You are on page 1of 26

航空科学与工程学院

th
8

Research Areas of
Aeroelasticity

Xie Changchuan
2014 Autumn

Content
1、Aeroelasticity of complete aircraft
2、Aeroservoelasticity
3、Techniques in aeroelastic test
4、Aeroelasticity of very flexible aircraft
5、Aeroelastic tailoring
6、Aeroservoelasticity

Main Aims
Realize the jobs in aeroelastic design and
analysis which have not taught in this lesson.
Furthermore, some new research areas and
state of arts.
2

Aeroelasticity of complete aircraft
Modern flight dynamics/aeroelasticity
Frequency range of
elastic vibrations

Frequency range of
rigid movements
Frequency
difference

Frequency

ω
The highest frequency
of rigid movement

The lowest frequency of
elastic vibration

Frequency range of fight control

3

Modern flight dynamics/aeroelasticity

Flight dynamic
equations

¾ Movement equations of
Rigid/Elastic coupling
consider together:
freedoms of rigid motion
freedoms of elastic motion
Problems:how to deal with the
inertial and aerodynamic
coupling between these two
kinds of freedoms?

Trim analysis

¾ Equilibrium equations
of static aeroelasticity
Problems: how to solve them
when structure is deformed?

Control and
stability analysis

Design of
control law

Flight simulation

¾ Small disturbance equation
state space model
Problems: how to calculate the
unsteady aerodynamics with
rigid/elastic coupling?

¾ Solution of full motion
equations in time domain
4

State of arts — theory of flight dynamics of elastic aircraft
¾ 1960s, Dusto introduced the method of influence
coefficient to solve the stability problem of elastic
aircraft

¾ Rough description to
structure and aerodynamics

¾ 1980s, Rodden established equations of quasi-

Can not give out
steady flight for elastic aircraft, to solve the divergence, ¾
dynamic analysis
trim and flight load distribution, etc.

¾ later in 1980s, Waszak and Schmidt established
equations by energy method for elastic aircraft flight
with the mean axes, including the rigid and elastic
mode simultaneously.
¾ 2000s, Meirovitch and Tuzcu established rigidelastic coupled state equations based on quasicoordinate theory in multi-body dynamics, to deal with
stability and control response of elastic aircraft.

¾ The aerodynamics are
simple (quasi-steady theory)

¾ Complicated equations
¾ The aerodynamics are
simple (strip theory)

5

Equations motion of motion of rigid aircraft (flat irrotational earth)

Vector form

d
dp
dV
|I (m V |I ) = m V |I = mg + FAero + FProp
dt
dt
dt

⎛ ⎛ ⎛ dωV . I
⎞ ⎞

∫Vol p × ⎜⎝ ρV ⎜⎝ ⎜⎝ dt |I × p ⎟⎠ + ωV .I × ( ωV .I × p ) ⎟⎠ dV ⎟⎠ = M Aero + M Prop
I earth frame, inertial coordinates
V body-fixed frame, noninertial coordinates

dpV
|I  VV = UiV + VjV + WkV
dt
g = g x iV + g y jV + g z kV

p = xiV + yjV + zkV
ωI .V = PiV + QjV + RkV

FAero = FAx iV + FAy jV + FAz kV

FProp = FPx iV + FPy jV + FPz kV

M Aero = LAiV + M A jV + N AkV

M Prop = LP iV + M P jV + N P kV

From these relations above, the equations can be written as
scalar form

6

Aeroelasticity of complete aircraft
Equations motion of motion for elastic aircraft (flat irrotational earth)
…………………………………………

Full motion
Nonlinear
Equations

Nonlinear reference equations
Solve a certain flight state

Linear disturbed equations
Stability, flight/control derivatives
Rigid/elastic modes
Small motion/deformation response

D. K. Schimidt, Modern Flight Dynamics, McGraw Hill, New York, 2012

7

Aeroservoelasticity

S

Tetrahedron of aeroservoelasticity
A aerodynamics
I inertial forces

E elastic forces
S control forces

I

E

A

Structural feedback control loop

Motion singnal transformation

Δβ

Servo actuator
W4

Elastic aircraft
xi

q

Φs
xs

Mode parameters

Servo system

Auto control system

Sensors

W3

W2

W1

Structural feedback loop
8

Equation of aeroservoelasticity

M s qs + C s qs + K s qs = qAs qs − M δ δ + qAδ δ
Output of
overload factor

1
y = nz = Fqs
g

Frequency domain method, Laplace transform

s 2 M s q s ( s ) + sC s q s ( s ) + K s qs ( s ) = qAs qs ( s ) − s 2 M δ δ ( s ) + qAδ δ ( s )
−1

qs ( s ) = ⎡⎣ s M s + sC s + K s − qAs ⎤⎦ ⎡⎣ − s 2 M δ + qAδ ⎤⎦ δ ( s )
2

Output transform

1 2
y ( s ) = s Fqs ( s )
g

Transfer function
−1
1 2
2
G s ( s ) = s F ⎡⎣ s M s + sC s + K s − qAs ⎤⎦ ⎡⎣ − s 2 M δ + qAδ ⎤⎦
g

9

Equation of aeroservoelasticity
Time domain method, state space model

⎧ x = Ax + Bu

⎩ y = Cx + Du
Note: most unsteady aerodynamics calculations are in
frequency domain. They should be fitted in time domain.
The analysis methods for SISO and MIMO are different.
Research work: stability of aeroservoelasticity (servo flutter)
flutter suppression, gust alleviation
maneuver load alleviation, flight simulation
10

„

Gust response and alleviation of large aspect ratio wing

Gust generator

The wing has inner and outer control
surfaces on trailing edge
11
11

„

Gust response and alleviation of elastic aircraft

Support system
Has freedoms of pitching
and plunging

Wind tunnel test
12

Overall design

Aeroelastic test

Empirical formula
Researching test
Simplified calculation

Jobs in aeroelastic design
Types of test
•Stiffness test of components
•GVT of components
•Wind tunnel test of components
•Scaled complete aircraft wind
tunnel test
•GVT of complete aircraft
•Servoelastic test of complete aircraft
•Flight test

Parts & components
design
Normal modes

Flutter test model,
Stiffness & GVT,
Flutter tesr

Flutter analysis
Verified by test
Prototype of
aircraft
Update model

Stiffness & GVT

Flutter analysis to eliminate
problems in calculation

Model test in doubt case

Limitations to flight
Dynamic response calculation
verified by flight test

Flight vibration
& flutter test

Solve the problems
in flight test
Prototype verified

13

Relationship of normal modes test, dynamic analysis and
structure design

14

Model design and GVT system
Typical scaled model of
large aspect ratio wing

Similarity law
of mechanics
• Geometry
• Stiffness
• Mass

GVT system

15

Aeroelasticity of very flexible aircraft
Geometrical nonlinear flight dynamics/aeroelasticity

Typical long endurance UAV

Global eagle

Helios
16

The deformation will be more
significant adopting composite
material than metallic material

Ground state, the wing has no
much bending

Cruise state, vertical
displacement is about 3.6m

Boeing 787
Wing span almost 60m

Maximum load state,
state vertical
displacement is about 7.9m
17

Chart 18

18

USA:
„

„

State of art

Michigan University,smart structure and aeroelastic Lab
Prof. Cesnik one of the first researchers on geometrical aeroelasticity
of fixed wing aircraft
Projects: HALE、X-HALE NASA, Boeing, US air force supporting
funding sum beyond 10 million US dollars
Alabama University,group of aeroelasticity and flight simulation
flight simulation platform of very flexible aircraft

UK:
Bristol University,nonlinearity and aeroelasticity Lab
Prof. Cooper large deformation of joint-wing NASA supporting
aeroelasticity and design of large deformed wing and complete aircraft
Airbus supporting
funding sum beyond 8 million US dollars
„ Imperial College,group on dynamics and aeroelasticity
Royal aeronautical society supporting
Prof. Palacios geometrical nonlinear flight dynamics and aeroelasticity
19
constructed software SHARP
„

Aeroelasticity Lab in Beihang Univ. (My work)
Nonlinear static aeroelasticity and flutter of very flexible wing
Nonlinear flight load and flutter of very flexible complete aircraft
GVT and wind tunnel test of large deformed wing
Front cone

Fixed
end

Wing Beam

Wing Frame

Mid of slender
tube
After cone
Wing spar

CG

Wingtip store

Aileron
Fuselage
All-removable
Horizontal tail
Rotational axis

20

Engineering applications

150
140
130
120
110

Stable margin
Load condition

100

VF / V

*

90
80
70
60
50
40
30
20
10
0
0.0

0.1

0.2

0.3

0.4

0.5

0.6

Load Scale

0.7

0.8

0.9

1.0

21

Aeroelastic tailoring
Optimization
problem

Define the optimize
strategy and parameters

Generate initial population P(t)
(structural and control variables)

min

F(v)

s.t.

F (v )
g F (v ) = 1
≤ε
F (v )

Steady aeroelastic trim、
flutter analysis
P(t)


⎡ ∂F (v) 2
2
F1 (v) = ∑ ⎢(
) (Δvi ) ⎥
v

i =1 ⎣
i

nt

nt

g j (v ) + ∑
i =1

∂g j (v )
∂vi

Individual fitness
assessment
P(t+1)

Y

Δvi ≤ 0

j = 1,…,nc
(vi ) lower + Δvi ≤ vi ≤ (vi ) upper − Δvi

Convergence
condition

End

N

Generate new population P(t+1)

i = 1,…,nd
22

Aeroelastic tailoring
Foothold:syntheses design of structure, aerodynamics
and control law

Aeroelastic
tailoring/design

Aeroelastic solver

Optimize method
„
„

„
„
„

The law of design parameters on aircraft performance
The requirements of large-scale optimization on
aeroelastic solver
The patterns of MDO strategy and variables selection
The methods of MD coupling and rapid solving
The choice and hybrid of optimizing methods
23

Aerothermoelasticity
The coupling relationships
of aerothermoelasticity

Aerothermal
Aerodynamic
heating

Heat
conduction

2

1

Elastic
deformation

Aerodynamics

aeroelasticity

Aerothermoelastic
model based on 2
way coupling

Inertial
24

Aerothermoelasticity
Aerodynamic
heating and
conduction

t +ΔtAT

ΔtAT

Updated
flow p

Updated T
field

Updated
flow p

Updated T
field

Updated
flow p

Updated T
field
Aeroelasticity

t +2ΔtAT

ΔtAE

t

Coupling calculation of aerodynamic
heating and aeroelasticity
25

END
Thank you!
Any advices
on this course?

26