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Elements of Aeroelastic design

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th

8

Research Areas of

Aeroelasticity

Xie Changchuan

2014 Autumn

Content

1、Aeroelasticity of complete aircraft

2、Aeroservoelasticity

3、Techniques in aeroelastic test

4、Aeroelasticity of very flexible aircraft

5、Aeroelastic tailoring

6、Aeroservoelasticity

Main Aims

Realize the jobs in aeroelastic design and

analysis which have not taught in this lesson.

Furthermore, some new research areas and

state of arts.

2

**Aeroelasticity of complete aircraft
**

Modern flight dynamics/aeroelasticity

Frequency range of

elastic vibrations

Frequency range of

rigid movements

Frequency

difference

Frequency

ω

The highest frequency

of rigid movement

**The lowest frequency of
**

elastic vibration

Frequency range of fight control

3

Modern flight dynamics/aeroelasticity

Flight dynamic

equations

¾ Movement equations of

Rigid/Elastic coupling

consider together:

freedoms of rigid motion

freedoms of elastic motion

Problems：how to deal with the

inertial and aerodynamic

coupling between these two

kinds of freedoms?

Trim analysis

¾ Equilibrium equations

of static aeroelasticity

Problems: how to solve them

when structure is deformed?

Control and

stability analysis

Design of

control law

Flight simulation

**¾ Small disturbance equation
**

state space model

Problems: how to calculate the

unsteady aerodynamics with

rigid/elastic coupling?

**¾ Solution of full motion
**

equations in time domain

4

**State of arts — theory of flight dynamics of elastic aircraft
**

¾ 1960s, Dusto introduced the method of influence

coefficient to solve the stability problem of elastic

aircraft

¾ Rough description to

structure and aerodynamics

¾ 1980s, Rodden established equations of quasi-

**Can not give out
**

steady flight for elastic aircraft, to solve the divergence, ¾

dynamic analysis

trim and flight load distribution, etc.

**¾ later in 1980s, Waszak and Schmidt established
**

equations by energy method for elastic aircraft flight

with the mean axes, including the rigid and elastic

mode simultaneously.

¾ 2000s, Meirovitch and Tuzcu established rigidelastic coupled state equations based on quasicoordinate theory in multi-body dynamics, to deal with

stability and control response of elastic aircraft.

**¾ The aerodynamics are
**

simple (quasi-steady theory)

¾ Complicated equations

¾ The aerodynamics are

simple (strip theory)

5

Equations motion of motion of rigid aircraft (flat irrotational earth)

Vector form

d

dp

dV

|I (m V |I ) = m V |I = mg + FAero + FProp

dt

dt

dt

⎛ ⎛ ⎛ dωV . I

⎞ ⎞

⎞

∫Vol p × ⎜⎝ ρV ⎜⎝ ⎜⎝ dt |I × p ⎟⎠ + ωV .I × ( ωV .I × p ) ⎟⎠ dV ⎟⎠ = M Aero + M Prop

I earth frame, inertial coordinates

V body-fixed frame, noninertial coordinates

dpV

|I VV = UiV + VjV + WkV

dt

g = g x iV + g y jV + g z kV

**p = xiV + yjV + zkV
**

ωI .V = PiV + QjV + RkV

FAero = FAx iV + FAy jV + FAz kV

FProp = FPx iV + FPy jV + FPz kV

M Aero = LAiV + M A jV + N AkV

M Prop = LP iV + M P jV + N P kV

**From these relations above, the equations can be written as
**

scalar form

6

**Aeroelasticity of complete aircraft
**

Equations motion of motion for elastic aircraft (flat irrotational earth)

…………………………………………

Full motion

Nonlinear

Equations

**Nonlinear reference equations
**

Solve a certain flight state

**Linear disturbed equations
**

Stability, flight/control derivatives

Rigid/elastic modes

Small motion/deformation response

D. K. Schimidt, Modern Flight Dynamics, McGraw Hill, New York, 2012

7

Aeroservoelasticity

S

Tetrahedron of aeroservoelasticity

A aerodynamics

I inertial forces

E elastic forces

S control forces

I

E

A

Structural feedback control loop

Motion singnal transformation

Δβ

Servo actuator

W4

Elastic aircraft

xi

q

Φs

xs

Mode parameters

Servo system

Auto control system

Sensors

W3

W2

W1

**Structural feedback loop
**

8

Equation of aeroservoelasticity

M s qs + C s qs + K s qs = qAs qs − M δ δ + qAδ δ

Output of

overload factor

1

y = nz = Fqs

g

Frequency domain method, Laplace transform

s 2 M s q s ( s ) + sC s q s ( s ) + K s qs ( s ) = qAs qs ( s ) − s 2 M δ δ ( s ) + qAδ δ ( s )

−1

**qs ( s ) = ⎡⎣ s M s + sC s + K s − qAs ⎤⎦ ⎡⎣ − s 2 M δ + qAδ ⎤⎦ δ ( s )
**

2

Output transform

1 2

y ( s ) = s Fqs ( s )

g

Transfer function

−1

1 2

2

G s ( s ) = s F ⎡⎣ s M s + sC s + K s − qAs ⎤⎦ ⎡⎣ − s 2 M δ + qAδ ⎤⎦

g

9

Equation of aeroservoelasticity

Time domain method, state space model

⎧ x = Ax + Bu

⎨

⎩ y = Cx + Du

Note: most unsteady aerodynamics calculations are in

frequency domain. They should be fitted in time domain.

The analysis methods for SISO and MIMO are different.

Research work: stability of aeroservoelasticity (servo flutter)

flutter suppression, gust alleviation

maneuver load alleviation, flight simulation

10

Gust response and alleviation of large aspect ratio wing

Gust generator

**The wing has inner and outer control
**

surfaces on trailing edge

11

11

Gust response and alleviation of elastic aircraft

Support system

Has freedoms of pitching

and plunging

**Wind tunnel test
**

12

Overall design

Aeroelastic test

Empirical formula

Researching test

Simplified calculation

**Jobs in aeroelastic design
**

Types of test

•Stiffness test of components

•GVT of components

•Wind tunnel test of components

•Scaled complete aircraft wind

tunnel test

•GVT of complete aircraft

•Servoelastic test of complete aircraft

•Flight test

Parts & components

design

Normal modes

**Flutter test model,
**

Stiffness & GVT,

Flutter tesr

Flutter analysis

Verified by test

Prototype of

aircraft

Update model

Stiffness & GVT

**Flutter analysis to eliminate
**

problems in calculation

Model test in doubt case

Limitations to flight

Dynamic response calculation

verified by flight test

Flight vibration

& flutter test

**Solve the problems
**

in flight test

Prototype verified

13

**Relationship of normal modes test, dynamic analysis and
**

structure design

14

**Model design and GVT system
**

Typical scaled model of

large aspect ratio wing

Similarity law

of mechanics

• Geometry

• Stiffness

• Mass

GVT system

15

**Aeroelasticity of very flexible aircraft
**

Geometrical nonlinear flight dynamics/aeroelasticity

Typical long endurance UAV

Global eagle

Helios

16

**The deformation will be more
**

significant adopting composite

material than metallic material

**Ground state, the wing has no
**

much bending

**Cruise state, vertical
**

displacement is about 3.6m

Boeing 787

Wing span almost 60m

**Maximum load state,
**

state vertical

displacement is about 7.9m

17

Chart 18

18

USA：

State of art

**Michigan University，smart structure and aeroelastic Lab
**

Prof. Cesnik one of the first researchers on geometrical aeroelasticity

of fixed wing aircraft

Projects: HALE、X-HALE NASA, Boeing, US air force supporting

funding sum beyond 10 million US dollars

Alabama University，group of aeroelasticity and flight simulation

flight simulation platform of very flexible aircraft

UK：

Bristol University，nonlinearity and aeroelasticity Lab

Prof. Cooper large deformation of joint-wing NASA supporting

aeroelasticity and design of large deformed wing and complete aircraft

Airbus supporting

funding sum beyond 8 million US dollars

Imperial College，group on dynamics and aeroelasticity

Royal aeronautical society supporting

Prof. Palacios geometrical nonlinear flight dynamics and aeroelasticity

19

constructed software SHARP

**Aeroelasticity Lab in Beihang Univ. (My work)
**

Nonlinear static aeroelasticity and flutter of very flexible wing

Nonlinear flight load and flutter of very flexible complete aircraft

GVT and wind tunnel test of large deformed wing

Front cone

Fixed

end

Wing Beam

Wing Frame

Mid of slender

tube

After cone

Wing spar

CG

Wingtip store

Aileron

Fuselage

All-removable

Horizontal tail

Rotational axis

20

Engineering applications

150

140

130

120

110

Stable margin

Load condition

100

VF / V

*

90

80

70

60

50

40

30

20

10

0

0.0

0.1

0.2

0.3

0.4

0.5

0.6

Load Scale

0.7

0.8

0.9

1.0

21

Aeroelastic tailoring

Optimization

problem

**Define the optimize
**

strategy and parameters

**Generate initial population P(t)
**

(structural and control variables)

min

F(v)

s.t.

F (v )

g F (v ) = 1

≤ε

F (v )

**Steady aeroelastic trim、
**

flutter analysis

P(t)

⎤

⎡ ∂F (v) 2

2

F1 (v) = ∑ ⎢(

) (Δvi ) ⎥

v

∂

i =1 ⎣

i

⎦

nt

nt

g j (v ) + ∑

i =1

∂g j (v )

∂vi

Individual fitness

assessment

P(t+1)

Y

Δvi ≤ 0

j = 1,…，nc

(vi ) lower + Δvi ≤ vi ≤ (vi ) upper − Δvi

Convergence

condition

End

N

Generate new population P(t+1)

i = 1,…，nd

22

Aeroelastic tailoring

Foothold：syntheses design of structure, aerodynamics

and control law

Aeroelastic

tailoring/design

？

Aeroelastic solver

Optimize method

**The law of design parameters on aircraft performance
**

The requirements of large-scale optimization on

aeroelastic solver

The patterns of MDO strategy and variables selection

The methods of MD coupling and rapid solving

The choice and hybrid of optimizing methods

23

Aerothermoelasticity

The coupling relationships

of aerothermoelasticity

Aerothermal

Aerodynamic

heating

Heat

conduction

2

1

Elastic

deformation

Aerodynamics

aeroelasticity

Aerothermoelastic

model based on 2

way coupling

Inertial

24

Aerothermoelasticity

Aerodynamic

heating and

conduction

t +ΔtAT

ΔtAT

Updated

flow p

Updated T

field

Updated

flow p

Updated T

field

Updated

flow p

Updated T

field

Aeroelasticity

t +2ΔtAT

ΔtAE

t

**Coupling calculation of aerodynamic
**

heating and aeroelasticity

25

END

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