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Part 2: “WEIGHING OUR LUGGAGE” - Models to evaluate.

What is really needed (rather than is thought necessary)?


In the English language there is a subtle difference of emphasis between “necessary” and
“needed”. While “necessary” has the idea of some thing being indispensable or unavoidable,
“needed” refers to a lack that is felt or experienced by some person(s). Thus Jesus had “need” of a
donkey, but it was “necessary” for the Scriptures to be fulfilled. We should keep this distinction in
mind as we ask ourselves: “What do our students really need to prepare them for their future
ministries?”
CONTRASTING CURRICULUM MODELS
As we turn now to “weighing our luggage” - to evaluate all the subjects our curriculum has
been “carrying” to date - it will help to look first at two very different models of theological education
that demonstrate a divergent range of concerns and priorities. The first presents a minimal approach
that seeks only to introduce basic information to a general clientele within a short time. The second, a
specialist approach, is geared to fulfilling the aspirations of a particular student. As we shall see, both
models have their strengths, but, equally, each has its own particular limitations.
1. The Minimal Model: A three-day Briefing.
A small missionary society, operating on a slender budget, wanted to prepare its missionaries for evangelism in Muslim countries. It
carefully vetted its candidates. Those selected attended a short training conference, conducted by a former missionary who provided
lectures on various subjects deemed appropriate. This “briefing” lasted three days.* When the time eventually came for the missionary
lecturer to retire, it was decided to ask him to record all his talks on video so that the “preparation” he offered at each briefing could be
carried on after he had gone.

One is left wondering whether such training left any opportunity for asking questions or for
the discussion of issues raised by the lecturer’s talks.
* By way of contrast, the four terms of missionary training given to the present writer amounted to over 46 weeks.
Both training experiences were offered in the same city in Britain to people going to work in the same institution
in the same foreign country in the same period! Approach varies, it seems, not according to the job to be done,
but rather according to the ethos of the sending agency.

DISCUSSION
What are the advantages of the “minimal” approach to training?

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What are some of the disadvantages?

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Observation: Theological Curriculum is not about CONTENT only.


It is about ENQUIRY and INTER-ACTION also.
2. The Specialist Consumer Model: Studying for a Doctorate.
The following advertisement appeared in an American theological journal:

DOCTOR OF MINISTRY:
World Christianity Track for Missionaries at -------------- SEMINARY
Provides Flexibility in Scheduling.
We also offer a separate track for pastors. M. Div. or equivalent required.
What does this suggest about the model of theological curriculum on offer here?
First, it suggests that we have entered the world of the racecourse. There is a stiff course
(called a “track”) to be followed by those taking part; Perhaps there is also an element of competition
hinted at - which participants will complete their “track” first? Certainly there are entrance hurdles to
be passed before the course can even be attempted (e.g. that essential M. Div.!). And no doubt some
form of academic training for the big event is probably advisable before attempting to write the
doctorate.
But are there not also some serious limitations?
Consider first the implied priorities of the advertisement. It appears to be concerned foremost
with the needs of those expected to take part. What this model provides is “Flexibility in Scheduling”.
Might we not have first expected some indication of the field of studies to be covered by the course?
Instead we can only deduce the course subject from the labels attached: “Ministry…World
Christianity”. And which is the aspect most important to the prospective candidate? Undoubtedly it is
the doctorate! (“DOCTOR OF MINISTRY” - printed as the heading in bold capitals!)
We note also that the composers of the advertisement also seem interested in certain internal
caste distinctions (“missionaries” versus “pastors”, and the hierarchy of Doctor of Ministry over
Master of Divinity). No indication is given, however, of the relevance of the “track” to the
contribution that their graduates might be expected to make to the world outside!
Let’s reflect again on the implications of this approach:

DISCUSSION
Degrees are offered as evidence of a person having undertaken satisfactorily a particular
course of study. What are the advantages of such a system?

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What are the disadvantages? (There are other ways of learning!)

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So do the advantages outweigh the disadvantages?

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Observation: Theological Curriculum is not only about COURSES of STUDY.


It is also about PURPOSE and RELEVANCE.
CATEGORIES of RELEVANCE
One way of looking at the relevancy of a course is to view it in terms of its Theological,
Spiritual, Practical, Evangelistic and Educational relevance.
Theologically we ask how a course informs the mind, not just to think about God, but also to
encourage such an understanding of God’s nature, actions, character, person and “ways” generally that
the student experiences and so truly knows God for him or herself.
This leads to the second category, the spiritual dimension of what is being learned through the
course. Here the heart must be warmed to increase a personal love for God, a devotion that can only
be nurtured through the ministry of the Holy Spirit simply because this involves a spiritual dimension.
The third category involves the will and concerns practical obedience to Jesus as Lord. This
practical level of curriculum relevancy is about training students as disciples of Jesus and is not to be
confused with meeting the expectations congregations may have concerning their ministers’ abilities
to perform this or that function in the life of the congregation – the skills of performance.
A course may also be evaluated according to how relevant it is to the evangelistic mission of
the church. Does it equip people to witness to the gospel and ultimately make disciples of the nations?
This evangelistic dimension asks: will you be able as a result of this course to share the Gospel with
others more effectively (as distinct from serving the Church better)?
Finally there is an educational relevance that needs to be considered. Will this course equip
students to teach their congregations? Will they be able to expound God’s Word, bringing their hearers
so in contact with God that they are compelled to respond to His call and will for their daily living -
rather than preach moral homilies, offer pious platitudes, deliver philosophical lectures, or simply
provide word and background studies of a text?
It is interesting to find a similar range of “categories of relevancy” in the Great Commission
given by Jesus to his disciples:
All authority in heaven and on earth has been given to me.
Therefore go and make disciples of all nations [evangelistic],
baptising them [spiritual? practical?] in the name of the Father and of the Son
and of the Holy Spirit,
and teaching them [educational] to obey [practical] everything I have commanded you.
And surely I am with you always [spiritual], to the every end of the age.
(Matthew 28:18-20 NIV)

EXERCISE
Construct a short curriculum for a group of your own choice that involves all five
categories of relevancy. For each category list two or three subjects from the
CLASSIFICATION table.

Theological: --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Spiritual: ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Practical: -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Evangelistic: -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Educational: -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
COURSE BENEFITS – Why Study This Course?
The benefits of studying specific to each course
Choose any 3 areas of study shown on the next two pages and suggest for each of the
courses selected what are the three greatest benefits of studying these subjects.
(Note: Church History is already done as an example.)
List them in order of importance as you see them. Share with colleagues and fill in further
fields.
BIBLICAL STUDIES
Background to the Bible, its History, Interpretation and Study …….……….……….
• .
• .
• .
The Old Testament ……………………………..…………………………………………
• .
• .
• .
The New Testament …..……………………………………………………………………
• .
• .
• .
SYSTEMATIC THEOLOGY ……………………………………………………………….
• .
• .
• .
PHILOSOPHY ………..……..……………..…………………………………………………
• .
• .
• .
Apologetics ………………………………………………………………………………..
• .
• .
• .
CONTEMPORARY STUDIES …………………………………………………………….
• .
• .
Islamics ................................................................................................................................
• .

• .
COMMUNICATION .............................................................................................................
• .
• .
• .
Homiletics …..…………………………………………………………….……………….
• .
• .
• .
Missiology ………..………………………………………………………………………..
• .
• .
• .
CHURCH HISTORY ……….……………………………………………….………………
• Understand how both God’s grace & His judgement work together amongst His
people
• Compare historical models of belief and behaviour with today’s church life.
• Understand your own Christian heritage and discover the roots of your own church.

Historical Theology.……….………………………………………………………………………..
• .

• .

• .
PRACTICAL THEOLOGY
Discipleship …………………………………………………………………………………
• .
• .
• .
Liturgical Theology / Worship ……………………………………………………………
• .
• .
• .
Self-development …………………………………………………………………………..
• .
• .
• .
CHRISTIAN ETHICS
Moral Theology…………………………………………………………………………….
• .
• .
• .
Environmental Theology ………………………………………………………………….
• .
• .
• .
Social Theology ……………………………………………………………………………
• .
• .
• .
EDUCATION
Study Methods …………………………………………………………………………….
• .
• .
• .
Christian Education ………………………………………………………………………
• .
• .
• .
PASTORAL THEOLOGY
Shepherding the sheep (as individuals) ………………………………………………….
• .
• .
• .
Leading the church (as a body) ……………………………………………………………
• .
• .
• .
DEFINING “CURRICULUM”
Some may argue that our “luggage” contains things that are not strictly “curriculum” subjects
but are rather the more general concerns of a “training programme”: as such they may rightly appear
on our educational agenda, but not as part of any curriculum list.
During the conference that originated this paper, our family discussed this very point at home.
My 17-year-old son informed us that by the word “curriculum” was meant “everything that went into a
particular subject taught at school”. His mother responded: “That’s not right; the school curriculum is
the list of all subjects taught at your school.” I then argued that “Curriculum” means all the activities
that go on in a school, including the various courses taught in the classroom. To resolve our family
argument we turned to Collins English Dictionary and read under “curriculum” the following
definitions:
“1. A course of study in one subject at school or college.
2. A list of all the courses of study offered by school or college.
3. Any programme or plan of activities.”
Apparently we were all correct in our family! Now perhaps you should join in the discussion:
DISCUSSION
What difference does it make to our training programme if we think of curriculum in
terms of:
Definition 1? ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

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Definition 2? -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

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Definition 3? ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

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Observation: Theological Curriculum is not only about THEOLOGY.
It is about TRAINING EXPERIENCES also.
Knowing or Doing?
The fundamental emphasis of many Western models of theological education is on knowing.
The over-riding question asked of its curricula is:
“What is really necessary for the students to know in order to complete this course and fulfil
the expectations that such an academic programme creates?”
But what is the purpose of Theological Education? Once those who have been trained reach
graduation and all the trophies have been handed out, what will be the needs that these graduates have
to meet in their congregation in particular and in the community in general? How well will our three or
four year programme have prepared them for their work outside in the real world? The question now
becomes:
“What do the students need to be able to do in order to be able to fulfil their calling as ministers?”
TYPES OF LEARNING - Learning about LEARNING DOMAINS
This introduces us to the idea of different realms of learning. Since there are several kinds of
learning, it is useful to think of each kind as existing in a separate department or domain. The first two
we may call the “cognitive” (knowing) and “functional” (performing) domains.
Educational and training institutions will
< Functional Domain vary in their emphasis regarding knowledge and
skills. Diagram 1 illustrates this difference. The
SKILLS diagonal (arrowed) line indicates the proportion of
an institution’s agenda or “track” given over to
INSTRUCTION (what to know) and the
what how proportion dedicated to SKILLS (how to do).
In this diagram the (fictitious) “Academic
BIT proportion
College of Education” (“ACE”) spends 85% of its
of
time providing instruction in various fields of
to to programme’s knowledge and 15% developing students’ skills.
KNOW DO agenda
(“track”) On the other hand, the “Basic Institute of
ACE Technology” (“BIT”) has two-thirds of its
programme taken up with training the students in
INSTRUCTION how to do the work that one day they will have to
carry out in the outside world. Only one third is
Cognitive Domain > spent giving instruction in head knowledge.
“ACE” Institution: 85% Instruction in Knowledge At this point we again ask: What is our
15% Training in Skills business as theological educators? Are we simply
providing knowledge - packing information into
“BIT” Institution: 33% Instruction in Knowledge
67% Training in Skills the heads of our students so that they may know
what truths, ideas and facts with which to fill
Diagram 1. other people’s heads once they leave us?
Or should we be developing skills, so that our
graduates will be able to handle that knowledge,
apply it to the various situations they will meet,
and even research further information for themselves when necessary - knowledge that will be relevant
to their particular ministry?
DISCUSSION
List two major skills that future church leaders need to develop and suggest how these
might be developed in training.

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Curriculum Manual 9

MINISTERIAL FORMATION
< Functional Domain Affective Domain > Increasingly today those who are
responsible for theological education are
SKILLS FORMATION becoming concerned with what has been
termed “ministerial formation”, that is,
the spiritual development of those being
trained. Indeed often this is the area
what how how where the students themselves experience
most disappointment after they arrive at
Seminary or Bible College. They come in
to to to great anticipation of somehow finding a
spiritual oasis for their thirsty souls,
but find instead all the marks of the
KNOW DO BE world that they thought would be left
outside!
This has been the experience of the monk
INSTRUCTION and hermit down the ages. Yet that does
not absolve us from being concerned with
the spiritual formation of our students –
Cognitive Domain > what is usually called the affective
domain. This is the part of the training
that aims to affect the behaviour of the
Diagram 2. student as his / her character is moulded
by close discipleship of Jesus and as
attitudes become more Christ-like.
We must seek to be agents of
change as we show our students how to minister to their people in such a way that the lives as well as
the faith of their congregations are radically altered to express God’s Kingdom values and
commitments.
It is here that good modelling demonstrated by teachers has the greatest influence. (See Prof.
Neil Foster’s article in Appendix L.) But such modelling should be reinforced by activities found in the
curriculum.
So we now have three domains (See diagram 2): the cognitive domain of instruction, the
functional domain of skill acquisition. and the affective domain concerned with the spiritual formation
of the student. Thus, as well as coming to know many things and learning how to do the work to which
(s)he is called, the student reflects on how to be a man or woman of God.
Example of a learning objective in the affective domain:
“I came to Seminary to become a pastor who cares about his people’s economic, social,
political and religious problems.”
(- Student’s response to the question: “Why did you come to Seminary?”)
These three educational domains each have their own appropriate mode of learning: formal
study (course materials, books and lectures) in the cognitive domain; informal modelling in the
affective domain; and non-formal practice and reflection (fieldwork) in the functional domain.

DISCUSSION
Which of these three domains is most neglected and why? ------------------------------------------------
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Curriculum Manual 10

Note carefully: “Doing” here refers


LEARNING DOMAINS not to obedience – doing what we
of have been told to do – but rather to
practising certain skills, until we are
THEOLOGICAL EDUCATION
able to “do” them. Obedience, on
the other hand, is learnt through
< Functional Domain Affective Domain > “being”, or becoming, more like
Christ, as attitudes are changed and
SKILLS FORMATION character is (trans)formed.

The way Diagram 2 was


what how how to drawn might suggest an imbalance
needing to be corrected. This is
UNDER indeed the case. For further
reflection leads us to recognise that
to to to
a truly balanced theological
- STAND curriculum (in the widest sense of
the word) requires a fourth element
KNOW DO BE why – the dimension of understanding.
There is little point in knowing
about things whose purpose we do
INSTRUCTION WISDOM not truly understand, and many
practical tasks, if they are to be
done effectively and with lasting
Cognitive Domain > < Sapiential Domain results, require an approach that is
also purposeful and wise.
Diagram 3 So we may call this fourth
area of educational development the
sapiential (or prudential*) domain,
a label coined to highlight the
discerning characteristic of this aspect of personal growth.
* “Prudential” and “sapiential” both come from Latin words meaning wise. “Prudential” is defined as: “exercising good
judgement; practical and careful in providing for the future”, and derives from a Latin word meaning “farsighted, acting
with foresight”, surely such qualities that are much needed in the ministry of God’s people.
The Case of Apollos
Acts 18:24-28 shows Apollos as a preacher well instructed in Knowledge, developed in Skills
and well advanced in spiritual Formation, but lacking seriously in Wisdom. He was well informed
(knowing), taught accurately and spoke eloquently (doing), but he needed the help of Priscilla and
Aquila to explain the Way of God more adequately (understanding). Since “eloquently” in the Greek
can be translated also as “full of Spiritual fervour”, there is a strong case for also finding a reference
here to his spiritual character (his being).
All four domains are important in learning, whether in order to write a school essay or to
service a bicycle in the workshop, as has been pointed out by Roger Lewis, Professor of Learning
Development at Humberside University. For in order to service a bicycle, he notes, “I need to:
• know where to apply oil and which components to check;
• have manual skills [doing], e.g. in adjusting brakes;
• want to do it, or at least accept the importance of maintaining the bicycle [which is to do
with attitude and so the formation of one’s being];
• understand why I am carrying out the various tasks [to do with purpose, design, and how
the various parts of the whole fit together]”.*
*in “How to Write Essays”, by R.Lewis, p. 7, Collins Educational, 1995

So what is really needed in theological education? Should not all four learning domains be catered for,
especially where students train and live together in a college community.
Curriculum Manual 11

A PYRAMID MODEL of LEARNING


In a three-dimensional model, these four learning
domains would be best portrayed as the four sides of a
pyramid, with equal emphasis being placed on each
domain. All four are important for the support of the peak.
This pyramid model emphasises the essential nature of
each domain for the over-all development of an
individual’s learning. Thus passing on knowledge by itself
produces only a façade of learning. Knowing needs to be
backed by doing, being and understanding in equal
proportions for substantial learning to take place. If this
mutual support of each domain for the other three is
missing, sooner or later what is supposedly learnt is found
not to have been truly learnt, and the whole edifice of such
“learning” crumbles.

Educational Objectives involved in the four Learning Domains


Within each learning domain many different educational objectives can be identified, each
particular to that domain. The verbs that might be used in stating these objectives when
constructing a course have been usefully charted as follows:

If the goal is: Knowledge Insight Skill Attitude


then the verb List
(or verbal State Select
phrase) Trace Choose
used to describe Write Discern
an objective Know Classify Use
can be one of Recite Contrast Solve Plan
the following: Recall Separate Study View
Define Evaluate Apply Desire to
Identify Compare Assist in Appreciate
Describe Discover Explain Be sensitive to
Delineate Examine Produce Sympathise
Memorise Reflect on Practice with
Recognise Think through Interpret Be convinced
Enumerate Understand Pray about of
Become aware Comprehend Internalise Commit
of Discriminate Experience yourself to
Become between Communicate Have
familiar with Differentiate confidence in
(-Roy B. Zuck, quoted in Expository Preaching: Principles & Practice, Haddon W. Robinson, p.111, IVP, 1986)
To confirm your understanding of the differences between the four domains try the following exercise:

DISCUSSION
Write four educational objectives using a verb from each of the domain boxes above:

K. ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

I. ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

S. ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

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Curriculum Manual 12

What are Our Goals?


Looking at Curriculum in terms of learning domains helps us to identify our pre-suppositions and priorities. We
are provoked to ask ourselves:
• Are we simply providing knowledge, packing information into the heads of our students so that they
simply know what to say once they leave us (but do not why or when to say it)?
• Or are we developing skills, so that our graduates will be able to handle that knowledge, apply it to the
various situations they will meet, and even be able to research further information by themselves when
necessary?
• Are we seeking to be “agents of change” in human behaviour, training students so to minister to their
people that not only faith is strengthened but lives as well are radically altered to express the values and
commitments of God’s Kingdom?
• Are we training our students to be able to make good judgements and wise choices, based on clear
thinking, sound values and well understood principles of conduct? Are they learning to reflect on the
purpose of their actions, expressing vision and insight in their decisions?
Wisdom comes through an understanding of the purpose of things. It is not simply an accumulation of
past experiences, but rather an insight into the present suitability of something for fulfilling an ultimate end that
accords with the wisdom of God himself. This sense of a human purpose that is also aligned with God’s purposes
(original, present and ultimate) is crucial for development.
Another important way of viewing our goals is to ask questions about the levels of learning
development that we are aiming at in our students. We may want them to be able to understand the significance
of the information they have come already to know. But a further development occurs when they start to reflect
on the application of this understanding to their situation. Development of learning continues when a student can
critique the arguments of others and eventually evaluate his or her own thinking, attitudes and actions in the
light of what he or she has learnt previously. This encourages the formation of mature thinking and, when
combined with the development of good attitudes, contributes to the spiritual formation of the student.
DISCUSSION
List three significant attitudes that future church leaders should be encouraged to cultivate. How can
training take this kind of formation into account?

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Identify one major area of understanding that needs to be developed during training:

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What steps can we take to include all the learning domains when reviewing our curriculum and
courses?

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Note: A summary of this section, together with further examples of its application, can be found in Appendix A.
Curriculum Manual 13

MODES of LEARNING
As educationally we have identified several fields (domains) of learning, equally we must be
aware of several modes (or ways) of learning – termed formal, non-formal and informal.
Formal learning takes place in an environment where grades, classes, examinations, written
work and other academic requirements are emphasised.
Non-formal learning is equally well organised, but the purposeful study combines fieldwork
with dialogue, evaluation and reflection, and emphasises the practical purposes of a course. Students
placed under local leaders as their apprentices (e.g. curates in Anglican type churches) are learning
non-formally from their elders as they get the reactions of their more experienced colleagues to their
own stumbling efforts.
Informal learning occurs as a consequence of the ethos of the training institution, the quality
of community life where students and staff can inter-act, the latter having the role of models as well as
mentors. Students learn from such mentors by absorbing their insights and whole approach to
ministry.
Different modes of learning can be used in any domain. The challenge for the teacher (and
his / her educational institution) is to use the appropriate mode(s) for each subject and to plan a
curriculum that not only covers the most relevant subjects in each domain, but also makes use of a
variety of modes in each domain.
Try the next exercise with a colleague or group of colleagues. Brainstorming might be helpful as a preliminary
activity before selecting the examples that might prove most significant for your programme of training.
DISCUSSION
Can you think of an informal way, and a non-formal way of teaching one subject (of
your own choice) in each domain?
Informal -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

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Non-formal----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

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If learning does not end at graduation, or at the end of a course, in what ways (if any!)
does our curriculum encourage people to learn for themselves (not necessarily the same
as learning by themselves)?

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The next section deals with levels of learning and advocates a policy of Spiral Learning. It is
presented in diagrammatic form and concludes with two Discussion questionsl
Curriculum Manual 14

SPIRAL LEARNING
AN EDUCATIONAL PHILOSOPHY OF CURRICULUM DEVELOPMENT
How we might view the structure of our total programme of Theological Education.
AN EXAMPLE

Thirty Courses
< Degree Level
CHURCH LEADERSHIP
(Conceptual,
Arguing a
Case)
Twenty Courses

LOCAL CHURCH MINISTRY < Diploma


Level
Ten Courses (Comprehension,
Family Life Biblical Studies)

DISCIPLESHIP

Church Life < Certificate Level


Society (Emphasis on:
Facts & Examples)

Three areas of “relationship” - Note: All four learning domains –


FAMILY LIFE, CHURCH LIFE and cognitive (knowing), sapiential
SOCIETY – form the core of each Degree (understanding), functional (doing) and
course in the above curriculum, which affective (being) – must be advanced
is constructed on three levels. These together. There is always a danger that
themes are expanded as the level of F.L. Ch.L. S. knowledge and understanding will
study rises each time they return round advance at the expense of skills and
Diploma
the spiral. Thus SPIRAL LEARNING personal development and that knowledge
builds on what has been previously and skills will squeeze out understanding
Certificate
learnt about any given subject. and personal development.

DISCUSSION
What are the advantages of applying the principle of Spiral Learning to curriculum planning?
What constraints might it also put upon curriculum construction?
Curriculum Manual 15

PROFILE of desirable COMPETENCIES

Aims can be expressed in terms of what the student will be competent to do


or what attitudes he or she will be expected to have acquired once
the programme has been completed. Examples are listed below:

DISCUSSION
Take one group at a time and decide what level of learning (Certificate, Diploma, Degree)
ought to be expected of each of the four competencies listed. Then write an example of one
appropriate educational/training objective for each competency.
Note: The dominant learning domain (s) are indicated in the L/H margin.

Group A
K/U/D Expound clearly 20 major biblical doctrines as they relate to God’s plan of salvation.
U/D Know how to interpret the different genres of Scripture.
B Lead a life marked by personal holiness and devotion to God.
U Know how to distinguish spiritual gifts from natural talents.
Group B
U/D Know how to use their natural leadership styles in church life.
B A developing maturity in their walk with God and dealings with others.
B/U Show practical compassion for people in need.
K/U/D Apply significant lessons of church history to today’s church life, service and witness.
Group C
U/K Understand the problems and opportunities of local church life.
B Demonstrate the fruit of the Spirit in significant areas of their life.
U/B/D Appreciate their own strengths and weaknesses in ministry to others.
B Demonstrate integrity and consistent honesty in their personal dealings.
Group D
B Demonstrate a servant’s heart in relationship to others.
U/D Know how to minister across-culture.
D/U Demonstrate conflict resolution skills in church and community life.
D/U/B/K Enable a congregation to worship God in spirit and in truth.
Group E
B/U/K Act courageously in ways consistent with biblical values.
U Understand the cultural, social and moral issues in their contemporary situation.
B/D Exercise spiritual disciplines in daily life.
D/U Demonstrate developing skills of evangelism in the local church’s outreach.
Group F
D/U Demonstrate management skills in a significant Christian ministry.
B Take effective initiative in enabling others to minister and grow.
D/U/B Demonstrate sound vision in the leadership of a Christian community or organization.
D/U/K Demonstrate equipping, recruiting and mentoring skills.
Group G
D/U/K Exercise effective preaching and teaching skills.
B/U/D Demonstrate shepherding skills in a complex pastoral situation.
B Have a teachable spirit and an ongoing desire to grow in the things of the Spirit.
D/U Exercise communication and listening skills in congregational life.
Curriculum Manual 16

CONSTRAINTS
Below are listed some constraints commonly experienced in Christian Institutions. Evaluate the
most pressing in your situation and add any further constraints that come to mind.

STUDENTS

 Level of Education at entry (relevance of study methods and habits,


knowledge)
Level of Commitment to study (motivation, distractions)
Commitment to Christ (personal relationship, dedication)
Powers of concentration (hence the relevance of: ‘how many consecutive
classes?’)
Range of general abilities (learning, initiative, understanding)
Family situation / travelling in daily / other commitments (assignments)
Health: physical, mental and spiritual
Experience of community living and individual study
Reliability with books (care and return)

………………………………………………………………………………………..

………………………………………………………………………………………..

FACULTY
Availability (enough to cover all subjects / training exercises)
Time commitment (full-time, part-time, other commitments taking priority)
Experience and knowledge of the subject / field
Willingness to study further / a new area in order to cover a subject / field
Modeling (image presented to the students to imitate)
Level of care for students
Concern for maintenance of discipline
Degree of initiative in developing new ideas
Concern for appropriate educational methods used to teach subjects

…………………………………………………………………………………..

…………………………………………………………………………………..

…………………………………………………………………………………..
TEACHING MATERIALS
…………………………………………………………………………………..
 Availability of text-books
Availability of Library books (accessibility, gaps in certain areas)
Use of copying facilities (for what purpose?)
Journals for Faculty (for book reviews, new ideas)

……………..………………………………………………………..

………………………………………………………………………
Curriculum Manual 17

DISCUSSION

List 10 COMPETENCIES that you and your colleagues consider ESSENTIAL for the
work for which you are preparing your students. Add the appropriate
LEARNING DOMAINS for each

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Thinking now of the CONSTRAINTS that apply to your programme’s goals and the
situation in which you have to achieve those goals, can you create (and
describe below) some NON-TRADITIONAL kinds of LEARNING
EXPERIENCES that would enable you to develop the COMPETENCIES you
have identified above? (These should not include class-room and Library
work.)

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