrest

arrest

n. detention; imprisonment

v. to detain; to slow down; to capture; to imprison

Forms: plural: arrests

Forms: arrested; arrested; arresting

arrival

arrive

n. reaching a destination; incoming; opposite of departure v. to reach a destination; to return; to come back; to
succeed

article

article218.
articulate

articulate220.

219.

217.

Forms: plural: arrivals

Forms: arrived; arrived; arriving

article

article

n. item; object; piece of text; paragraph of a contract

v. to bind with a contract

Forms: plural: articles

Forms: articled; articled; articling

13

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3420 TOEIC Vocabulary Words

articulate

articulate

adj. lucid; eloquent; expressed using clear and distinct

v. to express in a fluent and clear manner

words; able to speak

artisan

artificial222.

221.

Forms: articulated; articulated; articulating

artificial

artisan

adj. not genuine; simulated; unreal

n. creator; craftsman; skilled workman

aspect

ascertain224.
assembly

assemble226.
assessment

assess228.
assign

asset230.
assimilate

assignment232.
assistance

assist234.
assistant

assistant236.

235.

233.

231.

229.

227.

225.

223.

Forms: plural: artisans

ascertain

aspect

v. to clarify; to confirm; to reinforce; to verify

n. facet; outlook; direction; issue; point

Forms: ascertained; ascertained; ascertaining

Forms: plural: aspects

assemble

assembly

v. to gather; to collect; to converge; to arrange; to meet

n. meeting; conference; set; group of people

Forms: assembled; assembled; assembling

Forms: plural: assemblies

assess

assessment

v. to estimate; to gauge; to evaluate; to measure

n. estimation; appraisal; measurement

Forms: assessed; assessed; assessing

Forms: plural: assessments

asset

assign

n. something of value (property, equipment, goods, etc.);

v. to allot; to apportion; to give somebody a task or

item of quality; something beneficial

responsibility; to delegate; to appoint

Forms: plural: assets

Forms: assigned; assigned; assigning

assignment

assimilate

n. task; duty; responsibility; role; obligation

v. to incorporate; to take in; to absorb

Forms: plural: assignments

Forms: assimilated; assimilated; assimilating

assist

assistance

v. to aid; to help; to support; to guide; to direct

n. aid; help; support; direction; upkeep

Forms: assisted; assisted; assisting

Forms: no plural

14

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3420 TOEIC Vocabulary Words

assistant

assistant

n. person who gives support to a superior; aide; helper

adj. serving as an aide; helpful; supportive; auxiliary

associate

associate238.
assort

association240.
assume

assortment242.

241.

239.

237.

Forms: plural: assistants

associate

associate

n. partner; fellow worker; co-worker; friend

v. to share company; to connect; to relate to; to combine

Forms: plural: associates

Forms: associated; associated; associating

association

assort

n. organization; society; union; coalition; foundation

v. to classify; to categorize; to systematize; to structure

Forms: plural: associations

Forms: assorted; assorted; assorting

assortment

assume

n. variety; collection; selection; range; mixture

v. to suppose; to take on a position or duty; to accept an


idea

attach

assure244.

243.

Forms: plural: assortments

Forms: assumed; assumed; assuming

assure

attach

v. to give confidence; to promise; to pledge; to encourage v. to fasten; to link to; to add; to ascribe to; to connect to

attain

attachment246.

245.

Forms: assured; assured; assuring

Forms: attached; attached; attaching

attachment

attain

n. connection; confiscation; file sent via email

v. to reach; to achieve; to fulfill; to realize (a goal,


purpose, etc.)

attempt

attainment248.
attend

attempt250.

249.

247.

Forms: plural: attachments

Forms: attained; attained; attaining

attainment

attempt

n. achievement; fulfillment; ability

n. try; assay; test; trial

Forms: plural: attainments

Forms: plural: attempts

attempt

attend

v. to try to; to assay

v. to be present in a place; to care for; to serve; to


accompany

attendant

attendance252.

251.

Forms: attempted; attempted; attempting

Forms: attended; attended; attending

15

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attendee

attendant254.

253.

3420 TOEIC Vocabulary Words

attendance

attendant

n. being physically present; act of accompanying or

n. steward; stewardess; person who serves others;

serving

person who accompanies others

Forms: no plural

Forms: plural: attendants

attendant

attendee

adj. present; opposite of absent; accompanying

n. person who takes part in a particular event such as a


conference or seminar; participant

attentive

attention256.

255.

Forms: plural: attendees

attention

attentive

n. concentration; consideration; focus; care;

adj. concentrated; focused; observant; polite; caring

acknowledgment; recognition

attire

attentiveness258.
attitude

attire260.
attorney

attn.262.

261.

259.

257.

Forms: no plural

attentiveness

attire

n. concentration; ability to concentrate on an issue

n. dress; clothing; apparel

Forms: no plural

Forms: no plural

attire

attitude

v. to dress; to put on clothes

n. position; opinion; viewpoint; outlook; perspective

Forms: attired; attired; attiring

Forms: plural: attitudes

attn.

attorney

abbr. directed to a particular person (generally used

n. lawyer; barrister; advocate; solicitor

when addressing a letter or message) or issue

attribute

attract264.
auction

attribute266.

265.

263.

Forms: attention

Forms: plural: attorneys

attract

attribute

v. to draw attention; to captivate; to fascinate

n. quality; factor; characteristic; feature

Forms: attracted; attracted; attracting

Forms: plural: attributes

attribute

auction

v. to ascribe to; to link to; to associate with; to relate to

n. public sale where goods are sold to the highest bidder


(such as eBay)

audience

auction268.

267.

Forms: attributed; attributed; attributing

Forms: plural: auctions

16

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audit

audio270.

269.

3420 TOEIC Vocabulary Words

auction

audience

v. to sell something through a bidding system

n. group of people who attend a seminar, a talk, etc.

Forms: auctioned; auctioned; auctioning

Forms: plural: audience

audio

audit

adj. pertaining to hearing and listening; sound

n. examination of financial accounts; internal investigation

auditorium

audit272.

271.

Forms: plural: audits

audit

auditorium

v. to examine accounts and other financial records

n. large room used for lectures; talks, performances and


other events

authority

augment274.
autograph

authorize276.
automobile

autograph278.
avail

avail280.
float

availability

availability282.

281.

279.

277.

275.

273.

Forms: audited; audited; auditing

Forms: plural: auditoriums

augment

authority

v. to increase; to enlarge; to enhance; to multiply

n. official institution; agency; power; control; jurisdiction

Forms: augmented; augmented; augmenting

Forms: plural: authorities

authorize

autograph

v. to permit; to approve; to empower

v. to write one's name by hand; to sign one's name

Forms: authorized; authorized; authorizing

Forms: autographed; autographed; autographing

autograph

automobile

n. a person's handwritten signature

n. car; vehicle; ride

Forms: plural: autographs

Forms: plural: automobiles

avail

avail

v. to be useful; to help; to facilitate

n. advantage; profit; help; benefit

Forms: availed; availed; availing

Forms: plural: avails

availability

availability float

n. accessibility; attainability; obtainability

n. the time or amount of money that defined by checks


that have been deposited but not cleared yet

average

available284.
average

average286.

285.

283.

Forms: no plural

Forms: plural: availability floats

available

average

adj. ready for use; attainable; present; vail

adj. immediate; common; usual; standard

17

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award

avoid288.

287.

3420 TOEIC Vocabulary Words

average

average

n. mean; median

v. to have a mean of a certain amount

Forms: plural: averages

Forms: averaged; averaged; averaging

avoid

award

v. to escape; to keep away from; to prevent; to keep from n. prize; grant; arbitration
happening; to evade

aware

award290.

289.

Forms: avoided; avoided; avoiding

Forms: plural: awards

award

aware

v. to give; to grant; to judge; to rule

adj. attentive; conscious of

awesome

awareness292.

291.

Forms: awarded; awarded; awarding

awareness

awesome

n. consciousness

adj. impressive; inspiring; great; frightening

Forms: no plural

18

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back
back

back4.
order

back

door6.

back

5.

3.

back2.

3420 TOEIC Vocabulary Words

B1.

back

back

n. part of a chair; rear part of the human body

v. to support; to assist; to strengthen

Forms: plural: backs

Forms: backed; backed; backing

back

back

adj. behind; after; rear; hind

adv. to the rear; to the past

back door

back order

n. the U.S. treasury

n. ordered merchandise that is not currently in stock but


will be supplied in the future
Forms: plural: back orders

background

up8.

back
backup

backlash10.

9.

7.

Forms: no plural

back up

background

v. to support; to solidify; to strengthen

n. setting; biography

Forms: backed up; backed up; backing up

Forms: plural: backgrounds

backlash

backup

n. rebound; recoiling; sudden movement to the rear

n. copying of data for safety purposes; substitute;


reserve; spare

baggage

badge12.
balance

balance14.
bank

bank16.

15.

13.

11.

Forms: plural: backlashes

Forms: plural: backups

badge

baggage

n. tag; sign; identification tag

n. luggage; cargo; things to take on a trip; equipment

Forms: plural: badges

Forms: no plural

balance

balance

v. to make equal

n. leveling; harmony; stability; rest; remainder

Forms: balanced; balanced; balancing

Forms: plural: balances

bank

bank

v. to deposit money; in a money institution; to count on; to n. institution for saving and borrowing money; cashier
depend upon

banknote

draft18.

bank
bankrupt

bankrupt20.

19.

17.

Forms: banked; banked; banking

Forms: plural: banks

bank draft

banknote

n. check

n. bill; money made of paper

Forms: plural: bank drafts

Forms: plural: banknotes

19

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3420 TOEIC Vocabulary Words

bankrupt

bankrupt

adj. lacking; deficient; insolvent; unable to pay debts

n. a person who was unable to repay their debts

bankruptcy

bankrupt22.

21.

Forms: plural: bankrupts

bankrupt

bankruptcy

v. to ruin financially; to go bust; to go broke; to collapse

n. state of losing property to one's creditor's due to


unpaid debts; insolvency
Forms: plural: bankruptcies

banquet

banquet24.
barely

wire26.

barbed

25.

23.

Forms: bankrupted; bankrupted; bankrupting

banquet

banquet

n. celebration; feast; dinner; drinking

v. to hold a party; to feast; to dine; to drink

Forms: plural: banquets

Forms: banqueted; banqueted; banqueting

barbed wire

barely

n. metal cord with sharp projecting points

adv. hardly; scarcely

bargain

bargain28.

27.

Forms: plural: barbed wires

bargain

bargain

n. good deal; agreement; item that has been bought at a

v. to negotiate; to arrive at an agreement

specially low price

capital

barren

barometer30.

29.

Forms: plural: bargains

Forms: bargained; bargained; bargaining

barometer

barren capital

n. commercial and market information that indicates

n. money which is not generating profit

overall economic trends

barter

barrier32.
base

barter34.
base

base36.

35.

33.

31.

Forms: plural: barometers

Forms: no plural

barrier

barter

n. border; limit; obstacle; barricade

n. exchanging of goods and services; trade

Forms: plural: barriers

Forms: plural: barters

barter

base

v. to exchange goods and services

v. to establish; to found; to set up; to place on

Forms: bartered; bartered; bartering

Forms: based; based; basing

20

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3420 TOEIC Vocabulary Words

base

base

adj. low; despicable; ignoble

n. foundation; principal element; fundamental part

bearer

basis38.
become

instrument40.

bearer

39.

37.

Forms: plural: bases

basis

bearer

n. foundation; grounding

n. person who holds a money order

Forms: no plural

Forms: plural: bearers

bearer instrument

become

n. a signed money order which is payable on demand to

v. to turn into; to develop into; to grow into

the holder
Forms: became; become; becoming

behalf

becoming42.

41.

Forms: plural: bearer instruments

becoming

behalf

adj. appropriate; noble

n. representing; in support of

behind

behavio(u)r44.
behind

behind46.
belief

book48.

beige

47.

45.

43.

Forms: no plural

behavio(u)r

behind

n. manner of acting; conduct

n. rear; end; seat

Forms: plural: behavio(u)rs

Forms: plural: behinds

behind

behind

adv. late; tardy

prep. after; in back of

beige book

belief

n. report on current economic conditions, published by

n. opinion; creed; religion; faith; conviction

the Federal Reserve Board

below

believe50.

49.

Forms: plural: beige books

Forms: plural: beliefs

believe

below

v. to have faith in; to assume; to suppose

prep. under; beneath; underneath

benchmark

below52.

51.

Forms: believed; believed; believing

below

benchmark

adv. at a further point

n. criterion; measure; point of reference for comparison

beneath

beneath54.

53.

Forms: plural: benchmarks

21

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beneficial

beneficent56.
benefit

benefit58.
between

between60.
beyond

beverage62.

61.

59.

57.

55.

3420 TOEIC Vocabulary Words

beneath

beneath

prep. under; underneath

adv. under; below

beneficent

beneficial

adj. kind; good

adj. advantageous; pleasurable; enjoyable

benefit

benefit

v. to profit; to gain; to be advantageous

n. advantage; profit; aid; stipend

Forms: benefited; benefited; benefiting

Forms: plural: benefits

between

between

prep. intermediate to; common; shared

adv. amid; in the middle

beverage

beyond

n. drink; refreshment

prep. further; more distant

bias

beyond64.

63.

Forms: plural: beverages

beyond

bias

adv. past; further than

v. to prejudice; to influence opinions

bill

bias66.
rate

birth

bill68.
blame

blame70.
blanket

blanket72.

71.

69.

67.

65.

Forms: biased; biased; biasing

bias

bill

n. prejudice; tendency; leaning

v. to charge; to announce; to advertise

Forms: plural: biases

Forms: billed; billed; billing

bill

birth rate

n. banknote; invoice; proposed law

n. number of babies that are born per year per thousand

Forms: plural: bills

Forms: plural: birth rates

blame

blame

v. to accuse; to denounce

n. guilt; responsibility; liability

Forms: blamed; blamed; blaming

Forms: plural: blames

blanket

blanket

v. to cover; to coat

adj. comprehensive; inclusive

laws

sky

blue

blanket74.

73.

Forms: blanketed; blanketed; blanketing

22

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3420 TOEIC Vocabulary Words

blanket

blue sky laws

n. bed covering; quilt

n. rules introduced by the government to regulate the


trade of securities and mutual funds
Forms: only plural

blunder

blunder76.

75.

Forms: plural: blankets

blunder

blunder

n. gross error; stupid mistake

v. to make a stupid mistake; to move back and forth in a


clumsy manner
Forms: blundered; blundered; blundering

board

board78.

77.

Forms: plural: blunders

board

board

n. management committee; food

v. to accommodate; to house; to enter (a plane, ship, bus,


etc.)
Forms: boarded; boarded; boarding

bond

room80.

boiler
bonded

bond82.

81.

79.

Forms: plural: boards

boiler room

bond

n. a fraud scheme involving cold calling

v. to store in a warehouse

Forms: plural: boiler rooms

Forms: bonded; bonded; bonding

bond

bonded

n. link; connection; obligation; grasp; certificate of debt

adj. secured in a warehouse

book

bonus84.
bookcase

book86.
boost

boost88.
border

border90.

89.

87.

85.

83.

Forms: plural: bonds

bonus

book

n. dividend; perk; monetary gift

v. to record; to order in advance; to inscribe; to indicate

Forms: plural: bonuses

Forms: booked; booked; booking

book

bookcase

n. printed work which is bound together; bundle

n. shelves used to store printed items

Forms: plural: books

Forms: plural: bookcases

boost

boost

v. to raise; to push; to urge; to lift

n. push; lift; incentive; encouragement

Forms: boosted; boosted; boosting

Forms: plural: boosts

23

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bother

borrow92.

91.

3420 TOEIC Vocabulary Words

border

border

v. to be adjacent to

n. boundary; edge; limit

Forms: bordered; bordered; bordering

Forms: plural: borders

borrow

bother

v. to take on loan; to copy; to steal

v. to annoy; to harass; to worry; to make an effort; to be


concerned

bothersome

bother94.

93.

Forms: borrowed; borrowed; borrowing

Forms: bothered; bothered; bothering

bother

bothersome

n. effort; nuisance

adj. annoying; irritating

bottom

bottom96.

95.

Forms: plural: bothers

bottom

bottom

n. base; foot; seat of a chair

v. to establish; to construct; to base; to provide a


foundation

bound

bottom98.

97.

Forms: plural: bottoms

Forms: bottomed; bottomed; bottoming

bottom

bound

adj. lower; under

n. limit; border

bound

bound100.

99.

Forms: plural: bounds

bound

bound

v. to jump; to leap

adj. obligated; certain; fastened; tied

box

box102.
brake

brake104.
branch

branch106.

105.

103.

101.

Forms: bounded; bounded; bounding

box

box

v. to fight with fists; to put crates

n. case; crate; punch; hit

Forms: boxed; boxed; boxing

Forms: plural: boxes

brake

brake

v. to stop a vehicle; to slow down a vehicle

n. device which is used to slow or stop a vehicle

Forms: braked; braked; braking

Forms: plural: brakes

24

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brand

brand108.
break

breadth110.
down

break

break112.
breakthrough

breakdown114.

113.

111.

109.

107.

3420 TOEIC Vocabulary Words

branch

branch

v. to fork; to divide into parts or sections

n. affiliate; office; industry; trade; business unit

Forms: branched; branched; branching

Forms: plural: branches

brand

brand

v. to mark with an iron; to disgrace; to condemn

n. trademark; type; make; variety; product name

Forms: branded; branded; branding

Forms: plural: brands

breadth

break

n. width; broadness

v. to shatter; to crack; to be cut off; to cancel

Forms: plural: breaths

Forms: broke; broken; breaking

break

break down

n. fracture; pause; rest; opportunity; alteration

v. to fail; to collapse; to defeat; to overthrow; to descend

Forms: plural: breaks

Forms: broke down; broken down; breaking down

breakdown

breakthrough

n. collapse; crash; incident

n. progress; reaching a new level; removal of a barrier;


penetration

brief

brief116.

115.

Forms: plural: break downs

Forms: plural: breakthroughs

brief

brief

n. abstract; summary; concise report; instructions

v. to make a summary; to give a report; to inform; to


instruct somebody

briefcase

brief118.

117.

Forms: plural: briefs

Forms: briefed; briefed; briefing

brief

briefcase

adj. short; concise

n. small container for documents; tool for synchronizing


files between two computers

broadcast

briefing120.

119.

Forms: plural: briefcases

briefing

broadcast

n. short meeting; summarizing; giving and receiving

v. to transmit over the radio; to publicize; to advertise

instructions; reporting

brochure

broadcast122.

121.

Forms: plural: briefings

Forms: broadcast; broadcast; broadcasting

25

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broker

broker124.
browse

brokered126.

125.

123.

3420 TOEIC Vocabulary Words

broadcast

brochure

n. transmission; dispatch; radio program

n. leaflet; booklet; printed product information

Forms: plural: broadcasts

Forms: plural: brochures

broker

broker

v. to act as a middleman; to buy and to sell property for

n. middleman; agent who buys and sells property or

other people

shares etc. for other people

Forms: brokered; brokered; brokering

Forms: plural: brokers

brokered

browse

adj. negotiated by an intermediary; settled through a

v. to leaf through a book; to surf Internet websites

middleman

bubble

browser128.
budget

budge130.
budget

budget132.

131.

129.

127.

Forms: browsed; browsed; browsing

browser

bubble

n. program used for viewing websites on the Internet

n. blister; gas-filled sac

Forms: plural: browsers

Forms: plural: bubbles

budge

budget

v. to move; to be moved

n. financial framework; financial plan

Forms: budged; budged; budging

Forms: plural: budgets

budget

budget

v. to prepare a financial plan; to make financial

adj. inexpensive; cheap; of or relating to a financial plan

arrangements

building

build134.

133.

Forms: budgeted; budgeted; budgeting

build

building

v. to construct; to create; to increase intensity; to

n. house; dwelling; structure; premises

energize

bulk

bulk136.
transfer

bulk

bulk138.

137.

135.

Forms: built; built; building

Forms: plural: buildings

bulk

bulk

n. volume; mass; main part; most

v. to inflate; to play an important role

Forms: plural: bulks

Forms: bulked; bulked; bulking

26

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3420 TOEIC Vocabulary Words

bulk

bulk transfer

adj. relating to or designed for the mass of people; large-

n. the sale of all or most of a company's inventory or

scale; widespread; popular

assets to another company

buoyant

bullion140.

139.

Forms: plural: bulk transfers

bullion

buoyant

n. bars of gold; bars of silver

adj. floating; light; lively; cheerful

butcher

business142.
button

button144.
buyer

145.

143.

141.

Forms: no plural

business

butcher

n. company; enterprise; trade; commerce; issue

n. meat cutter; meat slaughterer; owner of a meat shop

Forms: plural: businesses

Forms: plural: butchers

button

button

v. to fasten; to connect

n. switch; icon to click on

Forms: buttoned; buttoned; buttoning

Forms: plural: buttons

buyer
n. person who purchases something; client; customer;
shopper; purchaser
Forms: plural: buyers

27

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C.C.O.

C.C.2.

3420 TOEIC Vocabulary Words

C1.

C.C.

C.C.O.

abbr. secondary email address; copy of a document,

abbr. person who is responsible for ensuring that a

message, or email that is sent to a third party

company and its employees are in compliance with


government regulations and internal policies
Forms: Chief Compliance Officer (CCO)

C.F.O.

C.E.O.4.
C.O.D.

C.I.O.6.

5.

3.

Forms: carbon copy (cc, CC)

C.E.O.

C.F.O.

abbr. head manager of a corporation, company or large

abbr. treasurer; person who is responsible for all financial

organization

aspects of a company

Forms: Chief Executive Officer (CEO)

Forms: Chief Financial Officer (CFO)

C.I.O.

C.O.D.

C.S.O.

C.O.O.8.

7.

abbr. Chief Information Officer; person who is responsible abbr. cash payment to be made upon receipt of products
for a company's internal information systems

or goods

Forms: Chief Information Officer (CIO)

Forms: cash on delivery (COD, c.o.d.)

C.O.O.

C.S.O.

abbr. head manager of a company or large organization

abbr. top executive rank; person who is responsible for


the security of a company's communications and
business systems

C.V.

C.T.O.10.

9.

Forms: Chief Operating Officer (COO)

Forms: Chief Security Officer (CSO)

C.T.O.

C.V.

abbr. top executive rank; person who is responsible for

abbr. resume; chronological description of one's

research and development and possibly for new product

employment and educational history; biography

plans

cabinet

cab12.

11.

Forms: Chief Technology Officer (CTO)

Forms: Curriculum Vitae (CV)

cab

cabinet

n. taxi; carriage; driver's compartment

n. small room; piece of office furniture; office; part of a


government

calculator

calculate14.
calendar

calendar16.

15.

13.

Forms: plural: cabs

Forms: plural: cabinets

calculate

calculator

v. to estimate; to compute; to depend upon

n. small machine that makes computations

Forms: calculated; calculated; calculating

Forms: plural: calculators

28

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3420 TOEIC Vocabulary Words

calendar

calendar

v. to write down in a timetable; to register

n. chart showing the months of a year (including days


and weeks); schedule; timetable
Forms: plural: calendars

call

call18.
campaign

campaign20.

19.

17.

Forms: calendared; calendared; calendaring

call

call

v. to invite; to speak loudly; to visit; to phone

n. telephone conversation; visit; invitation; claim; need

Forms: called; called; calling

Forms: plural: calls

campaign

campaign

v. to conduct a series of activities organized to

n. series of activities organized to accomplish a goal

accomplish a goal
Forms: plural: campaigns

cancellation

cancel22.
candidate

candid24.

23.

21.

Forms: campaigned; campaigned; campaigning

cancel

cancellation

v. to call off; to annul; to terminate; to stop

n. nullification; termination; revocation

Forms: canceled; canceled; canceling

Forms: plural: cancellations

candid

candidate

adj. honest; straightforward; open; frank

n. applicant; nominee; examinee

canvass

canvass26.

25.

Forms: plural: candidates

canvass

canvass

v. to examine; to debate; to scrutinize; to solicit votes or

n. examination; careful inspection; debate

opinions

capable

capability28.

27.

Forms: canvassed, canvassed; canvassing

Forms: no plural

capability

capable

n. ability; skill; trait; characteristic; quality

adj. skilled; able; proficient; adept

capex

capacity30.

29.

Forms: plural: capabilities

capacity

capex

n. volume which can be contained or received; function;

n. refers to the cost of developing a product or system

role; feature; potential

capital

capital32.

31.

Forms: plural: capacities

Forms: CAPital EXpenditures

29

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3420 TOEIC Vocabulary Words

capital

capital

n. property; financial means; assets; main city of a

adj. main; major; chief; principal

country of region

capitalization

requirement34.

capital

33.

Forms: plural: capitals

capital requirement

capitalization

n. the level of monetary funding a company needs to run

n. process of turning money into profit

smoothly
Forms: plural: capitalizations

capture

capitalize36.
card

car38.
care

card40.

39.

37.

35.

Forms: plural: capital requirements

capitalize

capture

v. to turn into money; to turn profit; to finance

v. to copy; to photograph; to snapshot

Forms: capitalized; capitalized; capitalizing

Forms: captured; captured; capturing

car

card

n. automobile; elevator; vehicle; ride

v. to ask for an identification (i.e. in a bar)

Forms: plural: cars

Forms: carded; carded; carding

card

care

n. thin and flat object

v. to be concerned with; to look out for; to watch over; to


like; to be fond of

career

care42.

41.

Forms: plural: cards

Forms: cared; cared; caring

care

career

n. attention; concern; caution; supervision; management

v. to evolve; to make to progress; to grow professionally;


to develop; to speed

careful

career44.

43.

Forms: no plural

Forms: careered; careered; careering

career

careful

n. profession; development; progress; gradual growth

adj. cautious; particular; concentrated; meticulous

carpenter

cargo46.

45.

Forms: plural: careers

cargo

carpenter

n. freight; luggage; baggage; load

n. a person who makes things out of wood such as


furniture

carpet

carpet48.

47.

Forms: plural: cargos

Forms: plural: carpenters

30

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3420 TOEIC Vocabulary Words

carpet

carpet

v. to cover or to furnish with textile materials; to

n. rug; fabric floor covering

reprimand; to scold
Forms: plural: carpets

carrier

carriage50.

49.

Forms: carpeted; carpeted; carpeting

carriage

carrier

n. coach; buggy; transportation

n. person or company that ships things; shipping


company; truck
Forms: plural: carriers

out

carry

carry52.

51.

Forms: plural: carriages

carry

carry out

v. to transport; to continue; to bear

v. to put into practice; to accomplish; to perform; to


conduct
Forms: carried out; carried out; carrying out

cart

cart54.
case

case56.
cash

cash58.

57.

55.

53.

Forms: carried; carried; carrying

cart

cart

v. to drag or to carry by force

n. car; wagon; coach; carriage; trolley

Forms: carted; carted; carting

Forms: plural: carts

case

case

v. to pack; to crate; to box

n. occasion; instance; situation; bag

Forms: cased; cased; casing

Forms: plural: cases

cash

cash

v. to exchange a check (or another money order) for

n. money in the form of coins and bank notes

coins and bank notes; to redeem

cast

reserves60.

cash

59.

Forms: cashed; cashed; cashing

Forms: no plural

cash reserves

cast

n. bank deposits that are available on a short-term basis;

n. throw; team of actors; squint (of the eye)

treasury bills

catalog

cast62.
categorize

catalog64.

63.

61.

Forms: only plural

Forms: plural: casts

cast

catalog

v. to throw; to project; to form; to shape

n. itemized list; index; directory

Forms: cast; cast; casting

Forms: plural: catalogs

31

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cater

category66.
cause

catering68.

67.

65.

3420 TOEIC Vocabulary Words

catalog

categorize

v. to make an itemized list; to index; to classify

v. to arrange in groups; to classify; to sort; to structure

Forms: cataloged; cataloged; cataloging

Forms: categorized; categorized; categorizing

category

cater

n. class; division; section; segment

v. to provide; to supply (food, etc.); to care for

Forms: plural: categories

Forms: catered; catered; catering

catering

cause

n. business of supplying and servicing food

n. reason; purpose; principle; factor; basis for a legal


case
Forms: plural: causes

caution

cause70.
cautious

caution72.

71.

69.

Forms: plural: caterings

cause

caution

v. to make happen; to bring about

n. notice; warning; caveat; carefulness; premonition

Forms: caused; caused; causing

Forms: no plural

caution

cautious

v. to warn; to notify of danger

adj. careful; wary; suspicious

cement

caveat74.
central

cement76.

75.

73.

Forms: cautioned; cautioned; cautioning

caveat

cement

n. caution; warning; admonition; suspension of

v. to reinforce; to bind together; to strengthen a

proceedings (law)

connection

Forms: plural: caveats

Forms: cemented; cemented; cementing

cement

central

n. concrete; mortar; bonding agent; filling (for teeth)

adj. main; principal; major

century

central78.
certain

ceremony80.

79.

77.

Forms: no plural

central

century

n. telephone exchange; operator; main bureau or office

n. period of one hundred years

Forms: plural: centrals

Forms: plural: centuries

32

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3420 TOEIC Vocabulary Words

ceremony

certain

n. rite; ritual; formality

adj. sure; definite; particular; specific

certificate

certainly82.

81.

Forms: plural: ceremonies

certainly

certificate

adv. of course; surely; doubtlessly; definitely; absolutely

n. official document; license; reference; attestation

certify

certificate84.
chain

chain86.

85.

83.

Forms: plural: certificates

certificate

certify

v. to confirm; to license; to authorize

v. to confirm to be true; to authorize

Forms: certificated; certificated; certificating

Forms: certified; certified; certifying

chain

chain

n. group of stores, outlets, banks etc., under one

v. to tie down

management

challenge

challenge88.

87.

Forms: plural: chains

Forms: chained; chained; chaining

challenge

challenge

change

change90.

89.

n. difficult situation; something which tests one's ability to v. to dare; to invite to engage in a contest; to stimulate; to
handle difficult tasks

test one's ability

Forms: plural: challenges

Forms: challenged; challenged; challenging

change

change

n. replacement; alteration; shift; coins; money received

v. to alter; to replace; to become different

back after paying for goods

chapter

changeable92.

91.

Forms: plural: changes

Forms: changed; changed; changing

changeable

chapter

adj. arbitrary; fickle; flexible

n. part of a book; phase; stage; local branch of an


organization

characteristic

character94.

93.

Forms: plural: chapters

character

characteristic

n. nature; disposition; attitude; figure; person; statement

n. trait; feature; ability; distinguishing quality; attribute

of qualities

characterize

characteristic96.

95.

Forms: plural: characters

Forms: plural: characteristics

33

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3420 TOEIC Vocabulary Words

characteristic

characterize

adj. typical; distinctive

v. to describe; to depict; to portray; to outline

charge

charge98.
chart

chart100.
cheap

cheap102.
check

check104.

103.

101.

99.

97.

Forms: characterized; characterized; characterizing

charge

charge

n. price; cargo; responsibility

v. to entrust; to order; to command; to supply with power

Forms: plural: charges

Forms: charged; charged; charging

chart

chart

n. graph; diagram

v. to make a graph; to draw; to diagram

Forms: plural: charts

Forms: charted; charted; charting

cheap

cheap

adj. opposite of expensive; inexpensive

adv. inexpensively

check

check

n. examination; money order; payment order; restaurant

v. to examine; to investigate; to inspect; to scrutinize

bill

cheque

chef106.

105.

Forms: plural: checks

Forms: checked; checked; checking

chef

cheque

n. professional cook; head cook in a restaurant of hotel

n. written order directing a bank to pay a specific amount


of money

choice

choice108.

107.

Forms: plural: chefs

Forms: plural: cheques

choice

choice

n. option; selection; variety

adj. select; fine; excellent

chop

choose110.
chore

chop112.
circle

circle114.

113.

111.

109.

Forms: plural: choices

choose

chop

v. to select; to prefer; to pick; to make a choice

n. seal; trademark

Forms: chose; chose; chosen

Forms: plural: chops

chop

chore

v. to cut; to cut down; to cut into pieces; to mince

n. routine job; unpleasant task

Forms: chopped; chopped; chopping

Forms: plural: chores

34

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3420 TOEIC Vocabulary Words

circle

circle

v. to surround

n. ring-shaped geometric figure; round figure; group;


society
Forms: plural: circles

circumstance

circumspect116.

115.

Forms: circled; circled; circling

circumspect

circumstance

adj. careful; cautious

v. to place in particular situations

circumvent

circumstance118.
citizen

citation120.
city

citizenship122.

121.

119.

117.

Forms: circumstanced; circumstanced; circumstancing

circumstance

circumvent

n. condition; influencing factor; situation

v. to by-pass; to side-step; to evade

Forms: plural: circumstances

Forms: circumvented; circumvented; circumventing

citation

citizen

n. quotation; official praise; summons to a court of law

n. resident; native of a country

Forms: plural: citations

Forms: plural: citizens

citizenship

city

n. right to live in a country; condition of being a member

n. town; large urban area

of a country

claim

civic124.

123.

Forms: plural: citizenships

Forms: plural: cities

civic

claim

adj. pertaining to a city; pertaining to citizenship

n. lawsuit; request; right

classify

clarify126.

125.

Forms: plural: claims

clarify

classify

v. to make clear; to explain

v. to arrange systematically; to structure; to group; to sort;


to make confidential

clear

clause128.
clear

clear130.

129.

127.

Forms: clarified; clarified; clarifying

Forms: classified; classified; classifying

clause

clear

n. paragraph; section in a document; part of a contract

v. to clarify; to explain; to approve

Forms: plural: clauses

Forms: cleared; cleared; clearing

35

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3420 TOEIC Vocabulary Words

clear

clear

adj. pure; obvious; easy to understand; comprehensible

n. deletion; act of unmarking; removal of a mark from a


check box (Computers)

clearly

clearance132.

131.

Forms: no plural

clearance

clearly

n. release; approval; washing

adv. obviously; apparently; unmistakably

clerk

clerk134.

133.

Forms: no plural

clerk

clerk

v. to work as an employee (i.e. in the legal or bank

n. minor office worker; book-keeper; bureaucrat

business)
Forms: plural: clerks

climate

client136.

135.

Forms: clerked; clerked; clerking

client

climate

n. customer; buyer; computer that serves as a terminal

n. weather conditions; surrounding conditions;


atmosphere; setting

climb

climb138.

137.

Forms: plural: clients

Forms: plural: climates

climb

climb

v. to ascend; to up; to slope upward; to move upward

n. ascent

gradually

clip

clip140.
clock

clipping142.
close

clock144.

143.

141.

139.

Forms: climbed; climbed; climbing

Forms: plural: climbs

clip

clip

v. to cut off; to curtail; to trim off

n. clamp; fastener; shred; segment of video

Forms: clipped; clipped; clipping

Forms: plural: clips

clipping

clock

n. article cut from a newspaper

v. to measure time; to register on a time piece

Forms: plural: clippings

Forms: clocked; clocked; clocking

clock

close

n. timepiece; device for telling time

adv. nearby

close

close146.

145.

Forms: plural: clocks

36

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clout

close148.

147.

3420 TOEIC Vocabulary Words

close

close

n. end; conclusion; plug

v. to shut; to be shut; to finish; to complete

Forms: plural: closes

Forms: closed; closed; closing

close

clout

adj. near; adjacent; careful

n. pull; influence; power; weight

coach

coach150.
coalition

coal152.
code

code154.
coherent

cognition156.

155.

153.

151.

149.

Forms: plural: clouts

coach

coach

v. to train; to teach; to instruct; to guide; to counsel

n. trainer; tutor; teacher; bus

Forms: coached; coached; coaching

Forms: plural: coaches

coal

coalition

n. fuel made from carbon; cinder; ember

n. alliance; union; agreement

Forms: plural: coals

Forms: plural: coalitions

code

code

v. to cipher

n. cipher; collection of instructions of the law

Forms: coded; coded; coding

Forms: plural: codes

cognition

coherent

n. awareness; perception

adj. sticking together; consistent

coin

cohesive158.

157.

Forms: plural: cognitions

cohesive

coin

adj. sticking together; forming a unit or union; united;

v. to mint; to invent a new word or phrase

related to each other

coincidence

coin160.

159.

Forms: coined; coined; coining

coin

coincidence

n. metal money; piece of stamped metal currency (as

n. chance occurrence; unforeseen event

opposed to paper bills)

collaboration

collaborate162.

161.

Forms: plural: coins

Forms: plural: coincidences

37

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collateral

collate164.

163.

3420 TOEIC Vocabulary Words

collaborate

collaboration

v. to work together; to cooperate

n. working together; cooperation

Forms: collaborated; collaborated; collaborating

Forms: plural: collaborations

collate

collateral

v. to compare in a critical manner; to verify; to collect; to

adj. of secondary importance; insignificant; corresponding

compile

colleague

collateral166.
collect

collect168.

167.

165.

Forms: collated; collated; collating

collateral

colleague

n. security deposit

n. fellow worker; cowoker

Forms: plural: collaterals

Forms: plural: colleagues

collect

collect

adj. having the receiver pay the charges (for a phone call) v. to gather; to garner; to assemble; to accumulate; to
take payments

collectible

collectible170.

169.

Forms: collected; collected; collecting

collectible

collectible

adj. payable; subject to or requiring payment especially

n. rare object

as specified

college

collection172.

171.

Forms: plural: collectibles

collection

college

n. selection; choice; assortment; accumulation

n. institution of higher education that grants degrees; type


of school; council

colloquial

collide174.

173.

Forms: plural: collections

Forms: plural: colleges

collide

colloquial

v. to crash; to meet head on; to come together with solid

adj. conversational; not used in formal speaking or

or direct impact

writing; informal

combine

combination176.
across

come

combine178.

177.

175.

Forms: collided; collided; colliding

combination

combine

n. joining; union; an ordered sequence

v. to unite; to join; to come together; to become one

Forms: plural: combinations

Forms: combined; combined; combining

38

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comfort

along180.

come

179.

3420 TOEIC Vocabulary Words

combine

come across

n. harvesting machine

v. to happen upon; to find by chance; to discover; to see

Forms: plural: combines

Forms: came across; come across; coming across

come along

comfort

v. to accompany someone; to appear; to advance; to

v. to bring relief; to encourage; to console

succeed
Forms: comforted; comforted; comforting

comfortable

comfort182.

181.

Forms: came along; come along; coming along

comfort

comfortable

n. relief; consolation; coziness

adj. easy; relaxing; cosy; financially well to do

command

comforting184.

183.

Forms: no plural

comforting

command

adj. consoling; encouraging; reassuring; brining relief;

v. to rule; to control; to be in charge; to be in authority

heartening

comment

command186.

185.

Forms: commanded; commanded; commanding

command

comment

n. order; direction; control; domination; headquarters

v. to make a remark; to explain; to write an explanatory


note

commentary

comment188.

187.

Forms: plural: commands

Forms: commented; commented; commenting

comment

commentary

n. remark; note; statement; explanation

n. series of remarks; explanation (often written in essay


or book form)

commercial

commerce190.

189.

Forms: plural: comments

Forms: plural: commentaries

commerce

commercial

n. trade; business; transactions; exchange of

adj. pertaining to business; pertaining to buying and

products/services and money

selling

commission

commercial192.
commit

commission194.

193.

191.

Forms: no plural

commercial

commission

n. television or radio advertisement

v. to contract; to empower; to authorize; to confer

Forms: plural: commercials

Forms: commissioned; commissioned; commissioning

39

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committed

commitment196.

195.

3420 TOEIC Vocabulary Words

commission

commit

n. percentage of profits earned by a salesperson

v. to perform; to do; to engage

Forms: plural: commissions

Forms: committed; committed; committing

commitment

committed

n. obligation; promise

adj. obligated; engaged; industrious; ambitious; loyal

common

commodity198.

197.

Forms: plural: commitments

commodity

common

n. merchandise; goods; item that is bought and sold;

adj. shared; ordinary; mediocre; average; public

something useful

communication

common200.

199.

Forms: plural: commodities

common

communication

n. open public area in a city or town; park; square

n. exchange of information or ideas; transfer; passing


along; letter; message

commuter

commute202.
comparatively

company204.

203.

201.

Forms: plural: commons

Forms: plural: communications

commute

commuter

v. to exchange; to replace; to convert; to travel back and

n. person who travels back and forth between home and

forth regularly (i.e. to work)

work

Forms: commuted; commuted; commuting

Forms: plural: commuters

company

comparatively

n. corporation; firm; ensemble; association with another

adv. relatively

compare

compare206.

205.

Forms: plural: companies

compare

compare

v. to show how (people or things) are alike or different; to n. contrast


consider to be similar

compartmentalize

comparison208.

207.

Forms: compared; compared; comparing

Forms: plural: compares

comparison

compartmentalize

n. pointing out of similarities and differences; similarity;

v. to separate into sections; to partition

likeness
Forms: plural: comparisons

Forms: compartmentalized; compartmentalized;

compatible

compatible210.

209.

compartmentalizing

40

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3420 TOEIC Vocabulary Words

compatible

compatible

adj. congruous

n. piece of equipment which can be used with other


machines without alternation

compensate

compel212.
compete

compensation214.
competition

competent216.

215.

213.

211.

Forms: plural: compatibles

compel

compensate

v. to force; to coerce; to influence; to impose; to demand

v. to reward; to reimburse; to pay back; to make up for

Forms: compelled; compelled; compelling

Forms: compensated; compensated; compensating

compensation

compete

n. repayment; something done to make up for (a loss,

v. to contest; to contend against another; to participate in

deficiency or fault)

a contest

Forms: plural: compensations

Forms: competed; competed; competing

competent

competition

adj. adept; capable; suitably skilled; well qualified;

n. rivalry; contest; act of competing against another

experienced

competitor

competitive218.

217.

Forms: plural: competitions

competitive

competitor

adj. involving rivalry; tending to contest

n. rival; (i.e. Coca Cola and Pepsi); person who


participates in a contest

complain

complacent220.

219.

Forms: plural: competitors

complacent

complain

adj. content; self-satisfied; comfortable; smug

v. to find fault; to express displeasure; to protest

complete

complaint222.

221.

Forms: complained; complained; complaining

complaint

complete

n. finding fault; act of expressing displeasure; pleading

adj. whole; perfect; finished

entered by a plaintiff (Law)

completion

complete224.
compliant

complex226.

225.

223.

Forms: plural: complaints

complete

completion

v. to make whole; to finish; to perfect

n. finishing; finalizing

Forms: completed; completed; completing

Forms: no plural

41

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3420 TOEIC Vocabulary Words

complex

compliant

n. compound; various objects that for m a unit

adj. obedient; submissive; obliging; yielding; acquiescent

complicated

complicate228.

227.

Forms: plural: complexes

complicate

complicated

v. to confuse; to make hard to understand; to make

adj. confusing; hard to understand; difficult; complex

difficult; to make complex

comply

compliment230.
compose

component232.

231.

229.

Forms: complicated; complicated; complicating

compliment

comply

n. expression of admiration; word of praise for someone

v. to submit; to consent; to obey; to agree with

Forms: plural: compliments

Forms: complied; complied; complying

component

compose

n. ingredient; single piece which forms part of a larger

v. to create; to write; to relax; to calm oneself; to settle

unit; part; constituent; element

composure

composition234.
comprehensive

comprehend236.

235.

233.

Forms: plural: components

Forms: composed; composed; composing

composition

composure

n. make-up; constitution; essay

n. serenity; self-control; calmness; coolness

Forms: plural: compositions

Forms: no plural

comprehend

comprehensive

v. to understand; to contain; to grasp; to absorb; to

adj. including a lot; large in scope; extensive

perceive

compromise

comprise238.
compute

compromise240.

239.

237.

Forms: comprehended; comprehended; comprehending

comprise

compromise

v. to include; to contain; to consist

v. to establish an agreement; to settle a dispute

Forms: comprised; comprised; comprising

Forms: compromised; compromised; compromising

compromise

compute

n. agreement; settling of a disagreement by making

v. to calculate; to figure; to estimate

mutual concessions

conceive

conceal242.

241.

Forms: plural: compromises

Forms: computed; computed; computing

42

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concept

concentrate244.
concern

conceptualize246.
concerning

concern248.

247.

245.

243.

3420 TOEIC Vocabulary Words

conceal

conceive

v. to hide; to keep secret; to cover up

v. to understand; to comprehend; to grasp

Forms: concealed; concealed; concealing

Forms: conceived; conceived; conceiving

concentrate

concept

v. to focus; to pay attention

n. plan; idea; thought; structure; system

Forms: concentrated; concentrated; concentrating

Forms: plural: concepts

conceptualize

concern

v. to plan; to design; to imagine; to conceive; to envision

v. to involve; to affect; to worry; to interest; to relate to

Forms: conceptualized; conceptualized; conceptualizing

Forms: concerned; concerned; concerning

concern

concerning

n. worry; issue; problem; group of companies; large

prep. about

corporation

conclusion

conclude250.
concrete

concoct252.

251.

249.

Forms: plural: concerns

conclude

conclusion

v. to finish; to infer; to deduce; to make a decision

n. end; deduction; cognition; final decision

Forms: concluded; concluded; concluding

Forms: plural: conclusions

concoct

concrete

v. to invent; to create; to contrive; to think up

adj. tangible; real; substantial; solid

concrete

concrete254.
condition

concur256.

255.

253.

Forms: concocted; concocted; concocting

concrete

concrete

n. cement; something tangible (idea, object, etc.)

v. to solidify

Forms: no plural

Forms: concreted; concreted; concreting

concur

condition

v. to agree; to harmonize; to coincide; to collaborate; to

n. situation; requirement; circumstance; stipulation

consent

conduct

condition258.

257.

Forms: concurred; concurred; concurring

Forms: plural: conditions

43

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conference

conduct260.
confident

confidence262.

261.

259.

3420 TOEIC Vocabulary Words

condition

conduct

v. to train; to accustom; to adapt; to stipulate; to prepare

n. behavior; management

Forms: conditioned; conditioned; conditioning

Forms: no plural

conduct

conference

v. to behave; to manage; to carry out; to transmit

n. meeting; seminar; convention

Forms: conducted; conducted; conducting

Forms: plural: conferences

confidence

confident

n. trust; certainty; faith in oneself; secret

adj. certain; sure of oneself; composed

confirm

confidential264.

263.

Forms: no plural

confidential

confirm

adj. classified; secret; strictly private

v. to approve; to verify; to ascertain

confuse

confirmation266.

265.

Forms: confirmed; confirmed; confirming

confirmation

confuse

n. formal approval; proof; verification; religious ceremony

v. to embarrass; to mix up; to muddle up; to bewilder; to


startle

congruent

confusion268.

267.

Forms: plural: confirmations

Forms: confused; confused; confusing

confusion

congruent

n. disorder; embarrassment; bewilderment

adj. identical; corresponding; in agreement; harmonious

conjure

conjunction270.
conscientious

connote272.

271.

269.

Forms: plural: confusions

conjunction

conjure

n. connection; link; uniting; joining

v. to appeal; to summon; to invoke; to implore

Forms: plural: conjunctions

Forms: conjured; conjured; conjuring

connote

conscientious

v. to imply; to suggest; to hint

adj. careful; wanting to do what is right

conscious

conscientiously274.
consciousness

consciously276.

275.

273.

Forms: connoted; connoted; connoting

conscientiously

conscious

adv. dutifully; with care; thoroughly

adj. aware; awake; attentive

44

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3420 TOEIC Vocabulary Words

consciously

consciousness

adv. knowingly; with awareness

n. awareness; cognition; ability to perceive

consequently

consecutive278.
conservative

conservative280.

279.

277.

Forms: no plural

consecutive

consequently

adj. sequential; following one after another

adv. as a result; therefore

conservative

conservative

adj. resisting change; desiring to preserve traditions;

n. person who is resistant to change; person who favors

cautious

traditional political parties

conserve

conserve282.
consideration

consider284.

283.

281.

Forms: plural: conservatives

conserve

conserve

v. to protect; to guard from harm

n. marmalade; jam

Forms: conserved; conserved; conserving

Forms: plural: conserves

consider

consideration

v. to think over; to believe; to regard; to take into account

n. payment; thoughtfulness; respectfulness; careful


attention

consignment

considering286.

285.

Forms: considered; considered; considering

Forms: plural: considerations

considering

consignment

prep. taking into account; in light of

n. delivery; dispatch; conveyance

consistency

consist288.

287.

Forms: plural: consignments

consist

consistency

v. to be composed of; to be made up of

n. material coherence; firmness; persistence;


steadfastness

consistently

consistent290.
constant

consortium292.
constrain

constant294.

293.

291.

289.

Forms: consisted; consisted; consisting

Forms: no plural

consistent

consistently

adj. coherent; steadfast; firm

adv. regularly; persistently; steadily; stably

consortium

constant

n. partnership; association

n. number with a fixed value; factor

Forms: plural: consortiums

Forms: plural: constants

45

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3420 TOEIC Vocabulary Words

constant

constrain

adj. firm; faithful; persistent; unbending; adamant

v. to compel; to reinforce; to oblige; to coerce

construction

constraint296.
consultancy

construe298.

297.

295.

Forms: constrained; constrained; constraining

constraint

construction

n. restriction; force; limitation; limit

n. building; structure; the industry of erecting buildings

Forms: plural: constraints

Forms: plural: constructions

construe

consultancy

v. to interpret; to see; to perceive

n. the practice of giving expert advice within a particular


field
Forms: plural: consultancies

consume

consultant300.

299.

Forms: construed; construed; construing

consultant

consume

n. advisor (adviser); counselor; coach; person who gives

v. to eat or drink; to use up; to destroy

professional advice

consumption

consumer302.
contact

contact304.

303.

301.

Forms: plural: consultants

Forms: consumed; consumed; consuming

consumer

consumption

n. buyer; client

n. using up

Forms: plural: consumers

Forms: no plural

contact

contact

v. to establish communication; to make a connection; to

n. link; connection; touch; interface

link to; to connect with

contemporary

contain306.

305.

Forms: contacted; contacted; contacting

Forms: plural: contacts

contain

contemporary

v. to include; to hold back; to restrain; to keep under

adj. modern; current

control

content

contemporary308.

307.

Forms: contained; contained; containing

contemporary

content

n. person living at about the same time as another person adj. satisfied; pleased

content

content310.

309.

Forms: plural: contemporaries

46

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contest

contest312.
continue

context314.

313.

311.

3420 TOEIC Vocabulary Words

content

content

n. substance; component; all that is inside of something

v. to satisfy; to please; to meet a request

Forms: plural: contents

Forms: contented; contented; contenting

contest

contest

v. to fight for; to challenge; to appeal

n. competition

Forms: contested; contested; contesting

Forms: plural: contests

context

continue

n. connection; overall situation; background

v. to go on; to keep doing something; to last; to


perpetuate
Forms: continued; continued; continuing

continuous

continuity316.

315.

Forms: plural: contexts

continuity

continuous

n. stability; consistency; continuousness; unbroken

adj. successive; uninterrupted; permanent

succession

contract

contract318.
contrary

contractor320.

319.

317.

Forms: no plural

contract

contract

v. to create a formal agreement; to bind legally; to obtain

n. agreement; pact; deal

Forms: contracted; contracted; contracting

Forms: plural: contracts

contractor

contrary

n. person or company that does a particular job or

adv. in opposition; against; counter

assignment

contrary

contrary322.

321.

Forms: plural: contractors

contrary

contrary

n. something which is opposite

adj. opposed

control

contrive324.

323.

Forms: plural: contraries

contrive

control

v. to devise; to invent; to dream up; to design (often in a

n. rule; command; supervision; restraint

negative way)

convenience

controlling326.

325.

Forms: contrived; contrived; contriving

Forms: plural: controls

47

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3420 TOEIC Vocabulary Words

controlling

convenience

adj. ruling; supervising; regulating; managing; restraining

n. comfort; fitness or suitability for performing an action

convention

convenient328.

327.

Forms: plural: conveniences

convenient

convention

adj. comfortable; useful; serviceable

n. conference; routine; custom; treaty

converge

conventional330.

329.

Forms: plural: conventions

conventional

converge

adj. customary; routine; formal

v. to meet; to assemble to gather; to get together

conversation

conversant332.

331.

Forms: converged; converged; converging

conversant

conversation

adj. well-versed; proficient; skilled

n. talk; dialog; discussion; verbal exchange

conveyance

convey334.
convince

conviction336.

335.

333.

Forms: plural: conversations

convey

conveyance

v. to carry; to impart or to communicate by statement,

n. the act of transferring a property title from one person

suggestion, gesture or appearance

to another

Forms: conveyed; conveyed; conveying

Forms: plural: conveyances

conviction

convince

n. acknowledgment; strong persuasion or belief;

v. to persuade; to influence; to prove

condemnation

cook

cook338.
coordinate

cooperation340.

339.

337.

Forms: plural: convictions

Forms: convinced; convinced; convincing

cook

cook

v. to prepare food by heating; to falsify account records

n. a person who prepares food

Forms: cooked; cooked; cooking

Forms: plural: cooks

cooperation

coordinate

n. collaboration; working together

adj. equal; equivalent; of equal rank or authority

coordinate

coordinate342.

341.

Forms: plural: cooperations

48

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copy

cope344.
cordially

copy346.

345.

343.

3420 TOEIC Vocabulary Words

coordinate

coordinate

n. reference point; geographical location

v. to arrange in proper order

Forms: plural: coordinates

Forms: coordinated; coordinated; coordinating

cope

copy

v. to manage in spite of difficulty; to struggle successfully

v. to duplicate; to imitate

Forms: coped; coped; coping

Forms: copied; copied; copying

copy

cordially

n. duplicate; photostat

adv. in a friendly manner; warmly

corner

corner348.

347.

Forms: plural: copies

corner

corner

v. to hold at bay; to gain advantage on the market; to

n. place where two surfaces meet; angle

approach; to catch; to trap

corporate

corp.350.

349.

Forms: cornered; cornered; cornering

Forms: plural: corners

corp.

corporate

abbr. large company; firm; business

adj. common; shared; collective

correct

correct352.

351.

Forms: corporation

correct

correct

adj. right; proper; exact; accurate

v. to make right; to amend

corrupt

correlation354.

353.

Forms: corrected; corrected; correcting

correlation

corrupt

n. mutual connection (between two or more things);

adj. spoiled; immoral; dishonest; perverted

similarity; parallel

corruption

corrupt356.

355.

Forms: plural: correlations

corrupt

corruption

v. to cause to be dishonest; to pervert; to spoil

n. dishonesty; immorality; irregularity; unlawfulness;


illegality

cost

cost358.

357.

Forms: corrupted; corrupted; corruption

Forms: no plural

49

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counsel

council360.

359.

3420 TOEIC Vocabulary Words

cost

cost

v. to have a price; to require payment; to set a price

n. price; expense

Forms: cost; cost; costing

Forms: plural: costs

council

counsel

n. assembly; board; group of people (gathered to advise,

v. to advise; to instruct; to coach; to advocate

plan, etc.)
Forms: counseled; counseled; counseling

counter

counsel362.

361.

Forms: plural: councils

counsel

counter

n. advice; person who gives advice; attorney; lawyer

pref. against; opposed

counter

counter364.
counterbalance

counter366.

365.

363.

Forms: plural: counsels

counter

counter

n. bar; counting device

v. to oppose; to retaliate; to react; to strike back

Forms: plural: counters

Forms: countered; countered; countering

counter

counterbalance

adv. against; in contrast to

v. to act against; to oppose (with an equal weight, force


etc.)
Forms: counterbalanced; counterbalanced;

couple

counterbalance368.
coupon

couple370.

369.

367.

counterbalancing

counterbalance

couple

n. equal weight or power acting in opposition

v. to connect; to join; to link

Forms: plural: counterbalances

Forms: coupled; coupled; coupling

couple

coupon

n. pair; group of two

n. printed form that entitles the holder to certain rights


such as in a discount

course

courier372.

371.

Forms: plural: couples

Forms: plural: coupons

courier

course

n. messenger; company that delivers messages,

v. to hunt; to pursue; to run over; to race

documents, parcels, etc.

court

course374.

373.

Forms: plural: couriers

Forms: coursed; coursed; coursing

50

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courteously

court376.

375.

3420 TOEIC Vocabulary Words

course

court

n. direction; series of lessons or training units; layer; part

v. to seek to please; to flatter; to seek to gain the

of a meal

affections of someone

Forms: plural: courses

Forms: courted; courted; courting

court

courteously

n. yard; formal reception; place where legal trials take

adv. politely; respectfully; graciously

place

cover

courtesy378.
coverage

cover380.
craft

craft382.
crate

crafted384.

383.

381.

379.

377.

Forms: plural: courts

courtesy

cover

n. politeness; good manners; cordiality; civility

v. to encase; to review; to protect; to include; to insure

Forms: plural: courtesies

Forms: covered; covered; covering

cover

coverage

n. insurance; shelter; casing; front; lid

n. survey; review; news reporting; insurance

Forms: plural: covers

Forms: no plural

craft

craft

v. to shape with skill

n. trade; skill; occupation; boat; plane

Forms: crafted; crafted; crafting

Forms: plural: crafts

crafted

crate

adj. produced; made; manufactured

v. to pack in a box

create

crate386.
creativity

creative388.

387.

385.

Forms: crated; crated; crating

crate

create

n. wooden box; old car; old plane

v. to produce; to design; to make; to manufacture

Forms: plural: crates

Forms: created; created; creating

creative

creativity

adj. inventive; innovative; artistic

n. innovativeness; inventiveness

credit

credible390.

389.

Forms: no plural

51

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3420 TOEIC Vocabulary Words

credible

credit

adj. reliable; trustworthy; dependable

v. to believe; to have faith in; to supply goods by deferred


payment

risk

credit

credit392.

391.

Forms: credited; credited; credited

credit

credit risk

n. money (in a bank account); trust; confidence; respect

n. the prospect that a bond issuer will fail to make


required debt payments
Forms: plural: credit risks

crew

creditor394.

393.

Forms: plural: credits

creditor

crew

n. person or organization that lends something; lender;

n. group of people working together; team

loaner; moneylender

critical

criterion396.

395.

Forms: plural: creditors

Forms: plural: crews

criterion

critical

n. standard against which something is measured; factor; adj. judgmental; important; crucial; vital
discipline

crop

criticize398.

397.

Forms: plural: criteria

criticize

crop

v. to disapprove; to censure; to find fault

n. harvest; produce (Agriculture); group; whip; short


haircut

crowd

crop400.
crowded

crowd402.

401.

399.

Forms: criticized; criticizing

Forms: plural: crops

crop

crowd

v. to harvest; to cut short; to clip

n. public; large group of people; gathering

Forms: cropped; cropped; cropping

Forms: plural: crowds

crowd

crowded

v. to gather together; to group together; to press in

adj. full; packed; crammed together

cruise

crucial404.

403.

Forms: crowded; crowded; crowding

crucial

cruise

adj. very important; critical; decisive; vital

n. traveling on a ship; sea voyage; sailing

crux

cruise406.

405.

Forms: plural: cruises

52

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3420 TOEIC Vocabulary Words

cruise

crux

v. to sail; to move at a moderate speed; to travel; to

n. heart of the matter; main point

coast; to drive along slowly


Forms: plural: cruces or cruxes

cure

cuisine408.

407.

Forms: cruised; cruised; cruising

cuisine

cure

n. style of cooking; national food

n. method or course that restores health; prescribed


treatment for an illness
Forms: plural: cures

curious

cure410.

409.

Forms: plural: cuisines

cure

curious

v. to restore to health; to make well; to correct a bad

adj. inquisitive; desiring to know and understand; odd;

habit; to preserve food

strange; rare

current

currency412.
curt

current414.

413.

411.

Forms: cured; cured; curing

currency

current

n. national money of a country; circulation; custom;

n. flow (of water, electricity, etc.); process; tendency;

prevalence

direction

Forms: plural: currencies

Forms: plural: currents

current

curt

adj. recent; common; prevalent; present; popular

adj. brief; blunt; rude

cushion

curtly416.

415.

Forms: curter; curtest

curtly

cushion

adv. briefly; bluntly; rudely

n. pillow; soft padded object

custom

cushion418.
customize

customer420.

419.

417.

Forms: plural: cushions

cushion

custom

v. to reduce; to protect; to soften; to upholster

n. habit; tradition; convention

Forms: cushioned; cushioned; cushioning

Forms: plural: customs

customer

customize

n. client; buyer; person who buys a product or service

v. to make or to fit according to individual needs or


desires; to personalize; to individualize

cutback

customs422.

421.

Forms: plural: customers

Forms: customized; customized; customizing

53

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3420 TOEIC Vocabulary Words

customs

cutback

n. government department responsible for collecting

n. reduction; curtailing; decrease

taxes on imports

cycle

cycle424.

423.

Forms: only plural

Forms: plural: cutbacks

cycle

cycle

v. to ride a bike

n. series (of stories, articles, reports etc.); recurring


period of time

Forms: cycled; cycled; cycling

Forms: plural: cycles

54

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daily

daily2.

3420 TOEIC Vocabulary Words

D1.

daily

daily

n. newspaper that is published 5 to 7 times a week

adj. occurring on a regular basis

damage

damage4.
dash

danger6.
date

dash8.
deal

deadline10.

9.

7.

5.

3.

Forms: plural: dailies

damage

damage

n. injury; harm

v. to cause harm; to cause injury; to destroy partly

Forms: plural: damages

Forms: damaged; damaged; damaging

danger

dash

n. risk; peril; hazard

n. hyphen; drop; pinch; rush; sprint

Forms: plural: dangers

Forms: plural: dashes

dash

date

v. to move with sudden speed; to bolt; to shatter; to hurl;

n. day, month and year according to the calendar;

to cast

interview; meeting

Forms: dashed; dashed; dashing

Forms: plural: dates

deadline

deal

n. time when a project; assignment; task or job must be

n. agreement; business transaction; exchange; amount

completed or turned in

dealer

deal12.

11.

Forms: plural: deadlines

Forms: plural: deals

deal

dealer

v. to provide; to offer; to distribute; to supply; to sell; to

n. supplier; seller; merchant; agent; sales representative

trade

debate

dealing14.

13.

Forms: dealt; dealt; dealing

Forms: plural: dealers

dealing

debate

n. manner of doing business; behavior; distribution; giving n. argument; dispute; discussion; conversation
out

debris

debate16.
debut

debt18.

17.

15.

Forms: plural: dealings

Forms: plural: debates

debate

debris

v. to argue; to discuss; to consider; to ponder

n. rubble; ruins; wreckage; fragments

Forms: debated; debated; debating

Forms: no plural

55

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decade

debut20.

19.

3420 TOEIC Vocabulary Words

debt

debut

n. obligation; something owed (i.e. money)

n. opening of a show; first public appearance

Forms: plural: debts

Forms: plural: debuts

debut

decade

v. to perform for the first time; to make one's premiere

n. ten years; group of tens

performance
Forms: plural: decades

decision

decide22.

21.

Forms: debuted; debuted; debuting

decide

decision

v. to choose; to select from several options; to conclude;

n. determination; resolution; ruling (especially in court)

to resolve
Forms: plural: decisions

declare

declaration24.

23.

Forms: decided; decided; deciding

declaration

declare

n. statement; proclamation; announcement

v. to proclaim; to make a statement; to make a full


statement of (one's taxable or dutiable property)

decline

decline26.
decrease

decrease28.
dedication

dedicate30.

29.

27.

25.

Forms: plural: declarations

Forms: declared; declared; declaring

decline

decline

n. downward; descent; slope; ebb

v. to refuse; to go down; to decrease; to fall

Forms: plural: declines

Forms: declined; declined; declining

decrease

decrease

n. decline; reduction; lessening

v. to reduce; to lessen; to decline

Forms: plural: decreases

Forms: decreased; decreased; decreasing

dedicate

dedication

default

surrender32.

of

deed
defect

default34.

33.

31.

v. to devote to; to set apart for; to inscribe (a book, poem, n. setting apart; devotion; inscription (in a book, poem,
song, story, etc.) to someone

etc.)

Forms: dedicated; dedicated; dedicating

Forms: plural: dedications

deed of surrender

default

n. a legal document that temporarily transfers a property

v. to fail to perform a duty; to fail to pay on time; to fail to

from one individual to another

appear in court

Forms: plural: deeds of surrender

Forms: defaulted; defaulted; defaulting

56

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3420 TOEIC Vocabulary Words

default

defect

n. failure to perform a duty; option on a computer which is v. to desert; to abandon; to change sides
automatically selected
Forms: defected; defected; defecting

defend

defect36.
define

defense38.
degree

definition40.

39.

37.

35.

Forms: plural: defaults

defect

defend

n. deficiency; flaw

v. to protect; to secure; to vindicate

Forms: plural: defects

Forms: defended; defended; defending

defense

define

n. protection; security; rampart; shield

v. to explain; to clarify; to limit; to set boundaries

Forms: plural: defenses

Forms: defined; defined; defining

definition

degree

n. explanation; meaning; interpretation (as of a word or

n. rank; extent; university certificate

term)

delay

delay42.

41.

Forms: plural: definitions

Forms: plural: degrees

delay

delay

v. to postpone; to hinder; to linger; to move slowly; to

n. postponement; hindrance; hold-up; stopping; lingering

loiter

delegate

delegate44.
deliberately

delete46.

45.

43.

Forms: delayed; delayed; delaying

Forms: plural: delays

delegate

delegate

v. to authorize; to appoint as representative; to pass a

n. representative; deputy; agent; participant of a

duty or responsibility on to someone else

conference, convention, seminar etc.

Forms: delegated; delegated; delegating

Forms: plural: delegates

delete

deliberately

v. to remove totally; to erase; to eliminate

adv. intentionally; purposefully; methodically

deliver

delicious48.

47.

Forms: deleted; deleted; deleting

delicious

deliver

adj. tasty; having a pleasant taste or smell

v. to convey; to give; to bring; to distribute; to express

demand

delivery50.

49.

Forms: delivered; delivered; delivering

57

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demeanor

demand52.
demolish

demographics54.
demonstration

demonstrate56.

55.

53.

51.

3420 TOEIC Vocabulary Words

delivery

demand

n. distribution; liberation; transference

v. to claim; to require; to request strongly

Forms: plural: deliveries

Forms: demanded; demanded; demanding

demand

demeanor

n. claim; requirement; strong request

n. behavior; conduct; bearing; appearance

Forms: plural: demands

Forms: plural: demeanors

demographics

demolish

n. study of the statistical characteristics of a population

v. to destroy; to ruin; to tear down; to remove

Forms: only plural

Forms: demolished; demolished, demolishing

demonstrate

demonstration

v. to present; to show or illustrate something through

n. exhibition; explanation; showing

example, or physical demonstrations

denominator

denial58.

57.

Forms: demonstrated; demonstrated; demonstrating

Forms: plural: demonstrations

denial

denominator

n. refusal to accept; refusal to believe; refusal to

n. shared characteristic; common feature

recognize

density

dense60.

59.

Forms: plural: denials

Forms: plural: denominators

dense

density

adj. compact; having a high mass per unit volume; close

n. compactness; closeness

depart

deny62.

61.

Forms: plural: densities

deny

depart

v. to say that something is not true; to refuse; to renounce v. to leave; to go away; to go in a different direction; to
die

departmental

department64.

63.

Forms: denied; denied; denying

Forms: departed; departed; departing

department

departmental

n. division of a company; section; area

adj. arranged in divisions; divisional; concerning an office

depend

departure66.

65.

Forms: plural: departments

58

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dependent

dependent68.

67.

3420 TOEIC Vocabulary Words

departure

depend

n. leaving; going away; opposite of arrival

v. to rely on; to trust; to be supported by

Forms: plural: departures

Forms: depended; depended; depending

dependent

dependent

adj. relying on; needing (the help or support of another

n. one who relies on another especially for financial

person); conditional; contingent

support

deploy

depict70.
deposit

deposit72.
describe

deregulation74.

73.

71.

69.

Forms: plural: dependents

depict

deploy

v. to describe; to illustrate; to characterize; to portray; to

v. to speak out; to move into a position of readiness and

elucidate

availability

Forms: depicted; depicted; depicting

Forms: deployed; deployed; deploying

deposit

deposit

v. to put a sum of money in a bank for safekeeping; to

n. sum of money that has been put in a bank for

pay in part; to set down

safekeeping; partial payment; pledge

Forms: deposited; deposited; depositing

Forms: plural: deposits

deregulation

describe

n. transferal of ownership from government to private

v. to illustrate; to explain; to characterize; to elucidate

hands; privatization

deserve

description76.
design

design78.
despite

desk80.

79.

77.

75.

Forms: plural: deregulations

Forms: described; described; describing

description

deserve

n. explanation; illustration; instruction

v. to be worthy of; to have a right to

Forms: plural: descriptions

Forms: deserved; deserved; deserving

design

design

v. to create; to conceive; to produce; to conceptualize

n. plan; sketch; model; layout; structure

Forms: designed; designed; designing

Forms: plural: designs

desk

despite

n. office table

prep. notwithstanding

destroy

destination82.

81.

Forms: plural: desks

59

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3420 TOEIC Vocabulary Words

destination

destroy

n. place where one is going; the purpose for which

v. to demolish; to ruin; to destruct; to erase

something is destined
Forms: destroyed; destroyed; destroying

detail

destruction84.
detailed

detail86.

85.

83.

Forms: plural: destinations

destruction

detail

n. ruin; desolation; annihilation

v. to list; to describe; to specify; to assign

Forms: plural: destructions

Forms: detailed; detailed; detailing

detail

detailed

n. item; piece of information; part of a whole

adj. itemized; marked by thoroughness in treating small


items or parts

determine

detect88.
developer

develop90.

89.

87.

Forms: plural: details

detect

determine

v. to discover; to discern; to find out

v. to decide; to define; to conclude; to cause; to affect

Forms: detected; detected; detecting

Forms: determined; determined; determining

develop

developer

v. to build; to create; to design; to grow

n. person who creates something; chemical substance


used in photography

device

development92.

91.

Forms: developed; developed; developing

Forms: plural: developers

development

device

n. evolvement; gradual growth; evolution; maturation;

n. apparatus; appliance; gadget; trick; scheme

progression

dial

devise94.

93.

Forms: plural: developments

Forms: plural: devices

devise

dial

v. to plan; to invent; to design

v. to press buttons; to place a phone call by pressing


buttons

diary

dial96.

95.

Forms: devised; devised; devising

Forms: dialed; dialed; dialing; dialed; dialed; dialing

dial

diary

n. rotatable disk on a telephone

n. written account of daily events and occurrences;


journal; daily calendar; log book; blog

dictate

dictate98.

97.

Forms: plural: dials

Forms: plural: diaries

60

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3420 TOEIC Vocabulary Words

dictate

dictate

v. to say something aloud for someone to write down; to

n. ruling principle; command; decree

command; to order; to impose


Forms: plural: dictates

diet

diet100.
difference

dietician102.
difficult

different104.
digital

difficulty106.

105.

103.

101.

99.

Forms: dictated; dictated; dictating

diet

diet

v. to limit the amount of food eaten; to eat only certain

n. nourishment; nutrition; food and drink; regimen; weight

kinds of food

loss plan

Forms: dieted; dieted; dieting

Forms: plural: diets

dietician

difference

n. nutritionist; expert on nutrition

n. distinction; unusual quality; disagreement; remainder

Forms: plural: dieticians

Forms: plural: differences

different

difficult

adj. not the same; unusual; distinctive

adj. hard; troublesome; complicated; complex

difficulty

digital

n. problem; challenge; hardship; trouble

adj. using numbers; with numbers

diligent

dignity108.

107.

Forms: plural: difficulties

dignity

diligent

n. respected position; honor; nobility

adj. ambitious; industrious; hard-working

direct

direct110.
direction

direct112.
directly

directly114.
directory

director116.

115.

113.

111.

109.

Forms: no plural

direct

direct

adj. straight; forthright; clear

adv. clearly; in a straightforward manner

direct

direction

v. to guide; to lead; to instruct; to manage; to supervise

n. guidance; supervision; conducting; management

Forms: directed; directed; directing

Forms: plural: directions

directly

directly

conj. immediately following; the moment that; as soon as

adv. clearly; straight; frankly; immediately; soon

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disappear

disagree118.

117.

3420 TOEIC Vocabulary Words

director

directory

n. boss; supervisor; manager; head

n. guidebook; library; catalog

Forms: plural: directors

Forms: plural: directories

disagree

disappear

v. to have different opinions; to differ

v. to go out of sight; to become extinct; to cease to exist;


to vanish
Forms: disappeared; disappeared; disappearing

discard

discard120.
discipline

discern122.

121.

119.

Forms: disagreed; disagreed; disagreeing

discard

discard

v. to throw away; to get rid of

n. garbage; refuse; scrap

Forms: discarded; discarded; discarding

Forms: plural: discards

discern

discipline

v. to distinguish; to perceive; to recognize; to discriminate n. training

disclaimer

disclaim124.
discount

discount126.
discouraged

discourage128.

127.

125.

123.

Forms: discerned; discerned; discerning

Forms: plural: disciplines

disclaim

disclaimer

v. to deny connection with; to renounce; to repudiate; to

n. statement which denies responsibility or affiliation;

disavow

repudiation; denial

Forms: disclaimed; disclaimed; disclaiming

Forms: plural: disclaimers

discount

discount

v. to reduce the price of; to mark down; to ignore

n. price reduction; rebate

Forms: discounted; discounted; discounting

Forms: plural: discounts

discourage

discouraged

v. to cause to lose heart; to deter; to dissuade; to show

adj. deprived of hope or confidence; dissuaded from

disapproval of; to derail

discover

discouragement130.

129.

Forms: discouraged; discouraged; discouraging

discouragement

discover

n. derailment; feeling of despair in the face of obstacles

v. to find out; to come across; to get information about


something

discretion

discrete132.

131.

Forms: plural: discouragements

Forms: discovered; discovered; discovering

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3420 TOEIC Vocabulary Words

discrete

discretion

adj. separate; individual; discontinuous

n. caution; wisdom; careful judgment

discussion

discuss134.
disembark

disease136.

135.

133.

Forms: no plural

discuss

discussion

v. to talk about; to debate; to converse

n. debate; conversation; talk; dispute; argument

Forms: discussed; discussed; discussing

Forms: plural: discussions

disease

disembark

n. sickness; illness

v. to go ashore from a boat; to leave a plane or vehicle; to


land
Forms: disembarked; disembarked; disembarking

dislodge

disk138.
dismiss

dismal140.

139.

137.

Forms: plural: diseases

disk

dislodge

n. flat circular object

v. to extricate; to remove; to evict; to oust; to expel

Forms: plural: disks

Forms: dislodged; dislodged; dislodging

dismal

dismiss

adj. gloomy; cheerless; bad; depressing; sad

v. to send away; to fire; to release; to free

dispatch

disparate142.

141.

Forms: dismissed; dismissed; dismissing

disparate

dispatch

adj. markedly different; contrasting

n. sending off; shipment; message; communication;


promptness

dispense

dispatch144.

143.

Forms: plural: dispatches

dispatch

dispense

v. to send off quickly; to dismiss; to conclude with speed

n. expenditure; pardon

and efficiency; to eliminate

display

dispense146.
disposal

display148.

147.

145.

Forms: dispatched; dispatched; dispatching

Forms: plural: dispenses

dispense

display

v. to do without; to give up; to distribute; to give out; to

n. presentation; show; screen; monitor; exposure;

hand out

exhibition

Forms: dispensed; dispensed; dispensing

Forms: plural: displays

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3420 TOEIC Vocabulary Words

display

disposal

v. to put out for others to see; to show; to exhibit; to

n. getting rid of; arranging

reveal
Forms: plural: disposals

disposition

dispose150.
dispute

dispute152.

151.

149.

Forms: displayed; displayed; displaying

dispose

disposition

v. to control; to arrange; to put in order

n. character; nature; trait; arrangement; placement

Forms: disposed; disposed; disposing

Forms: plural: dispositions

dispute

dispute

n. quarrel; disagreement; argument

v. to argue; to debate; to contest; to oppose; to fight


against
Forms: disputed; disputed; disputing

dissipate

disrupt154.
distinguish

distinctive156.

155.

153.

Forms: plural: disputes

disrupt

dissipate

v. to upset; to disturb; to divide

v. to scatter; to spread out; to be scattered

Forms: disrupted; disrupted; disrupting

Forms: dissipated; dissipated; dissipating

distinctive

distinguish

adj. special; unique; different

v. to mark as different; to see as different; to discern; to


recognize

distributor

distract158.

157.

Forms: distinguished; distinguished; distinguishing

distract

distributor

v. to disturb; to confuse; to worry; to divert; to amuse

n. person, company or organization that markets a


commodity, product or service; wholesaler; dealer

diverse

disturb160.

159.

Forms: distracted; distracted; distracting

Forms: plural: distributors

disturb

diverse

v. to bother; to interrupt; to confuse; to worry

adj. different; varied

diversify

diversification162.
divert

diversity164.

163.

161.

Forms: disturbed; disturbed; disturbing

diversification

diversify

n. process of becoming varied; sale of a variety of

v. to make different; to invest one's assets in various

products and services

securities

Forms: plural: diversifications

Forms: diversified; diversified; diversifying

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3420 TOEIC Vocabulary Words

diversity

divert

n. variety; difference; unlikeness

v. to distract; to entertain; to turn in a different direction;


to deflect
Forms: diverted; diverted; diverting

divide

divide166.
doctor

division168.
document

doctor170.
documentation

document172.

171.

169.

167.

165.

Forms: plural: diversities

divide

divide

n. separation; ridge between drainage areas; watershed

v. to separate into parts; to part; to share; to apportion

Forms: plural: divides

Forms: divided; divided; dividing

division

doctor

n. partitioning; department; faculty; ranking; level

n. person who is licensed to practice medicine (i.e.

according to difficulty

physician, surgeon etc.)

Forms: plural: divisions

Forms: plural: doctors

doctor

document

v. to provide medical treatment; to fix; to repair; to mend

n. certificate; written file

Forms: doctored; doctored; doctoring

Forms: plural: documents

document

documentation

v. to record for evidence; to write down; to substantiate

n. collection of written records; use of written records as


evidence

domestic

drain174.

dollar

173.

Forms: documented; documented; documenting

Forms: plural: documentations

dollar drain

domestic

n. a situation in which the imports of a country from the

adj. pertaining to home; pertaining to family; tame (about

USA are larger than their exports to the USA

an animal)

dominate

domestic176.
donation

donate178.
dot

dot180.

179.

177.

175.

Forms: no plural

domestic

dominate

n. housemaid; servant; housekeeper

v. to control; to rule; to command

Forms: plural: domestics

Forms: dominated; dominated; dominating

donate

donation

v. to give; to contribute; to grant; to bestow

n. gift; contribution

Forms: donated; donated; donating

Forms: plural: donations

65

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doubt

dotted182.

181.

3420 TOEIC Vocabulary Words

dot

dot

v. to stud; to constellate

n. spot; speck; part (the point) in an Internet web address

Forms: dotted; dotted; dotting

Forms: plural: dots

dotted

doubt

adj. spotted; speckled; composed of a series of small

v. to be uncertain; to have misgivings

dashes (about a line)

download

doubt184.

183.

Forms: doubted; doubted; doubting

doubt

download

n. misgiving; lack of certainty

v. to copy files from a distant computer onto another


computer through an Internet connection
Forms: downloaded; downloaded; downloading

downsize

downsize186.

185.

Forms: plural: doubts

downsize

downsize

adj. of a smaller version or dimension

v. to reduce the size of; to make smaller; to cut the


number of employees

downtown

downsizing188.

187.

Forms: downsized; downsized; downsized

downsizing

downtown

n. bringing something down to a smaller scale; lowering

n. commercial center of a city; business distract

expenses

downtown

downtown190.
downward

downturn192.

191.

189.

Forms: plural: no plural

Forms: plural: downtowns

downtown

downtown

adj. pertaining to the commercial center of a city

adv. into the city center; into the the town

downturn

downward

n. negative tendency (especially in economy or business) adv. towards a lower place, position or section

draft

downward194.

193.

Forms: plural: downturns

downward

draft

adj. descending

v. to make an outline; to draw up in written form; to


conscript; to draw out and separate

drastic

draft196.

195.

Forms: drafted; drafted; drafting

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3420 TOEIC Vocabulary Words

draft

drastic

n. rough outline; sketch; written order for payment;

adj. extreme; intense; severe

conscription

draw

drastically198.

197.

Forms: plural: drafts

drastically

draw

adv. intensely; in an extreme manner; severely

v. to attract; to pull; to sketch; to depict with lines; to


conclude

code

dress

draw200.

199.

Forms: drew; drawn; drawing

draw

dress code

n. attraction; lottery; contest which ends in a tie; natural

n. formally or socially imposed standards of attire

channel; gully
Forms: plural: dress codes

drill

drill202.
drive

drive204.

203.

201.

Forms: plural: draws

drill

drill

v. to bore a hole; to practice; to train; to sow seeds in

n. practice; training; furrow; seeding machine; row of

rows

seeds in a furrow

Forms: drilled; drilled; drilling

Forms: plural: drills

drive

drive

v. to travel in a car; to transport in a vehicle; to compel

n. trip in a vehicle; type of computer hardware; combined


effort to accomplish a goal (i.e. fund raiser)

drop

driver206.

205.

Forms: drove; driven; driving

Forms: plural: drives

driver

drop

due

drop208.

207.

n. chauffeur; program which enables an operating system v. to fall; to make fall; to bring down; to go down; to omit;
to communicate with a particular device

to abandon

Forms: plural: drivers

Forms: dropped; dropped; dropping

drop

due

n. small globule of liquid; drip; very small amount;

adj. owed; payable; right; fitting; suitable; adequate

pendant

duplicate

due210.

209.

Forms: plural: drops

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3420 TOEIC Vocabulary Words

due

duplicate

n. something which legally or rightfully belongs to an

n. copy; photocopy; exact replica; reproduction

individual; payment; fee


Forms: plural: duplicates

duplicate

duplicate212.

211.

Forms: plural: dues

duplicate

duplicate

v. to copy; to replicate; to photocopy

adj. double; identical; matching

duration

durable214.

213.

Forms: duplicated; duplicated; duplicating

durable

duration

adj. sturdy; long lasting

n. period of time that something continues

during

duress216.

215.

Forms: plural: durations

duress

during

n. intimidation; constraint; pressure; coercion

prep. while; throughout

dynamic

duty218.

217.

Forms: no plural

duty

dynamic

n. obligation; responsibility; assignment; customs tax

adj. forceful; energetic; vigorous; spirited; alive

Forms: plural: duties

68

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earn

eager2.

3420 TOEIC Vocabulary Words

E1.

eager

earn

adj. strongly desiring; keen; fervently interested

v. to receive as a result of work or other service


performed; to profit; to be eligible; to be worthy

earnest

earnest4.

3.

Forms: earned; earned; earning

earnest

earnest

n. seriousness; industriousness

adj. serious; sober; sincere; fervent; eager

easy

earnings6.

5.

Forms: no plural

earnings

easy

n. money gained; salary; revenue; profit; income

adj. mild; slight; comfortable; simple

economize

easy8.

7.

Forms: only plural

easy

economize

adv. comfortably; without great difficulty or effort

v. to save; to cut back; to be thrifty; to be frugal

edge

economy10.
edge

edge12.

11.

9.

Forms: economized; economized; economizing

economy

edge

n. management of resources (i.e. money, goods, etc.);

n. line at which a surface ends; thin sharp side of a blade;

thrift; careful spending

excitement

Forms: plural: economies

Forms: plural: edges

edge

edge

v. to sharpen; to provide with a border; to advance

adj. at or constituting a place where two surfaces meet

gradually or furtively

editor

edit14.
effect

education16.

15.

13.

Forms: edged; edged; edging

edit

editor

v. to revise; to alter; to make changes and corrections

n. person or organization that prepares printed matter for

prior to printing

publication

Forms: edited; edited; editing

Forms: plural: editors

education

effect

n. learning; instruction; imparting of knowledge;

n. result; outcome; impact; trick; natural phenomenon

upbringing

effective

effect18.

17.

Forms: no plural

Forms: plural: effects

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3420 TOEIC Vocabulary Words

effect

effective

v. to accomplish; to put into action; to execute; to do

adj. productive; in operation; impressive; striking

effort

efficient20.

19.

Forms: effected; effected; effecting

efficient

effort

adj. done without waste (of time, resources, etc.)

n. physical or mental exertion; labor; attempt; organized


operation

either

effusive22.
either

either24.
elaborate

elaborate26.

25.

23.

21.

Forms: plural: efforts

effusive

either

adj. overflowing; unreserved; unrestrained; exuberant

adj. one of two

either

either

adv. also; too; as well

conj. precedes two or more coordinate words or phrases

elaborate

elaborate

v. to provide additional details; to plan carefully and with

adj. detailed; complicated; carefully planned; worked out

great detail; to produce; to develop

in great detail

elect

elaboration28.

27.

Forms: elaborated; elaborated; elaborating

elaboration

elect

n. painstaking labor; careful planning; adding of extra

v. to choose; to vote for; to prefer; to decide

details; act of improving; production

election

elect30.

29.

Forms: plural: elaborations

Forms: elected; elected; electing

elect

election

adj. chosen for office but net yet formally installed

n. choosing; time when people vote for a political


candidate

element

electrician32.

31.

Forms: plural: elections

electrician

element

n. person who installs or maintains wiring systems

n. main component; something which is a part of a


complex whole

elementary

elemental34.
elevator

elevation36.

35.

33.

Forms: plural: electricians

Forms: plural: elements

elemental

elementary

adj. simple; basic

adj. basic; fundamental

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eligible

elicit38.

37.

3420 TOEIC Vocabulary Words

elevation

elevator

n. height of something; altitude above sea or ground

n. lift; mechanical apparatus for moving people or items

level; raising; lifting up; grandeur

from floor to floor within a building

Forms: plural: elevations

Forms: plural: elevators

elicit

eligible

v. to extract from; to bring out; to draw out

adj. suitable; worthy of; qualified; entitled to; allowed

elucidate

eliminate40.
embark

elude42.

41.

39.

Forms: elicited; elicited; eliciting

eliminate

elucidate

v. to remove; to get rid of

v. to explain; to clarify; to describe; to depict

Forms: eliminated; eliminated; eliminating

Forms: elucidated; elucidated; elucidating

elude

embark

v. to avoid; to escape; to shrink

v. to go on board a ship; to put on board a ship; to begin;


to become involved in an enterprise

embrace

embrace44.

43.

Forms: elude d; eluded; eluding

Forms: embarked; embarked; embarking

embrace

embrace

n. hug; act of wrapping one's arms around another

v. to accept; to belief; to hug; to hold tight

person or thing

emergency

emerge46.
empathy

emergency48.

47.

45.

Forms: plural: embraces

Forms: embraced; embraced; embracing

emerge

emergency

v. to appear; to come out; to be revealed

n. sudden need demanding immediate action

Forms: emerged; emerged; emerging

Forms: plural: emergencies

emergency

empathy

adj. in the event of sudden need

n. entering into the feelings of another; sympathy;


vicarious emotion; understanding

emphasize

emphasis50.

49.

Forms: plural: empathies

emphasis

emphasize

n. importance that is attached to something; accent or

v. to stress; to show the importance of

stress that is placed on a word or words

employee

employ52.

51.

Forms: no plural

Forms: emphasized; emphasized; emphasizing

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3420 TOEIC Vocabulary Words

employ

employee

v. to hire as a worker; to activate; to operate; to use

n. worker; person who works for a company or an


individual
Forms: plural: employees

employment

employer54.
empty

empty56.
emulate

empty58.

57.

55.

53.

Forms: employed; employed; employing

employer

employment

n. boss; person or company that hires people to do work

n. work; occupation; keeping busy

Forms: plural: employers

Forms: no plural

empty

empty

n. container devoid of contents

v. to remove the contents of

Forms: plural: empties

Forms: emptied; emptied, emptying

empty

emulate

adj. containing nothing; without people; without contents;

v. to imitate; to try to equal or excel; to take after; to copy

hollow; meaningless

enclosure

enclose60.
encounter

encounter62.

61.

59.

Forms: emulated; emulated; emulating

enclose

enclosure

v. to surround; to confine; to close in; to place an

n. confinement; additional document or letter placed

additional document or letter within another

within another

Forms: enclosed; enclosed; enclosing

Forms: plural: enclosures

encounter

encounter

n. chance meeting

v. to meet by chance; to face; to meet with (difficulties,


hardships, etc.)

encroach

encourage64.
endure

endorsement66.
engagement

engage68.

67.

65.

63.

Forms: plural: encounters

Forms: encountered; encountered; encountering

encourage

encroach

v. to support; to inspire; to give hope

v. to advance beyond proper limits; to infringe

Forms: encouraged; encouraged; encouraging

Forms: encroached; encroached; encroaching

endorsement

endure

n. signature on a money order such as a check

v. to put up with something or somebody unpleasant

Forms: plural: endorsements

Forms: endured; endured; enduring

72

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engineer

engine70.

69.

3420 TOEIC Vocabulary Words

engage

engagement

v. to keep busy; to occupy; to employ; to commit

n. commitment; obligation; period of employment

Forms: engaged; engaged; engaging

Forms: plural: engagements

engine

engineer

n. machine which supplies force and motion; motor; truck; v. to design; to plan (i.e. machinery, roads, etc.)
part of a program which handles certain types of date
Forms: engineered; engineered; engineering

enhance

engineer72.

71.

Forms: plural: engines

engineer

enhance

n. person who designs and plans (machinery, roads, etc.) v. to increase; to intensify; to improve; to raise the value
of
Forms: enhanced; enhanced; enhancing

enlargement

enlarge74.
enlightenment

enlighten76.

75.

73.

Forms: plural: engineers

enlarge

enlargement

v. to become bigger; to expand

n. expansion; increase in size; magnification

Forms: enlarged; enlarged; enlarging

Forms: plural: enlargements

enlighten

enlightenment

v. to instruct; to provide with intellectual or spiritual

n. state of intellectual or spiritual awareness

understanding

enough

enlist78.
enough

enough80.
enrichment

enrich82.
ensure

enroll84.

83.

81.

79.

77.

Forms: enlightened; enlightened; enlightening

Forms: no plural

enlist

enough

v. to draft into military service; to voluntarily join a cause

n. adequate amount; sufficient degree

Forms: enlisted; enlisted; enlisting

Forms: plural: enoughs

enough

enough

adj. sufficient; adequate

adv. quite; sufficiently; fairly

enrich

enrichment

v. to improve; to make better

n. enhancement; refinement; improvement

Forms: enriched; enriched; enriching

Forms: plural: enrichments

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3420 TOEIC Vocabulary Words

enroll

ensure

v. to register; to sign up; to join up; to enter one's name

v. to make certain; to guarantee; to make secure

on a list
Forms: ensured; ensured; ensuring

enterprise

enter86.
entertainer

entertain88.
enthuse

entertainment90.
enthusiastic

enthusiasm92.

91.

89.

87.

85.

Forms: enrolled; enrolled; enrolling

enter

enterprise

v. to go into; to join; to record; to inscribe

n. company; firm; undertaking; business; endeavor

Forms: entered; entered; entering

Forms: plural: enterprises

entertain

entertainer

v. to interest; to amuse; to host

n. host; performer; comedian

Forms: entertained; entertained; entertaining

Forms: plural: entertainers

entertainment

enthuse

n. something interesting or amusing; fun; hospitality

v. to express excitement; to motivate

Forms: plural: entertainments

Forms: enthused; enthused; enthusing

enthusiasm

enthusiastic

n. excitement; great interest

adj. excited; passionate; ardent; fervent

entirely

entire94.
entitled

entitle96.

95.

93.

Forms: no plural

entire

entirely

adj. whole; including every part; complete; full

adv. totally; completely; absolutely

entitle

entitled

v. to give a heading or name to (i.e. a book, painting,

adj. allowed; eligible; having the right to something

etc.); to grant a right; to claim something

entrance

entrance98.
entry

entrust100.

99.

97.

Forms: entitled; entitled; entitling

entrance

entrance

v. to hypnotize; to enthrall

n. way into a building or other structure; gate; doorway

Forms: entranced; entranced; entrancing

Forms: plural: entrances

entrust

entry

environmental

environment102.

101.

v. to give to for safekeeping; to empower someone with a n. opening; record; information or item in a book,
responsibility or duty

dictionary, catalog, list, directory, etc.

Forms: entrusted; entrusted; entrusting

Forms: plural: entries

74

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3420 TOEIC Vocabulary Words

environment

environmental

n. surroundings; conditions in which someone or

adj. pertaining to the world and nature around us

something lives

episode

envision104.

103.

Forms: plural: environments

envision

episode

v. to imagine to oneself; to picture; to visualize

n. event; occurrence; one of a group of loosely connected


stories
Forms: plural: episodes

equal

equal106.
equality

equal108.

107.

105.

Forms: envisioned; envisioned; envisioning

equal

equal

n. person or thing that is the same

v. to match; to correspond; to resemble; to be similar to

Forms: plural: equals

Forms: equaled; equaled; equaling

equal

equality

adj. same; identical; able; capable

n. sameness; uniformity

equipment

equip110.

109.

Forms: no plural

equip

equipment

v. to provide with the required supplies, tools and items

n. supplies; necessary items; tools, instruments or other


objects for completing a task

equivalent

equity112.

111.

Forms: equipped; equipped; equipping

Forms: plural: equipments

equity

equivalent

n. honesty; fairness; justice

adj. same in worth or value; same in importance;


corresponding

erase

equivalent114.
error

erasure116.
essence

especially118.

117.

115.

113.

Forms: no plural

equivalent

erase

n. something that is the same of the same level

v. to rub off; to remove totally; to delete

Forms: plural: equivalents

Forms: erased; erased; erasing

erasure

error

n. rubbing out; deletion; eradication

n. mistake; something that is incorrect

Forms: plural: erasures

Forms: plural: errors

75

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3420 TOEIC Vocabulary Words

especially

essence

adv. particularly

n. inherent nature of something; central or outstanding


characteristic

establish

essential120.

119.

Forms: plural: essences

essential

establish

adj. necessary; needed; fundamental; crucial; very

v. to set up; to found; to base; to build

important

estate

establishment122.
esteem

esteem124.
estimate

estimate126.
etc.

etc.128.

127.

125.

123.

121.

Forms: established; established; establishing

establishment

estate

n. anything that is set up; institution (i.e. business,

n. extensive piece of land usually with a large house on it;

church, authority, government, etc.)

person's property; wealth; possessions

Forms: plural: establishments

Forms: plural: estates

esteem

esteem

v. to respect; to honor; to admire; to value

n. admiration; respect

Forms: esteemed; esteemed; esteeming

Forms: no plural

estimate

estimate

v. to judge an object's value; to appraise; to assess; to

n. judgment of an object's worth; appraisal; opinion;

guess

judgment

Forms: estimated; estimated; estimating

Forms: plural: estimates

etc.

etc.

adv. and so on; and so forth

abbr. Latin for and so on; and so forth

evaluate

evade130.

129.

Forms: etcetera

evade

evaluate

v. to avoid; to run away; to shrink

v. to appraise; to judge the worth or quality; to assess; to


gauge

evasive

evaluation132.

131.

Forms: evaded; evaded; evading

Forms: evaluated; evaluated; evaluating

evaluation

evasive

n. appraisal; estimation; assessment

adj. avoiding; tending to shrink; elusive

even

even134.

133.

Forms: plural: evaluations

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3420 TOEIC Vocabulary Words

even

even

adj. smooth; straight; level; parallel; equal; consistent

v. to make level; to smooth; to balance

eventual

event136.

135.

Forms: evened; evened; evening

event

eventual

n. occurrence; happening; contest; campaign; promotion

adj. final; occurring as a result

evidence

evict138.
evident

evidence140.

139.

137.

Forms: plural: events

evict

evidence

v. to expel a tenant by legal process; to turn out

n. proof; something which proves or disproves

Forms: evicted; evicted; evicting

Forms: plural: evidences

evidence

evident

v. to offer proof; to prove; to show to be true

adj. clear; obvious; apparent

exact

evoke142.
exaggerate

exact144.

143.

141.

Forms: evidenced; evidenced; evidencing

evoke

exact

v. to arouse; to bring out; to summon; to wake

v. to demand; to require; to insist upon; to force

Forms: evoked; evoked; evoking

Forms: exacted; exacted; exacting

exact

exaggerate

adj. precise; meticulous; extremely accurate

v. to overstate; to make something seem greater or more


important than it really is

examinee

examination146.
example

examiner148.

147.

145.

Forms: exaggerated; exaggerated; exaggerating

examination

examinee

n. test; quiz; investigation; inquiry

n. person who is tested; candidate

Forms: plural: examinations

Forms: plural: examinees

examiner

example

n. person who gives a test

n. model; pattern; something which serves as an


illustration

excel

exceed150.

149.

Forms: plural: examiner

Forms: plural: examples

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3420 TOEIC Vocabulary Words

exceed

excel

v. to surpass; to pass; to go beyond; to outdo

v. to be talented; to do very well; to surpass; to do better


than
Forms: excelled; excelled; excelling

except

excellent152.
except

except154.

153.

151.

Forms: exceeded; exceeded; exceeding

excellent

except

adj. superior; extraordinary; outstanding

prep. but; besides

except

except

conj. but; only

v. to exclude; to leave out; to skip; to protest; to object

exchange

exception156.

155.

Forms: excepted; excepted; excepting

exception

exchange

n. something that is out of the ordinary; anomaly;

n. conversion; stock market; trade; barter; conversation

objection; opposition

excite

exchange158.

157.

Forms: plural: exceptions

Forms: plural: exchanges

exchange

excite

v. to give one thing in return for another; to replace one

v. to stir up; to arouse feelings; to provoke; to stimulate

thing with another; to trade; to barter

exclusion

exclude160.
exclusive

exclusive162.

161.

159.

Forms: exchanged; exchanged; exchanging

Forms: excited; excited; exciting

exclude

exclusion

v. to leave out; to keep out; to prevent from happening or

n. prevention; rejection; leaving out; keeping out; shutting

being; to reject

out

Forms: excluded; excluded; excluding

Forms: plural: exclusions

exclusive

exclusive

n. news story publicized in only a newspaper or

adj. sole; limited to a selected few; incompatible;

television/radio station

fashionable; unique

execute

exclusively164.

163.

Forms: plural: exclusives

exclusively

execute

adj. in a manner which shuts out all others; solely; in a

v. to perform; to carry out; to put into practice

limited manner

executive

executive166.

165.

Forms: executed; executed; executing

78

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3420 TOEIC Vocabulary Words

executive

executive

adj. administrative; operational; having the power to

n. manager; person or group of persons having

execute laws and policy

administrative authority within an organization

exertion

exert168.
exhibit

exhibit170.

169.

167.

Forms: plural: executives

exert

exertion

v. to exercise; to use; to make an effort

n. putting to use; putting into action; effort; struggle; strain

Forms: exerted; exerted; exerting

Forms: plural: exertions

exhibit

exhibit

n. something presented as evidence in a court of law;

v. to show; to display; to demonstrate; to present

display; show
Forms: exhibited; exhibited; exhibiting

exist

exhibition172.

171.

Forms: plural: exhibits

exhibition

exist

n. display; show; public presentation of work or skills;

v. to live; to be

trade fair

exit

existence174.
expand

exit176.

175.

173.

Forms: plural: exhibitions

Forms: existed; existed; existing

existence

exit

n. living; state of being; life

n. passage that leads out

Forms: plural: existences

Forms: plural: exits

exit

expand

v. to leave; to go out

v. to grow larger; to broaden; to increase; to enlarge; to


add to

expect

expansion178.
expectation

expectancy180.
expel

expedite182.

181.

179.

177.

Forms: exited; exited; exiting

Forms: expanded; expanded; expanding

expansion

expect

n. enlargement; increase; spread; development

v. to assume; to anticipate; to hope

Forms: plural: expansions

Forms: expected; expected; expecting

expectancy

expectation

n. hope; anticipation; assumption

n. anticipation; longing or waiting for; hope

Forms: plural: no plural

Forms: plural: expectations

79

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expense

expenditure184.
experience

expensive186.

185.

183.

3420 TOEIC Vocabulary Words

expedite

expel

v. to speed up; to accelerate; to facilitate; to dispatch

v. eject; drive out; banish

Forms: expedited; expedited; expediting

Forms: expelled; expelled; expelling

expenditure

expense

n. spending; disbursement; outlay (especially financial)

n. cost; price; payment

Forms: plural: expenditures

Forms: plural: expenses

expensive

experience

adj. costly; precious; opposite of cheap

n. knowledge obtained by doing; something that one has


lived through

experiment

experience188.
expert

experiment190.

189.

187.

Forms: plural: experiences

experience

experiment

v. to try; to live through; to feel; to endure

n. attempt to discover or test something; trial; research

Forms: experienced; experienced; experiencing

Forms: plural: experiments

experiment

expert

v. to attempt to discover or test something; to try; to

n. person skilled in a particular area; specialist

venture; to research

expertise

expert192.

191.

Forms: experimented; experimented; experimenting

Forms: plural: experts

expert

expertise

adj. skilled; knowledgeable; highly sophisticated; very

n. proficiency; skill; specialist knowledge and information

experienced

expire

expiration194.
explanation

explain196.
explorer

explore198.

197.

195.

193.

Forms: no plural

expiration

expire

n. termination; end

v. to come to an end; to finish; to terminate

Forms: plural: expirations

Forms: expired; expired; expiring

explain

explanation

v. to illustrate; to elucidate; to interpret; to describe; to

n. interpretation; something that clarifies; description;

define

definition

Forms: explained; explained; explaining

Forms: plural: explanations

80

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export

export200.

199.

3420 TOEIC Vocabulary Words

explore

explorer

v. to travel to unknown regions; to investigate; to

n. researcher; investigator; software program for file

examine; to research

management

Forms: explored; explored; exploring

Forms: plural: explorers

export

export

n. shipping of goods to other countries

v. to ship; to send abroad; to sell goods and products


overseas
Forms: exported; exported; exporting

exposure

expose202.

201.

Forms: plural: exports

expose

exposure

v. to reveal; to uncover; to disclose; to abandon

n. denouncement; revealing; photograph; abandoning;


placement
Forms: plural: exposures

express

express204.

203.

Forms: exposed; exposed; exposing

express

express

v. to declare; to say; to send quickly; to squeeze; to

adj. clear; exact; precise; quick

extract

expression

express206.

205.

Forms: expressed; expressed; expressing

express

expression

n. system for prompt transportation of people or parcels;

n. putting into words; phrase; word; manifestation

dispatch conveyed by special messenger

extension

extend208.

207.

Forms: plural: expresses

Forms: plural: expressions

extend

extension

v. to stretch; to enlarge; to lengthen; to reach out

n. expansion; branch of a telephone network;


supplement; reprieve

extent

extensive210.

209.

Forms: extended; extended; extending

Forms: plural: extensions

extensive

extent

adj. spreading over a large area; comprehensive

n. scope; range; scale; size; measure; degree

extract

extract212.

211.

Forms: plural: extents

81

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3420 TOEIC Vocabulary Words

extract

extract

n. substance obtained from a plant; essence; text

v. to remove; to take out; to squeeze; to press; to elicit

paragraph; passage
Forms: extracted; extracted; extracting

extraordinary

extradite214.

213.

Forms: plural: extracts

extradite

extraordinary

v. to hand over to another nation or judicial authority

adj. unusual

Forms: extradited; extradited; extraditing

82

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facilitate

fabric2.

3420 TOEIC Vocabulary Words

F1.

fabric

facilitate

n. textile; weave; structure; framework; construction

v. to make easy; to assist; to forward; to promote; to


expedite
Forms: facilitated; facilitated; facilitating

facility

facilitator4.
factory

factor6.

5.

3.

Forms: plural: fabrics

facilitator

facility

n. person or thing which promotes; expeditor

n. device; tool; convenience; talent; ability; building

Forms: plural: facilitators

Forms: plural: facilities

factor

factory

n. cause; agent; broker; financier; money lender

n. plant; any location which mass-produces one type of


product
Forms: plural: factories

fail

fade8.

7.

Forms: plural: factors

fade

fail

v. to wither; to die out; to bleach; to disappear

v. to be unsuccessful; to not do; to disappoint; to go


bankrupt; to be used up

fair

failure10.

9.

Forms: faded; faded; fading

Forms: failed; failed; failing

failure

fair

n. inability to succeed; lack of success; lack; bankruptcy;

n. festival; exhibition; show; market; bazaar

downfall

fair

fair12.

11.

Forms: plural: failures

Forms: plural: fairs

fair

fair

adj. just; reasonable; handsome; light colored; clean;

adv. justly; equitably; directly; completely; really

off

fall

faith14.
falter

false16.

15.

13.

clear

faith

fall off

n. belief in a particular thing or person; religion; trust;

v. to separate; to be separated; to decrease; to become

confidence; loyalty

smaller

Forms: plural: faiths

Forms: fell off; fallen off; falling off

false

falter

adj. not true; counterfeit; deceitful; wrong; artificial; not

v. to hesitate; to stumble; to sway; to totter; to be

faithful

unstable

familiar

fame18.

17.

Forms: faltered; faltered; faltering

83

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familiarize

familiar20.

19.

3420 TOEIC Vocabulary Words

fame

familiar

n. notoriety; renown; good reputation

n. good friend; acquaintance

Forms: no plural

Forms: plural: familiars

familiar

familiarize

adj. ordinary; skilled; close; intimate; well-known

v. to cause to be acquainted; to accustom; to make


something well known; to publicize

fare

famous22.

21.

Forms: familiarized; familiarized; familiarizing

famous

fare

adj. well-known; excellent; wonderful

n. cost for traveling (on a bus, train, etc.)

favorable

fare24.

23.

Forms: plural: fares

fare

favorable

v. to travel; to go; to journey; to happen; to eat and drink

adj. positive; approving; likable; helpful; encouraging;


desirable

fax

favorite26.

25.

Forms: fared; fared; faring

favorite

fax

adj. preferred; beloved; liked

n. device for electronically transmitting written material;


electronically transmitted document

fear

fax28.
feasibility

fear30.
feature

feasible32.

31.

29.

27.

Forms: plural: faxes

fax

fear

v. to transmit document electronically

n. fright; horror; concern; terror

Forms: faxed; faxed; faxing

Forms: plural: fears

fear

feasibility

v. to be frightened; to be concerned; to be afraid of; to

n. capability of being carried out; capability of being

have respect for

achieved; likelihood; probability

Forms: feared; feared; fearing

Forms: no plural

feasible

feature

adj. able to be carried out; achievable; possible; likely

n. characteristic; function; capability (of a product,


machine, device, software etc.)

fee

feature34.

33.

Forms: plural: features

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feed

fee36.

35.

3420 TOEIC Vocabulary Words

feature

fee

v. to characterize; to depict; to describe; to present; to

n. toll; payment for services rendered; cost of admission;

emphasize

commission; feudal estate

Forms: featured; featured; featuring

Forms: plural: fees

fee

feed

v. to pay to; to hire; to employ

n. meal; nourishment; material supplied; act of inserting


into a machine (especially of putting paper into a printer)
Forms: plural: feeds

feedback

feed38.

37.

Forms: feed; feed; feeing

feed

feedback

v. to supply; to support; to send; to move into a machine

n. response; critique; information about the results of a


certain procedure or performance
Forms: plural: feedbacks

fellow

fellow40.

39.

Forms: fed; fed; feeding

fellow

fellow

n. friend; member of an academic organization; suitor

adj. having membership in; belonging to (a group,


academic organization, etc.); of the same type

fence

fence42.
ferry

ferry44.

43.

41.

Forms: plural: fellows

fence

fence

n. railing; hedge; ability to argue; person who sells stolen

v. to protect; to guard; to evade a question; to respond in

goods

a vague manner

Forms: plural: fences

Forms: fenced; fenced; fencing

ferry

ferry

n. boat for crossing a body of water; shuttle

v. to convey passengers or cargo by boat across a small


body of water

fertilizer

fertilize46.
few

fetch48.

47.

45.

Forms: plural: ferries

Forms: ferried; ferried; ferrying

fertilize

fertilizer

v. to impregnate; to inseminate; to enrich the soil by the

n. organic or chemical substance added to soil to enrich it

addition of organic or chemical substances

(i.e. manure)

Forms: fertilized; fertilized; fertilizing

Forms: plural: fertilizer

85

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field

few50.

49.

3420 TOEIC Vocabulary Words

fetch

few

v. to go after and bring back; to pick up; to charm

n. not many; some; several; small number of

Forms: fetched; fetched; fetching

Forms: plural: no plural

few

field

adj. little; not many; some

n. area; domain; range; piece of land; surface

figure

field52.

51.

Forms: plural: fields

field

figure

v. to answer adequately or successfully

n. number; image; character; price; human shape;


symbol
Forms: plural: figures

file

figure54.
out

fill

file56.

55.

53.

Forms: fielded; fielded; fielding

figure

file

v. to calculate; to think; to assume; to portray; to depict;

n. dossier; collection of documents on a subject; tool for

to express verbally

smoothing surfaces; line; queue

Forms: figured; figured; figuring

Forms: plural: files

file

fill out

v. to arrange papers methodically for preservation and

v. to insert written information into the gaps on a form

reference; to submit in a formal way

final

final58.

57.

Forms: filed; filed; filing

Forms: filled out; filled out; filling out

final

final

n. end; conclusion; last edition of a newspaper

adj. at the end; last; ultimate; decisive; conclusive;


definitive

finance

finalize60.

59.

Forms: plural: finals

finalize

finance

v. to end; to sum up; to complete; to conclude

n. money management (including investment, banking


etc.); science of money management

fine

finance62.
fine

fine64.

63.

61.

Forms: finalized; finalized; finalizing

Forms: plural: finances

finance

fine

v. to raise money for; to provide with funds; to fund; to

n. monetary penalty; punishment which involves the

pay for

payment of specified sum of money

Forms: financed; financed; financing

Forms: plural: fines

86

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3420 TOEIC Vocabulary Words

fine

fine

v. to impose a tax upon; to purify; to make thin or thinner; adj. delicate; thin; flimsy; handsome; top-quality; excellent
to reduce; to clarify

finish

fine66.

65.

Forms: fined; fined; fining

fine

finish

adv. very well; excellent

n. end; completion; conclusion; polish; something which


completes or perfects

firm

finish68.
firm

firm70.

69.

67.

Forms: plural: finishes

finish

firm

v. to terminate; to end; to destroy; to defeat; to complete

n. company; commercial business; corporation

Forms: finished; finished; finishing

Forms: plural: firms

firm

firm

v. to solidify; to become solid; to stabilize; to become

adj. strong; solid; stable; fixed; immovable; determined

stable

fiscal

firm72.

71.

Forms: firmed; firmed; firming

firm

fiscal

adv. sturdily; steadily; assertively; in a determined

adj. of public funds; of or pertaining to money matters

fix

fix74.

73.

manner

fix

fix

fizzle

fixture76.
money

flat

fizzle78.
flaw

flaw80.

79.

77.

75.

n. embarrassing situation; predicament; location; position v. to determine; to stabilize; to arrange; to repair; to


(i.e. of a ship or individual)

prepare

Forms: plural: fixes

Forms: fixed; fixed; fixing

fixture

fizzle

n. something which is permanently or securely attached;

n. failure; fiasco; sputtering which gradually fades into

set date for a sporting event

silence

Forms: plural: fixtures

Forms: plural: fizzles

fizzle

flat money

v. to fail after starting well; to make a hissing noise which

n. banknote printed by a government as legal tender

gradually fades into silence

which is not redeemable and which lacks economic value

Forms: fizzled; fizzled; fizzling

Forms: no plural

87

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flawless

flawed82.
fleet

fleet84.

83.

81.

3420 TOEIC Vocabulary Words

flaw

flaw

v. to crack; to become defective; to become cracked

n. defect; imperfection; crack; strong gust or wind

Forms: flawed; flawed; flawing

Forms: plural: flaws

flawed

flawless

adj. defective; imperfect; cracked

adj. perfect; impeccable

fleet

fleet

v. to move quickly; to pass quickly

adj. swift; fast

flexibility

fleet86.

85.

Forms: fleeted; fleeted; fleeting

fleet

flexibility

n. group of ships, cars, trucks or other vehicles

n. elasticity; ability to adapt to new circumstances;


pliability
Forms: plural: no plural

flight

flexible88.

87.

Forms: plural: fleets

flexible

flight

adj. elastic; easily bent; adroit; adept; pliable

n. flying; aviation; trip on an airplane; escape

floor

floor90.

89.

Forms: plural: flights

floor

floor

v. to knock down; to astound; to shock

n. flat surface at the bottom of the room on which you


walk; story; level of a building

fluctuate

florist92.

91.

Forms: floored; floored; flooring

Forms: plural: floors

florist

fluctuate

n. owner of a flower shop; person who makes flower

v. to vacillate; to waver; to vary; to change

arrangements

fluency

fluctuation94.

93.

Forms: plural: florists

Forms: fluctuated; fluctuated; fluctuating

fluctuation

fluency

n. vacillation; instability; wavering; inconstancy; change

n. ability to speak and write easily; eloquence;


articulateness; gracefulness

focus

fluent96.

95.

Forms: plural: fluctuations

Forms: no plural

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3420 TOEIC Vocabulary Words

fluent

focus

adj. articulate; eloquent; able to read and write with ease; v. to make clear; to concentrate
graceful; flowing

fold

focus98.
folder

fold100.

99.

97.

Forms: focussed; focussed; focusing

focus

fold

n. center; hub; concentration

v. to bend; to crease; to wrap; to envelop; to clasp

Forms: no plural

Forms: folded; folded; folding

fold

folder

n. bend; crease; depression in the ground; hollow

n. dossier for storing papers; directory

between two hills; yard


Forms: plural: folders

forecast

food102.

101.

Forms: plural: folds

food

forecast

n. nourishment; substance which provides the body with

v. to predict a future event or condition; to foretell

nutrients; sustenance

forecast

forecast104.

103.

Forms: plural: foods

Forms: forecast; forecast; forecasting

forecast

forecast

adj. predicted; expected; anticipated

n. prediction of a future event or condition (i.e.


development of the economy)

foreign

forecaster106.

105.

Forms: plural: forecasts

forecaster

foreign

n. person who foretells future events; weatherman

adj. strange; unfamiliar; from or of another place;


pertaining to dealings with another country

foresee

foremost108.

107.

Forms: plural: forecasters

foremost

foresee

adv. first in place or rank; primary; leading; main

v. to predict; to prophesy; to foretell

form

form110.

109.

Forms: foresaw; foreseen; foreseeing

form

form

v. to shape; to create; to design; to arrange; to be created n. shape; image; framework; document with blank spaces
to be filled in; fitness; type

formal

formal112.

111.

Forms: formed; formed; forming

Forms: plural: forms

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3420 TOEIC Vocabulary Words

formal

formal

adj. ceremonious; conventional; according to custom;

n. occasion which requires fancy dress (dance, ball, etc.);

stiff; strict; symmetrical

evening gown

format

format114.
formula

formatted116.

115.

113.

Forms: plural: formals

format

format

v. to design the appearance of; to arrange; to prepare a

n. structure; pattern; design; organization; pattern of data

diskette or hard disk for use

organization

Forms: formatted; formatted; formatting

Forms: plural: formats

formatted

formula

adj. arranged in a particular way; prepared for reading

n. set way of saying or doing something; principle; pattern

and writing

fortunate

formulate118.

117.

Forms: plural: formulas

formulate

fortunate

v. to devise; to conceive; to develop; to plan

adj. lucky; successful; opportune

forward

fortune120.
forward

forward122.

121.

119.

Forms: formulated; formulated; formulating

fortune

forward

n. luck; wealth; chance; success; riches

v. to send; to convey; to transmit; to promote; to advance

Forms: plural: fortunes

Forms: forwarded; forwarded; forwarding

forward

forward

adj. advanced; ahead; ready; brash; of the future;

adv. ahead; to the front

foster

forward124.

123.

progressive

forward

foster

n. player positioned at the front of the offensive line

adj. entrusted to the care

(Sports)

found

foster126.

125.

Forms: plural: forwards

foster

found

v. to encourage; to nurture; to promote; to raise; to care

adj. discovered

for

foundation

found128.

127.

Forms: fostered; fostered; fostering

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3420 TOEIC Vocabulary Words

found

foundation

v. to establish; to create; to build; to set up; to start a

n. base; fundament; substructure; establishing; institution

company
Forms: plural: foundations

founder

founder130.
frame

fraction132.
framework

frame134.
franchise

franchise136.

135.

133.

131.

129.

Forms: founded; founded; founding

founder

founder

v. to fill with water and sink; to fall; to fail; to stumble; to

n. establisher; organization or channel; person who gives

cause to sink

authorization to operate a channel

Forms: foundered; foundered; foundering

Forms: plural: founders

fraction

frame

n. product of the division of one number by another; part

v. to contrive false evidence against; to set up; to

of a whole; segment; fragment; quotient

construct; to build; to fashion; to formulate

Forms: plural: fractions

Forms: framed; framed; framing

frame

framework

n. casing; skeleton; structure; body structure; mood

n. support; skeleton; structure; system

Forms: plural: frames

Forms: plural: frameworks

franchise

franchise

frank

franchisor138.
frank

frank140.

139.

137.

v. to grant a license to an individual or group; to grant the n. license to market a company's goods or services;
right to vote

business which has been granted a license

Forms: franchised; franchised; franchising

Forms: plural: franchises

franchisor

frank

n. person who has the right to grant a license

v. to deliver without charge

Forms: plural: franchisors

Forms: franked; franked; franking

frank

frank

adj. honest; sincere; straightforward; open; candid

n. mark or signature which allows a letter or package to


be sent free of charge

fraudulent

fraud142.

141.

Forms: plural: franks

fraud

fraudulent

n. swindle; deceit; cheating; forgery; embezzlement

adj. guilty; dishonest

freight

fraught144.

143.

Forms: plural: frauds

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3420 TOEIC Vocabulary Words

fraught

freight

adj. full of or accompanied by; charged with; laden with

v. to load with goods; to load; to weigh down; to send as


cargo

frequency

freight146.
frequent

frequent148.

147.

145.

Forms: freighted; freighted; freighting

freight

frequency

n. cargo or goods that are shipped for a fee; shipping

n. quality of occurring regularly; rate at which a function

cost; transportation; conveyance; shipment

reoccurs

Forms: plural: freights

Forms: plural: frequencies

frequent

frequent

adj. happening often; regular; common; usual

v. to go regularly to (a certain place); to patronize

frisky

frequently150.
fuel

fuel152.
fulfill

fueled154.

153.

151.

149.

Forms: frequented; frequented; frequenting

frequently

frisky

adv. regularly; often

adj. energetic; full of life; playful; lively

fuel

fuel

v. to provide with a combustible substance that provides

n. substance burned to create energy (petrol, gasoline,

energy

gas, wood, coal, etc.)

Forms: fueled; fueled; fueling

Forms: plural: fuels

fueled

fulfill

adj. filled with petrol, gas or another substance that

v. to realize; to make a reality; to accomplish; to

produces energy

complete; to execute

function

fulfillment156.

155.

Forms: fulfilled; fulfilled; fulfilling

fulfillment

function

n. realization; performance; completion; gratification;

v. to work; to act; to operate; to perform

satisfaction

fund

function158.

157.

Forms: plural: fulfillments

Forms: functioned; functioned; functioning

function

fund

n. duty; role; purpose; feature; convention

v. to finance; to supply with money; to allocate financial


sums; to extend a short-term obligation

fundamental

fund160.

159.

Forms: plural: functions

Forms: funded; funded; funding

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3420 TOEIC Vocabulary Words

fund

fundamental

n. amount of money set aside for a specific purpose;

adj. basic; elemental; essential

supply

funnel

fundamental162.
funnelled

funnel164.

163.

161.

Forms: plural: funds

fundamental

funnel

n. principle; basis; essential

v. to channel; to centralize

Forms: plural: fundamentals

Forms: funneled; funneled; funneling

funnel

funnelled

n. device with a wide opening at the top which narrows as adj. channeled; centralized
it reaches the bottom

further

furniture166.

165.

Forms: plural: funnels

furniture

further

n. movable articles for use in a home or office (i.e. chairs, adj. more distant; additional
desks, cabinets, closets, etc.)

further

further168.

167.

Forms: no plural

further

further

adv. to a greater distance; more; in addition

v. to advance; to encourage; to promote; to assist

fussy

169.

Forms: furthered; furthered; furthering

fussy
adj. exacting; choosy; ornate; nagging; annoying

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G.N.P.

G.D.P.2.

3420 TOEIC Vocabulary Words

G1.

G.D.P.

G.N.P.

gain

gain4.

3.

abbr. total goods and services produced by nation during abbr. total value of goods and services produced by a
one year excluding payments on foreign investments

country in a given period (generally one year)

Forms: Gross Domestic Product (GDP)

Forms: Gross National Product (GNP)

gain

gain

n. profit; assets; achievement; increase; benefit;

v. to acquire; to earn; to purchase; to obtain; to profit

advantage
Forms: gained; gained; gaining

garbage

gap6.

5.

Forms: plural: gains

gap

garbage

n. opening; breach; hiatus; space; great difference;

n. something that is discarded; rubbish; trash; junk; waste

disparity
Forms: no plural

garner

garment8.

7.

Forms: plural: gaps

garment

garner

n. piece of clothing; outer covering

n. place where grain is stored; granary; storehouse;


collection; store

gasoline

garner10.

9.

Forms: plural: garments

Forms: plural: garners

garner

gasoline

gather

gate12.

11.

v. to collect; to gather; to accumulate; to store; to place in n. flammable liquid mixture derived from petroleum (used
reserve

as fuel, etc.)

Forms: garnered; garnered; garnering

Forms: plural: gasolines

gate

gather

n. portion of a wall or fence that opens and closes; any

n. drawing together; fold; pucker

barrier which opens and closes; entrance; entryway

gathering

gather14.

13.

Forms: plural: gates

Forms: plural: gathers

gather

gathering

v. to assemble; to collect; to accumulate; to conclude; to

n. assembly; meeting; convention; cluster; collection

deduce

gauge

gauge16.

15.

Forms: gathered; gathered; gathering

Forms: plural: gatherings

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3420 TOEIC Vocabulary Words

gauge

gauge

n. standard of measure; device for measuring (pressure,

v. to measure; to evaluate; to determine; to estimate

amount, distance, etc.)


Forms: gauged; gauged; gauging

general

general18.

17.

Forms: plural: gauges

general

general

n. high ranking military officer

adj. inclusive; of all things

generation

generate20.

19.

Forms: plural: generals

generate

generation

v. to create; to produce; to bring into being

n. production; creating; group of people born around the


same time
Forms: plural: generations

genuine

generous22.
get

germane24.

23.

21.

Forms: generated; generated; generating

generous

genuine

adj. benevolent; giving; unselfish; abundant; plentiful

adj. original; real; true; natural; honest; sincere

germane

get

adj. pertinent; relevant; connected

v. to receive; to obtain; to purchase; to bring; to persuade

with

on

get

into26.

get
with

through

get

over28.

get

27.

25.

Forms: got; gotten; getting

get into

get on with

v. to enter

v. to continue

Forms: got into; gotten into; getting into

Forms: got on with; gotten on with; getting on with

get over

get through with

v. to recover

v. to finish; to complete

Forms: got over; gotten over; getting over

Forms: got through with; gotten through with; getting

gifted

gift30.

29.

through with

gift

gifted

n. present; talent; offering

adj. talented; skilled; having great natural ability

global

up32.

give

31.

Forms: plural: gifts

give up

global

v. to surrender; to quit; to stop doing

adj. worldwide; universal; of the whole world

glossary

globe34.

33.

Forms: gave up; given up; giving up

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3420 TOEIC Vocabulary Words

globe

glossary

n. ball; sphere; planet Earth; world

n. list of terms and definitions (usually at the end of a


book); dictionary of technical or specific terms

glove

glossy36.

35.

Forms: plural: globes

Forms: plural: glossaries

glossy

glove

adj. shiny; polished; smooth

n. protecting covering for the hand; padded covering for


the hand

with

along

go

after38.

go

37.

Forms: plural: gloves

go after

go along with

v. to try to get; to attempt to get

v. to comply; to conform; to follow; to agree

Forms: went after; gone after; going after

Forms: went along with; gone along with; going along

goal

through40.

go
good

good42.

41.

39.

with

go through

goal

v. to experience; to endure

n. target; aim; purpose; objective; destination

Forms: went through; gone through; going through

Forms: plural: goals

good

good

government

good44.
grade

grade46.
graduate

gradually48.

47.

45.

43.

adj. excellent; pleasant; valid; competent; skilled; positive adv. nice; excellent; of high quality

good

government

n. product; item; asset; benefit

n. ruling of a country or area; political control; authority

Forms: plural: goods

Forms: plural: governments

grade

grade

v. to give a mark to; to classify; to make level; to

n. mark; level; degree; rank; type; extend; class (in a

evaluate; to assess

school)

Forms: graded; graded; grading

Forms: plural: grades

gradually

graduate

adv. progressively

v. to complete a course of study and receive a degree or


diploma

graduate

graduate50.

49.

Forms: graduated; graduated; graduating

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3420 TOEIC Vocabulary Words

graduate

graduate

adj. having a degree or diploma; concerning studies

n. person who has completed a course of study and

beyond a bachelor's degree

received a degree or diploma

grain

grain52.
grant

grant54.
graph

graph56.

55.

53.

51.

Forms: plural: graduates

grain

grain

v. to crumble into granules

n. cereal; seed; granule; particle; texture; weave

Forms: grained; grained; graining

Forms: plural: grains

grant

grant

v. to agree; to give; to bestow; to answer to; to donate

n. award; gift; present; contribution; donation

Forms: granted; granted; granting

Forms: plural: grants

graph

graph

v. to represent by chart; to draw a curve representing a

n. diagram; chart

given function

grasp

grasp58.

57.

Forms: graphed; graphed; graphing

Forms: plural: graphs

grasp

grasp

v. to seize; to grip; to comprehend; to understand; to

n. hold; understanding; knowledge; realization

realize

gratitude

grateful60.

59.

Forms: grasped; grasped; grasping

Forms: plural: grasps

grateful

gratitude

adj. thankful; appreciative; expressing thanks

n. thankfulness; appreciation

great

gratuity62.

61.

Forms: no plural

gratuity

great

n. tip; bonus; recompense

adj. large; important; huge; immense; wonderful; exciting

grit

greenhouse64.
grocer

grit66.

65.

63.

Forms: plural: gratuities

greenhouse

grit

n. structure built mainly of glass in which plants are

v. to grind the teeth together; to abrade; to grind; to make

cultivated out of season

a harsh grinding noise

Forms: plural: greenhouses

Forms: gritted; gritted; gritting

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3420 TOEIC Vocabulary Words

grit

grocer

n. small rough granules or particles (i.e. sand); bravery;

n. person who owns and operates a food store

pluck; endurance
Forms: plural: grocers

grocery

groceries68.

67.

Forms: plural: grits

groceries

grocery

n. foods and other goods sold at a small supermarket or

n. store which sells food and other household goods

store
Forms: plural: groceries

grooming

groom70.

69.

Forms: only plural

groom

grooming

v. to tend carefully; to take care of; to make clean and

n. process of making neat and attractive

tidy; to prepare for


Forms: plural: no plural

gross

gross72.

71.

Forms: groomed; groomed; grooming

gross

gross

v. to make or earn a total of (before taxes and other

adj. inclusive; complete; total; general; without deductions

expenses)

grow

gross74.

73.

Forms: grossed; grossed; grossing

gross

grow

n. 12 dozen; 144

v. to become larger; to cultivate; to be changed; to turn


into

guarantee

growth76.
guess

guarantee78.
guide

guess80.
guideline

guide82.

81.

79.

77.

75.

Forms: plural: grosses

Forms: grew; grown; growing

growth

guarantee

n. development; progress

v. to vouch for; to give a warranty; to assure; to promise

Forms: no plural

Forms: guaranteed; guaranteed; guaranteeing

guarantee

guess

n. security; warranty; pledge; assurance

v. to suppose; to hypothesize; to conjecture

Forms: plural: guarantees

Forms: guessed; guessed; guessing

guess

guide

n. conjecture; supposition; hypothesis

v. to direct; to lead; to instruct

Forms: plural: guesses

Forms: guided; guided; guiding

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3420 TOEIC Vocabulary Words

guide

guideline

n. instructor; director; escort; leader; manual; handbook

n. instructions; manual; handbook; indication of


acceptable conduct or procedure
Forms: plural: guidelines

guilty

guilt84.

83.

Forms: plural: guides

guilt

guilty

n. state of having committed a crime or offense;

adj. deserving of punishment; responsible

culpability; feeling of having done something wrong

gymnasium

85.

Forms: plural: no plural

gymnasium
n. building for indoor sports and exercise; fitness center
Forms: plural: gymnasiums

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HTML
hallmark

habit4.

3.

H.R.2.

3420 TOEIC Vocabulary Words

H1.

H.R.

HTML

abbr. manpower; personnel; human work force; human

abbr. language used to write pages and sites for the

labor; staff

Internet

Forms: Human Resources (HR)

Forms: hypertext markup language

habit

hallmark

n. custom; something that one is used to doing; part of a

n. identifying characteristic

routine; behavior pattern


Forms: plural: hallmarks

halt

halt6.
handle

handbook8.
handling

handle10.

9.

7.

5.

Forms: plural: habits

halt

halt

n. temporary stop; standstill; break or pause in a march

v. to stop; to cause to stop; to pause; to hesitate; to be

or journey

uncertain

Forms: plural: halts

Forms: halted; halted; halting

handbook

handle

n. manual; guide; guideline; document containing

n. part of an object designed to be gripped by the hand;

instructions

fist name; nickname; code name; title

Forms: plural: handbooks

Forms: plural: handles

handle

handling

v. to manage; to process; to deal in; to do business with;

n. care; treatment; procedure; system; touch

to treat

hard

hard12.

11.

Forms: handled; handled; handling

Forms: plural: handlings

hard

hard

adj. difficult; complicated; rigid; stiff

adv. strenuously; with great effort; to the full extent;

harmonize

harmful14.

13.

intently; to the extreme limit

harmful

harmonize

adj. injurious; causing damage

v. to agree; to reconcile; to be in concert with

harness

harmony16.

15.

Forms: harmonized; harmonized; harmonizing

harmony

harness

n. unity; agreement; accord; pleasing balance; symmetry

n. straps and other parts by which a draft animal is


attached to a vehicle

harvest

harness18.

17.

Forms: plural: harmonies

Forms: no plural

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hazard

harvest20.
hazardous

hazard22.

21.

19.

3420 TOEIC Vocabulary Words

harness

harvest

v. to use; to apply; to employ; to control; to channel

n. reaping; gathering in of crops; outcome; product

Forms: harnessed; harnessed; harnessing

Forms: plural: harvests

harvest

hazard

v. to reap; to gather in ripe crops; to catch; to gather

n. danger; risk; game of chance

Forms: harvested; harvested; harvesting

Forms: plural: hazards

hazard

hazardous

v. to endanger; to imperil; to dare; to venture

adj. dangerous; risky; perilous

haze

haze24.

23.

Forms: hazarded; hazarded; hazarding

haze

haze

n. fog; mist; obscurity; vagueness

v. to treat someone new in a humiliating manner; to


harass; to humiliate

head

head26.

25.

Forms: plural: hazes

Forms: hazed; hazed; hazing

head

head

adj. chief; leading; main; principal

n. mind; understanding; leader; person in authority; top

headquarter

head28.
headway

headquarters30.

29.

27.

Forms: plural: heads

head

headquarter

v. to lead; to be in charge; to direct; to be at the front; to

v. to set up a center of operations; to be set up in a

go in a certain direction

center of operations

Forms: headed; headed; heading

Forms: headquartered; headquartered; headquartering

headquarters

headway

n. main office; central office of a company; center of

n. progress; advance

operation

healthy

health32.

31.

Forms: only plural

Forms: no plural

health

healthy

n. physical or mental well-being; freedom from disease

adj. well; not sick; fit; sound

hem

helicopter34.

33.

Forms: no plural

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hesitate

hem36.
hidden

hesitation38.

37.

35.

3420 TOEIC Vocabulary Words

helicopter

hem

n. aircraft which flies by means of horizontally rotating

n. folded and stitched down edge of cloth; edge of a

blades

garment

Forms: plural: helicopters

Forms: plural: hems

hem

hesitate

v. to surround; to enclose; to hesitate; to falter in

v. to waver; to be uncertain; to vacillate; to falter; to be

speaking

indecisive

Forms: hemmed; hemmed; hemming

Forms: hesitated; hesitated; hesitating

hesitation

hidden

n. pausing; stammering; faltering

adj. concealed; secret; not to be seen; ulterior

hire

hide40.

39.

Forms: plural: hesitations

hide

hire

v. to conceal; to cover up; to keep secret; to place out of

n. wages; rent; rental; charge; fee

sight

hit

hire42.

41.

Forms: hid; hidden; hiding

Forms: plural: hires

hire

hit

v. to lease; to rent; to employ

n. stroke; blow; collision; success; popular event or


production

homebound

hit44.

43.

Forms: hired; hired; hiring

Forms: plural: hits

hit

homebound

v. to strike; to beat; to reach; to find; to collide

adj. confined usually by illness

honesty

honest46.

45.

Forms: hit; hit; hitting

honest

honesty

adj. truthful; candid; frank

n. truthfulness; sincerity; integrity; frankness

honor

honor48.

47.

Forms: no plural

honor

honor

n. esteem; respect; integrity; honesty; award; privilege

v. to respect; to esteem; to pay tribute; to praise; to


accept

hospital

horrible50.

49.

Forms: plural: honors

Forms: honored; honored; honoring

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3420 TOEIC Vocabulary Words

horrible

hospital

adj. terrible; awful; disgusting

n. location where sick and injured people receive medical


treatment

host

host52.
house

hourly54.
house

house56.
however

housing58.

57.

55.

53.

51.

Forms: plural: hospitals

host

host

n. person who receives guests; large number; multitude

v. to act as master of ceremonies; to receive guests into

(of people or things)

one's home; to give a party

Forms: plural: hosts

Forms: hosted; hosted; hosting

hourly

house

adj. continual

adj. pertaining to accommodations; domesticated

house

house

n. building used for a particular purpose; business;

v. to accommodate someone; to stay; to reside; to dwell;

audience; legislative body

to store; to shelter

Forms: plural: houses

Forms: housed; housed; housing

housing

however

n. lodging; dwelling

adv. in any event; anyway

hr

however60.

59.

Forms: plural: housing

however

hr

conj. in what way?

abbr. period of 60 minutes

hurry

humidity62.
hyphen

hurry64.

63.

61.

Forms: hour

humidity

hurry

n. dampness; moistness; mugginess

v. to make haste; to rush; to urge; to prod; to dash

Forms: no plural

Forms: hurried; hurried; hurrying

hurry

hyphen

n. rush; haste; urgency

n. short dash; short line used to connect or separate


words or syllables (-)

Forms: no plural

Forms: plural: hyphens

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I.P.O.

I.O.U.2.

3420 TOEIC Vocabulary Words

I1.

I.O.U.

I.P.O.

abbr. signed note acknowledging a debt

abbr. first offering to the public of a company's shares on


the stock market
Forms: Initial Public Offering (IPO)

i.e.

Inc.4.
ideal

idea6.

5.

3.

Forms: I owe you (IOU)

Inc.

i.e.

abbr. legally established as a corporation

abbr. that is to say (Latin); for example; for instance

Forms: incorporated

Forms: id est (i.e.)

idea

ideal

n. concept; thought; opinion; intention; plan

adj. perfect; imaginary; excellent; best; exemplary

idealize

ideal8.

7.

Forms: plural: ideas

ideal

idealize

n. standard of perfection; pattern; model; person or thing

v. to represent as the embodiment of perfection

that embodies a standard of perfection

identify

identification10.

9.

Forms: plural: ideals

Forms: idealized; idealized; idealizing

identification

identify

n. verification of a person or thing; recognition

v. to recognize; to show to be the same; to sympathize; to


relate

idle

idle12.

11.

Forms: plural: identifications

Forms: identified; identified; identifying

idle

idle

adj. lazy; vain; unoccupied; unemployed

v. to lounge; to do nothing; to laze around

ignore

ignorance14.
ill

ill16.

15.

13.

Forms: idled; idled; idling

ignorance

ignore

n. lack of knowledge; illiteracy; lack of education; state of

v. to disregard; to overlook; to refuse to recognize; to

being uninformed

reject

Forms: no plural

Forms: ignored; ignored; ignoring

ill

ill

adj. sick; bad; unfriendly; unsatisfactory; inadequate;

adv. with difficulty; barely; scarcely; poorly; improperly

illustrate

ill18.

17.

inferior

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image

illustration20.
imaginary

image22.

21.

19.

3420 TOEIC Vocabulary Words

ill

illustrate

n. trouble; misfortune; evil; harm; disease; sickness

v. to exemplify; to clarify; to explain; to depict; to elucidate

Forms: plural: ills

Forms: illustrated; illustrated; illustrating

illustration

image

n. picture in a book or other work; explanation;

v. to draw a likeness; to describe; to reflect; to picture in

clarification

the mind

Forms: plural: illustrations

Forms: imaged; imaged; imaging

image

imaginary

n. figure; form; reflection; picture; likeness; embodiment

adj. not real; fanciful

imagine

imagination24.
imagining

imaging26.
immediately

immediate28.
impact

immediately30.

29.

27.

25.

23.

Forms: plural: images

imagination

imagine

n. ability of the mind to create mental pictures which do

v. to envision; to fantasize; to visualize; to think; to

not exist in reality

assume

Forms: plural: imaginations

Forms: imagined; imagined; imagining

imaging

imagining

n. forming of mental pictures to control bodily processes

n. fantasizing; visualizing

Forms: no plural

Forms: plural: imaginings

immediate

immediately

adj. instantaneous; prompt; direct; close

conj. as soon as

immediately

impact

adj. right away; shortly; at once; without delay

v. to influence; to affect strongly; to collide; to squeeze in

impatient

impact32.

31.

Forms: impacted; impacted; impacting

impact

impatient

n. influence; effect; colliding of two bodies; touch

adj. unable to wait; intolerant; restless

imperative

impede34.

33.

Forms: plural: impacts

impede

imperative

v. to delay; to obstruct; to hinder; to prevent; to thwart

adj. necessary; obligatory; commanding

implement

imperative36.

35.

Forms: impeded; impeded; impeding

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3420 TOEIC Vocabulary Words

imperative

implement

n. necessity; obligation; command; order

v. to perform; to put into effect; to carry out; to execute; to


realize
Forms: implemented; implemented; implementing

implementation

implement38.

37.

Forms: plural: imperatives

implement

implementation

n. tool; instrument; piece of equipment

n. realization; carrying out; performing; putting into effect;


execution
Forms: plural: implementations

imply

implication40.

39.

Forms: plural: implements

implication

imply

n. consequence; outcome; result; indirect suggestion;

v. to suggest indirectly; to hint; to infer; to mean; to import

connotation; hint
Forms: implied; implied; implying

import

import42.
impose

important44.

43.

41.

Forms: plural: implications

import

import

v. to bring from another place; to bring goods from a

n. brining in of goods from another country; opposite of

foreign country; to signify; to imply

export; meaning; significance

Forms: imported; imported; importing

Forms: plural: imports

important

impose

adj. significant; influential; essential; crucial; critical

v. to require; to compel; to force upon; to enforce; to


institute

impress

impossible46.

45.

Forms: imposed; imposed; imposing

impossible

impress

adj. unbearable; cannot be done; cannot be endured

v. to affect strongly; to emphasize; to stamp

impressive

impression48.

47.

Forms: impressed; impressed; impressing

impression

impressive

n. strong feeling or idea left by an experience; effect;

adj. grand; magnificent; striking

vague memory

improvement

improve50.

49.

Forms: plural: impressions

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inalienable

impulse52.

51.

3420 TOEIC Vocabulary Words

improve

improvement

v. to make better; to increase in quality; to enhance; to

n. something which enhances or improves; addition or

develop

change which adds value to something

Forms: improved; improved; improving

Forms: plural: improvements

impulse

inalienable

n. instinctual urge; sudden desire; whim; wave of energy

adj. non-transferable

sent via a nerve

inbound

inanimate54.
incentive

incentive56.

55.

53.

Forms: plural: impulses

inanimate

inbound

adj. lifeless; spiritless

adj. traveling in an inward direction

incentive

incentive

adj. provocative; stimulating; encouraging

n. stimulus; inducement; enticement; encouragement

incline

incinerator58.
include

incline60.
inclusive

including62.

61.

59.

57.

Forms: plural: incentives

incinerator

incline

n. furnace which burns things to ashes

v. to slope; to bend; to bow; to slant; to influence

Forms: plural: incinerators

Forms: inclined; inclined; inclining

incline

include

n. slope; grade; slant

v. to comprise; to contain; to embrace

Forms: plural: inclines

Forms: included; included; including

including

inclusive

adj. comprising; containing; embracing

adj. containing; comprehensive; all-embracing; extensive;

inconvenience

income64.

63.

taking in

income

inconvenience

n. amount of money received in payment for goods or

v. to cause discomfort; to trouble; to put out; to disturb

services or from other sources; revenue; profits


Forms: plural: incomes

Forms: inconvenienced; inconvenienced;

incorrect

inconvenience66.

65.

inconveniencing

107

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3420 TOEIC Vocabulary Words

inconvenience

incorrect

n. bother; disturbance; nuisance; discomfort

adj. wrong; erroneous; imprecise; unseemly; improper

increase

increase68.
incumbent

incredible70.
incur

incumbent72.
independent

independent74.

73.

71.

69.

67.

Forms: plural: inconveniences

increase

increase

v. to enlarge; to add to; to multiply; to raise; to intensify

n. growth; expansion; addition; enlargement; escalation

Forms: increased; increased; increasing

Forms: plural: increases

incredible

incumbent

adj. unbelievable; inconceivable; fabulous; great;

adj. presently holding an office or position; compulsory;

amazing

necessary; resting; lying

incumbent

incur

n. person who currently holds an office or position

v. to meet with; to bring upon oneself; to acquire

Forms: plural: incumbents

Forms: incurred; incurred; incurring

independent

independent

adj. free; autonomous; sovereign; self-reliant; self-

n. person who does not belong to any political party

sufficient

index

index76.
indoor

indicate78.

77.

75.

Forms: plural: independents

index

index

v. to register; to adjust prices or salaries in accordance

n. list of subjects or other information arranged in

with changes in economic indicators

alphabetical order; indicator; sign

Forms: indexed; indexed; indexing

Forms: plural: indexes

indicate

indoor

v. to show; to point out; to mark; to signify; to imply; to

adj. occurring within a building; meant to be used inside

exhibit

indulge

induce80.

79.

Forms: indicated; indicated; indicating

induce

indulge

v. to cause; to bring about; to set in motion; to influence

v. to give in to desire; to yield to; to satisfy; to spoil; to


humor

industrialize

indulgence82.

81.

Forms: induced; induced; inducing

Forms: indulged; indulged; indulging

108

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3420 TOEIC Vocabulary Words

indulgence

industrialize

n. act of giving in to desire; something which gratifies;

v. to innovate and develop production

luxury; leniency
Forms: industrialized; industrialized; industrializing

infancy

industry84.

83.

Forms: plural: indulgences

industry

infancy

n. manufacturing; trade; diligence; perseverance;

n. beginning phase of a project; babyhood

tendency to work hard


Forms: plural: infancies

infant

infant86.

85.

Forms: plural: industries

infant

infant

adj. pertaining to a minor

n. baby; very young child; toddler; tot; minor

inference

infer88.
inflict

inflation90.

89.

87.

Forms: plural: infants

infer

inference

v. to derive; to conclude; to guess; to surmise; to hint

n. act of deriving; speculation; drawing of a conclusion

Forms: inferred; inferred; inferring

Forms: plural: inferences

inflation

inflict

n. increase in the supply of money in relation to the

v. to impose; to cause something unpleasant

amount of goods available resulting in a rise in prices

influence

influence92.

91.

Forms: plural: inflations

Forms: inflicted; inflicted; inflicting

influence

influence

n. effect; impact; person or thing which has power to

v. to affect; to impact; to impel; to control

affect others

inform

influx94.

93.

Forms: plural: influences

Forms: influenced; influenced; influencing

influx

inform

n. inflow; inward flow; place where a stream flows into

v. to communicate data to; to tell; to brief; to notify

another body of water

information

informal96.

95.

Forms: plural: influxes

Forms: informed; informed; informing

informal

information

adj. unofficial; relaxed; casual; easy; laid-back

n. knowledge; intelligence; data

inhabit

ingredient98.

97.

Forms: no plural

109

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3420 TOEIC Vocabulary Words

ingredient

inhabit

n. component; element; factor; one of the substances

v. to occupy; to live in; to dwell in; to reside in; to populate

which comprises a mixture


Forms: inhabited; inhabited; inhabiting

inherent

inhabitant100.

99.

Forms: plural: ingredients

inhabitant

inherent

n. person who lives in a particular place; resident; tenant; adj. intrinsic; existing as a natural and integral part;
occupant

natural; inborn

initial

initial102.

101.

Forms: plural: inhabitants

initial

initial

n. beginning letter of a person's first name; first letter (as

v. to sign using the first letter or letters of a name

of a word)
Forms: initialed; initialed; initialing

initially

initialed104.

103.

Forms: plural: initials

initialed

initially

adj. signed with initials; marked with the first letter or

adv. at first; in the first place; at the beginning

initiative

initiate106.

105.

letter of a name

initiate

initiative

v. to set going; to launch; to begin; to start

adj. beginning; introductory

injure

initiative108.

107.

Forms: initiated; initiated; initiating

initiative

injure

n. enterprise; drive; ambition; beginning move in a

v. to hurt; to wound; to insult; to offend; to damage

process; first step

injury

injured110.

109.

Forms: plural: initiatives

Forms: injured; injured; injuring

injured

injury

adj. hurt; wounded; insulted; offended; damaged

n. hurt; wound; harm; damage; insult

innocent

innocent112.

111.

Forms: plural: injuries

innocent

innocent

adj. not guilty; pure; simple; naive; unsophisticated;

n. person who is free from sin or wrongdoing

harmless

innovation

innovate114.

113.

Forms: plural: innocents

110

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3420 TOEIC Vocabulary Words

innovate

innovation

v. to make changes; to create something new; to invent

n. introduction of something new; change; new method or


practice
Forms: plural: innovations

inquiry

innovator116.

115.

Forms: innovated; innovated; innovating

innovator

inquiry

n. person who makes changes; person who introduces

n. formal question; exploration; questioning; investigation

new methods or procedures; creative person


Forms: plural: inquiries

insert

insert118.

117.

Forms: plural: innovators

insert

insert

v. to place in; to put in; to add to

n. something created separately for the purpose of being


added to or placed inside (a book, newspaper, etc.)
Forms: plural: inserts

inspect

insist120.
inspector

inspection122.
inspire

inspiration124.

123.

121.

119.

Forms: inserted; inserted; inserting

insist

inspect

v. to demand; to emphasize firmly; to request firmly; to

v. to check; to look over carefully and critically; to

require; to persevere

examine officially; to review

Forms: insisted; insisted; insisting

Forms: inspected; inspect; inspecting

inspection

inspector

n. act of looking over carefully and critically; official

n. person whose job it is to supervise and examine;

examination; audit; review

police officer ranking below a superintendent

Forms: plural: inspections

Forms: plural: inspectors

inspiration

inspire

n. stimulus; motivation; revelation; insight; idea

v. to motivate; to stimulate; to provoke; to influence; to


encourage

install

inspiring126.

125.

Forms: plural: inspiration

Forms: inspired; inspired; inspiring

inspiring

install

adj. motivating; stimulating; encouraging; provoking;

v. to set up for use; to put in (i.e. machinery); to establish

inhaling

in an office or position

instance

instalment128.

127.

Forms: installed; installed; installing

111

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instant

instance130.

129.

3420 TOEIC Vocabulary Words

instalment

instance

n. one of several separate payments into which a debt

v. to refer to a case or occurrence to explain or prove a

has been divided

point; to cite; to mention

Forms: plural: instalments

Forms: instanced; instanced; instancing

instance

instant

n. occurrence; occasion; example; illustration

adj. immediate; quick; urgent; pressing; present; current

instantaneously

instant132.

131.

Forms: plural: instances

instant

instantaneously

n. moment; very short space of time; current month

adv. immediately; momentarily

instinctively

instead134.
institute

institute136.

135.

133.

Forms: plural: instants

instead

instinctively

adv. in place of; as a replacement

adv. naturally; spontaneously; intuitively; automatically

institute

institute

v. to establish; to set up; to begin; to initiate; to start

n. foundation; organization which provides a certain


service or supports a particular cause

instruct

institution138.
instructor

instruction140.

139.

137.

Forms: instituted; instituted; instituting

Forms: plural: institutes

institution

instruct

n. organization; custom; convention; law or activity which

v. to inform; to direct; to guide; to command; to order; to

is accepted in a society

educate

Forms: plural: institutions

Forms: instructed; instructed; instructing

instruction

instructor

n. teaching; direction; guidance; training; education;

n. educator; teacher; trainer

information

instrument

instrument142.

141.

Forms: plural: instructions

Forms: plural: instructors

instrument

instrument

v. to equip with devices for measuring, recording, or

n. tool; implement; device; appliance; agent; means

controlling

insult

insulate144.

143.

Forms: instrumented; instrumented; instrumenting

Forms: plural: instruments

112

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insurance

insult146.
integrity

insure148.

147.

145.

3420 TOEIC Vocabulary Words

insulate

insult

v. to separate from others; to segregate

n. affront; offense; rude remark or action

Forms: insulated; insulated; insulating

Forms: plural: insults

insult

insurance

v. to speak or act in a rude or contemptuous manner; to

n. contract by which property or persons are guaranteed

offend; to affront

against damage or loss

Forms: insulted; insulted; insulting

Forms: plural: insurance

insure

integrity

v. to provide a guarantee against possible damage or

n. honesty; uprightness; morality; wholeness; unity

loss; to make certain

intend

intelligence150.

149.

Forms: insured; insured; insuring

Forms: plural: no plural

intelligence

intend

intensify

intense152.

151.

n. ability to reason and understand; cleverness; brilliance; v. to plan; to mean; to have in mind do or accomplish; to
information

designate for a particular purpose

Forms: plural: no plural

Forms: intended; intended; intending

intense

intensify

adj. extreme; great; powerful; strong; profound

v. to increase; to strengthen; to heighten

intensive

intensity154.

153.

Forms: intensified; intensified; intensifying

intensity

intensive

n. strength; energy; extreme degree; depth; clarity

adj. characterized by a high degree; highly concentrated

intent

intent156.

155.

Forms: plural: intensities

intent

intent

n. plan; goal; aim; objective; meaning

adj. concentrated; focused; determined; resolute;


purposeful

interchangeable

intention158.

157.

Forms: plural: intents

intention

interchangeable

n. plan; aim; goal; purpose

adj. can be traded; can be substituted by something else

interest

interest160.

159.

Forms: plural: intentions

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3420 TOEIC Vocabulary Words

interest

interest

n. concern; affair; percentage on a loan which is paid

v. to cause to become involved in; to arouse curiosity

over time
Forms: interested; interested; interesting

interim

interfere162.

161.

Forms: plural: interests

interfere

interim

v. to impede; to obstruct; to hinder; to meddle

adj. temporary; provisional

interim

interim164.

163.

Forms: interfered; interfered; interfering

interim

interim

adv. meanwhile; in the meantime

n. temporary arrangement; in between period

interior

interior166.

165.

Forms: plural: interims

interior

interior

n. inside a building; inland section of a country

adj. inner; inside; inland; of a country's domestic affairs;


of an individual's inner life

intermittent

interject168.

167.

Forms: plural: interiors

interject

intermittent

v. to place between other things; to throw into the center

adj. not continuous; sporadic; fitful; alternately stopping

of

and starting

internal

internal170.

169.

Forms: plural: interjected; interjected; interjecting

internal

internal

n. inner quality; intrinsic characteristic

adj. inner; inside; located within; of a country's domestic


affairs

internationalize

international172.

171.

Forms: plural: internals

international

internationalize

adj. between countries; of relations between two or more

v. to globalize; to make worldwide

countries
Forms: internationalized; internationalized;

interpreter

interpret174.

173.

internationalizing

114

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interruption

interrupt176.

175.

3420 TOEIC Vocabulary Words

interpret

interpreter

v. to explain; to clarify; to elucidate; to understand or

n. person who translates from one language to another

explain in a particular way

(orally); person how clarifies; commentator

Forms: interpreted; interpreted; interpreting

Forms: plural: interpreters

interrupt

interruption

v. to stop; to discontinue; to disturb; to bring a

n. disturbance; discontinuance; stoppage; cutting-off

conversation to a halt
Forms: plural: interruptions

interview

interview178.

177.

Forms: interrupted; interrupted; interrupting

interview

interview

n. meeting at which a person is evaluated through

v. to question formally; to evaluate through questioning

questioning (as for a job)


Forms: interviewed; interviewed; interviewing

interviewer

interviewee180.
introduce

intricate182.

181.

179.

Forms: plural: interviews

interviewee

interviewer

n. person who is being asked questions; job candidate

n. person who ask questions (i.e. reporter or employer)

Forms: plural: interviewees

Forms: plural: interviewers

intricate

introduce

adj. complex; complicated; involved; entangled

v. to present for the first time; to initiate; to establish; to


announce

introductory

introduction184.

183.

Forms: introduced; introduced; introducing

introduction

introductory

n. act of acquainting one person with another; preface

adj. preliminary; beginning

invention

invent186.

185.

Forms: plural: introductions

invent

invention

v. to originate; to create; to design; to fabricate; to

n. creativity; resourcefulness; fabrication; falsehood

concoct

inventor

inventive188.

187.

Forms: invented; invented; inventing

Forms: plural: inventions

inventive

inventor

adj. creative; new; original

n. creator; designer

inventory

inventory190.

189.

Forms: plural: inventors

115

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3420 TOEIC Vocabulary Words

inventory

inventory

n. stock; list of assets; act of checking stock

v. to make a detailed list of property; to summarize; to


sum up the worth of
Forms: inventoried; inventoried; inventorying

investment

invest192.
invisible

investor194.

193.

191.

Forms: plural: inventories

invest

investment

v. to expend money or effort for future benefits; to grant;

n. expenditure of money or effort for future benefits;

to install; to cover; to authorize

authorization

Forms: invested; invested; investing

Forms: plural: investments

investor

invisible

n. person who puts money into a project

adj. impossible to see; imperceptible; hidden; concealed

invite

invitation196.

195.

Forms: plural: investors

invitation

invite

n. request for one's presence; summons; call

v. to request the presence of; to solicit; to attract; to


encourage; to promote

invoice

invoice198.
involvement

involve200.

199.

197.

Forms: plural: invitations

Forms: invited; invited; inviting

invoice

invoice

n. bill

v. to bill; to charge

Forms: plural: invoices

Forms: invoiced; invoiced; invoicing

involve

involvement

v. to cause to be concerned with; to engage; to engross

n. inclusion; participation; connection; association;


relation

irritate

irrelevant202.

201.

Forms: involved; involved; involving

Forms: plural: involvements

irrelevant

irritate

adj. beside the point; unconnected; impertinent;

v. to annoy; to bother; to aggravate; to anger

immaterial

irritation

irritated204.

203.

Forms: irritated; irritated; irritating

irritated

irritation

adj. annoyed; aggravated; exasperated

n. something which annoys or aggravates

issue

issue206.

205.

Forms: plural: irritations

116

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itemize

item208.

207.

3420 TOEIC Vocabulary Words

issue

issue

n. topic; subject; matter; question; problem; publication

v. to publish; to distribute; to circulate; to emit

Forms: plural: issues

Forms: issued; issued; issuing

item

itemize

n. thing; object; article; news story; piece of information

v. to catalog; to list; to enumerate; to set down in full


detail

itinerary

209.

Forms: plural: items

Forms: itemized; itemized; itemizing

itinerary
n. route; travel plans; travel journal
Forms: plural: itineraries

117

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jeopardy

jeopardize2.

3420 TOEIC Vocabulary Words

J1.

jeopardize

jeopardy

v. to endanger; to place in danger; to imperil; to put at risk n. danger; peril; hazard; risk; endangerment
Forms: plural: jeopardies

join

jeopardy4.

3.

Forms: jeopardized; jeopardized; jeopardizing

jeopardy

join

v. to endanger; to imperil; to put at risk; to place in danger v. to attach; to connect; to unite; to combine; to become a
member
Forms: joined; joined; joining

journal

venture6.

joint
journey

journalist8.

7.

5.

Forms: jeopardized; jeopardized; jeopardizing

joint venture

journal

n. collective enterprise; group endeavor; collaboration

n. newspaper; magazine; diary; blog; bookkeeping ledger

Forms: plural: joint ventures

Forms: plural: journals

journalist

journey

n. reporter; person who writes for a newspaper or

n. long trip; distance; voyage

magazine; correspondent

judge

journey10.

9.

Forms: plural: journalists

Forms: plural: journeys

journey

judge

v. to travel; to take a trip

n. person who presides over court trials; arbiter; expert;


critic

junction

judge12.
justify

13.

11.

Forms: journeyed; journeyed; journeying

Forms: plural: judges

judge

junction

v. to criticize; to assess; to determine; to rule

n. intersection; crossing; connection

Forms: judged; judged; judging

Forms: plural: junctions

justify
v. to vindicate; to defend; to support; to excuse
Forms: justified; justified; justifying

118

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keep
key

key4.

3.

keep2.

3420 TOEIC Vocabulary Words

K1.

keep

keep

n. wages; living; stronghold

v. to hold onto; to save; to store; to watch over; to care for

Forms: plural: keeps

Forms: kept; kept; keeping

key

key

n. device used to open locks; button on a board

v. to fit; to adapt; to adjust; to tune; to supply with an


explanatory device
Forms: keyed; keyed; keying

kind

key6.

5.

Forms: plural: keys

key

kind

adj. important; significant; fundamental; necessary;

n. type; sort; class; group of things which are classed

crucial

together because of their similarities

kindly

kind8.

7.

Forms: plural: kinds

kind

kindly

adj. gentle; good-hearted; understanding; compassionate adj. nicely; thoughtfully; graciously; considerately;

kit

kit10.
knowledge

know12.

11.

9.

sympathetically

kit

kit

n. set; equipment; outfit; clothing; wash basin

v. to equip; to outfit with supplies

Forms: plural: kits

Forms: kitted; kitted; kitting

know

knowledge

v. to be acquainted with; to understand; to distinguish; to

n. familiarity; understanding; wisdom; education;

be aware of

awareness

Forms: knew; known; knowing

Forms: no plural

119

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labor

Ltd.2.

3420 TOEIC Vocabulary Words

L1.

Ltd.

labor

abbr. firm, company that is organized in such a way as to v. to work; to toil; to exert oneself; to work hard
give its owners limited liability
Forms: labored; labored; laboring

lack

labor4.

3.

Forms: Limited (Ld., ld)

labor

lack

n. strenuous physical or mental work; toil; exertion

v. to be short of; to be without; to be missing; to need; to


want
Forms: lacked; lacked; lacking

landscape

lack6.
language

landscaper8.

7.

5.

Forms: plural: labors

lack

landscape

n. need; want; shortage; absence

n. view; scenery; horizontal page orientation

Forms: plural: lacks

Forms: plural: landscapes

landscaper

language

n. person who designs gardens or large areas

n. spoken or written words with which people


communicate thoughts and feelings

last

large10.

9.

Forms: plural: landscapers

Forms: plural: languages

large

last

adj. big; enormous; wide; spacious; famous

v. to continue; to suffice; to endure; to persist

last

last12.
lasting

last14.

13.

11.

Forms: lasted; lasted; lasting

last

last

adj. coming after all others; most recent; final; newest

adv. after all others; finally; at the end; most recently

last

lasting

n. end; conclusion; final appearance; power of

adj. continuing; enduring; remaining for a long time;

endurance; vitality; unit of weight

durable

late

lasting16.

15.

Forms: plural: lasts

lasting

late

n. strong durable fabric; persistence

adv. after the usual or expected time; tardily; recently; far


on time; formerly

launch

late18.

17.

Forms: plural: no plural

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3420 TOEIC Vocabulary Words

late

launch

adj. coming or occurring after the usual or expected time; v. to start; to run; to activate; to inaugurate; to break into
tardy; slow; delayed

law

launch20.
lawyer

lawsuit22.
layer

off24.

lay

23.

21.

19.

Forms: launched; launched; launching

launch

law

n. act of sending out; act of starting or initiating;

n. rule enacted by a community or country; custom;

commencement; inauguration

principle; convention

Forms: plural: launches

Forms: plural: laws

lawsuit

lawyer

n. case in a court of law brought by one party against

n. person who represents people in a court or advises

another; legal claim

them on legal matters; attorney; barrister

Forms: plural: lawsuits

Forms: plural: lawyers

lay off

layer

v. to postpone; to dismiss from a job; to fire

n. thickness of some material that covers a surface;


covering; bed; stratum

layout

layman26.

25.

Forms: laid off; laid off; laying off

Forms: plural: layers

layman

layout

n. unexperienced person

n. arrangement; plan; sketch; drawing; something which


has been arranged

lead

lb28.

27.

Forms: plural: laymen

Forms: plural: layouts

lb

lead

abbr. pound; unit of weight in ancient Rome equaling

v. to conduct; to guide; to direct; to influence

approximately 12 ounces

lead

lead30.

29.

Forms: libra (lb.)

Forms: led; led; leading

lead

lead

adj. most important; main; first; opening; beginning

n. guidance; advance position; first place; guide

leaflet

leader32.

31.

Forms: plural: leads

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3420 TOEIC Vocabulary Words

leader

leaflet

n. head; chief; director; carrier; main article

n. sheet of paper on which information has been printed;


flyer
Forms: plural: leaflets

lease

leakage34.

33.

Forms: plural: leaders

leakage

lease

n. something which escapes or passes through a hole or

v. to rent out property for a specific period of time; to let

opening (i.e. liquid, gas, etc.)


Forms: leased; leased; leasing

least

lease36.

35.

Forms: plural: leakages

lease

least

n. a contract granting use or occupation of property

adj. smallest in size; smallest in amount; lowest in

during a specified time for a specified payment

importance

least

least38.

37.

Forms: plural: leases

least

least

adv. to the smallest extent possible

n. something which is smallest in size or importance

leave

leather40.

39.

Forms: plural: leasts

leather

leave

n. tanned and preserved animal skin; item made of

v. to depart; to exit; to quit; to omit; to let alone

animal skin

lecture

leave42.
legacy

lecture44.
legitimate

legal46.
leisure

legitimate48.

47.

45.

43.

41.

Forms: plural: leathers

Forms: left; left; leaving

leave

lecture

n. vacation; time off; permission to be absent; departure;

v. to deliver a discourse before an audience; to reprimand

farewell

tediously

Forms: plural: leaves

Forms: lectured; lectured; lecturing

lecture

legacy

n. discourse given before an audience; tedious

n. inheritance; bequest; something handed down from

reprimand; formal reproof

one's ancestors

Forms: plural: lectures

Forms: plural: legacies

legal

legitimate

adj. of or pertaining to the law; allowed by law

adj. lawful; acceptable; justified; authorized

122

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lesson

lend50.

49.

3420 TOEIC Vocabulary Words

legitimate

leisure

v. to make valid; to make lawful; to justify; to make

n. time free from work other demands and duties; free

permissible

time; rest; recreation

Forms: legitimated; legitimated; legitimating

Forms: no plural

lend

lesson

v. to give on a temporary basis; to give money as a loan;

v. to instruct; to teach; to scold; to reprove; to rebuke

to donate
Forms: lessoned; lessoned; lessoning

letter

lesson52.
level

letterhead54.
level

level56.

55.

53.

51.

Forms: lent; lent; lending

lesson

letter

n. exercise; assignment given to a student; something to

n. character which is part of an alphabet; written

be studied and learned

communication sent to a person or organization

Forms: plural: lessons

Forms: plural: letters

letterhead

level

n. line printed at the top of a piece of stationary

v. to straighten; to flatten; to make even; to equalize

Forms: plural: letterheads

Forms: leveled; leveled; leveling

level

level

adj. straight; equal; even; honest

n. degree; rank; height; plane; flat horizontal plain

leverage

lever58.
levy

leverage60.

59.

57.

Forms: plural: levels

lever

leverage

n. a simple machine that gives a mechanical advantage

v. to use one's influence to affect people or

when given a fulcrum

circumstances

Forms: plural: levers

Forms: leveraged; leveraged; leveraging

leverage

levy

n. influence; ability to affect or alter people or

v. to impose a tax or fine; to conscript troops

circumstance

liability

levy62.
liberal

liable64.

63.

61.

Forms: no plural

Forms: levied; levied; levying

levy

liability

n. a charge imposed and collected

n. financial obligation; debt; responsibility; obligation

Forms: plural: levies

Forms: plural: liabilities

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3420 TOEIC Vocabulary Words

liable

liberal

adj. under legal obligation; responsible; prone

adj. in favor of reform; supporting a progressive

library

liberal66.
license

license68.

67.

65.

philosophy; tolerant; open-minded

liberal

library

n. person who favors political and social reform

n. place where one can borrow books

Forms: plural: liberals

Forms: plural: libraries

license

license

v. to grant a permit; to authorize; to permit; to allow

n. permit; official permission; authorization; document


which shows proof of authorization; certificate
Forms: plural: licenses

likelihood

lifestyle70.
likely

likely72.

71.

69.

Forms: licensed; licensed; licensing

lifestyle

likelihood

n. way of life

n. probability; chance; feasibility; possibility

Forms: plural: lifestyles

Forms: no plural

likely

likely

adj. reasonable; probable; possible; appropriate;

adv. seemingly; probably

limit

limit74.
line

limited76.

75.

73.

promising

limit

limit

v. to create boundaries; to restrict; to reduce; to function

n. point at which something ends; edge; border;

as a border

restriction; restraint

Forms: limited; limited; limiting

Forms: plural: limits

limited

line

adj. confined within a boundary; restricted; narrow;

v. to place in a row; to cover the inside of; to pad

mediocre

link

line78.
list

link80.

79.

77.

Forms: lined; lined; lining

line

link

n. long thin mark; row; border; domain; tactic

v. to join; to connect; to associate with; to relate to

Forms: plural: lines

Forms: linked; linked; linking

124

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litter

list82.

81.

3420 TOEIC Vocabulary Words

link

list

n. connection; relation; association; one ring of a chain;

v. to write or print a series of names or items according to

ring

a certain order; to inscribe; to record

Forms: plural: links

Forms: listed; listed; listing

list

litter

n. roll; roster; inventory; strip; band

v. to toss or dump garbage in an unauthorized place; to


scatter objects in disorder
Forms: littered; littered; littering

load

litter84.
loan

load86.
local

loan88.

87.

85.

83.

Forms: plural: lists

litter

load

n. refuse; trash; disorder

v. to fill; to pack (with goods, cargo, etc.)

Forms: plural: litters

Forms: loaded; loaded; loading

load

loan

n. something carried; cargo; burden; unit of measure or

v. to lend a sum of money for a period of time; to give

weight; capacity

temporarily

Forms: plural: loads

Forms: loaned; loaned; loaning

loan

local

n. amount of money that has been borrowed; something

adj. characterized; by or occupying a particular place

borrowed; act of giving temporarily

locate

local90.
location

located92.

91.

89.

Forms: plural: loans

local

locate

n. person who is native to or resides in a particular area

v. to situate; to place; to identify; to find; to settle

Forms: plural: locals

Forms: located; located; locating

located

location

adj. situated; placed; identified; found; existing; standing

n. place; position; situation; site; spot

lock

lock94.

93.

Forms: plural: locations

lock

lock

v. to fix in place; to link firmly together; to be held in place n. fastening mechanism which is opened with a key or
other device

logistics

locksmith96.

95.

Forms: locked; locked; locking

Forms: plural: locks

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to

forward

look

logo98.

97.

3420 TOEIC Vocabulary Words

locksmith

logistics

n. person who who makes and fixes keys and fasting

n. planning and execution; management of a business or

mechanisms

other operation

Forms: plural: locksmiths

Forms: only plural

logo

look forward to

n. graphic symbol which represents a company or

v. to anticipate gladly

organization
Forms: looked forward to; looked forward to; looking

Forms: plural: logos

over

look

into100.

look
loom

loom102.
loop

loop104.

103.

101.

99.

forward to

look into

look over

v. to investigate

v. to examine

Forms: looked into; looked into; looking into

Forms: looked over; looked over; looking over

loom

loom

v. to appear as a large and indistinct form; to appear as

n. apparatus on which fabrics are woven; weaving

larger than life; to impend

machine

Forms: loomed; loomed; looming

Forms: plural: looms

loop

loop

v. to make circular shape

n. fastener consisting of a metal ring for lining a small


hole to permit the attachment of cords or lines

loss

lose106.

105.

Forms: looped; looped; looping

Forms: plural: loops

lose

loss

v. to misplace; to be deprived of; to be defeated; to fail;

n. opposite of profit; deprivation; defeat; destruction

opposite of to win

lounge

lounge108.

107.

Forms: lost; lost; losing

Forms: plural: losses

lounge

lounge

v. to lie down; to recline; to move in a relaxed manner; to

n. sofa; couch; lobby; slow walk; stroll

walk lazily

loyalty

loyal110.

109.

Forms: lounged; lounged; lounging

Forms: plural: lounges

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3420 TOEIC Vocabulary Words

loyal

loyalty

adj. faithful; true to one's obligations

n. faithfulness; devotion; constancy

lucrative

lucid112.

111.

Forms: no plural

lucid

lucrative

adj. comprehensible; intelligible; rational; transparent;

adj. profitable; yielding monetary rewards; gainful

lumber

luggage114.

113.

bright

luggage

lumber

n. suitcases; cases and bags carried by travelers

n. trees that have been sawed into rough planks; useless


items that been put in storage

luncheon

lumber116.

115.

Forms: no plural

Forms: no plural

lumber

luncheon

v. to move heavily or awkwardly; to accumulate; to collect n. afternoon party where a light meal is served
Forms: lumbered; lumbered; lumbering

Forms: plural: luncheons

127

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machine

machine2.

3420 TOEIC Vocabulary Words

M1.

machine

machine

n. device made up of interconnected parts that work

v. to produce via mechanical means

together to perform a given task or function


Forms: machined; machined; machining

mail

magnificent4.

3.

Forms: plural: machines

magnificent

mail

adj. splendid; majestic; superb; glorious; impressive

n. postal service; letters and other items that are sent via
the postal service

mailing

mail6.
main

main8.

7.

5.

Forms: no plural

mail

mailing

v. to send a letter or other item via the postal service; to

n. large batch of letters sent at one time by a single

post

sender; rented property

Forms: mailed; mailed; mailing

Forms: plural: mailings

main

main

n. principal pipe or duct in a system; chief part of

adj. principal; head; chief

something; strength or force; high sea

maintain

mainframe10.

9.

Forms: plural: mains

mainframe

maintain

n. computer which can serve many users simultaneously

v. to keep in existence; to preserve; to support; to provide


for

major

maintenance12.

11.

Forms: plural: mainframes

Forms: maintained; maintained; maintaining

maintenance

major

n. upkeep; repairs; livelihood; means of support

n. military rank above captain; main subject of study


chosen by a college or university student

major

major14.

13.

Forms: no plural

Forms: plural: majors

major

major

v. to specialize in a certain field

adj. more important than others; great; serious

mall

majority16.

15.

Forms: majored; majored; majoring

majority

mall

n. greater number or part; number greater than half of the n. shopping center; pedestrian walkway; promenade
total

management

manage18.

17.

Forms: plural: majorities

Forms: plural: malls

128

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managerial

manager20.

19.

3420 TOEIC Vocabulary Words

manage

management

v. to administer; to direct; to supervise; to accomplish; to

n. person of group of people that runs and administers a

handle

business or other enterprise

Forms: managed; managed; managing

Forms: plural: managements

manager

managerial

n. person who runs a company; director; administrator;

adj. relating to supervision and responsibility

supervisor

mandate

mandate22.

21.

Forms: plural: managers

mandate

mandate

n. command; order; authorization granted from one body

v. to issue a command; to make an official order

to a subordinate body
Forms: mandated; mandated; mandating

manual

manner24.
manually

manual26.
manufacture

manufacture28.
margin

margin30.

29.

27.

25.

23.

Forms: plural: mandates

manner

manual

n. mode; fashion; style; behavior; way; type

n. instructional booklet; handbook

Forms: plural: manners

Forms: plural: manuals

manual

manually

adj. physical; done using human skill or force

adv. by hand; physically

manufacture

manufacture

n. product made by hand or by machine

v. to make by machine; to produce; to fabricate; to invent

Forms: plural: manufactures

Forms: manufactured; manufactured; manufacturing

margin

margin

n. profit from the difference between costs and net sales

v. to set apart an additional amount of space or money


for security

mark

mark32.
market

market34.

33.

31.

Forms: plural: margins

Forms: margined; margined; margining

mark

mark

n. sign; indication; symbol; grade; trace

v. to indicate; to signal; to write down; to record; to notice

Forms: plural: marks

Forms: marked; marked; marking

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3420 TOEIC Vocabulary Words

market

market

n. demand for goods or services; rate of purchase and

v. to sell; to trade or deal; to distribute; to promote

sale; fair
Forms: marketed; marketed; marketing

match

match36.
matter

maternal38.

37.

35.

Forms: plural: markets

match

match

n. competition; equal opponent; partner; counterweight;

v. to be compatible; to be suitable; to be an equal

game

competitor; to compare

Forms: plural: matches

Forms: matched; matched; matching

maternal

matter

adj. motherly; related through a mother; relating to or

n. issue; affair; question; problem; substance of a

characteristic of a mother or motherhood

particular composition and consistency

maximum

maximum40.

39.

Forms: plural: matters

maximum

maximum

n. greatest quantity or amount possible; highest capacity

adj. greatest; most; utmost; highest

mean

mayor42.
mean

mean44.

43.

41.

Forms: plural: maximums

mayor

mean

n. elected official acting as executive head of a town or

n. midpoint; middle; equally far from two extremes;

city

average

Forms: plural: mayors

Forms: plural: means

mean

mean

v. to signify; to be significant; to intend; to indicate

adj. average; middle; unkind; base; inferior

meaning

meaning46.

45.

Forms: meant; meant; meaning

meaning

meaning

n. definition; significance; intention; explanation

adj. significant; important

measurable

means48.

47.

Forms: plural: meanings

means

measurable

n. method; way; medium; resources; funds

adj. estimable; determinable; assessable

measure

measure50.

49.

Forms: only plural

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3420 TOEIC Vocabulary Words

measure

measure

n. action; step; criterion; amount; degree; extent

v. to gauge; to quantify; to assess; to evaluate; to


estimate
Forms: measured; measured; measuring

medicine

measurement52.

51.

Forms: plural: measures

measurement

medicine

medium

mediocre54.

53.

n. calculation of size or extent; assessment of capacity or n. art and science of disease treatment and health
dimension

maintenance; remedy; drug

Forms: plural: measurements

Forms: plural: medicines

mediocre

medium

adj. regular; ordinary; low-grade; poor

n. means of expression; channel of communication;


middle man; intermediary; broker

membership

member56.
mend

memo58.

57.

55.

Forms: plural: media

member

membership

n. person who belongs to an organization or group; part;

n. state of belonging to an organization or group;

organ

fellowship

Forms: plural: members

Forms: plural: memberships

memo

mend

n. reminder; internal document

n. reform; repair; act of repairing; state of healing or


improvement

mental

mend60.

59.

Forms: plural: memos

Forms: plural: mends

mend

mental

v. to repair; to improve; to be improved

adj. of or relating to the mind; intellectual; psychosocial

mention

mention62.

61.

Forms: mended; mended; mending

mention

mention

n. direct or incidental reference; recognition of an

v. to remind of; to state; to refer to; to hint at; to indicate

achievement

menu

mentor64.

63.

Forms: plural: mentions

Forms: mentioned; mentioned; mentioning

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merchandise

merchandise66.

65.

3420 TOEIC Vocabulary Words

mentor

menu

n. adviser; counselor; person who guides and teaches;

n. list of choices; list of commands or options which may

spiritual instructor

be selected

Forms: plural: mentors

Forms: plural: menus

merchandise

merchandise

n. goods; ware; stock; articles or items to be sold

v. to trade; to plan for and promote for sales of; to market


goods
Forms: merchandised; merchandised; merchandising

merger

merge68.

67.

Forms: no plural

merge

merger

v. to blend; to be blended; to combine or unite into a

n. fusion; agglomeration

single body; to be assimilated


Forms: plural: mergers

messenger

message70.
method

meter72.
metropolitan

meticulous74.

73.

71.

69.

Forms: merged; merged; merging

message

messenger

n. communication; information; announcement; note;

n. person employed to deliver official dispatches or go on

memo; intimation

special errands

Forms: plural: messages

Forms: plural: messengers

meter

method

n. instrument that automatically measures quantities of

n. procedure; plan of action; way; manner in which one

substances (gas, water or electricity)

conducts business; technique

Forms: plural: meters

Forms: plural: methods

meticulous

metropolitan

adj. pedantic; cautious concerning minute details;

n. resident of a capital city; sophisticated big-city person

scrupulous

mid-range

metropolitan76.

75.

Forms: plural: metropolitans

metropolitan

mid-range

adj. characteristic of a capital city; sophisticated

n. pertaining to a value that is approximately in the middle


of a series of values

midmorning

midday78.

77.

Forms: plural: mid-ranges

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might

might80.
mind

millennium82.

81.

79.

3420 TOEIC Vocabulary Words

midday

midmorning

n. noon; 12 a.m.

n. before noon

Forms: plural: middays

Forms: no plural

might

might

n. strength; power; force; bravery

v. can; to allow; to be possible; to wish

Forms: plural: mights

Forms: could; might have

millennium

mind

n. unit of time equal to one thousand years; thousandth

n. brain; memory; recollection; opinion; intention; desire

year anniversary
Forms: plural: minds

minimum

mind84.
minority

minimum86.

85.

83.

Forms: plural: millenniums

mind

minimum

v. to pay attention to; to supervise; to regret; to oppose;

n. least possible amount; smallest possible size; lowest

to remember; to notice

degree

Forms: minded; minded; minding

Forms: plural: minimums

minimum

minority

adj. pertaining to the smallest; indicating the least

n. part of a population differing in some characteristic;


state of being under legal age

minute

minute88.
minutely

minute90.

89.

87.

Forms: plural: minorities

minute

minute

n. unit of time equal to 60 seconds; 1/60 of an hour;

v. to record the proceedings of a meeting; to make a

memo; protocol; memorandum

memorandum

Forms: plural: minutes

Forms: minuted; minuted; minuting

minute

minutely

adj. tiny; extremely small; trivial; petty; accurate

adv. meticulously; exactingly; scrupulously; diligently;

misgiving

miserably92.

91.

thoroughly

miserably

misgiving

adv. without pleasure or happiness; wretchedly; poorly

n. apprehension; worry; doubt; hesitation; reservation

mistake

mission94.

93.

Forms: plural: misgivings

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3420 TOEIC Vocabulary Words

mission

mistake

n. task; assignment; delegation; errand; religious

n. blunder; fault; error

delegation
Forms: plural: mistakes

mistreatment

mistake96.
misunderstanding

misunderstand98.

97.

95.

Forms: plural: missions

mistake

mistreatment

v. to make an error; to be wrong; to confuse

n. abuse; molestation

Forms: mistook; mistaken; mistaking

Forms: no plural

misunderstand

misunderstanding

v. to interpret incorrectly; to comprehend incorrectly

n. incorrect interpretation

mobilize

mitigate100.
modest

moderately102.

101.

99.

Forms: misunderstood; misunderstood; misunderstanding Forms: plural: misunderstandings

mitigate

mobilize

v. to soften in force or severity; to lessen the impact or

v. to move; to circulate; to draft; to assemble for action

intensity of; to appease

(especially armed reserves)

Forms: mitigated; mitigated; mitigating

Forms: mobilized; mobilized; mobilizing

moderately

modest

adv. mildly; deliberatively; in a temperate manner; not

adj. humble; unpretentious; unassuming; simple; limited

mollify

modification104.

103.

excessively; reasonably

modification

mollify

n. change; adjustment, agreement; adaptation; restriction v. to calm; to soften; to pacify; to relieve

monetize

momentum106.

105.

Forms: plural: modifications

Forms: mollified; mollified; mollifying

momentum

monetize

n. force of movement; strength or motivation derived from v. to turn into profit; to generate revenue
an initial effort

supply

money

money108.
monitor

monitor110.

109.

107.

Forms: plural: monumentums

Forms: monetized; monetized; monetizing

money

money supply

n. coins and paper notes which have value; currency;

n. the total amount of funds in circulation in a given

medium of trade; wealth

country's economy

Forms: plural: monies or moneys

Forms: plural: money supplies

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3420 TOEIC Vocabulary Words

monitor

monitor

v. to supervise; to observe; to follow up on; to check up

n. supervisor; device for regulating; screen

on
Forms: plurals: masc.: monitors; fem.: monitresses or

Forms: monitored; monitored; monitoring

moral

mood112.

111.

monitrixes

mood

moral

n. state of mind; predominant emotion

adj. ethical; virtuous; righteous; principled; having


integrity

mortgage

moral114.

113.

Forms: plural: moods

moral

mortgage

n. ethic; lesson; principle

v. to sign over property to a creditor as security for money


that is owed; to obligate
Forms: mortgaged; mortgaged; mortgaging

motivate

mortgage116.

115.

Forms: plural: morals

mortgage

motivate

motive

motivation118.

117.

n. conditional conveyance of property as for security on a v. to prompt; to spur; to provide inspiration; to stir to
loan; pledging; lien

action; to induce

Forms: plural: mortgages

Forms: motivated; motivated; motivating

motivation

motive

n. incentive; drive; inspiration; state of being stirred to

adj. of reason or cause; inspiring to action

action

move

motive120.
mth.

move122.

121.

119.

Forms: plural: motivations

motive

move

n. something that causes a person to act; cause;

v. to act on; to transfer from one place to another; to

incentive; purpose; intention

change residence

Forms: plural: motives

Forms: moved; moved; moving

move

mth.

n. change of residence; action; turn in a game; formal

abbr. period of about 30 days or 4 weeks; 1/12 of a year

request or proposition

mull

mull124.

123.

Forms: plural: moves

Forms: month

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3420 TOEIC Vocabulary Words

mull

mull

v. to think over; to ponder; to contemplate; to heat and

n. thin muslin fabric (Hindi); beach cliff (Scottish)

spice for drinking


Forms: plural: mulls

must

must126.

125.

Forms: mulled: mulled: mulling

must

must

v. to have to; to be obligated; to be likely or probable

n. necessity; obligation; new wine; grape juice that has


not yet fermented

myriad

127.

Forms: must; must; must

Forms: no plural

myriad
n. great number of persons or things; many; a lot;
composed of a countless number of items
Forms: plural: myriads

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name
name

name4.

3.

N/A2.

3420 TOEIC Vocabulary Words

N1.

N/A

name

abbr. describing something that can be left out isn't

n. word or phrase by which someone or something is

required

called or identified; moniker

Forms: not available; not applicable

Forms: plural: names

name

name

v. to appoint; to specify; to identify; to designate

adj. reputed; famous

narrow

narrow6.

5.

Forms: named; named; naming

narrow

narrow

v. to limit; to restrict; to contract; to lessen in width; to

adj. tight; strait; reduced; not wide

taper

nearby

nationality8.

7.

Forms: narrowed; narrowed; narrowing

nationality

nearby

n. citizenship; patriotism

adj. close at hand

necessarily

nearby10.
necessary

necessary12.

11.

9.

Forms: plural: nationalities

nearby

necessarily

adv. next to; alongside

adv. as a logical result; unavoidably

necessary

necessary

n. something that is essential or imperative; essentials of

adj. vital; essential; indispensable; unavoidable

life (food, clothing, and shelter)

need

necessity14.

13.

Forms: plural: necessaries

necessity

need

n. obligation; need; requirement

n. requirement; shortage of an indispensable item;


distress; hardship

neglect

need16.

15.

Forms: plural: necessities

Forms: plural: needs

need

neglect

v. to require; to be in distress; to be under hardship; to be n. disregard; inattention; forgetfulness; abandonment


obligated

negligence

neglect18.

17.

Forms: needed; needed; needing

Forms: plural: neglects

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negotiate

negotiable20.

19.

3420 TOEIC Vocabulary Words

neglect

negligence

v. to disregard; to ignore; to forget to perform (a duty); to

n. neglect; disregard; carelessness; failure to provide the

shirk; to abandon

necessary provision for (Law)

Forms: neglected; neglected; neglecting

Forms: no plural

negotiable

negotiate

adj. describing an asset or item which can easily be sold

v. to bargain; to deal; to work out; to compromise; to clear

or transferred

or pass an obstacle

nevertheless

negotiator22.

21.

Forms: negotiated; negotiated; negotiating

negotiator

nevertheless

n. person who participates in a bargaining session

adv. anyway; anyhow; still; all the same

newsletter

news24.
no.

nexus26.

25.

23.

Forms: plurals: masc.: negotiators; fem.: negotiatrixes

news

newsletter

n. report of recent events; information about previously

n. short informational periodical that is usually distributed

unknown facts

to the members of an interest group

Forms: no plural

Forms: plural: newsletters

nexus

no.

n. means of connection; link; joint; connected group

abbr. numeral; mathematical value or its symbol; unit in a


series; part

nomination

nominate28.
note

nominee30.

29.

27.

Forms: plural: nexuses

Forms: number

nominate

nomination

v. to appoint someone (for a position, office, or honor); to

n. appointment; proposal of a candidate (for an office or

designate; to select

an honor)

Forms: nominated; nominated; nominating

Forms: plural: nominations

nominee

note

n. person who has been appointed; candidate

v. not intended to earn profits; to observe; to remark on;


to make a comment; to record

notebook

note32.

31.

Forms: plural: nominees

Forms: noted; noted; noting

138

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3420 TOEIC Vocabulary Words

note

notebook

n. short written reminder; memo; brief informal letter;

n. portable personal computer; laptop computer

official message
Forms: plural: notebooks

notice

notice34.
novel

novel36.

35.

33.

Forms: plural: notes

notice

notice

v. to discern; to perceive; to pay attention; to observe; to

n. announcement; poster, sign; warning; attention;

remark

consideration

Forms: noticed; noticed; noticing

Forms: plural: notices

novel

novel

adj. new; strange

n. piece of long fiction with a plot and characters; story

nuance

novelty38.
number

number40.

39.

37.

Forms: plural: novels

novelty

nuance

n. innovation; something new; discovery

n. slight difference; subtle distinction

Forms: plural: novelties

Forms: plural: nuances

number

number

v. to count; to equal in amount; to limit; to allot

adj. anesthetized; lacking sensitivity (to pain); in shock;


senseless

nurse

number42.
nurse

43.

41.

Forms: numbered; numbered; numbering

number

nurse

n. mathematical value or its symbol; indefinite amount;

v. to breast-feed; to suckle; to provide medical care; to

quantity of; sum

take care of

Forms: plural: numbers

Forms: nursed; nursed; nursing

nurse
n. medical caretaker (especially in a hospital under the
supervision of a doctor)
Forms: plural: nurses

139

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object
objective

objection4.
obligation

objective6.

5.

3.

object2.

3420 TOEIC Vocabulary Words

O1.

object

object

n. article, thing; goal; focus of a thought or action

v. to oppose; to protest

Forms: plural: objects

Forms: objected; objected; objecting

objection

objective

n. opposition; appeal; denial; protest

n. aim; purpose, goal

Forms: plural: objections

Forms: plural: objectives

objective

obligation

adj. impartial; unbiased; existing outside of the mind

n. duty responsibility; indebtedness; agreement

observe

obligatory8.

7.

Forms: plural: obligations

obligatory

observe

adj. binding; compelling; must be done; necessary

v. to watch; to study; to monitor; to supervise; to discern

obtain

obsolete10.

9.

Forms: observed; observed; observing

obsolete

obtain

adj. ancient; archaic; no longer in use; outdated; useless

v. to acquire; to procure; to secure; to earn; to achieve

obviously

obvious12.
occasion

occasion14.

13.

11.

Forms: obtained; obtained; obtaining

obvious

obviously

adj. clear; unmistakable; apparent; evident; plain

adv. clearly; unmistakably; plainly; apparently

occasion

occasion

n. opportunity; occurrence, event; incident; reason; cause v. to cause; to incite; to bring to pass

occupation

occupancy16.
occur

occupied18.

17.

15.

Forms: plural: moccasins

Forms: occasioned; occasioned; occasioning

occupancy

occupation

n. period of residence; act of taking possession (Law);

n. act of forcefully taking possession of an area; seizure;

right of possession

conquest; possession or settlement of land

Forms: plural: occupancies

Forms: plural: occupations

occupied

occur

adj. conquered; seized; filled; taken up; inhabited;

v. to happen; to take place; to transpire; to come to mind;

populated

to suggest itself

offence

occurrence20.

19.

Forms: occurred; occurred; occurring

140

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offense

offender22.

21.

3420 TOEIC Vocabulary Words

occurrence

offence

n. happening; event; incident

n. attack; misdeed; insult; transgression

Forms: plural: occurrences

Forms: plural: offences

offender

offense

n. transgressor; person who breaks the law; one who

n. attack; misdeed; insult; transgression

insults
Forms: plural: offenses

offer

offensive24.

23.

Forms: plural: offenders

offensive

offer

n. attack; act of aggression; position of pursuit or

n. suggestion; proposal of a price; tender; bid

aggression
Forms: plural: offers

office

offer26.

25.

Forms: plural: offensives

offer

office

v. to suggest; to tender; to bid; to propose a price; to

n. chamber; bureau; incumbency; agency; authority

present

offing

official28.

27.

Forms: offered; offered; offering

Forms: plural: offices

official

offing

n. person who holds public position; authority

n. distant part of the sea visible from the shore; remote


place far from the shore; high seas

offset

offset30.
omit

omission32.
operate

onus34.

33.

31.

29.

Forms: plural: officials

Forms: no plural

offset

offset

n. outcome; compensation; counterbalance

v. to compensate; to balance

Forms: plural: offsets

Forms: offset; offset; offsetting

omission

omit

n. deletion; negligence; failure; default

v. to delete; to skip over; to neglect

Forms: plural: omissions

Forms: omitted; omitted; omitting

onus

operate

n. responsibility; duty; burden; impediment; blame

v. to act; to function; to manage; to use; to activate; to


perform surgery

operational

operation36.

35.

Forms: plural: onuses

Forms: operated; operated; operating

141

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3420 TOEIC Vocabulary Words

operation

operational

n. working, performance, handling; venture, undertaking;

adj. working; functional; ready for use

series of actions

opinion

operator38.

37.

Forms: plural: operations

operator

opinion

n. one who activates; worker of a telephone switchboard; n. attitude; outlook; formal judgment or estimation
operation symbol
Forms: plural: opinions

opportunity

opportune40.

39.

Forms: plural: operators

opportune

opportunity

adj. appropriate; fitting; well-timed; timely; proper;

n. chance; occasion; favorable time to act

expedient

opposite

opposite42.

41.

Forms: plural: opportunities

opposite

opposite

n. contrast; something contrary

adj. facing; across from; contrary; reverse; different;


antithetical

opposite

opposite44.
order

option46.

45.

43.

Forms: plural: opposites

opposite

opposite

adv. contrarily

prep. across from; facing

option

order

n. choice; alternative; possibility; selection; election

n. arrangement; instruction; command; request for


something

ordinary

order48.

47.

Forms: plural: options

Forms: plural: orders

order

ordinary

v. to command; to request something; to arrange; to

n. ecclesiastical judge; priest

manage

organize

ordinary50.

49.

Forms: ordered; ordered; ordering

Forms: plural: ordinaries

ordinary

organize

adj. regular; common

v. to arrange; to order; to systematize; to set up; to unite;


to structure

original

origin52.

51.

Forms: organized; organized; organizing

142

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originality

original54.

53.

3420 TOEIC Vocabulary Words

origin

original

n. source; beginning; birth; parentage; nationality

n. source from which something arises; prototype; model

Forms: plural: origins

Forms: plural: originals

original

originality

adj. first; primary; innovative; creative; novel

n. state of not being a derivative of anything else

originate

originally56.

55.

Forms: plural: originalities

originally

originate

adv. at first; in the first place; in a unique manner

v. to begin; to be created; to result from; to develop; to be


produced

ostentatious

ostensibly58.
outbound

ought60.

59.

57.

Forms: originated; originated; originating

ostensibly

ostentatious

adv. apparently; seemingly; to all appearances

adj. showy; pretentious; bombastic; pompous; garish

ought

outbound

v. to need to; must; to be obligated

adj. leaving; sailing; traveling to another country

outlet

outdoor62.

61.

Forms: modal verb

outdoor

outlet

adj. of nature

n. exit; electrical source for connecting appliances; store;


shop; joint

outside

output64.

63.

Forms: plural: outlets

output

outside

n. yield; product; manufacture; information sent out from

n. external part or surface of something

a computer

outside

outside66.

65.

Forms: plural: outputs

Forms: no plural

outside

outside

outstanding

outside68.
overcome

overall70.

69.

67.

adj. external; of the outdoors; from the outdoors; maximal adv. out of doors

outside

outstanding

prep. besides; aside from

adj. excellent; conspicuous; prominent; due

143

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3420 TOEIC Vocabulary Words

overall

overcome

n. work clothing consisting of denim trousers (usually with v. to subdue; to solve


a bib and shoulder straps)
Forms: overcame; overcame; overcoming

overhead

overdraft72.
overhead

overhead74.
overlap

overlap76.
overseas

overlook78.

77.

75.

73.

71.

Forms: plural: overalls

overdraft

overhead

n. limit to which money may be withdrawn from the bank

n. general expenses; manufacturing and business

on credit

expenses

Forms: plural: overdrafts

Forms: no plural

overhead

overhead

adj. of general expenses; general

adv. from above; above; in the sky

overlap

overlap

n. something that is superimposed

v. to cover a part of; to have something in common

Forms: plural: overlaps

Forms: overlapped; overlapped; overlapping

overlook

overseas

v. to inspect; to supervise; to miss; to omit; to ignore; to

adj. foreign; abroad

excuse

oversee

overseas80.

79.

Forms: overlooked; overlooked; overlooking

overseas

oversee

adv. in a place across an ocean

v. to supervise; to manage; to inspect

overtime

overt82.

81.

Forms: oversaw; overseen; overseeing

overt

overtime

adj. plain; clear; visible; public; intentional; undisguised

n. work beyond regular working hours; pay for such work

(Law)

overview

overtime84.

83.

Forms: no plural

overtime

overview

adv. exceeding regular working hours

n. synopsis; general survey; introduction

owe

overwhelm86.

85.

Forms: plural: overviews

144

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own

own88.

87.

3420 TOEIC Vocabulary Words

overwhelm

owe

v. to defeat; to master; to crush; to stagger; to stun; to

v. to be indebted to; to be under obligation to pay or

daze

repay

Forms: overwhelmed; overwhelmed; overwhelming

Forms: owed; owed; owing

own

own

v. to be in possession of; to belong to; to confess

adj. belonging to oneself or itself (mine, yours, his, etc.);


self; by oneself

ownership

owner90.

89.

Forms: owned; owned; owning

owner

ownership

n. proprietor

n. legal right of possession

Forms: plural: owners

Forms: plural: ownerships

145

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PR

PIN2.

3420 TOEIC Vocabulary Words

P1.

PIN

PR

abbr. set of numbers which identifies a person

abbr. actions of promoting goodwill and distributing


information for a company or organization
Forms: public relations

Ph.D.

PTO4.
package

p.m.6.
pad

package8.

7.

5.

3.

Forms: personal identification number

PTO

Ph.D.

abbr. requesting to view or read the opposite side of a

abbr. graduate with a doctorate; graduate of a doctoral

page or document

program; university degree; title

Forms: please turn over

Forms: Doctor of Philosophy

p.m.

package

abbr. between noon and midnight; in the afternoon; after

n. bundle; parcel; container for storage or transportation;

the hour of 12:00 noon

inseparable combination of items

Forms: post meridiem (pm, P.M., PM)

Forms: plural: packages

package

pad

page

pad10.
paint

page12.
pair

paint14.

13.

11.

9.

v. to wrap; to combine things together as one inseparable n. piece of soft material which cushions; block of pages
unit

stacked together and connected on one side

Forms: packaged; packaged; packaging

Forms: plural: pads

pad

page

v. to cushion; to fill; to fill out; to walk; to go by foot

n. piece of paper; attendant; servant

Forms: padded; padded; padding

Forms: plural: pages

page

paint

v. to call; to summon (e.g. to the telephone); to number

n. colored substance applied to surfaces; layer of dried

sheets of paper in a collection

pigment on a surface

Forms: paged; paged; paging

Forms: plural: paints

paint

pair

v. to apply color to a surface; to put makeup on; to

n. match; whole consisting of two parts; couple

describe something in words

pallet

pair16.

15.

Forms: painted; painted; painting

Forms: plural: pairs

pair

pallet

v. to couple; to be part one of a match; to mate

n. straw-filled mattress; hard and simple bed; platform


used to stack items during moving or storage

paper

panel18.

17.

Forms: paired; paired; pairing

Forms: plural: pallets

146

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3420 TOEIC Vocabulary Words

panel

paper

n. group of judges; board; band; strip; crew; staff

n. thin sheets of fibrous material used to write on; article;


essay; questionnaire
Forms: plural: papers

paragraph

paradigm20.

19.

Forms: plural: panels

paradigm

paragraph

n. model; ideal; mold; form; example; pattern

n. passage; distinct portion of text (usually begins with an


indented line); section; clause
Forms: plural: paragraphs

paramount

parameter22.

21.

Forms: plural: paradigms

parameter

paramount

n. variable which determines the form of a function

adj. superior; supreme; above all; of the highest rank;


most important

part

parentheses24.
part

part26.

25.

23.

Forms: plural: parameters

parentheses

part

n. grouping symbols ()

v. to divide; to separate; to be divided; to allocate

Forms: plural: parenthesis

Forms: parted; parted; parting

part

part

adj. somewhat

n. section; piece; region; role; function; side in an


agreement

participate

part-time28.
particular

particular30.

29.

27.

Forms: plural: parts

part-time

participate

n. period; era; hour; rate

v. to be involved; to join in

Forms: plural: part-times

Forms: participated; participated; participating

particular

particular

adj. special; unusual; detailed; precise; pedantic; strict

n. detail; individual characteristic; item; article; specific


proposition

party

particularly32.

31.

Forms: plural: particulars

particularly

party

adv. especially; specifically

v. to celebrate

party

party34.

33.

Forms: partied; partied; partying

147

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3420 TOEIC Vocabulary Words

party

party

adj. of a political group; of social gatherings

n. political group; social gathering; side of an agreement;


group; gang

pass

pass36.

35.

Forms: plural: parties

pass

pass

n. alleyway; narrow road between mountains; successful

v. to cross; to transport; to approve

grade on a test
Forms: passed; passed; passing

passenger

passage38.
patch

passport40.

39.

37.

Forms: plural: passes

passage

passenger

n. way; route; course; section; piece

n. traveler; fare; person who rides or travels

Forms: plural: passages

Forms: plural: passengers

passport

patch

n. a document issued by a country to a citizen allowing

n. area of fabric used to repair a hole; stain; bandage; lot

that person to travel abroad and re-enter the home


country

path

patch42.

41.

Forms: plural: passports

Forms: plural: patches

patch

path

v. to cover a hole with a piece of material; to use to cover n. track; lane; route; search route
a hole

pattern

patience44.
pay

pattern46.
payable

pay48.

47.

45.

43.

Forms: patched; patched; patched

Forms: plural: paths

patience

pattern

n. tolerance; forbearance

n. sample; model; form; mold; decorative design

Forms: no plural

Forms: plural: patterns

pattern

pay

v. to decorate; to imitate; to mimic; to copy an example

n. salary; wages

Forms: patterned; patterned; patterning

Forms: no plural

pay

payable

v. to give money for goods or to cancel debts; to settle; to adj. may be settled
be worthwhile; to be profitable

payroll

payment50.

49.

Forms: paid; paid; paying

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3420 TOEIC Vocabulary Words

payment

payroll

n. wage; salary; compensation; bonus; punishment

n. financial sheet listing salaries; list of workers who


receive wages and salaries
Forms: plural: payrolls

peace

pd.52.
peddle

peculiar54.

53.

51.

Forms: plural: payments

pd.

peace

abbr. given money that was owed

n. state of not being at war; silence; quietness; tranquility

Forms: paid

Forms: no plural

peculiar

peddle

adj. exceptional; special; strange; odd; curious

v. to hawk; to vend; to deal; to distribute; to sell

penalize

pedicure56.
perceive

penalty58.

57.

55.

Forms: peddled; peddled; peddling

pedicure

penalize

n. cosmetic foot treatment

v. to punish

Forms: plural: pedicures

Forms: penalized; penalized; penalizing

penalty

perceive

n. punishment; fine; punishment in the form of a financial

v. to feel; to sense; to distinguish; to discern; to see

payment

perennial

percent60.
perfect

perennial62.

61.

59.

Forms: plural: penalties

Forms: perceived; perceived; perceiving

percent

perennial

n. one part of a hundred

n. something that continues for many years

Forms: plural: percents

Forms: plural: perennials

perennial

perfect

adj. lasting throughout the whole year; continuing for

v. to refine; to improve; to complete; to make faultless

many years; perpetual; everlasting

perform

perfect64.

63.

Forms: perfected; perfected; perfecting

perfect

perform

adj. flawless; complete; undamaged

v. to do; to carry out; to execute; to present; to arrange; to


manage

perhaps

performance66.

65.

Forms: performed; performed; performing

149

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3420 TOEIC Vocabulary Words

performance

perhaps

n. show; presentation; execution; act; deed

adv. maybe; possibly; could be

periodical

period68.

67.

Forms: plural: performances

period

periodical

n. punctuation mark; end; pause at end of a phrase; full

n. magazine; journal

sentence; age; season


Forms: plural: periodicals

perishable

periodical70.

69.

Forms: plural: periods

periodical

perishable

adj. occurring at regular intervals; recurrent; cyclic;

n. product which can rot or spoil (fruit, food etc.)

seasonal

permanent

perishable72.
permit

permeate74.
perpetuate

permit76.

75.

73.

71.

Forms: plural: perishables

perishable

permanent

adj. expendable; spoils rapidly; likely to spoil; mortal

adj. lasting; enduring; perpetual; regular; fixed; invariable

permeate

permit

v. to enter; to penetrate; to infiltrate; to suffuse

n. license; authorization

Forms: permeated; permeated; permeating

Forms: plural: permits

permit

perpetuate

v. to let; to enable; to allow; to authorize; to sanction

v. to eternalize; to make everlasting; to preserve from


extinction

persistent

persistence78.

77.

Forms: permitted; permitted; permitting

Forms: perpetuated; perpetuated; perpetuating

persistence

persistent

n. diligence; tenacity; stubbornness; continuation

adj. tenacious; stubborn; constant; continual; diligent

perspective

personnel80.
persuasion

persuade82.
pertinent

pertain84.

83.

81.

79.

Forms: no plural

personnel

perspective

n. staff; work force; team; crew

n. viewpoint; outlook; vista; view

Forms: no plural

Forms: plural: perspectives

persuade

persuasion

v. to convince; to induce; to sway

n. inducement; act of convincing

Forms: persuade; persuaded; persuading

Forms: plural: persuasions

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3420 TOEIC Vocabulary Words

pertain

pertinent

v. to belong to; to be connected to; to relate; to refer

adj. relevant; related; appropriate; fitting

petrol

pervasive86.

85.

Forms: pertained; pertained; pertaining

pervasive

petrol

adj. penetrating; infiltrating; spreading; extending;

n. type of fuel; gasoline

permeating

phone

pharmacist88.
photo

photo90.

89.

87.

Forms: no plural

pharmacist

phone

n. druggist; apothecary

v. to make a call; to ring

Forms: plural: pharmacists

Forms: phoned; phoned; phoning

photo

photo

pref. of light

n. picture; snapshot

photograph

photograph92.
up

pick

photographer94.
picture

up96.

pick
pie

picture98.

97.

95.

93.

91.

Forms: plural: photos

photograph

photograph

v. to take a picture

n. picture; snapshot; image

Forms: photographed; photographed; photographing

Forms: plural: photographs

photographer

pick up

n. cameraman; person who takes pictures

v. to choose; to select; to pull out; to tear out; to peck

Forms: plural: photographers

Forms: picked; picked; picking

pick up

picture

n. hoe; tool used to spread soil; choice; selection

v. to photograph; to paint; to draw; to describe; to depict

Forms: plural: picks

Forms: pictured; pictured; picturing

picture

pie

n. photograph; drawing; painting; film; embodiment

n. type of dessert; cake; baked dish consisting of a crust


and filling

piece

piece100.

99.

Forms: plural: pictures

Forms: plural: pies

151

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pioneer

pile102.

101.

3420 TOEIC Vocabulary Words

piece

piece

v. to join parts together; to attach segments

n. slice; part; segment; creation; work

Forms: pieced; pieced; piecing

Forms: plural: pieces

pile

pioneer

pipe

pioneer104.

103.

n. heap; mound; wealth; fortune; group of buildings; dike; n. pathfinder; forerunner; person who paves the way;
levee

member of a military engineering corps

Forms: plural: piles

Forms: plural: pioneers

pioneer

pipe

v. to pave the way; to create a path; to guide; to initiate;

n. tube; trachea; flute; toot

to originate
Forms: plural: pipes

pitch

pipe106.
place

pitch108.
placid

place110.

109.

107.

105.

Forms: pioneered; pioneered; pioneering

pipe

pitch

v. to convey a fluid; to transport a liquid; to make a high-

n. relative highness or lowness of a sound; tar; asphalt;

pitched sound

throw

Forms: piped; piped; piping

Forms: plural: pitches

pitch

place

v. to establish; to erect; to throw; to toss

n. location; position; standing; role; function

Forms: pitched; pitched; pitched

Forms: plural: places

place

placid

v. to put; to lay; to lodge; to nominate; to appoint

adj. serene; quiet; peaceful; tranquil; relaxed; calm

plain

plaid112.

111.

Forms: laced; placed; placing

plaid

plain

n. colorful fabric with a pattern of square s and crossbars

adv. simply; in an unembellished manner; clearly

plain

plain114.

113.

Forms: plural: plaids

plain

plain

n. plateau; area of level ground; prairie; savanna

adj. clear; evident; simple; flat; smooth

plan

plan116.

115.

Forms: plural: plains

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3420 TOEIC Vocabulary Words

plan

plan

n. program; scheme; agenda; timetable; schedule

v. to make a scheme; to plot; to design; to contrive; to


think up
Forms: planned; planned; planned

plane

plane118.

117.

Forms: plural: plans

plane

plane

adj. flat, level; even

n. type of aircraft; two-dimensional surface; rank; level

plant

plane120.

119.

Forms: plural: planes

plane

plant

v. to smooth wood; to make smooth; to remove rough

n. small vegetable growth; factory; equipment

areas
Forms: plural: plants

plate

plant122.
plc

plate124.
pleasure

pleased126.

125.

123.

121.

Forms: planed; planed; planing

plant

plate

v. to sow; to place seeds or vegetation into soil; to

n. flat dish for serving food; portion; covering, coating;

establish; to set

board

Forms: planted; planted; planting

Forms: plural: plates

plate

plc

v. to cover with a thin layer of metal; to coat with metal

abbr. public limited liability company in Britain

Forms: plated; plated; plating

Forms: public limited company

pleased

pleasure

adj. content; satiated; having one's desires satisfied

n. enjoyment; amusement; entertainment; delight; joy

plug

pleasure128.

127.

Forms: plural: pleasures

pleasure

plug

v. to cause someone enjoyment

n. cork; stopper; electrical connector; block;


advertisement

plumber

plug130.
pocket

pocket132.

131.

129.

Forms: pleasured; pleasured; pleasuring

Forms: plural: plugs

plug

plumber

v. to cap; to cork; to stop up; to block; to advertise

n. person who works with pipe and water systems

Forms: plugged; plugged; plugging

Forms: plural: plumbers

153

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3420 TOEIC Vocabulary Words

pocket

pocket

adj. small; of a pouch

n. pouch used to carry objects; sac; underground deposit


of oil

point

pocket134.
pointer

point136.

135.

133.

Forms: plural: pockets

pocket

point

v. to profit; to roll a ball into a hole (Billiards)

n. spot; tip; essence; gist; matter

Forms: pocketed; pocketed; pocketing

Forms: plural: points

point

pointer

v. to indicate; to emphasize; to sharpen; to direct

n. indicator; something used to point; hand on a clock;


clue; advice
Forms: plural: pointers

polite

policy138.

137.

Forms: pointed; pointed; pointing

policy

polite

n. course or method of action; guidelines; position;

adj. courteous; having good manners; gentle; genial; kind

standpoint; insurance contract

poll

poll140.

139.

Forms: plural: policies

poll

poll

n. voting, electing; counting of votes; number of votes;

v. to vote; to elect; to count votes; to make a survey

referendum

ponder

pollution142.
portable

population144.

143.

141.

Forms: plural: polls

Forms: polled; polled; polling

pollution

ponder

n. contamination; dirtying; soiling; spoiling; destruction

v. to reflect; to think; to consider; to meditate

Forms: plural: pollutions

Forms: pondered; pondered; pondering

population

portable

n. total number of people living in an area

adj. mobile; movable; can be transported from one place


to another

pose

portfolio146.
position

pose148.

147.

145.

Forms: plural: populations

portfolio

pose

n. briefcase; attache case; list of securities and stocks

n. stance

Forms: plural: portfolios

Forms: plural: poses

154

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possess

position150.

149.

3420 TOEIC Vocabulary Words

pose

position

v. to stance

n. viewpoint, opinion; siting; locus; location; place; job

Forms: posed; posed; posing

Forms: plural: positions

position

possess

v. to erect; to set; to put; to place

v. to control; to dominate; to hold; to own; to have as


property
Forms: possessed; possessed; possessing

possibility

possession152.
post

possible154.
post

post156.
posting

postage158.
postpone

postmaster160.
posture

posture162.
potential

potency164.
pounce

potential166.

165.

163.

161.

159.

157.

155.

153.

151.

Forms: positioned; positioned; positioned

possession

possibility

n. custody; property; asset; control; ownership

n. probability; feasibility; chance; likelihood

Forms: plural: possessions

Forms: plural: possibilities

possible

post

adj. could be; might be; may be

pref. after; later; subsequent to

post

post

n. mail; column; opinion; role; job placement

v. to assign to a duty; to station; to publicize; to advertise

Forms: plural: posts

Forms: posted; posted; posting

postage

posting

n. fee for sending letters or packages by mail

n. message sent to a newsgroup or mailing list (Internet)

Forms: no plural

Forms: plural: postings

postmaster

postpone

n. mail manager, person responsible for managing

v. to put off to a later time; to delay; to defer; to put off

electronic mail on a network (Computers)

until later; to stay

Forms: plural: postmasters

Forms: postponed; postponed; postponing

posture

posture

n. viewpoint; stance; condition; state; mood; attitude

v. to pretend; to feign

Forms: plural: postures

Forms: postured; postured; posturing

potency

potential

n. power; strength; force; capacity to be

n. possibility; ability; capability of being

Forms: plural: potencies

Forms: plural: potentials

155

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3420 TOEIC Vocabulary Words

potential

pounce

adj. possible; capable of becoming; able to be

n. act of suddenly swooping down and grabbing; sudden


assault or attack

powerful

pounce168.

167.

Forms: plural: pounces

pounce

powerful

v. to fall on; to storm; to invade; to attack; to seize; to

adj. exerting great force; effective; potent; producing the

assault

desired effect; influential

practice

practical170.

169.

Forms: pounced; pounced; pouncing

practical

practice

adj. feasible; workable; applicable; useful; efficacious

v. to exercise; to train; to drill

precede

practice172.
precisely

precise174.
precondition

precondition176.
predictable

predict178.

177.

175.

173.

171.

Forms: practiced; practiced; practicing

practice

precede

n. customary action; habit; drill; training exercise

v. to go before; to be in front; to be ahead of; to predate

Forms: plural: practices

Forms: preceded; preceded; preceding

precise

precisely

adj. exact; not more and not less; meticulous; strict

adv. exactly; accurately; definitely; certainly; surely

precondition

precondition

v. to train in advance

n. advance stipulation; preliminary terms

Forms: preconditioned; preconditioned; preconditioning

Forms: plural: preconditions

predict

predictable

v. to prophesy; to foretell; to announce in advance

adj. can be prophesied; can be foretold

predominate

predisposition180.
preface

preempt182.

181.

179.

Forms: predict; predict; predicting

predisposition

predominate

n. sensitivity; susceptibility (to disease, etc.)

v. to control to rule over; to be superior

Forms: plural: predispositions

Forms: predominated; predominated; predominating

preempt

preface

v. to occupy a place; to take a place; to obtain at an

v. to use as an introduction; to use as a foreword

advance opportunity

prefer

preface184.

183.

Forms: preempted; preempted; preempting

Forms: prefaced; prefaced; prefacing

156

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prejudice

preference186.

185.

3420 TOEIC Vocabulary Words

preface

prefer

n. introduction; foreword; opening statement

v. to hold superior; to appoint; to nominate; to like better

Forms: plural: prefaces

Forms: preferred; preferred; preferring

preference

prejudice

n. favor; liking; fondness; priority; superior status

v. to express a preconceived opinion; to express one's


biases
Forms: prejudiced; prejudiced; prejudicing

premises

prejudice188.
prepaid

premium190.

189.

187.

Forms: plural: preferences

prejudice

premises

n. bias; sentence passed before proper examination of

n. property; site; area; grounds; building with the grounds

the circumstances

belonging to it

Forms: plural: prejudices

Forms: no plural

premium

prepaid

n. supplementary charge; additional charge; amount paid adj. remunerated ahead of time; settled beforehand via
for insurance; reward

payment

prerogative

prepare192.

191.

Forms: plural: premia or premiums

prepare

prerogative

v. to make ready; to get oneself ready; to put into the

n. right; special privilege

proper condition

present

prescription194.

193.

Forms: prepared; prepared; preparing

Forms: plural: prerogatives

prescription

present

n. written order for a medication; instruction; directive;

v. to display; to demonstrate; to bestow; to grant

order; command

present

present196.

195.

Forms: plural: prescriptions

Forms: presented; presented; presenting

present

present

adj. existent; in attendance; on hand; of the current times; n. gift; offering; something that is given to another person
pertaining to the current times

without compensation

preserve

preserve198.

197.

Forms: plural: presents

157

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3420 TOEIC Vocabulary Words

preserve

preserve

n. area of land set aside to protect natural resources and

v. to guard; to keep safe; to keep; to defend; to protect

wildlife
Forms: preserved; preserved; preserving

press

president200.

199.

Forms: plural: preserves

president

press

n. head; leader; chairman; chief

v. to push; to iron; to remove creases or wrinkles; to


confiscate for public or government use
Forms: pressed; pressed; pressing

pressure

press202.

201.

Forms: plural: presidents

press

pressure

n. journals and newspapers collectively; act or process of v. to apply force or weight; to push; to stress
printing
Forms: pressured; pressured; pressuring

presume

pressure204.

203.

Forms: plural: presses

pressure

presume

pretend

pretend206.

205.

n. exertion of force; application of weight; weight; burden; v. to take for granted; to dare; to venture; to take liberties;
encumbrance

to permit oneself

Forms: plural: pressures

Forms: presumed; presumed; presuming

pretend

pretend

v. to impersonate; to act in a role; to claim; to assert

adj. simulated; feigned; make-believe

pretense

pretense208.
pretty

pretentious210.

209.

207.

Forms: pretended; pretended; pretending

pretense

pretense

v. to feign; to impersonate; to put on a false show

n. feigning; impersonation; false show; claim; assertion

Forms: pretensed; pretensed; pretensing

Forms: plural: pretenses

pretentious

pretty

adj. impersonating; putting on a false appearance;

adv. moderately; quite; rather; to some extent

prevalent

prevail212.

211.

feigning; arrogant; haughty

prevail

prevalent

v. to win; to succeed; to overcome; to surpass; to prove

adj. common; widespread; current

superior

preventive

prevent214.

213.

Forms: prevailed; prevailed; prevailing

158

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3420 TOEIC Vocabulary Words

prevent

preventive

previous

preventive216.
price

previously218.

217.

215.

v. to cause not to happen; to avert; to delay; to impede; to n. safeguard; something used to avert an unwanted
hinder

situation

Forms: prevented; prevented; preventing

Forms: plural: preventives

preventive

previous

adj. averting; avoiding; delaying; inhibiting

adj. earlier; antecedent; hasty; premature

previously

price

adv. before; at an earlier time; in the past; antecedently

n. cost; value; worth; rate; measure

priceless

price220.

219.

Forms: plural: prices

price

priceless

v. to give a cost to something

adj. invaluable; beyond any expressible value; very


expensive

prime

primarily222.
principal

prime224.

223.

221.

Forms: priced; priced; pricing

primarily

prime

adv. chiefly; principally; mainly; initially

adj. major; chief; select; of the highest quality; excellent

prime

principal

n. state of perfection; state of highest quality

adj. chief; head; leading; primary; main

principle

principal226.

225.

Forms: plural: primes

principal

principle

n. school director; school master; capital sum (Finance)

n. doctrine; tenet; precept; fundamental law; primary law


on which other laws are based

prior

printer228.

227.

Forms: plural: principals

Forms: plural: principles

printer

prior

n. computer peripheral used for exporting documents to

adj. earlier; antecedent; former

paper

prioritize

prior230.

229.

Forms: plural: printers

159

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3420 TOEIC Vocabulary Words

prior

prioritize

n. officer of a monastery; high-ranking member of a

v. to organize according to importance

religious order
Forms: prioritized; prioritized; prioritizing

privacy

priority232.

231.

Forms: plural: priors

priority

privacy

n. preference; precedence; higher rank; privileged

n. seclusion; solitude; reclusion; secrecy; confidentiality

position; seniority
Forms: plural: privacies

private

private234.

233.

Forms: plural: priorities

private

private

adj. intimate; for or pertaining to a small group of people;

n. soldier of the three lowest military ranks

personal; of an individual

privilege

privatize236.
prize

privilege238.
probably

prize240.

239.

237.

235.

Forms: plural: privates

privatize

privilege

v. to transfer control from governmental to individual

v. to grant special rights; to give special advantages or

powers

benefits

Forms: privatized; privatized; privatizing

Forms: privileged; privileged; privileging

privilege

prize

n. special individual right not enjoyed by others; benefit;

v. to appreciate; to esteem; to respect; to appraise; to

advantage

assess worth

Forms: plural: privileges

Forms: prized; prized; prizing

prize

probably

adj. valuable; unique; outstanding; award-winning

adv. almost certainly; very likely; apparently; in all

proceed

procedure242.
process

process244.
procurement

procure246.

245.

243.

241.

likelihood

procedure

proceed

n. routine; protocol; course of action; subroutine;

v. to continue; to carry on; to advance; to progress; to

sequence of instructions (Computers)

move forward

Forms: plural: procedures

Forms: proceeded; proceeded; proceeding

process

process

v. to treat; to adapt; to prepare; to make ready

n. routine; course of action; advance; summons to court

Forms: processed; processed; processing

Forms: plural: processes

160

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production

product248.
profession

productivity250.

249.

247.

3420 TOEIC Vocabulary Words

procure

procurement

v. to obtain; to acquire; to get; to buy; to purchase

n. purchase; sale; acquisition

Forms: procured; procured; procuring

Forms: plural: procurements

product

production

n. result of manufacturing; goods; merchandise

n. manufacture; assembly; output; yield

Forms: plural: products

Forms: plural: productions

productivity

profession

n. a measurement of output per hours worked;

n. vocation; skilled occupation; declaration; proclamation

creativeness; fruitfulness; prolificness


Forms: plural: professions

professional

professional252.

251.

Forms: no plural

professional

professional

adj. of a skilled occupation; working in one of the skilled

n. person who works in a skilled occupation; specialist

occupations

profit

proficiency254.
profitable

profit256.

255.

253.

Forms: plural: professionals

proficiency

profit

n. expertise; state of having expert skills; skillfulness;

v. to earn income; to make financial gains; to be of

adeptness; masterfulness

service; to be beneficial

Forms: no plural

Forms: profited; profited; profiting

profit

profitable

n. earnings; financial gain; benefit; advantage; privilege

adj. lucrative; paying; rewarding; beneficial; producing


income

profusion

profuse258.

257.

Forms: plural: profits

profuse

profusion

adj. plentiful; abundant; generous; extravagant; wasteful

n. plentifulness; abundance; numerousness; plurality

program

program260.

259.

Forms: no plural

program

program

v. to schedule; to plan; to write a system of operating

n. schedule; agenda; written order of events

instructions for a computer

progress

programmer262.

261.

Forms: programmed; programmed; programming

Forms: plural: programs

161

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3420 TOEIC Vocabulary Words

programmer

progress

n. person who creates sets of instructions for a computer

v. to advance; to move forward; to gain

or other device
Forms: progressed; progressed; progressing

prohibit

progress264.
project

project266.
proliferation

proliferate268.

267.

265.

263.

Forms: plural: programmers

progress

prohibit

n. headway; forward movement; development;

v. to outlaw; to forbid by law; to interdict; to ban; to

advancement

prevent

Forms: no plural

Forms: prohibited; prohibited; prohibiting

project

project

v. to plan; to scheme; to send; to dispatch; to throw

n. plan; scheme; program; task; assignment; activity

Forms: projected; projected; projecting

Forms: plural: projects

proliferate

proliferation

v. to reproduce quickly; to multiply rapidly; to thrive; to

n. rapid multiplication; rapid reproduction; prosperity

grow quickly

prolong

prolific270.

269.

Forms: proliferated; proliferated; proliferating

Forms: plural: proliferations

prolific

prolong

adj. fruitful; productive; abundant; plentiful; multiplying;

v. to extend; to lengthen

producing fruit

promise

promise272.
promotional

promote274.

273.

271.

Forms: prolonged; prolonged; prolonging

promise

promise

v. to pledge; to give one's word; to vow; to commit

n. pledge; vow; declaration of intention; source of hope;

oneself to a certain course of action

basis for expectations

Forms: promised; promised; promising

Forms: plural: promises

promote

promotional

v. to further; to encourage sales; to aid; to help; to assist

adj. of publicizing; of advancement; of encouragement; of


fostering; of an enterprise

proof

proof276.

275.

Forms: promoted; promoted; promoting

proof

proof

adj. resistant; invulnerable; impervious; sealed; durable

v. to make resistant; to make impervious; to edit

proper

propensity278.

277.

Forms: proofed; proofed; proofing

162

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3420 TOEIC Vocabulary Words

propensity

proper

n. inclination; tendency; disposition; aptitude

adj. correct; suitable; just; complete

proposal

property280.
proposition

propose282.

281.

279.

Forms: plural: propensities

property

proposal

n. possessions; belongings; estate; assets; ownership

n. suggestion; tender; plan; offer of marriage

Forms: plural: properties

Forms: plural: proposals

propose

proposition

v. to suggest; to recommend; to tender; to make an offer

n. offer; plan; theory; problem

of marriage
Forms: plural: propositions

prospect

prosaic284.

283.

Forms: proposed; proposed; proposing

prosaic

prospect

adj. common; regular; boring; tedious; dull

v. to search for valuable materials (such as gold, oil, etc.)

prospectus

prospect286.
protection

protect288.
proud

protocol290.

289.

287.

285.

Forms: prospected; prospected; prospecting

prospect

prospectus

n. chance; probability of advancement or success; hope;

n. a document giving details about an offering of

promise

securities investment for sale to the public

Forms: plural: prospects

Forms: plural: prospectuses

protect

protection

v. to defend; to save from harm; to watch over; to guard

n. defense; shelter; safety

Forms: protected; protected; protecting

Forms: plural: protections

protocol

proud

n. method of dealing with a certain subject; draft of a

adj. arrogant; haughty; magnificent; impressive

treaty

provide

prove292.

291.

Forms: plural: protocols

prove

provide

v. to substantiate with evidence; to demonstrate; to show

v. to supply; to grant; to set; to offer

clearly

provision

provision294.

293.

Forms: proved; proved; proving

Forms: provided; provided; providing

163

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publication

proximity296.

295.

3420 TOEIC Vocabulary Words

provision

provision

v. to supply with stock; to equip with supplies (esp. food)

n. supply; stock; measure; means; condition; stipulation

Forms: provisioned; provisioned; provisioning

Forms: plural: provisions

proximity

publication

n. adjacency; nearness; closeness; vicinity

n. process of producing and distributing printed material;


act of advertising
Forms: plural: publications

publish

publicize298.

297.

Forms: no plural

publicize

publish

v. to advertise; to bring to the attention of a large

v. to produce and distribute printed material; to advertise

audience
Forms: published; published; publishing

out

pull

publisher300.

299.

Forms: publicized; publicized; publicizing

publisher

pull out

n. person or company that produces and distributes

v. to remove; to withdraw; to abandon; to exit; to depart

printed material

purchase

purchase302.

301.

Forms: plural: publishers

Forms: pulled out; pulled out; pulling out

purchase

purchase

n. something which has been bought; act of buying

v. to buy; to acquire in exchange for money; to procure;


to obtain

purpose

purpose304.
pursuit

pursue306.
pushy

pushy308.

307.

305.

303.

Forms: plural: purchases

Forms: purchased; purchased; purchasing

purpose

purpose

n. goal; aim; intention; objective

v. to intend; to plan; to design; to aim

Forms: plural: purposes

Forms: purposed; purposed; purposing

pursue

pursuit

v. to chase after; to follow; to aspire to; to strive for

n. chase; quest; search; occupation; pastime

Forms: pursued; pursued; pursuing

Forms: plural: pursuits

pushy

pushy

adj. controlling; aggressive; extremely self-assertive;

n. cat (Slang); feline

bossy

off

put

in310.

put

309.

Forms: plural: pushies

164

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3420 TOEIC Vocabulary Words

put in

put off

v. to make an application; to enter; to let something or

v. to postpone; to disgust; to repulse; to deter

someone enter
Forms: put off; put off; putting off

puzzle

with312.

up

put
puzzle

313.

311.

Forms: put in; put in; putting in

put up with

puzzle

v. to tolerate; to be patient

n. enigma; riddle; game; jigsaw

Forms: put up with; put up with; putting up with

Forms: plural: puzzles

puzzle
v. to mystify; to baffle; to confound; to confuse; to perplex
Forms: puzzled; puzzled; puzzling

165

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qualify
quality

quality4.

3.

qualification2.

3420 TOEIC Vocabulary Words

Q1.

qualification

qualify

n. fitness; suitability; limitation; diploma or certificate

v. to train; to certify; to meet the minimum standards; to

stating one's abilities

moderate; to modify

Forms: plural: qualifications

Forms: qualified; qualified; qualifying

quality

quality

n. degree of excellence; characteristic; attribute;

adj. excellent; having superior characteristics; fine

character; excellence

quarter

quantity6.

5.

Forms: plural: qualities

quantity

quarter

n. amount; extent; measure; degree; size; magnitude

n. one fourth; neighborhood; coin worth 25 cents; period


of three months; district

quarterly

quarter8.

7.

Forms: plural: quantities

Forms: plural: quarters

quarter

quarterly

adj. being one fourth; having four equal parts

adj. occurring every three months; taking place four times

queues

quarterly10.

9.

a year

quarterly

queues

adv. four times a year; once every three months

v. to stand in line; to make a row

quiet

queues12.

11.

Forms: queued; queued; queuing

queues

quiet

n. line; file (British); row; braid; plait

adj. silent; noiseless; peaceful; tranquil; still; lacking


activity

quotation

quiet14.

13.

Forms: plural: queues

quiet

quotation

quote

quote16.

15.

n. silence; noiselessness; stillness; tranquility; muteness; n. citation; passage taken from another source;
speechlessness

reference; commercial offer; statement of price

Forms: no plural

Forms: plural: quotations

quote

quote

v. to cite; to state a price; to offer a price

n. citation; commercial offer

Forms: quoted; quoted; quoting

Forms: plural: quotes

166

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ROI
railroad

railroad4.
raise

raise6.
randomly

ranches8.

7.

5.

3.

R&D2.

3420 TOEIC Vocabulary Words

R1.

R&D

ROI

abbr. department in a company that develops new

abbr. method of measuring the profitability of a company

products

(derived by dividing the net income by total assets)

Forms: research and development

Forms: return on investment

railroad

railroad

v. to transport via locomotive; to convey by train

n. path for a train made of parallel metal tracks

Forms: railroaded; railroaded; railroading

Forms: plural: railroads

raise

raise

v. to elevate; to lift; to excite; to arouse; to cause

n. increase in salary; wage increase

Forms: raised; raised; raising

Forms: plural: raises

ranches

randomly

n. farm with large pasture land for raising livestock

adv. accidentally; by chance

range

range10.

9.

Forms: plural: ranches

range

range

v. to determine the scope of a target; to extend; to

n. pasture; scope; extent; field; domain; assortment

stretch; to vary

rank

rank12.

11.

Forms: ranged; ranged; ranging

Forms: plural: ranges

rank

rank

adj. giving off a foul odor; fertile; productive; fruitful;

v. to arrange in a line; to grade; to classify

growing vigorously

rarely

rapidly14.
rate

rate16.

15.

13.

Forms: ranked; ranked; ranking

rapidly

rarely

adv. quickly; fast; swiftly

adv. infrequently; not often; seldom

rate

rate

v. to assess; to appraise; to determine value; to grade; to n. price; cost; speed; pace; tax
classify; to sort

rational

rather18.
reach

reach20.

19.

17.

Forms: rated; rated; rating

Forms: plural: rates

rather

rational

adv. very quite; to a degree; somewhat; slightly; a bit;

adj. logical; reasonable; intelligent; prudent; expressible

might as well

as a whole number (Mathematics)

167

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3420 TOEIC Vocabulary Words

reach

reach

v. to arrive; to obtain; to procure; to extend the arm

n. distance that an arm can extend

outward
Forms: plural: reaches

readiness

readership22.

21.

Forms: reached; reached; reaching

readership

readiness

n. total number of people who subscribe to a particular

n. preparedness; willingness; promptness; quickness

publication
Forms: no plural

realization

ready24.

23.

Forms: plural: readerships

ready

realization

adj. prepared; set; eager; willing; quick; fast

n. accomplishment; fulfillment

rear

realize26.

25.

Forms: plural: realizations

realize

rear

v. to understand; to comprehend; to accomplish; to

adj. back; hind

convert into cash; to liquidate

reason

rear28.
reasonable

reason30.

29.

27.

Forms: realized; realized; realizing

rear

reason

n. back end; hindmost unit of an army (or fleet, etc.)

v. to think; to consider logically; to argue; to claim

Forms: plural: rears

Forms: reasoned; reasoned; reasoning

reason

reasonable

n. cause; basis for action; intelligence; sense

adj. rational; logical; intelligent; wise; plausible; likely;


credible

rebound

rebound32.
recant

rebuild34.
receipt

recap36.

35.

33.

31.

Forms: plural: reasons

rebound

rebound

v. to spring back

n. backlash

Forms: rebounded; rebounded; rebounding

Forms: plural: rebounds

rebuild

recant

v. to reconstruct; to erect again

v. to give up; to renounce; to deny; to disavow; to retract

Forms: rebuilt; rebuilt; rebuilding

Forms: recanted; recanted; recanting

168

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receive

receipt38.

37.

3420 TOEIC Vocabulary Words

recap

receipt

v. to summarize; to review with a short summary

v. to write a statement of purchases; to make a bill of sale

Forms: recapped; recapped; recapping

Forms: receipted; receipted; receipting

receipt

receive

n. bill of sale; written statement of purchases

v. to get; to accept; to absorb; to take in; to host; to


accommodate
Forms: received; received; receiving

reception

recent40.

39.

Forms: plural: receipts

recent

reception

adj. new; fresh; late; of late times

n. acceptance; event in which guests are formally


welcomed by their host; check-in

recession

receptionist42.
reclaim

recipient44.
recognizable

recognition46.

45.

43.

41.

Forms: plural: receptions

receptionist

recession

n. person who greets visitors or clients on the telephone

n. a significant decline in general economic activity

and upon their arrival

extending over a period of time

Forms: plural: receptionists

Forms: plural: recessions

recipient

reclaim

n. person who accepts; person who takes or gets

v. to demand the return of property; to repossess

Forms: plural: recipients

Forms: reclaimed; reclaimed; reclaiming

recognition

recognizable

n. acknowledgment; identification

adj. identifiable; determinable; able to be distinguished

recommend

recognize48.

47.

Forms: plural: recognitions

recognize

recommend

v. to identify; to acknowledge; to know; to admit

v. to advocate; to endorse; to speak well of; to advise; to


suggest

reconsider

recommendation50.

49.

Forms: recognized; recognized; recognizing

Forms: recommended; recommended; recommending

recommendation

reconsider

n. endorsement; approval; letter of reference; suggestion; v. to contemplate again


advice

record

record52.

51.

Forms: plural: recommendations

Forms: reconsidered; reconsidered; reconsidering

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3420 TOEIC Vocabulary Words

record

record

adj. comprising the best result ever attained

n. list; evidence; best result ever attained; list of events or


actions

recovery

recover54.
recruit

recruit56.

55.

53.

Forms: plural: records

recover

recovery

v. to get well; to get back; to regain; to obtain again

n. recuperation; getting well; return

Forms: recovered; recovered; recovering

Forms: plural: recoveries

recruit

recruit

v. to enlist or draft new members; to gain; to obtain; to

n. new member of a group; new employee

procure

rectangle

recruitment58.
reduce

rectify60.
reference

refer62.

61.

59.

57.

Forms: recruited; recruited; recruiting

Forms: plural: recruits

recruitment

rectangle

n. act of enlisting or drafting new members

n. parallelogram

Forms: plural: recruitments

Forms: plural: rectangles

rectify

reduce

v. to fix; to repair; to correct; to calibrate; to adjust

v. to lessen; to diminish; to decrease

Forms: rectified; rectified; rectifying

Forms: reduced; reduced; reducing

refer

reference

reflect

reference64.

63.

v. to send; to direct; to ascribe to; to relate to; to apply to; v. to add a footnote; to place a note that directs readers
to call attention to

to another source of information (in a book, journal, etc.)

Forms: referred; referred; referring

Forms: referenced; referenced; referencing

reference

reflect

n. comment; remark; ascription; mention; regard

v. to mirror; to send back energy from a surface; to cause


to return; to express

refund

reflection66.

65.

Forms: plural: references

Forms: reflected; reflected; reflecting

reflection

refund

refurbish

refund68.

67.

n. act of casting back a mirror image; act of sending back v. to return money; to reimburse; to repay; to finance
energy from a surface; idea; concept

again

Forms: plural: reflections

Forms: refunded; refunded; refunding

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3420 TOEIC Vocabulary Words

refund

refurbish

n. return of money; repayment; reimbursement

v. to make new again; to renovate; to restore to good


condition
Forms: refurbished; refurbished; refurbishing

refuse

refusal70.
regard

refuse72.

71.

69.

Forms: plural: refunds

refusal

refuse

n. denial; rejection

v. to decline; to deny; to reject

Forms: plural: refusals

Forms: refused; refused; refusing

refuse

regard

n. garbage; trash; waste

v. to look at; to concern; to relate to; to esteem; to


appreciate; to consider
Forms: regarded; regarded; regarding

regarding

regard74.

73.

Forms: plural: refuses

regard

regarding

n. esteem; respect; thought; consideration; look; glance

prep. with relation to

regardless

regardless76.

75.

Forms: plural: regards

regardless

regardless

adj. inattentive; unmindful

adv. without consideration for possible problems;

registering

region78.

77.

anyway; in any case

region

registering

n. area; territory; domain; field; area of activity or interest; v. to record; to enroll; to have an effect; to have influence
sphere

regress

registering80.

79.

Forms: plural: regions

Forms: registered; registered; registering

registering

regress

n. list; record; regulator; gauge

v. to move backward; to go back; to return to a previous


condition

regular

regular82.

81.

Forms: plural: registers

Forms: regressed; regressed; regressing

regular

regular

adj. occurring at fixed intervals; normal; usual; ordinary;

n. frequent customer; repeat customer

common

regulate

regularly84.

83.

Forms: plural: regulars

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3420 TOEIC Vocabulary Words

regularly

regulate

adv. at fixed intervals; at evenly-spaced intervals; usually; v. to control; to govern; to manage; to adjust to a specific
customarily

level or condition

rehearsal

regulations86.
reimburse

rehearse88.
reinforce

reimbursement90.

89.

87.

85.

Forms: regulated; regulated; regulating

regulations

rehearsal

n. statute; law; act of controlling; management; direction

n. practice session for a performance

Forms: plural: regulations

Forms: plural: rehearsals

rehearse

reimburse

v. to drill; to practice an action repeatedly in order to

v. to repay; to refund; to compensate for a loss; to repay

perfect it

for an expense

Forms: rehearsed; rehearsed; rehearsing

Forms: reimbursed; reimbursed; reimbursing

reimbursement

reinforce

n. act of paying back; repayment; compensation for a

v. to strengthen; to fortify; to support; to increase

loss; repayment for an expense

reiterate

reinforcement92.

91.

Forms: plural: reimbursements

Forms: reinforced; reinforced; reinforcing

reinforcement

reiterate

n. act of strengthening; reward or punishment designed

v. to repeat; to say again; to restate

to encourage or discourage a particular response

reject

reject94.

93.

Forms: plural: reinforcements

Forms: reiterated; reiterated; reiterating

reject

reject

v. to decline; to deny; to turn down

n. something or someone that does not match up to


standards; object of lower quality; outcast

relation

relate96.
release

relationship98.

97.

95.

Forms: rejected; rejected; rejecting

Forms: plural: rejects

relate

relation

v. to narrate; to tell; to make a connection between; to

n. narration; act of telling; family member; connection;

have a good relationship with

association

Forms: related; related; relating

Forms: plural: relations

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3420 TOEIC Vocabulary Words

relationship

release

n. connection; association; closeness

v. to set free; to emancipate; to make available to the


general public; to surrender
Forms: released; released; releasing

relevant

release100.

99.

Forms: plural: relationships

release

relevant

n. freedom; liberation; newly distributed film (or record,

adj. pertinent; related; connected to the current subject

book, etc.); statement provided to the media

relief

reliable102.

101.

Forms: plural: releases

reliable

relief

adj. credible; trustworthy; dependable

n. easement; alleviation; liberation; aid; assistance

relocate

relinquish104.
remain

rely106.
remark

remark108.
remember

remarkable110.

109.

107.

105.

103.

Forms: plural: reliefs

relinquish

relocate

v. to cede; to surrender; to give up; to forsake; to

v. to move to a different apartment; to move to a different

abandon

place

Forms: relinquished; relinquished; relinquishing

Forms: relocated; relocated; relocating

rely

remain

v. to depend on; to trust in

v. to stay; to abide; to continue; to go on

Forms: relied; relied; relying

Forms: remained; remained; remaining

remark

remark

v. to notice; to observe; to comment; to state; to say

n. comment; observation; notice

Forms: remarked; remarked; remarking

Forms: plural: remarks

remarkable

remember

adj. striking; noteworthy; extraordinary; exceptional

v. to recall to the mind; to retain in one's mind; to have a


recollection

remit

remind112.
remote

remit114.

113.

111.

Forms: remembered; remembered; remembering

remind

remit

v. to cause to remember

v. to forgive; to absolve; to release; to discharge

Forms: reminded; reminded; reminding

Forms: remitted; remitted; remitting

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3420 TOEIC Vocabulary Words

remit

remote

n. act of forgiving; discharging; dispatching

adj. distant; located far away; secluded; isolated; aloof

remove

removal116.
render

remove118.

117.

115.

Forms: plural: remits

removal

remove

n. act of shedding; act of taking away; elimination;

v. to take off; to shed; to take away; to eliminate; to get

ejection; dismissal

rid of

Forms: plural: removals

Forms: removed; removed; removing

remove

render

n. degree of difference; promotion of a student to a higher v. to give; to submit; to transform; to represent; to depict
grade
Forms: rendered; rendered; rendering

renovation

renew120.
rent

renowned122.

121.

119.

Forms: plural: removes

renew

renovation

v. to restore to good condition; to restart; to resume; to

n. act of repairing; renewal; act of restoring to good

refresh

condition

Forms: renewed; renewed; renewing

Forms: plural: renovations

renowned

rent

adj. famous; prominent

v. to let; to allow someone to use property in return for


regular payments; to hire

rental

rent124.

123.

Forms: rented; rented; renting

rent

rental

n. money paid for the use of property; rip; tear; laceration adj. available to lease or rent

repair

rental126.

125.

Forms: plural: rents

rental

repair

n. money paid for the use of property; property that is

v. to fix; to mend; to correct a problem or malfunction

leased; act of leasing

repeat

repair128.

127.

Forms: plural: rentals

Forms: repaired; repaired; repairing

repair

repeat

n. act of fixing; correction; act of mending

adj. done over again

repetition

repeat130.

129.

Forms: plural: repairs

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replacement

replace132.

131.

3420 TOEIC Vocabulary Words

repeat

repetition

n. act of redoing something

n. reiteration; act of redoing something

Forms: plural: repeats

Forms: plural: repetitions

replace

replacement

v. to substitute for; to return something to a particular

n. substitution; substitute

position or location
Forms: plural: replacements

replay

replay134.
reply

reply136.
report

repo138.

137.

135.

133.

Forms: replaced; replaced; replacing

replay

replay

v. to rebroadcast

n. rematch; repetition

Forms: replayed; replayed; replaying

Forms: plural: replays

reply

reply

v. to answer; to respond

n. answer; response

Forms: replied; replied; replying

Forms: plural: replies

repo

report

n. agreement in which the seller of securities agrees to

n. detailed account of an occurrence or situation

buy them back at a specified time and price

represent

report140.

139.

Forms: plural: repos

Forms: plural: reports

report

represent

representative

representative142.

141.

v. to provide a detailed statement about an occurrence or v. to act as an agent on behalf of a person or


situation; inform

organization; to symbolize

Forms: reported; reported; reporting

Forms: represented; represented; representing

representative

representative

n. delegate; agent; person who acts on behalf of another

adj. typical; characteristic; acting on behalf of another

person or organization

person or organization

reputation

reprove144.
request

request146.

145.

143.

Forms: plural: representatives

reprove

reputation

v. to accuse; to admonish

n. regard; esteem; renown

Forms: reproved; reproved; reproving

Forms: plural: reputations

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3420 TOEIC Vocabulary Words

request

request

n. petition; instance of asking for something; something

v. to ask for; to petition for

that is asked for; object of a petition


Forms: requested; requested; requesting

requirement

require148.
rescue

reschedule150.

149.

147.

Forms: plural: requests

require

requirement

v. to demand; to claim; to need; to call for; to order; to

n. something that is demanded; necessity; something that

command

is needed

Forms: required; required; requiring

Forms: plural: requirements

reschedule

rescue

v. to set a new time and date

n. deliverance; act of saving from danger or injury; act of


freeing from risk
Forms: plural: rescues

research

rescue152.
resemble

research154.
requirement

reserve

reservation156.
resident

residence158.

157.

155.

153.

151.

Forms: rescheduled; rescheduled; rescheduling

rescue

research

v. to save from harm; to deliver from danger; to free from

n. comprehensive inquiry; extensive investigation of a

risk

subject

Forms: rescued; rescued; rescuing

Forms: plural: researches

research

resemble

v. to perform a thorough investigation; to study a subject

v. to be similar to; to be akin to; to look like; to have a

closely

similar appearance to

Forms: researched; researched; researching

Forms: resembled; resembled; resembling

reservation

reserve requirement

n. act of ordering in advance (hotel room, airline ticket,

n. minimum amount of money and liquid assets set by the

etc.)

central banking system of the U.S.

Forms: plural: reservations

Forms: plural: reserve requirements

residence

resident

n. headquarters of a business; dwelling place; abode;

adj. staying in a particular place; not migratory; intrinsic;

home; domicile

existing

residential

resident160.

159.

Forms: plural: residences

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3420 TOEIC Vocabulary Words

resident

residential

n. inhabitant; one who lives in a particular location

adj. intended for inhabitation; occupied with homes

resign

residual162.

161.

Forms: plural: residents

residual

resign

adj. enduring; lasting; continuing; leftover; remaining

v. to quit an office or position; to relinquish; to give up; to


abdicate

resilience

resignation164.
resist

resist166.
resolute

resistance168.

167.

165.

163.

Forms: resigned; resigned; resigning

resignation

resilience

n. act of quitting a position; letter stating that one quits a

n. elasticity; cheerfulness; quality of quickly recovering

position; relinquishment

from sadness or failure; buoyancy

Forms: plural: resignations

Forms: no plural

resist

resist

v. to oppose; to fight against; to challenge; to withstand

n. protective coating

Forms: resisted; resisted; resisting

Forms: plural: resists

resistance

resolute

n. opposition; act of fighting against; act of withstanding

adj. determined; firm; steadfast

the effects of

resolve

resolve170.

169.

Forms: plural: resistances

resolve

resolve

v. to determine; to decide; to separate into constituent

n. firm decision; ruling; decisiveness; determination

parts

resource

resonate172.

171.

Forms: resolved; resolved; resolving

Forms: plural: resolves

resonate

resource

v. to echo

n. supply; stock; means of accomplishing a goal;


expedient

respect

respect174.
response

respond176.

175.

173.

Forms: resonated; resonated; resonating

Forms: plural: resources

respect

respect

v. to honor; to admire; to esteem; to hold in high regard

n. honor; esteem; high regard; consideration; attention

Forms: respected; respected; respecting

Forms: no plural

177

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responsive

responsible178.

177.

3420 TOEIC Vocabulary Words

respond

response

v. to answer; to reply; to react

n. reply; answer; reaction

Forms: responded; responded; responding

Forms: plural: responses

responsible

responsive

adj. dependable; reliable; accountable; liable

adj. answering; reacting (esp. positively or

resume

restriction180.

179.

sympathetically)

restriction

resume

n. limitation; limit

v. to recommence; to begin again; to retake; to take back;


to continue
Forms: resumed; resumed; resuming

retail

resume182.

181.

Forms: plural: restrictions

resume

retail

n. summary; synopsis; abstract; CV; curriculum vitae

adj. pertaining to the sale of goods to final consumers; of


the sale of merchandise to end users

retailer

retail184.

183.

Forms: plural: resumes

retail

retailer

n. sale of products to final consumers; sale of goods to

n. person or business that sells goods to final consumers

end users

retire

reticent186.

185.

Forms: plural: retails

Forms: plural: retailers

reticent

retire

adj. keeping quiet; reserved; showing self-restraint

v. to withdraw from a position (usually due to old age); go


into seclusion; to withdraw

retrieval

retirement188.

187.

Forms: retired; retired; retiring

retirement

retrieval

n. withdrawal from one's job or occupation

n. act of bringing back; restoration; act of finding


information and sending it to the user as output

return

retrieve190.

189.

Forms: plural: retirements

Forms: plural: retrievals

retrieve

return

v. to recover; to regain; to bring back; to fetch; to rescue

adj. reciprocal; done in response to a previous action;


repeated; recurring

reveal

return192.

191.

Forms: retrieved; retrieved; retrieving

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3420 TOEIC Vocabulary Words

return

reveal

n. act of giving back; reply; answer; profit; yield;

v. to show; to exhibit; to display; to expose; to disclose

repayment
Forms: revealed; revealed; revealing

revere

revenue194.

193.

Forms: plural: returns

revenue

revere

n. income; return; gains; government income earned

v. to respect deeply; to honor greatly

through taxation
Forms: revered; revered; revering

reverse

reverse196.

195.

Forms: plural: revenues

reverse

reverse

adj. having the back side exposed to view; opposite;

n. opposite; contrary; back side; rear; setback; defeat

contrary

review

review198.

197.

Forms: plural: reverses

review

review

n. survey; general study; examination; inspection

v. to survey; to conduct a general study; to inspect; to


examine; to reconsider

revise

revise200.
revolve

revive202.
reward

reward204.

203.

201.

199.

Forms: plural: reviews

Forms: reviewed; reviewed; reviewing

revise

revise

v. to make changes in order to improve something; to

n. act of making changes; alteration; proof sheet made to

edit; to correct

verify changes made and check for additional errors

Forms: revised; revised; revising

Forms: plural: revises

revive

revolve

v. to resuscitate; to bring back to life; to put into action

v. to rotate; to turn; to spin; to encircle; to think about; to

again

contemplate

Forms: revived; revived; reviving

Forms: revolved; revolved; revolving

reward

reward

v. to recompense someone for a service

n. prize; recompense; benefit received as payment for a


service

rise

rigorous206.

205.

Forms: rewarded; rewarded; rewarding

Forms: plural: rewards

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3420 TOEIC Vocabulary Words

rigorous

rise

adj. harsh; strict; severe; exact; precise

v. to stand up; to get into an upright position; to climb; to


ascend

rival

rise208.

207.

Forms: rose; risen; rising

rise

rival

n. slope; incline; increase; ascent; raise in position or

adj. being in competition; contending

status; promotion; angry response

rivalry

rival210.
rotten

robust212.
route

route214.
routine

routine216.

215.

213.

211.

209.

Forms: plural: rises

rival

rivalry

n. competitor; opponent; contender

n. competition; contention; act of competing

Forms: plural: rivals

Forms: plural: rivalries

robust

rotten

adj. strong; healthy

adj. decayed; decomposed; putrid; spoiled; despicable

route

route

n. track; path; customary series of stops during a trip

v. to direct along a particular path; to chart a course

Forms: plural: routes

Forms: routed; routed; routing

routine

routine

n. commonplace activity; everyday task; habit; custom;

adj. commonplace; ordinary; usual; customary; habitual

practice

rubber

royalties218.
rule

rubber220.

219.

217.

Forms: plural: routines

royalties

rubber

n. percentage of profits paid to an artist for each copy of

n. elastic material derived from of some tropical plants;

his work that is sold

eraser

Forms: plural: royalties

Forms: plural: rubbers

rubber

rule

adj. composed of elastic material; made from caoutchouc n. law; custom; common practice; government; flat tool
used for measuring distances

run

rule222.

221.

Forms: plural: rules

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3420 TOEIC Vocabulary Words

rule

run

v. to govern; to control; to determine; to decide; to decree n. range; journey; track; path; series; sequence
Forms: plural: runs

rush

run224.

223.

Forms: ruled; ruled; ruling

run

rush

v. to operate; to activate; to manage; to direct; to carry

n. speed; haste; sudden increase in activity or speed

out; to fulfill
Forms: plural: rushes

rush

225.

Forms: ran; ran; running

rush
v. to hurry; to make haste; to act or move quickly; to
cause to hurry
Forms: rushed; rushed; rushing

181

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salary

safety2.

3420 TOEIC Vocabulary Words

S1.

safety

salary

n. freedom from danger; quality of not causing injury or

n. periodic wage paid to someone for work; pay

loss; any security device

sales

sale4.

3.

Forms: plural: safeties

Forms: plural: salaries

sale

sales

salient

salient6.

5.

n. commercial transaction; instance of offering goods at a n. marketing; activities associated with selling a product
reduced price; demand for merchandise; auction

or service

Forms: plural: sales

Forms: only plural

salient

salient

n. angle that points outward

adj. conspicuous; bulging outward; protruding;


remarkable; noticeable

salvage

salvage8.
sample

sample10.

9.

7.

Forms: plural: salients

salvage

salvage

n. act of rescuing; rescued items

v. to save from destruction; to rescue

Forms: plural: salvages

Forms: salvaged; salvaged; salvaging

sample

sample

n. specimen; small part of something; representative part v. to take a small portion of something as a specimen
of a larger group

satisfaction

sanitary12.

11.

Forms: plural: samples

Forms: sampled; sampled; sampling

sanitary

satisfaction

adj. hygienic; clean; healthy

n. gratification of a need; remuneration; fulfillment

save

satisfy14.

13.

Forms: plural: satisfactions

satisfy

save

v. to fulfill; to meet a request or requirement; to

prep. except; besides; but

compensate; to remunerate

savvy

save16.

15.

Forms: satisfied; satisfied; satisfying

save

savvy

n. action or instance in which the ball or puck is

adj. experienced; knowledgeable (Slang)

prevented from entering the goal

saw

savvy18.

17.

Forms: plural: saves

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3420 TOEIC Vocabulary Words

savvy

saw

n. understanding; wisdom; intelligence (Slang)

n. tool for cutting consisting of a toothed blade; saying;


maxim; proverb
Forms: plural: saws

scale

saw20.

19.

Forms: no plural

saw

scale

v. to cut with a toothed blade

n. progression of steps; table of graduated rates; system


of marks used for measuring
Forms: plural: scales

scan

scale22.

21.

Forms: sawed; sawn; sawing

scale

scan

v. to climb; to ascend; to weigh; to do according to a

n. close examination; scrutinizing look

particular ratio
Forms: plural: scans

scanner

scan24.

23.

Forms: scaled; scaled; scaling

scan

scanner

scene

scatterbrained26.

25.

v. to convert an object or image into a digital image using n. peripheral device used to convert objects or images
an optical device to browse

into digital images (Computers)

Forms: scanned; scanned; scanning

Forms: plural: scanners

scatterbrained

scene

adj. unable to think in a clear and orderly manner; giddy

n. place where an event occurs; vista; view

or frivolous

schedule

scenery28.

27.

Forms: plural: scenes

scenery

schedule

n. view; vista; panorama; set; backdrop used on stage to

n. timetable; agenda; itinerary; plan

portray a particular setting or locale

science

schedule30.
score

scope32.

31.

29.

Forms: plural: sceneries

Forms: plural: schedules

schedule

science

v. to create a timetable; to enter into a timetable; to plan

n. system of knowledge gained by research; specific field

for a certain date

of systematic knowledge; skill; proficiency

Forms: scheduled; scheduled; scheduling

Forms: plural: sciences

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3420 TOEIC Vocabulary Words

scope

score

n. range; extent; sphere; expanse

n. group of twenty items; debt; account; bill; grade on a


test
Forms: plural: scores

scramble

score34.
scratch

scramble36.

35.

33.

Forms: plural: scopes

score

scramble

v. to gain; to obtain; to earn a point (in a game, etc.); to

n. climb over rough terrain; struggle for possession;

tally; to grade a test

disorderly or chaotic proceeding

Forms: scored; scored; scoring

Forms: plural: scrambles

scramble

scratch

v. to jumble; to mix together confusedly; to clamber; to

n. abrasion; cut; score of zero; cash; money (Slang)

climb on all fours


Forms: plural: scratches

screen

scratch38.
scrupulous

screen40.

39.

37.

Forms: scrambled; scrambled; scrambling

scratch

screen

v. to rub; to achieve or obtain with difficulty; to delete; to

n. part of a television or computer monitor where the

cross out

picture is displayed

Forms: scratched; scratched; scratching

Forms: plural: screens

screen

scrupulous

v. to cover with a curtain; to filter; to sift; to hide; to

adj. moral; adhering to ethical principles; precise; strict;

conceal; to separate

exact

seamlessly

scrutinize42.

41.

Forms: screened; screened; screening

scrutinize

seamlessly

v. to examine; to investigate; to check closely; to inspect

adv. smoothly; continuously; inconspicuously

search

search44.

43.

Forms: scrutinized; scrutinized; scrutinizing

search

search

n. quest; hunt; instance of looking for something;

v. to hunt for; to look for; to investigate; to examine

investigation; examination

season

season46.

45.

Forms: plural: searches

Forms: searched; searched; searching

184

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second

second48.

47.

3420 TOEIC Vocabulary Words

season

season

n. one of the four quarters of the year (winter, spring,

v. to spice; to flavor; to accustom; to acclimatize; to

summer, autumn)

become experienced

Forms: plural: seasons

Forms: seasoned; seasoned; seasoning

second

second

v. to support a proposal or statement; to endorse; to

adj. next after the first; alternate; other; additional;

approve; to help; to assist

subordinate; having a lower rank

secret

secret50.

49.

Forms: seconded; seconded; seconding

secret

secret

n. information that is confidential or classified; mystery;

adj. classified; confidential; clandestine; covert; hidden;

unexplained phenomenon

latent

section

section52.
secure

secure54.

53.

51.

Forms: plural: secrets

section

section

n. part; district; paragraph; passage; department; unit

v. to divide; to split

Forms: plural: sections

Forms: sectioned; sectioned; sectioning

secure

secure

v. to obtain; to protect; to defend; to strengthen

adj. safe; protected; strong; stable; confident

seek

security56.
segment

seem58.

57.

55.

Forms: secured; secured; securing

security

seek

n. safety; pledge; guarantee; stock; bond

v. to go in search of; to look for; to search for; to request

Forms: plural: securities

Forms: sought; sought; seeking

seem

segment

v. to appear to be; to look like; to give the impression of;

n. part; portion; slice; piece

to have the appearance of

select

segment60.
selection

select62.

61.

59.

Forms: seemed; seemed; seeming

Forms: plural: segments

segment

select

v. to partition; to be partitioned

v. to choose; to pick out

Forms: segmented; segmented; segmenting

Forms: selected; selected; selecting

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3420 TOEIC Vocabulary Words

select

selection

adj. chosen; picked out; choice; superior; prime; picky

n. choice; assortment; collection of items available to


choose

semester

self-employed64.

63.

Forms: plural: selections

self-employed

semester

adj. independent; independent contractor; business

n. one of the two periods of an academic year (usually

owner; person who is not a hired laborer

15-18 weeks)

senior

seminar66.
sense

senior68.

67.

65.

Forms: plural: semesters

seminar

senior

n. educational meeting; training session

n. person of higher rank; older person; elder

Forms: plural: seminars

Forms: plural: seniors

senior

sense

adj. older; elder; having a higher rank; aged

n. any of the five faculties of perception; perception;


recognition; awareness

sensible

sense70.

69.

Forms: plural: senses

sense

sensible

v. to feel; to perceive; to apprehend; to understand

adj. rational; reasonable; wise; judicious; cognizant;


aware

separate

sensitive72.

71.

Forms: sensed; sensed; sensing

sensitive

separate

adj. having the capacity for feeling; susceptible to

v. to segregate; to set apart; to split; to divide; to

external influences or agents

disconnect

sequence

separate74.

73.

Forms: separated; separated; separating

separate

sequence

adj. detached; disconnected; distinct; set apart

n. progression; succession; order; arrangement

serious

series76.

75.

Forms: plural: sequences

series

serious

n. sequence; succession; television program broadcast in adj. solemn; acute; critical; requiring much consideration;
installments

humorless; grim

serve

serve78.

77.

Forms: only plural

186

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service

service80.

79.

3420 TOEIC Vocabulary Words

serve

serve

n. opening stroke or hit of the ball (Sports)

v. to tend to; to attend; to work; to perform a duty or task

Forms: plural: serves

Forms: served; served; serving

service

service

n. act of providing; act of offering; work; labor; function;

adj. useful; providing assistance; repairing; performing

role; offer

maintenance tasks

set

session82.

81.

Forms: plural: services

session

set

n. meeting; assembly; term; semester

n. system; group of items; collection; posture; carriage;


series; sequence
Forms: plural: sets

out

set

set84.

83.

Forms: plural: sessions

set

set out

adj. fixed; arranged; prepared; resolute; firmly resolved;

v. to display; to undertake; to attempt; to begin a journey;

determined in advance

to arrange

setback

up86.

set

85.

Forms: set out; set out; setting out

set up

setback

v. to establish; to start; to found; to being; to raise

n. obstacle; misfortune; something which hinders


progress

several

setup88.

87.

Forms: set up; set up; setting up

Forms: plural: setbacks

setup

several

n. arrangement; structure; organization; hoax;

adj. some; few; separate; distinct; individual; various

configuration of hardware or software (Computers)

severely

severe90.
shape

shape92.
share

share94.

93.

91.

89.

Forms: plural: setups

severe

severely

adj. serious; grave; acute; difficult; rigorous; harsh; strict

adv. seriously; gravely; acutely; critically

shape

shape

n. form; model; image; condition; fitness; mold

v. to design; to mold; to form; to direct; to be formed

Forms: plural: shapes

Forms: shaped; shaped; shaping

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3420 TOEIC Vocabulary Words

share

share

n. part; portion; quota; allocation; issue of stock

v. to divide; to apportion; to receive a portion; to


participate
Forms: shared; shared; sharing

sharp

shareholder96.
shelf

sharp98.

97.

95.

Forms: plural: shares

shareholder

sharp

n. person or organization that owns part of a company

n. sewing needle; swindler; cheater; professional gambler

Forms: plural: shareholders

Forms: no plural

sharp

shelf

adj. having a thin edge intended for cutting; sudden;

n. a support that consists of a horizontal surface for

clear; smart

holding objects; projection; rock ledge; sandbank

ship

ship100.
shipping

shipment102.

101.

99.

Forms: plural: shelves

ship

ship

n. large vessel made for sailing on the sea; aircraft;

v. to send; to dispatch; to transport (by airplane, truck,

spacecraft

etc.); to embark

Forms: plural: ships

Forms: shipped; shipped; shipping

shipment

shipping

n. sending of cargo or freight

n. business of sending or transporting cargo; sea voyage


(Archaic)

shop

shipyard104.
shortage

shop106.

105.

103.

Forms: plural: shipments

Forms: plural: shippings

shipyard

shop

n. place where vessels are built and repaired

n. small retail store; studio; business; office; outlet

Forms: plural: shipyards

Forms: plural: shops

shop

shortage

v. to visit a store and purchase goods; to browse in a

n. lack; scarcity; deficit; deficiency

store; to inform on; to betray (British Slang)

shredder

should108.
sick

shrewdness110.

109.

107.

Forms: shopped; shopped; shopping

Forms: plural: shortages

should

shredder

v. must (indicating duty or obligation); would (softening

n. device used to destroy documents by cutting them into

the statement)

small strips or pieces

Forms: modal verb

Forms: plural: shredders

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3420 TOEIC Vocabulary Words

shrewdness

sick

n. intelligence; ability to think in a clever manner

adj. ill; nauseous; feeling the need to vomit; disgusted;


fed up

sight

sight112.

111.

Forms: no plural

sight

sight

n. vision; ability to see; look; glimpse; spectacle

v. to see with the eyes; to view; to notice; to discern; to


observe
Forms: sighted; sighted; sighting

sign

sign114.

113.

Forms: plural: sights

sign

sign

n. mark; symbol; indication; hint; trace; notice;

v. to mark; to indicate; to write one's name

advertisement
Forms: signed; signed; signing

significant

significance116.

115.

Forms: plural: signs

significance

significant

n. meaning; sense; quality of having meaning

adj. important; consequential; meaningful; having


meaning; of a considerable amount

signify

signification118.
simple

similar120.

119.

117.

Forms: no plural

signification

signify

n. meaning; sense; importance; consequence; act of

v. to represent; to indicate; to communicate; to express;

pointing out

to convey

Forms: plural: significations

Forms: signified; signified; signifying

similar

simple

adj. alike; having common qualities; comparable

n. stupid person substance unmixed with other


substances; commoner

simulate

simple122.

121.

Forms: plural: simples

simple

simulate

adj. easy; uncomplicated; modest; ordinary; plain

v. to copy; to pretend; to fake

sincere

simulation124.

123.

Forms: simulated; simulated; simulating

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3420 TOEIC Vocabulary Words

simulation

sincere

n. act of pretending; counterfeit; imitation of the operation adj. honest; truthful; frank; straightforward; genuine;
or features of one system using an other system

earnest

sink

sincerely126.

125.

Forms: plural: simulations

sincerely

sink

adv. honestly; genuinely; earnestly; faithfully

n. wash basin; sewer; drain; cesspool; place where


criminals gather

site

sink128.

127.

Forms: plural: sinks

sink

site

v. to submerge; to fall down below the surface (especially n. place; location; area
in water)
Forms: plural: sites

situation

site130.

129.

Forms: sunk; sunk; sinking

site

situation

v. to locate

n. condition; circumstance; location; position; job; place of


employment

size

size132.
skim

skill134.
skirting

skim136.

135.

133.

131.

Forms: sited; sited; siting

Forms: plural: situations

size

size

n. spatial dimension; measurement; extent; degree

v. to arrange according to dimension

Forms: plural: sizes

Forms: sized; sized; sizing

skill

skim

n. ability; aptitude; proficiency; expertise; craft or trade

n. a thin layer covering the surface of a liquid; film; thin

that requires special training

layer

Forms: plural: skills

Forms: no plural

skim

skirting

v. read superficially; to cause an object to skip across the n. act of going around; avoidance; evasion
surface of a liquid

slander

slander138.

137.

Forms: skimmed; skimmed; skimming

Forms: no plural

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slantwise

slantwise140.
slash

slash142.
slice

slice144.
slip

slip146.

145.

143.

141.

139.

3420 TOEIC Vocabulary Words

slander

slander

n. false and injurious statements made about another;

v. to make false and injurious statements about another;

defamation; calumny

to defame; to vilify; to malign

Forms: no plural

Forms: slandered; slandered; slandering

slantwise

slantwise

adj. sloping; inclined

adv. at an angle; obliquely; in a slanting direction

slash

slash

n. punctuation mark in the form of a diagonal line (/);

v. to cut with a sharp quick stroke; to reduce; to lower; to

reduction; decrease

criticize strongly

Forms: plural: slashes

Forms: slashed; slashed; slashing

slice

slice

n. thin piece cut from a larger object; portion; share

v. to cut into portions; to cleave

Forms: plural: slices

Forms: sliced; sliced; slicing

slip

slip

n. slide; stumble; mistake; blunder; error

v. to glide; to sneak; to slide; to decline; to deteriorate; to


make a mistake

slope

slogan148.
slot

slope150.

149.

147.

Forms: plural: slips

Forms: slipped; slipped; slipping

slogan

slope

n. motto; catchword; attention getting phrase used in

n. side of a hill; incline; upward or downward slant;

advertising

degree to which a surface deviates from the vertical

Forms: plural: slogans

Forms: plural: slopes

slope

slot

v. to incline; to slant upward or downward; to cause to tilt

n. notch; narrow opening; place; position (within a


system, etc.)

slump

slot152.
small

slump154.

153.

151.

Forms: sloped; sloped; sloping

Forms: plural: slots

slot

slump

v. to notch; to groove; to assign to a place or position (in

n. recession; sudden decrease; drooping posture; slouch;

an organization, system, etc.)

collapse

Forms: slotted; slotted; slotting

Forms: plural: slumps

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3420 TOEIC Vocabulary Words

slump

small

v. to collapse; to decline; to decrease; to deteriorate; to

adj. little; few in number; trivial; unimportant; modest

settle

smart

small156.

155.

Forms: slumped; slumped; slumping

small

smart

adv. softly; in a low voice; without strength or force;

n. sharp stinging pain

weakly; into little pieces

smoothly

smart158.

157.

Forms: plural: smarts

smart

smoothly

adj. intelligent; clever; shrewd; lively; fashionable; stylish

adv. gently; without roughness or projections; evenly;

soar

sneakers160.

159.

calmly

sneakers

soar

n. sports shoe; one who moves about stealthily; one who

v. to glide; to fly upward; to ascend; to increase; to rise

acts furtively

society

society162.

161.

Forms: plural: sneakers

Forms: soared; soared; soaring

society

society

n. association; organization; community; rich upper class; adj. of or pertaining to the upper class
fellowship; companionship

solace

software164.

163.

Forms: plural: societies

software

solace

n. programs which control the functions of a computer's

n. consolation; relief from distress; source of comfort

hardware

solely

solace166.

165.

Forms: no plural

Forms: plural: solaces

solace

solely

v. to comfort; to console; to encourage; to relieve; to

adv. only; exclusively; merely

appease

solve

solicit168.

167.

Forms: solaced; solaced; solacing

solicit

solve

v. to try and obtain something through persuasion or

v. to find the answer to; to explain

earnest requests

sophisticated

somber170.

169.

Forms: solicited; solicited; soliciting

Forms: solved; solved; solving

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sort

sort172.

171.

3420 TOEIC Vocabulary Words

somber

sophisticated

adj. gloomy; dark; depressing; sad; mournful

adj. refined; cultured; complex; intricate; complicated

sort

sort

n. type; kind; character; manner; quality

v. to classify; to organize; to separate from others; to


clarify
Forms: sorted; sorted; sorting

sound

sound174.

173.

Forms: plural: sorts

sound

sound

n. vibrations that can be detected by the human ear;

adj. whole; healthy; in good condition; sane; firm; valid

noise; vocal utterance

source

source176.

175.

Forms: plural: sounds

source

source

n. origin; starting point

v. to originate from; to reveal the origin of something; to


obtain from a particular supplier

space

space178.
span

span180.

179.

177.

Forms: plural: sources

Forms: sourced; sourced; spacing

space

space

n. universe; empty area; gap; area; interval

v. to set some distance apart

Forms: plural: spaces

Forms: spaced; spaced; spacing

span

span

n. length; distance; duration; period of time

v. to extend across; to stretch from one point another; to


bridge

special

special182.

181.

Forms: plural: spans

Forms: spanned; spanned; spanning

special

special

n. reduced price; sale on particular items; extra

adj. unusual; exceptional; unique; particular; highly

newspaper edition

valued

specialty

specialize184.

183.

Forms: plural: specials

specialize

specialty

v. to devote oneself to a particular profession or field of

n. distinguishing mark; unique ability; area of expertise

study; to limit

specify

specification186.

185.

Forms: specialized; specialized; specializing

Forms: plural: specialties

193

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speed

speech188.

187.

3420 TOEIC Vocabulary Words

specification

specify

n. item or detail included in a description of requirements

v. to indicate; to itemize; to mark; to designate; to

or plans

stipulate

Forms: plural: specifications

Forms: specified; specified; specifying

speech

speed

n. speaking ability; something that is communicated orally n. quickness; velocity; transmission gear in a motor
vehicle
Forms: plural: speeds

spend

speed190.
sponsor

splendid192.

191.

189.

Forms: plural: speeches

speed

spend

v. to accelerate; to cause to move quickly; to expedite; to

v. to expend; to disburse; to put out (money, resources,

further; to hurry

etc.)

Forms: sped; sped; speeding

Forms: spent; spent; spending

splendid

sponsor

adj. wonderful; excellent; marvelous; grand; elegant;

n. one who donates money; person or organization that

magnificent

promotes or supports (an event, program, candidate,


etc.)

sporadic

sponsor194.

193.

Forms: plural: sponsors

sponsor

sporadic

v. to back; to support; to finance; to subsidize; to promote adj. irregular; fitful; occasional; infrequent

spot

spot196.

195.

Forms: sponsored; sponsored; sponsoring

spot

spot

n. roundish stain; speck; place; awkward or difficult

adj. made or done immediately; paid at once; performed

situation; predicament

randomly

spread

spread198.
spy

spy200.

199.

197.

Forms: plural: spots

spread

spread

n. expansion; growth; range; story or advertisement that

v. to open; to extend; to apply a layer on; to scatter; to

covers two pages

distribute

Forms: plural: spreads

Forms: spread; spread; spreading

194

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square

square202.

201.

3420 TOEIC Vocabulary Words

spy

spy

n. secret agent; person who secretly investigates and

v. to provide secret information about another country; to

gathers information about other people

examine

Forms: plural: spies

Forms: spied; spied; spying

square

square

n. geometric figure having four equal sides; plaza

adj. having four equal sides enclosing four equal angles

stable

stable204.

203.

Forms: plural: squares

stable

stable

n. structure in which horses and other animals are

adj. steady; firm; lasting; dependable; faithful

housed

stack

stack206.
staff

staff208.
stage

stage210.
stake

stake212.
stall

stall214.
out

stand

stance216.

215.

213.

211.

209.

207.

205.

Forms: plural: stables

stack

stack

n. heap; tall bookshelf; chimney

v. to place one thing on top of another in a heap; to pile

Forms: plural: stacks

Forms: stacked; stacked; stacking

staff

staff

n. employees working in an organization; personnel;

v. to employ a group of workers; to provide with

crew; team

employees; to man

Forms: plural: staffs

Forms: staffed; staffed; staffing

stage

stage

n. raised platform; resting place on a journey; phase

v. to perform; to present; to carry out; to execute

Forms: plural: stages

Forms: staged; staged; staging

stake

stake

n. wager; bet; investment; share

v. to risk; to gamble; to finance; to underwrite

Forms: plural: stakes

Forms: staked; staked; staking

stall

stall

n. stand; booth; pen; pretext to delay

v. to put into a stable; to delay; to check the progress of

Forms: plural: stalls

Forms: stalled; stalled; stalling

195

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3420 TOEIC Vocabulary Words

stance

stand out

n. physical position or bearing; opinion; attitude

v. to be conspicuous; to be noticeable; to project; to


protrude
Forms: stood out; stood out; standing out

standard

standard218.

217.

Forms: plural: stances

standard

standard

n. model; criterion; norm; average; commodity which

adj. serving as a model; normal; regular; typical; widely

backs a monetary system

accepted

staple

standpoint220.
state

staple222.

221.

219.

Forms: plural: standards

standpoint

staple

n. outlook; perspective; view; opinion; attitude

n. metal clip for binding papers; essential element

Forms: plural: standpoints

Forms: plural: staples

staple

state

adj. essential; regularly used; primary; principal; main (of

n. condition; phase; mood; splendor; nation

goods or products)

statement

state224.

223.

Forms: plural: states

state

statement

adj. governmental; bureaucratic; majestic; dignified

n. declaration; allegation; official account

station

station226.

225.

Forms: plural: statements

station

station

n. position; place where a person or thing is usually

v. to assign to a particular post or position; to appoint

found; headquarters; broadcast frequency

stationery

stationary228.

227.

Forms: plural: stations

Forms: stationed; stationed; stationing

stationary

stationery

adj. still; fixed in place; static; settled; tending to stay in

n. paper used for writing letters

one place

status

statistics230.

229.

Forms: plural: stationeries

statistics

status

n. organization and interpretation of numerical data

n. individual's social or professional standing; position;


rank; present situation

stay

stay232.

231.

Forms: only plural

Forms: plural: statuses

196

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3420 TOEIC Vocabulary Words

stay

stay

stem

steadfast234.

233.

n. act of halting; visit; temporary residence; suspension of v. to visit; to spend time in a place; to remain temporarily;
a legal proceeding

to lodge

Forms: plural: stays

Forms: stayed; stayed; staying

steadfast

stem

adj. loyal; faithful; unchanging

n. central stalk of a plant; petiole

step

stem236.

235.

Forms: plural: stems

stem

step

v. to arise; to come from; to originate; to stop; to check

n. movement made by lifting the foot and setting it down


in another place; stair; stage in a process
Forms: plural: steps

sternly

step238.

237.

Forms: stemmed; stemmed; stemming

step

sternly

pref. related to by the remarriage of a parent and not by

adv. strictly; firmly

still

still240.

239.

blood

still

still

n. silence; quiet; photograph

adj. quiet; tranquil; calm; motionless

stipulate

stipendiary242.

241.

Forms: plural: stills

stipendiary

stipulate

adj. receiving of a regular or fixed payment

v. to require that certain conditions be met before the


signing of a contract; to specify; to require

stock

stock244.

243.

Forms: stipulated; stipulated; stipulating

stock

stock

n. supply of goods; inventory; share; company's capital

adj. available on a regular basis; employed to handle

divided into shares

merchandise or goods

stop

stop246.
store

store248.

247.

245.

Forms: plural: stocks

stop

stop

n. cessation; end; visit; obstacle; hindrance

v. to halt; to cease; to quit; to close; to block; to impede

Forms: plural: stops

Forms: stopped; stopped; stopping

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3420 TOEIC Vocabulary Words

store

store

n. shop; place where merchandise is sold; supply of

v. to amass; to accumulate; to supply; to equip

goods or materials set aside for future use


Forms: stored; stored; storing

straight

story250.

249.

Forms: plural: stores

story

straight

n. true or fictional account of some occurrence; short

n. line that is not curved; section that is not curved

work of fiction; plot; news report


Forms: plural: straights

straightforward

straight252.

251.

Forms: plural: stories

straight

straightforward

adj. having no curves or bends; frank; continuous;

adj. frank; candid; sincere; honest; simple; uncomplicated

strategy

strap254.

253.

honest; consistent

strap

strategy

v. to tie with a narrow piece of leather; to lash

n. plans or methods created for the purpose of achieving


a goal

streamline

streamline256.

255.

Forms: strapped; strapped; strapping

Forms: plural: strategies

streamline

streamline

n. path along which a fluid flows; direction in which a

v. to make more efficient; to organize; to simplify

particle flows; aerodynamic shape

strengthen

strength258.

257.

Forms: plural: streamlines

Forms: streamlined; streamlined; streamlining

strength

strengthen

n. durability; determination; resolve; power; intensity;

v. to make strong; to fortify; to reinforce; to toughen

force

stress

stress260.

259.

Forms: plural: strengths

Forms: strengthened; strengthened; strengthening

stress

stress

n. emphasis; importance; accent; strain; tension;

v. to emphasize; to accentuate

pressure

strike

stretch262.

261.

Forms: plural: stresses

Forms: stressed; stressed; stressing

stretch

strike

v. to extend; to elongate; to reach out; to pull; to strain

n. temporary work stoppage; good luck; discovery of


natural resources

striped

strike264.

263.

Forms: stretched; stretched; stretching

Forms: plural: strikes

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3420 TOEIC Vocabulary Words

strike

striped

v. to temporarily cease working as a protest; to impress

adj. marked with narrow bands of contrasting color or


texture

structure

strive266.
study

structure268.

267.

265.

Forms: struck; stricken; striking

strive

structure

v. to endeavor; to try hard; to compete; to struggle; to

n. building; something created from a number of

resist

interconnecting parts

Forms: strove; striven; striving

Forms: plural: structures

structure

study

v. to organize; to arrange; to give form to

n. learning; field of learning; thorough investigation;


report; analysis
Forms: plural: studies

style

study270.

269.

Forms: structured; structured; structuring

study

style

v. to learn; to ponder; to examine; to investigate; to

n. manner; way; fashion; chic; vogue

memorize

subject

style272.
subjectively

subject274.

273.

271.

Forms: studied; studied; studying

Forms: plural: styles

style

subject

v. to plan; to design; to name; to call

n. topic; branch of studies; major; citizen; motive

Forms: styled; styled; styling

Forms: plural: subjects

subject

subjectively

adj. under the rule of; subordinate; exposed to; liable to;

adv. based on individual thoughts and feelings

subordinate

submit276.

275.

conditional

submit

subordinate

v. to give in; to surrender; to yield; to present; to propose

n. one who is subservient; someone under the authority


of another

subscribe

subordinate278.

277.

Forms: submitted; submitted; submitting

Forms: plural: subordinates

subordinate

subscribe

adj. inferior; of secondary importance; under the authority v. to endorse; to donate; to contribute; to pledge; to
of another

support; to approve

subside

subscription280.

279.

Forms: subscribed; subscribed; subscribing

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3420 TOEIC Vocabulary Words

subscription

subside

n. payment given for regularly scheduled performances

v. to descend; to decline; to abate; to lessen

or publications
Forms: subsided; subsided; subsiding

subsidiary

subsidiary282.

281.

Forms: plural: subscriptions

subsidiary

subsidiary

n. company that is owned or controlled by another

adj. supplementary; auxiliary; secondary; lesser in

company

importance

subsidy

subsidize284.
substantiate

substantial286.

285.

283.

Forms: plural: subsidiaries

subsidize

subsidy

v. to provide financial assistance

n. financial assistance

Forms: subsidized; subsidized; subsidizing

Forms: plural: subsidies

substantial

substantiate

adj. firm; wealthy; influential; important; considerable

v. to prove; to verify; to confirm; to actualize

substantive

substantive288.

287.

Forms: substantiated; substantiated; substantiated

substantive

substantive

n. word or phrase functioning as a noun

adj. existing independently; real; tangible

substitute

substitute290.

289.

Forms: plural: substantives

substitute

substitute

n. replacement; person or thing that takes the place of

adj. acting as a replacement

another

succeed

subtract292.
succinct

success294.

293.

291.

Forms: plural: substitutes

subtract

succeed

v. to take away part of a whole; to remove; to deduct

v. to prosper; to achieve; to attain; to follow; to inherit

Forms: subtracted; subtracted; subtracting

Forms: succeeded; succeeded; succeeding

success

succinct

n. attainment of something desired or attempted;

adj. stated briefly but clearly; clear and concise; short and

accomplishment; prosperity

to the point

suggest

sufficient296.

295.

Forms: plural: successes

200

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3420 TOEIC Vocabulary Words

sufficient

suggest

adj. enough; adequate

v. to propose; to mention; to imply; to hint; to evoke

suit

suggestion298.

297.

Forms: suggested; suggested; suggesting

suggestion

suit

n. proposal; recommendation; insinuation; hint

n. matching outfit consisting of a jacket and trousers or a


skirt; request; courtship
Forms: plural: suits

suitcase

suit300.
sum

suite302.

301.

299.

Forms: plural: suggestions

suit

suitcase

v. to fit; to match; to satisfy; to please; to clothe

n. rectangular traveling bag; valise

Forms: suited; suited; suiting

Forms: plural: suitcases

suite

sum

n. group of things that together form a set; group of

n. whole amount; entire quantity; essence; gist

attendants

summarize

sum304.

303.

Forms: plural: suites

Forms: plural: sums

sum

summarize

v. to add

v. to present in a condensed form; to list the main points


in a brief and comprehensive manner

superfluous

superb306.
superior

superior308.

307.

305.

Forms: summed; summed; summing

Forms: summarized; summarized; summarizing

superb

superfluous

adj. excellent; wonderful; splendid; magnificent

adj. being more than is needed; excessive; unnecessary

superior

superior

n. one who is higher than another in rank or position

adj. higher in rank or position; above average;


exceptional

supervisor

supervise310.

309.

Forms: plural: superiors

supervise

supervisor

v. to oversee; to administer; to direct; to manage; to

n. overseer; director; manager

watch over

supplement

supervisory312.

311.

Forms: supervised; supervised; supervising

Forms: plural: supervisors

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3420 TOEIC Vocabulary Words

supervisory

supplement

adj. managerial; overseeing

n. something which makes up for a deficiency; addition;


extra added part

supplementary

supplement314.

313.

Forms: plural: supplements

supplement

supplementary

v. to make up for a deficiency; to add on to

adj. additional; extra

supply

supplier316.
support

supply318.
supportive

support320.

319.

317.

315.

Forms: supplemented; supplemented; supplementing

supplier

supply

n. provider

n. act of providing; provision; reserve; stock

Forms: plural: suppliers

Forms: plural: supplies

supply

support

v. to furnish; to equip; to make up for; to compensate for;

n. prop; brace; economic assistance; upkeep;

to substitute for temporarily

encouragement; aid

Forms: supplied; supplied; supplying

Forms: plural: supports

support

supportive

v. to carry; to encourage; to assist financially; to

adj. providing assistance

substantiate

surely

suppose322.

321.

Forms: supported; supported; supporting

suppose

surely

v. to presume to be true; to hypothesize; to believe

adv. confidently; certainly; without a doubt; yes; of course

surface

surface324.

323.

Forms: supposed; supposed; supposing

surface

surface

n. exterior or upper boundary of a thing; external part or

adj. external

layer; outward appearance

surplus

surmise326.
surprise

surprise328.

327.

325.

Forms: plural: surfaces

surmise

surplus

v. to infer; to conjecture; to guess; to presume

n. profit; amount of assets that is higher than liabilities

Forms: surmised; surmised; surmising

Forms: plural: surpluses

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3420 TOEIC Vocabulary Words

surprise

surprise

n. astonishment; something which startles or astonishes;

v. to startle; to astonish; to ambush

unexpected event
Forms: surprised; surprised; surprising

survey

surveillance330.
survive

survey332.

331.

329.

Forms: plural: surprises

surveillance

survey

n. careful observation of a person or group

n. review; overview; statistical study

Forms: no plural

Forms: plural: surveys

survey

survive

v. to look over; to observe; to examine carefully; to study

v. to outlive; to remain in use; to outlast; to endure; to


withstand
Forms: survived; survived; surviving

suspect

susceptible334.
sustain

suspend336.

335.

333.

Forms: surveyed; surveyed; surveying

susceptible

suspect

adj. vulnerable; prone; impressionable

adj. doubtful; dubious

suspend

sustain

v. to hang; to postpone; to defer; to expel

v. to support; to provide for; to finance; to assist; to


encourage

swap

swap338.
sway

sway340.

339.

337.

Forms: suspended; suspended; suspending

Forms: sustained; sustained; sustaining

swap

swap

n. exchange; trade

v. to exchange one thing for another; to trade; to barter

Forms: plural: swaps

Forms: swapped; swapped; swapping

sway

sway

n. moving back and forth; influence; control; authority

v. to move back and forth; to lean in a certain direction; to


be sympathetic to; to hesitate

swift

sweater342.

341.

Forms: plural: sways

Forms: swayed; swayed; swaying

sweater

swift

n. pullover; employer who underpays his employees

n. financial industry owned cooperative supplying secure,


standardized messaging services to financial institutions

switch

swift344.

343.

Forms: plural: sweaters

Forms: plural: swifts

203

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3420 TOEIC Vocabulary Words

swift

switch

adj. fast; immediate; prompt; smart

n. exchange; transfer; device

switchboard

switch346.
symposium

sympathy348.

347.

345.

Forms: plural: switches

switch

switchboard

v. to change; to shift; to exchange; to trade; to turn on or

n. panel containing buttons for connecting and

off

disconnecting telephone or electrical circuits

Forms: switched; switched; switching

Forms: plural: switchboards

sympathy

symposium

n. affinity; compassion; pity; concern; empathy

n. meeting or conference at which a specific topic is


discussed

system

synthesis350.

349.

Forms: plural: sympathies

Forms: plural: symposiums

synthesis

system

n. combining of separate elements into a complete whole n. combination of related things or parts that form a
complex whole

systematically

351.

Forms: plural: syntheses

Forms: plural: systems

systematically
adv. methodically; in an organized fashion

204

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table

table2.

3420 TOEIC Vocabulary Words

T1.

table

table

tackle

tackle4.
tailor

tailor6.
take

take8.

7.

5.

3.

n. list of information arranged in columns and rows; chart; v. to enter information into a chart; to postpone; to set
flat surface

aside for future consideration

Forms: plural: tables

Forms: tabled; tabled; tabling

tackle

tackle

n. equipment; device for lifting and lowering objects

v. to deal with; to stop; to undertake; to set about

Forms: plural: tackles

Forms: tackled; tackled; tackling

tailor

tailor

n. one who makes or alters garments

v. to create or adapt for a particular need or desire

Forms: plural: tailors

Forms: tailored; tailored; tailoring

take

take

n. amount collected at one time; income; proceeds;

v. to seize; to capture; to possess; to contract

profits (Informal)

takeover

over10.

take

9.

Forms: plural: takes

Forms: took; taken; taking

take over

takeover

v. to capture; to assume control

n. act of assuming control of something (as in a


government or business)

talk

talk12.

11.

Forms: took over; taken over; taking over

Forms: plural: takeovers

talk

talk

n. conversation; speech; lecture; meeting

v. to converse; to speak; to spread rumors; to lecture; to


reveal secret information

tall

talkative14.

13.

Forms: plural: talks

Forms: talked; talked; talking

talkative

tall

adj. chatty; loquacious

adj. having a specified height; difficult to believe;

tantamount

tantalizing16.

15.

exaggerated; challenging

tantalizing

tantamount

v. to tempt or tease by presenting something as available adj. equivalent to; equal to


and then withholding it

target

target18.

17.

Forms: tantalized; tantalized; tantalizing

205

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task

task20.
taste

taste22.
tax

tax24.

23.

21.

19.

3420 TOEIC Vocabulary Words

target

target

n. mark; objective; aim; object; goal

v. to aim at something

Forms: plural: targets

Forms: targeted; targeted; targeting

task

task

n. job; assignment; obligation; role

v. to give assignments; to overburden; to strain

Forms: plural: tasks

Forms: tasked; tasked; tasking

taste

taste

n. perception of flavor; sense; reason

v. to check flavor by eating; to attempt; to try

Forms: plural: tastes

Forms: tasted; tasted; tasting

tax

tax

n. levy; fee

v. to impose a tariff; to impose a levy; to burden; to


demand too much

technique

technician26.
temper

technology28.
temporary

temper30.

29.

27.

25.

Forms: plural: taxes

Forms: taxed; taxed; taxing

technician

technique

n. specialist in repairs of machinery and appliances

n. method of performance

Forms: plural: technicians

Forms: plural: techniques

technology

temper

n. sciences of the industrial arts; applied sciences

n. disposition; mood

Forms: plural: technologies

Forms: plural: tempers

temper

temporary

v. to moderate; to soften; to tone down; to toughen; to

adj. passing; brief

harden

tenant

tenant32.
tender

tender34.

33.

31.

Forms: tempered; tempered; tempering

tenant

tenant

n. lodger; occupant; resident; renter; landlord

v. to rent; to inhabit; to occupy

Forms: plural: tenants

Forms: tenanted; tenanted; tenanting

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3420 TOEIC Vocabulary Words

tender

tender

n. bid; offer; overseer; supervisor

adj. gentle; soft; delicate

tense

tense36.

35.

Forms: plural: tenders

tense

tense

n. inflection; verbal 'time'

adj. strained; taut; rigid; nervous; stressful

tentative

tension38.

37.

Forms: plural: tenses

tension

tentative

n. tautness; strain; nervousness; agitation; apprehension

adj. experimental; trial; temporary; hesitant

term

tenure40.
terminal

term42.
terminology

terminal44.

43.

41.

39.

Forms: plural: tensions

tenure

term

n. strength; period; permanence

n. word; expression; idiom; condition; stipulation

Forms: plural: tenures

Forms: plural: terms

term

terminal

v. to name; to call; to designate

n. either end of a passenger line; bus or train station

Forms: termed; termed; terming

Forms: plural: terminals

terminal

terminology

adj. end; closing; concluding; final; mortal

n. nomenclature; specific vocabulary

territory

terrible46.

45.

Forms: plural: terminologies

terrible

territory

adj. awful

n. region; district; zone; area; domain

testimonial

testify48.
thoroughness

thorough50.

49.

47.

Forms: plural: territories

testify

testimonial

v. to bear witness; to declare under oath; to attest

n. letter of recommendation

Forms: testified; testified; testifying

Forms: plural: testimonials

thorough

thoroughness

adj. comprehensive; complete; finished

n. diligence; neatness

though

though52.

51.

Forms: no plural

207

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thread

thought54.
threat

thread56.

55.

53.

3420 TOEIC Vocabulary Words

though

though

conj. despite; in spite of

adv. anyway

thought

thread

n. idea; concept; product of the mind

n. string; thin cord; Internet discussion

Forms: plural: thoughts

Forms: plural: threads

thread

threat

v. to pass something through an opening

n. expression of intent to damage or injure; intimidation;


danger
Forms: plural: threats

throughout

thrive58.

57.

Forms: threaded; threaded; threading

thrive

throughout

v. to prosper; to flourish; to succeed

prep. in every part; at every point or moment

thus

throughout60.
ticket

ticket62.
tie

tie64.
tight

tight66.
timeliness

time68.
title

title70.
token

token72.

71.

69.

67.

65.

63.

61.

59.

Forms: throve; thriven; thriving

throughout

thus

adv. in every; during

adv. therefore; so

ticket

ticket

n. certificate; entry pass; tag

v. to label; to fine

Forms: plural: tickets

Forms: ticketed; ticketed; ticketing

tie

tie

n. rope; cord; link; connection; equal score in a game

v. to bind; to fasten with a rope or cord

Forms: plural: ties

Forms: tied; tied; tying

tight

tight

adj. close-fitting; tense; narrow

adv. in a close-fitting manner; firmly

time

timeliness

n. period; era; hour; rate

n. punctuality

Forms: plural: times

Forms: no plural

title

title

n. heading; caption; right; ownership; championship

v. to furnish with a caption or heading

Forms: plural: titles

Forms: titled; titled; titling

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3420 TOEIC Vocabulary Words

token

token

n. symbol; sign; mark; remembrance

adj. nominal; symbolic; perfunctory

tool

toll74.
top

top76.

75.

73.

Forms: plural: tokens

toll

tool

n. tax; charge; levy; grievous price

n. apparatus; device

Forms: plural: tolls

Forms: plural: tools

top

top

n. summit; peak; head

adj. highest; prime; leading

total

topic78.
tour

total80.

79.

77.

Forms: plural: tops

topic

total

n. theme; subject of conversation; issue

n. sum; whole

Forms: plural: topics

Forms: plural: totals

total

tour

adj. entire; complete; absolute

n. voyage; sightseeing excursion; trip; route

tow

tour82.
town

tow84.
track

town86.

85.

83.

81.

Forms: plural: tours

tour

tow

v. to sightsee; to voyage; to travel

n. act of dragging or pulling with a rope or chain

Forms: toured; toured; touring

Forms: plural: tows

tow

town

v. to pull; to drag

n. city

Forms: towed; towed; towing

Forms: plural: towns

town

track

adj. of a city; local

n. lane; path; signs; trails; channel

trade

track88.
tradition

trade90.

89.

87.

Forms: plural: tracks

track

trade

v. to follow

n. business; commerce; barter; occupation

Forms: tracked; tracked; tracking

Forms: plural: trades

209

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3420 TOEIC Vocabulary Words

trade

tradition

adj. commercial; of commerce

n. custom; practice; convention

traffic

traditional92.

91.

Forms: plural: traditions

traditional

traffic

adj. customary

n. movement of vehicles or persons; trade; commerce;


load of messages in a communications network

trail

traffic94.
transact

trail96.
transcend

transaction98.
transfer

transcendent100.

99.

97.

95.

93.

Forms: no plural

traffic

trail

v. to deal in; to sell

n. track; footprints; path; way

Forms: trafficked; trafficked; trafficking

Forms: plural: trails

trail

transact

v. to follow; to drag; to tow

v. to carry out; to conduct; to perform

Forms: trailed; trailed; trailing

Forms: transacted; transacted; transacting

transaction

transcend

n. negotiation; settlement; business deal

v. to excel; to rise above

Forms: plural: transactions

Forms: transcended; transcended; transcending

transcendent

transfer

adj. sublime; exalted; superior

n. exchange; conveying something from one person to


another

trash

transfer102.

101.

Forms: plural: transfers

transfer

trash

v. to convey; to relocate; to hand over; to pass on

n. something discarded; rubbish; garbage; refuse;


nonsense

travel

trash104.
traveler

travel106.

105.

103.

Forms: transferred; transferred; transferring

Forms: plural: trashes

trash

travel

v. to throw away; to discard; to destroy; to damage

n. movement; journeying

Forms: trashed; trashed; trashing

Forms: plural: travels

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3420 TOEIC Vocabulary Words

travel

traveler

v. to go on a journey; to move; to go from one place to

n. one who makes a journey

another
Forms: plural: travelers

treasure

tray108.
treat

treat110.

109.

107.

Forms: traveled; traveled; traveling

tray

treasure

n. flat receptacle used to hold other items; platter

v. to put away for future use

Forms: plural: trays

Forms: treasured; treasured; treasuring

treat

treat

n. delight; refreshment or entertainment given to its

v. to relate to; to deal with; to process; to pay for

recipient without cost


Forms: treated; treated; treating

treaty

treatment112.

111.

Forms: plural: treats

treatment

treaty

n. therapy; care; relation; attitude; behavior

n. formal agreement between two states; compact;


covenant; contract

trespasser

tremendous114.

113.

Forms: plural: treatments

Forms: plural: treaties

tremendous

trespasser

adj. very great in numbers; huge; powerful

n. one who damages a person or his property or rights

trial

trial116.

115.

Forms: plural: trespassers

trial

trial

n. test; attempt; experiment; annoyance

adj. experimental; exploratory; test; used as a sample

trivial

triangle118.

117.

Forms: plural: trials

triangle

trivial

n. shape having three sides and three corners; group of

adj. trifling; unimportant; insignificant; minor

three

trouble

trouble120.

119.

Forms: plural: triangles

trouble

trouble

n. problem; misfortune; annoyance; cause of worry

v. to worry; to cause concern; to annoy; to bother; to


disturb

trust

truly122.

121.

Forms: plural: troubles

Forms: troubled; troubled; troubling

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3420 TOEIC Vocabulary Words

truly

trust

adv. really; genuinely

n. confidence; faith; credit; monopoly; several companies


banded together in order to reduce competition

trustee

trust124.

123.

Forms: plural: trusts

trust

trustee

v. to rely on; to extend business credit

n. person granted legal custodianship over property not


belonging to him
Forms: plural: trustees

turnover

trustee126.
twice

127.

125.

Forms: trusted; trusted; trusting

trustee

turnover

v. to grant a person or persons legal custodianship over

n. gross revenues; total business done; rate of selling or

property not belonging to them

producing

Forms: trusteed; trusteed; trusteeing

Forms: plural: turnovers

twice
adv. doubly

212

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unable
unbiased

unauthorized4.
uncertainty

uncertain6.

5.

3.

ultimately2.

3420 TOEIC Vocabulary Words

U1.

ultimately

unable

adv. in the end; eventually

adj. not capable

unauthorized

unbiased

adj. unlicensed; forbidden; unlawful

adj. impartial; equitable

uncertain

uncertainty

adj. doubtful; not reliable; ambiguous

n. doubtfulness

undercut

unconventional8.

7.

Forms: plural: uncertainties

unconventional

undercut

adj. not standard; not ordinary

n. type of beef tenderloin; type of cavity with a broad


base

underestimate

undercut10.

9.

Forms: plural: undercuts

undercut

underestimate

v. to offer at lower prices than the competition; to

v. to assign too low a value to

weaken; to undermine

underline

underline12.
underway

understatement14.

13.

11.

Forms: undercut; undercut; undercutting

Forms: underestimated; underestimated; underestimating

underline

underline

n. caption beneath an illustration

v. to emphasize

Forms: plural: underlines

Forms: underlined; underlined; underlining

understatement

underway

n. representing something less strongly than what the

adj. having begun a journey (especially of a sea vessel);

facts would justify

initiated; in progress; under construction

unforeseen

unfair16.
unify

unfortunately18.

17.

15.

Forms: plural: understatements

unfair

unforeseen

adj. biased; dishonest

adj. not anticipated; not expected

unfortunately

unify

adv. regrettably

v. to join; to cause to become one

unique

union20.

19.

Forms: unified; unified; unifying

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3420 TOEIC Vocabulary Words

union

unique

n. workers' association; federation; amalgamation

adj. singular; matchless; rare

unit

uniqueness22.

21.

Forms: plural: unions

uniqueness

unit

n. singularity; individuality; incomparability

n. specific quantity regarded as a standard; combination


which acts a whole; piece

unless

unjudged24.
unlock

unlimited26.

25.

23.

Forms: no plural

Forms: plural: units

unjudged

unless

adj. objective

conj. not before; precluding; barring; except; aside from

unlimited

unlock

adj. infinite; boundless

v. to open; to free from restraints; to release

unsanitary

unnecessary28.
until

unsatisfactory30.
unveil

until32.

31.

29.

27.

Forms: unlocked; unlocked; unlocking

unnecessary

unsanitary

adj. excessive; redundant; superfluous

adj. not healthful; not clean

unsatisfactory

until

adj. inadequate; disappointing; not good enough

prep. up to

until

unveil

conj. up to the time which

v. to reveal; to uncover; to disclose

update

upcoming34.

33.

Forms: unveiled; unveiled; unveiling

upcoming

update

adj. about to happen; imminent

n. more current version of something

upgrade

update36.

35.

Forms: plural: updates

update

upgrade

v. to modernize; to make current

n. the process of installing a newer and more powerful


version of a software package or a piece of hardware

upholstery

upgrade38.

37.

Forms: updated; updated; updating

Forms: plural: upgrades

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3420 TOEIC Vocabulary Words

upgrade

upholstery

v. to improve; to raise the quality of

n. materials that are used to cushion and cover furniture


(i.e. fabric, lining, padding, etc.)
Forms: plural: upholsteries

upwards

upon40.
urbanize

urban42.

41.

39.

Forms: upgraded; upgraded; upgrading

upon

upwards

prep. on; atop

adv. to a higher level; more than; higher than

urban

urbanize

adj. pertaining to a city; municipal

v. to make into a city

use

urgent44.

43.

Forms: urbanized; urbanized; urbanizing

urgent

use

adj. pressing; compelling; immediate; prompt

n. function; utilization; benefit; advantage; consumption

useful

use46.

45.

Forms: plural: uses

use

useful

v. to practice; to employ; to exploit; to treat; to consume

adj. functional; practical; applicable

usual

useless48.
utilization

usually50.

49.

47.

Forms: used; used; using

useless

usual

adj. not functional; not practical

adj. common; regular; ordinary

usually

utilization

adv. commonly; generally; regularly

n. the proportion of available time that an item of


equipment is operating

utilize

51.

Forms: plural: utilizations

utilize
v. to put to practical use; to take advantage of
Forms: utilized; utilized; utilizing

215

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vacant

vacancy2.

3420 TOEIC Vocabulary Words

V1.

vacancy

vacant

n. emptiness; available position; job opening

adj. empty; unfilled; unoccupied; lacking expression

vacation

vacation4.
vaccination

vaccinate6.

5.

3.

Forms: plural: vacancies

vacation

vacation

n. holiday

v. to go on holiday

Forms: plural: vacations

Forms: vacationed; vacationed; vacationing

vaccinate

vaccination

v. to render insusceptible to a disease by inoculating

n. act or instance of rendering insusceptible to disease by


inoculating
Forms: plural: vaccinations

valid

vacillate8.

7.

Forms: vaccinated; vaccinated; vaccinating

vacillate

valid

v. to fluctuate; to hesitate; to waver

adj. legitimate; legally acceptable; not expired; logical;


well-founded

valuable

validate10.
value

valuable12.

11.

9.

Forms: vacillated; vacillated; vacillating

validate

valuable

v. to confirm; to sanction; to legalize

n. something of great worth

Forms: validated; validated; validating

Forms: plural: valuables

valuable

value

adj. of great worth; costly; cherished; dear; important

n. monetary or material worth; importance; merit

van

value14.

13.

Forms: plural: values

value

van

v. to esteem; to cherish; to assess; to estimate

n. large closed vehicle used for transporting goods or


people

variety

variation16.

15.

Forms: valued; valued; valuing

Forms: plural: vans

variation

variety

n. degree of diversity; change; modified version; deviation n. assortment; kind; sort

vary

various18.

17.

Forms: plural: variations

Forms: plural: varieties

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3420 TOEIC Vocabulary Words

various

vary

adj. assorted; different; individual; several

v. to alter; to change; to fluctuate

vat

vast20.

19.

Forms: varied; varied; varying

vast

vat

adj. large; enormous; huge

n. large container; tank; tub

vegetarian

vegetable22.
veil

vehicle24.

23.

21.

Forms: plural: vats

vegetable

vegetarian

n. plant; edible fruit of a plant

n. one who does not eat meat; herbivore

Forms: plural: vegetables

Forms: plural: vegetarians

vehicle

veil

n. means of transport (car, bus, etc.); instrument; means; n. netting attached to a woman's hat
medium

machine

vending

veil26.
venture

vendor28.
veracity

venture30.
versatile

verify32.

31.

29.

27.

25.

Forms: plural: vehicles

Forms: plural: veils

veil

vending machine

v. to cover; to hide

n. automated device used for selling items

Forms: veiled; veiled; veiling

Forms: plural: vending machines

vendor

venture

n. salesman; supplier; automatic machine for selling

n. an undertaking that is dangerous, daring, or of

goods

uncertain outcome

Forms: plural: vendors

Forms: plural: ventures

venture

veracity

v. to take a risk in order to achieve a goal

n. truthfulness; something that is a truth

Forms: ventured; ventured; venturing

Forms: no plural

verify

versatile

v. to confirm the truth of something

adj. fulfilling many functions; multi-purpose; skilled to do


many things

vessel

version34.

33.

Forms: verified; verified; verifying

217

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victim

viable36.

35.

3420 TOEIC Vocabulary Words

version

vessel

n. particular form of something; variant; rendering;

n. large craft made for navigation on water; boat; ship;

translation

container

Forms: plural: versions

Forms: plural: vessels

viable

victim

adj. capable of living; having a reasonable chance of

n. person who falls prey (to an attack, deception, etc.)

succeeding; practical

vilify

viewpoint38.
virtual

violation40.

39.

37.

Forms: plural: victims

viewpoint

vilify

n. attitude; stance; opinion

v. to slander; to defame

Forms: plural: viewpoints

Forms: vilified; vilified; vilifying

violation

virtual

n. transgression; desecration; attack or disruption; rape

adj. imaginary; hypothetical; computer simulated

visibility

virtual42.
visit

visible44.

43.

41.

Forms: plural: violations

virtual

visibility

n. computerized representation of an actual object

n. quality of being clearly seen

Forms: no plural

Forms: plural: visibilities

visible

visit

adj. in view; observable; obvious; apparent

n. temporary stay somewhere; instance of spending time


with a person or group of people; inspection

visitor

visit46.

45.

Forms: plural: visits

visit

visitor

v. to stay somewhere temporarily; to make an official

n. guest; migrating bird

inspection

vivid

vital48.
voice

vocabulary50.

49.

47.

Forms: visited; visited; visiting

Forms: plural: visitors

vital

vivid

adj. lively; vigorous; crucial; critical; necessary

adj. lively; bright; dazzling; clear; graphic

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3420 TOEIC Vocabulary Words

vocabulary

voice

n. lexicon; list of words and their definitions in

n. sound produced in the throat; expression; language

alphabetical order
Forms: plural: voices

volunteer

voice52.

51.

Forms: plural: vocabularies

voice

volunteer

v. to raise an opinion; to adjust the tone of

n. one who offers his services of his own free will or


without pay
Forms: plural: volunteers

voucher

volunteer54.

53.

Forms: voiced; voiced; voicing

volunteer

voucher

v. to offer to do or give something for free; to propose

n. certificate that bears monetary value; coupon; receipt;


authorizer; endorser

voyage

voyage56.

55.

Forms: volunteered; volunteered; volunteering

Forms: plural: vouchers

voyage

voyage

n. trip; journey; travel; cruise

v. to take a cruise; to travel; to make a journey

Forms: plural: voyages

Forms: voyaged; voyaged; voyaging

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wait

wait2.

3420 TOEIC Vocabulary Words

W1.

wait

wait

n. staying where one is; expectation; ambush

v. to be ready or available; to work as an attendant; to


postpone

waitress

waiter4.
wallpaper

wallet6.
warehouse

warehouse8.
warning

warning10.

9.

7.

5.

3.

Forms: plural: waits

Forms: waited; waited; waiting

waiter

waitress

n. one who serves tables at a restaurant or pub

n. woman who serves tables in a restaurant or pub

Forms: plural: waiters

Forms: plural: waitresses

wallet

wallpaper

n. small purse used to carry money and personal

n. picture or design used as a background for the other

documents; billfold; handbag

images in a graphical user interface

Forms: plural: wallets

Forms: plural: wallpapers

warehouse

warehouse

n. depot; wholesale store; large retail store

v. to store in a large building

Forms: plural: warehouses

Forms: warehoused; warehoused; warehousing

warning

warning

n. caution; advice about danger; advance notice

adj. cautioning; giving advice about danger

waste

warranty12.
watch

waste14.

13.

11.

Forms: plural: warnings

warranty

waste

n. guarantee; authority; justification

n. misuse; loss; rubbish; garbage; sewage

Forms: plural: warranties

Forms: plural: wastes

waste

watch

adj. leftover; unused; desolate; desert; destroyed

n. small clock that is usually worn on the wrist; guarding;


observation

waver

watch16.
weakness

weak18.

17.

15.

Forms: plural: watches

watch

waver

v. to see; to look; to pay attention; to supervise

v. to sway; to oscillate; to vacillate; to fluctuate

Forms: watched; watched; watching

Forms: wavered; wavered; wavering

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3420 TOEIC Vocabulary Words

weak

weakness

adj. frail; feeble; faint; dilute; watery

n. drawback; disadvantage; defect; foible

weapon

wealth20.
weight

weigh22.

21.

19.

Forms: plural: weaknesses

wealth

weapon

n. richness; prosperity; capital; fortune; abundance

n. instrument for use in attack or defense in combat

Forms: no plural

Forms: plural: weapons

weigh

weight

v. to consider; to be of a particular heaviness; to burden

n. heaviness; unit of mass; pressure; importance;


influence
Forms: plural: weights

whereas

weight24.
whether

whereas26.
whole

whole28.

27.

25.

23.

Forms: weighed; weighed; weighing

weight

whereas

v. to load; to oppress; to burden; to regard; to esteem

n. this being the case; since (used in formal documents)

Forms: weighted; weighted; weighting

Forms: no plural

whereas

whether

conj. since; inasmuch as; while; while on the contrary

conj. if

whole

whole

n. totality; completeness; entirety

adj. complete; full; entire; healthy

width

widespread30.

29.

Forms: plural: wholes

widespread

width

adj. common; popular; extensive; prevalent

n. breadth; thickness

will

will32.

31.

Forms: plural: widths

will

will

n. last testament listing inheritors of a dying person's

v. to want; to command; to determine; to decide

property

wire

willingness34.
withdraw

wire36.

35.

33.

Forms: plural: wills

Forms: willed; willed; willing

willingness

wire

n. readiness; agreeableness

n. cord; line; string; telegraph cable

Forms: no plural

Forms: plural: wires

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3420 TOEIC Vocabulary Words

wire

withdraw

adj. made of a thin flexible cord of metal

v. to take money from the bank; to retire; to remove

withstand

within38.

37.

Forms: withdrew; withdrawn; withdrawing

within

withstand

prep. during

v. to bear; to endure

witness

witness40.
work

wool42.
workshop

work44.

43.

41.

39.

Forms: withstood; withstood; withstanding

witness

witness

n. testifier; onlooker; bystander; testimony

v. to look on; to see; to observe; to testify; to vouch for

Forms: plural: witnesses

Forms: witnessed; witnessed; witnessing

wool

work

n. fleece from some animals; frizzy hair

n. labor; task; profession; occupation; vocation; effort

Forms: plural: wools

Forms: plural: works

work

workshop

v. to labor; to act; to operate; to activate; to process

n. seminar; brief intensive educational program;


discussion group

worry

worry46.

45.

Forms: worked; worked; working

Forms: plural: workshops

worry

worry

n. concern; fear; misfortune; distress

v. to be concerned; to harass; to advance through great


effort

wrench

would48.
off

write

wrench50.
wrong

wrong52.

51.

49.

47.

Forms: plural: worries

Forms: worried; worried; worrying

would

wrench

v. helping verb for use in a question; request or

n. violent twist; violent ripping; tool for gripping or turning

expression of desire

bolts

Forms: modal verb

Forms: plural: wrenches

wrench

write off

v. to pull by force; to twist; to cut off; to distort; to pervert

v. to disregard an outstanding debt (as of a customer)

Forms: wrenched; wrenched; wrenching

Forms: wrote off; written off; writing off

222

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wry

53.

3420 TOEIC Vocabulary Words

wrong

wrong

n. injustice; evil; bad; broken law; transgression

v. to cause suffering to; to behave unjustly toward

Forms: plural: wrongs

Forms: wronged; wronged; wronging

wry
adj. distorted; crooked; twisted; askew

223

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yearly
yet

yet4.
yield

yield6.

5.

3.

yearly2.

3420 TOEIC Vocabulary Words

Y1.

yearly

yearly

adj. occurring once within 12 months

adv. annually

yet

yet

adv. still; already; but; in spite of; although

conj. but; in spite of; despite

yield

yield

n. harvest; return; produce; income; profit

v. to produce; to supply; to bear (profit, harvest, fruit, etc.)

Forms: plural: yields

Forms: yielded; yielded; yielding

224

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ZIP

3420 TOEIC Vocabulary Words

Z1.

ZIP
n. extension of an archived file compressed with a special
program; type of drive using removable disks
Forms: no plural

225

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