Part 2

:

“WEIGHING OUR LUGGAGE” - Models to evaluate. What is really needed (rather than is thought necessary)?

In the English language there is a subtle difference of emphasis between “necessary” and “needed”. While “necessary” has the idea of some thing being indispensable or unavoidable, “needed” refers to a lack that is felt or experienced by some person(s). Thus Jesus had “need” of a donkey, but it was “necessary” for the Scriptures to be fulfilled. We should keep this distinction in mind as we ask ourselves: “What do our students really need to prepare them for their future ministries?”

CONTRASTING CURRICULUM MODELS
As we turn now to “weighing our luggage” - to evaluate all the subjects our curriculum has been “carrying” to date - it will help to look first at two very different models of theological education that demonstrate a divergent range of concerns and priorities. The first presents a minimal approach that seeks only to introduce basic information to a general clientele within a short time. The second, a specialist approach, is geared to fulfilling the aspirations of a particular student. As we shall see, both models have their strengths, but, equally, each has its own particular limitations.

1. The Minimal Model: A three-day Briefing.
A small missionary society, operating on a slender budget, wanted to prepare its missionaries for evangelism in Muslim countries. It carefully vetted its candidates. Those selected attended a short training conference, conducted by a former missionary who provided lectures on various subjects deemed appropriate. This “briefing” lasted three days.* When the time eventually came for the missionary lecturer to retire, it was decided to ask him to record all his talks on video so that the “preparation” he offered at each briefing could be carried on after he had gone.

One is left wondering whether such training left any opportunity for asking questions or for the discussion of issues raised by the lecturer’s talks.
* By way of contrast, the four terms of missionary training given to the present writer amounted to over 46 weeks. Both training experiences were offered in the same city in Britain to people going to work in the same institution in the same foreign country in the same period! Approach varies, it seems, not according to the job to be done, but rather according to the ethos of the sending agency.

DISCUSSION What are the advantages of the “minimal” approach to training?
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

What are some of the disadvantages?
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Observation: Theological Curriculum is not about CONTENT only. It is about ENQUIRY and INTER-ACTION also.

2. The Specialist Consumer Model: Studying for a Doctorate.
The following advertisement appeared in an American theological journal: DOCTOR OF MINISTRY: World Christianity Track for Missionaries at -------------- SEMINARY Provides Flexibility in Scheduling. We also offer a separate track for pastors. M. Div. or equivalent required. What does this suggest about the model of theological curriculum on offer here? First, it suggests that we have entered the world of the racecourse. There is a stiff course (called a “track”) to be followed by those taking part; Perhaps there is also an element of competition hinted at - which participants will complete their “track” first? Certainly there are entrance hurdles to be passed before the course can even be attempted (e.g. that essential M. Div.!). And no doubt some form of academic training for the big event is probably advisable before attempting to write the doctorate. But are there not also some serious limitations? Consider first the implied priorities of the advertisement. It appears to be concerned foremost with the needs of those expected to take part. What this model provides is “Flexibility in Scheduling”. Might we not have first expected some indication of the field of studies to be covered by the course? Instead we can only deduce the course subject from the labels attached: “Ministry…World Christianity”. And which is the aspect most important to the prospective candidate? Undoubtedly it is the doctorate! (“DOCTOR OF MINISTRY” - printed as the heading in bold capitals!) We note also that the composers of the advertisement also seem interested in certain internal caste distinctions (“missionaries” versus “pastors”, and the hierarchy of Doctor of Ministry over Master of Divinity). No indication is given, however, of the relevance of the “track” to the contribution that their graduates might be expected to make to the world outside! Let’s reflect again on the implications of this approach:

DISCUSSION Degrees are offered as evidence of a person having undertaken satisfactorily a particular course of study. What are the advantages of such a system?
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What are the disadvantages? (There are other ways of learning!)
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So do the advantages outweigh the disadvantages?
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Observation: Theological Curriculum is not only about COURSES of STUDY. It is also about PURPOSE and RELEVANCE.

CATEGORIES of RELEVANCE
One way of looking at the relevancy of a course is to view it in terms of its Theological, Spiritual, Practical, Evangelistic and Educational relevance. Theologically we ask how a course informs the mind, not just to think about God, but also to encourage such an understanding of God’s nature, actions, character, person and “ways” generally that the student experiences and so truly knows God for him or herself. This leads to the second category, the spiritual dimension of what is being learned through the course. Here the heart must be warmed to increase a personal love for God, a devotion that can only be nurtured through the ministry of the Holy Spirit simply because this involves a spiritual dimension. The third category involves the will and concerns practical obedience to Jesus as Lord. This practical level of curriculum relevancy is about training students as disciples of Jesus and is not to be confused with meeting the expectations congregations may have concerning their ministers’ abilities to perform this or that function in the life of the congregation – the skills of performance. A course may also be evaluated according to how relevant it is to the evangelistic mission of the church. Does it equip people to witness to the gospel and ultimately make disciples of the nations? This evangelistic dimension asks: will you be able as a result of this course to share the Gospel with others more effectively (as distinct from serving the Church better)? Finally there is an educational relevance that needs to be considered. Will this course equip students to teach their congregations? Will they be able to expound God’s Word, bringing their hearers so in contact with God that they are compelled to respond to His call and will for their daily living rather than preach moral homilies, offer pious platitudes, deliver philosophical lectures, or simply provide word and background studies of a text? It is interesting to find a similar range of “categories of relevancy” in the Great Commission given by Jesus to his disciples: All authority in heaven and on earth has been given to me. Therefore go and make disciples of all nations [evangelistic], baptising them [spiritual? practical?] in the name of the Father and of the Son and of the Holy Spirit, and teaching them [educational] to obey [practical] everything I have commanded you. And surely I am with you always [spiritual], to the every end of the age. (Matthew 28:18-20 NIV)

EXERCISE
Construct a short curriculum for a group of your own choice that involves all five categories of relevancy. For each category list two or three subjects from the CLASSIFICATION table. Theological: -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Spiritual: -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Practical: ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Evangelistic: ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Educational: -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

COURSE BENEFITS – Why Study This Course? The benefits of studying specific to each course Choose any 3 areas of study shown on the next two pages and suggest for each of the courses selected what are the three greatest benefits of studying these subjects. (Note: Church History is already done as an example.) List them in order of importance as you see them. Share with colleagues and fill in further fields. BIBLICAL STUDIES Background to the Bible, its History, Interpretation and Study …….……….……….

• • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • •

. . . The Old Testament ……………………………..………………………………………… . . . The New Testament …..…………………………………………………………………… . .

. SYSTEMATIC THEOLOGY ………………………………………………………………. . .

. PHILOSOPHY ………..……..……………..………………………………………………… . . . Apologetics ……………………………………………………………………………….. . . . . .

CONTEMPORARY STUDIES …………………………………………………………….

Islamics ................................................................................................................................

• • • • • • • • • • • • •

.

. COMMUNICATION ............................................................................................................. . . . Homiletics …..…………………………………………………………….………………. . . . Missiology ………..……………………………………………………………………….. . .

. CHURCH HISTORY ……….……………………………………………….……………… Understand how both God’s grace & His judgement work together amongst His Compare historical models of belief and behaviour with today’s church life. Understand your own Christian heritage and discover the roots of your own church. people

• • • • • • • • • • •
. . .

Historical Theology.……….………………………………………………………………………..

PRACTICAL THEOLOGY Discipleship …………………………………………………………………………………

. . .
. . .

Liturgical Theology / Worship ……………………………………………………………

Self-development …………………………………………………………………………..

• • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • •

. .

. CHRISTIAN ETHICS Moral Theology……………………………………………………………………………. . .

. Environmental Theology …………………………………………………………………. . .

. Social Theology …………………………………………………………………………… . .

. EDUCATION Study Methods ……………………………………………………………………………. . .

. Christian Education ……………………………………………………………………… . .

. PASTORAL THEOLOGY Shepherding the sheep (as individuals) …………………………………………………. . .

. Leading the church (as a body) …………………………………………………………… . . .

DEFINING “CURRICULUM”
Some may argue that our “luggage” contains things that are not strictly “curriculum” subjects but are rather the more general concerns of a “training programme”: as such they may rightly appear on our educational agenda, but not as part of any curriculum list. During the conference that originated this paper, our family discussed this very point at home. My 17-year-old son informed us that by the word “curriculum” was meant “everything that went into a particular subject taught at school”. His mother responded: “That’s not right; the school curriculum is the list of all subjects taught at your school.” I then argued that “Curriculum” means all the activities that go on in a school, including the various courses taught in the classroom. To resolve our family argument we turned to Collins English Dictionary and read under “curriculum” the following definitions: “1. A course of study in one subject at school or college. 2. A list of all the courses of study offered by school or college. 3. Any programme or plan of activities.” Apparently we were all correct in our family! Now perhaps you should join in the discussion:

DISCUSSION What difference does it make to our training programme if we think of curriculum in terms of: Definition 1? ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Definition 2? -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Definition 3? ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Observation: Theological Curriculum is not only about THEOLOGY. It is about TRAINING EXPERIENCES also. Knowing or Doing? The fundamental emphasis of many Western models of theological education is on knowing. The over-riding question asked of its curricula is: “What is really necessary for the students to know in order to complete this course and fulfil the expectations that such an academic programme creates?” But what is the purpose of Theological Education? Once those who have been trained reach graduation and all the trophies have been handed out, what will be the needs that these graduates have to meet in their congregation in particular and in the community in general? How well will our three or four year programme have prepared them for their work outside in the real world? The question now becomes: “What do the students need to be able to do in order to be able to fulfil their calling as ministers?”

TYPES OF LEARNING - Learning about LEARNING DOMAINS
This introduces us to the idea of different realms of learning. Since there are several kinds of learning, it is useful to think of each kind as existing in a separate department or domain. The first two we may call the “cognitive” (knowing) and “functional” (performing) domains.

< Functional Domain

SKILLS
what how
proportion of programme’s agenda (“track”)

BIT
to to KNOW DO

Educational and training institutions will vary in their emphasis regarding knowledge and skills. Diagram 1 illustrates this difference. The diagonal (arrowed) line indicates the proportion of an institution’s agenda or “track” given over to INSTRUCTION (what to know) and the proportion dedicated to SKILLS (how to do). In this diagram the (fictitious) “Academic College of Education” (“ACE”) spends 85% of its time providing instruction in various fields of knowledge and 15% developing students’ skills. On the other hand, the “Basic Institute of Technology” (“BIT”) has two-thirds of its programme taken up with training the students in how to do the work that one day they will have to carry out in the outside world. Only one third is spent giving instruction in head knowledge. At this point we again ask: What is our business as theological educators? Are we simply providing knowledge - packing information into the heads of our students so that they may know what truths, ideas and facts with which to fill other people’s heads once they leave us?

ACE INSTRUCTION
Cognitive Domain >

“ACE” Institution: 85% Instruction in Knowledge 15% Training in Skills “BIT” Institution: 33% Instruction in Knowledge 67% Training in Skills

Diagram 1.

Or should we be developing skills, so that our graduates will be able to handle that knowledge, apply it to the various situations they will meet, and even research further information for themselves when necessary - knowledge that will be relevant to their particular ministry?

DISCUSSION List two major skills that future church leaders need to develop and suggest how these might be developed in training.

1.-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

2.----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

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MINISTERIAL FORMATION < Functional Domain SKILLS what to KNOW how to DO Affective Domain > FORMATION how to BE
Increasingly today those who are responsible for theological education are becoming concerned with what has been termed “ministerial formation”, that is, the spiritual development of those being trained. Indeed often this is the area where the students themselves experience most disappointment after they arrive at Seminary or Bible College. They come in great anticipation of somehow finding a spiritual oasis for their thirsty souls, but find instead all the marks of the world that they thought would be left outside! This has been the experience of the monk and hermit down the ages. Yet that does not absolve us from being concerned with the spiritual formation of our students – what is usually called the affective domain. This is the part of the training that aims to affect the behaviour of the student as his / her character is moulded by close discipleship of Jesus and as attitudes become more Christ-like.

INSTRUCTION Cognitive Domain > Diagram 2.

We must seek to be agents of change as we show our students how to minister to their people in such a way that the lives as well as the faith of their congregations are radically altered to express God’s Kingdom values and commitments. It is here that good modelling demonstrated by teachers has the greatest influence. (See Prof. Neil Foster’s article in Appendix L.) But such modelling should be reinforced by activities found in the curriculum. So we now have three domains (See diagram 2): the cognitive domain of instruction, the functional domain of skill acquisition. and the affective domain concerned with the spiritual formation of the student. Thus, as well as coming to know many things and learning how to do the work to which (s)he is called, the student reflects on how to be a man or woman of God. Example of a learning objective in the affective domain: “I came to Seminary to become a pastor who cares about his people’s economic, social, political and religious problems.” (- Student’s response to the question: “Why did you come to Seminary?”) These three educational domains each have their own appropriate mode of learning: formal study (course materials, books and lectures) in the cognitive domain; informal modelling in the affective domain; and non-formal practice and reflection (fieldwork) in the functional domain.

DISCUSSION Which of these three domains is most neglected and why? ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

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LEARNING DOMAINS of THEOLOGICAL EDUCATION < Functional Domain Affective Domain > SKILLS what to KNOW how to FORMATION how to - STAND DO BE why WISDOM < Sapiential Domain to UNDER

Note carefully: “Doing” here refers not to obedience – doing what we have been told to do – but rather to practising certain skills, until we are able to “do” them. Obedience, on the other hand, is learnt through “being”, or becoming, more like Christ, as attitudes are changed and character is (trans)formed. The way Diagram 2 was drawn might suggest an imbalance needing to be corrected. This is indeed the case. For further reflection leads us to recognise that a truly balanced theological curriculum (in the widest sense of the word) requires a fourth element – the dimension of understanding. There is little point in knowing about things whose purpose we do not truly understand, and many practical tasks, if they are to be done effectively and with lasting results, require an approach that is also purposeful and wise. So we may call this fourth area of educational development the sapiential (or prudential*) domain, a label coined to highlight the

INSTRUCTION Cognitive Domain >

Diagram 3

discerning characteristic of this aspect of personal growth.
* “Prudential” and “sapiential” both come from Latin words meaning wise. “Prudential” is defined as: “exercising good judgement; practical and careful in providing for the future”, and derives from a Latin word meaning “farsighted, acting with foresight”, surely such qualities that are much needed in the ministry of God’s people.

The Case of Apollos

Acts 18:24-28 shows Apollos as a preacher well instructed in Knowledge, developed in Skills and well advanced in spiritual Formation, but lacking seriously in Wisdom. He was well informed (knowing), taught accurately and spoke eloquently (doing), but he needed the help of Priscilla and Aquila to explain the Way of God more adequately (understanding). Since “eloquently” in the Greek can be translated also as “full of Spiritual fervour”, there is a strong case for also finding a reference here to his spiritual character (his being). All four domains are important in learning, whether in order to write a school essay or to service a bicycle in the workshop, as has been pointed out by Roger Lewis, Professor of Learning Development at Humberside University. For in order to service a bicycle, he notes, “I need to: • know where to apply oil and which components to check; • have manual skills [doing], e.g. in adjusting brakes; • want to do it, or at least accept the importance of maintaining the bicycle [which is to do with attitude and so the formation of one’s being]; • understand why I am carrying out the various tasks [to do with purpose, design, and how the various parts of the whole fit together]”.*
*in “How to Write Essays”, by R.Lewis, p. 7, Collins Educational, 1995

So what is really needed in theological education? Should not all four learning domains be catered for, especially where students train and live together in a college community.

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A PYRAMID MODEL of LEARNING
In a three-dimensional model, these four learning domains would be best portrayed as the four sides of a pyramid, with equal emphasis being placed on each domain. All four are important for the support of the peak. This pyramid model emphasises the essential nature of each domain for the over-all development of an individual’s learning. Thus passing on knowledge by itself produces only a façade of learning. Knowing needs to be backed by doing, being and understanding in equal proportions for substantial learning to take place. If this mutual support of each domain for the other three is missing, sooner or later what is supposedly learnt is found not to have been truly learnt, and the whole edifice of such “learning” crumbles.

Educational Objectives involved in the four Learning Domains Within each learning domain many different educational objectives can be identified, each particular to that domain. The verbs that might be used in stating these objectives when constructing a course have been usefully charted as follows: If the goal is:
then the verb (or verbal phrase) used to describe an objective can be one of the following:

Knowledge

Insight

Skill

Attitude

List State Select Trace Choose Write Discern Know Use Classify Recite Contrast Solve Plan Recall Study Separate View Define Evaluate Apply Desire to Identify Assist in Compare Appreciate Describe Discover Explain Be sensitive to Delineate Examine Produce Sympathise Memorise Reflect on Practice with Recognise Think through Interpret Be convinced Enumerate Pray about Understand of Become aware Comprehend Internalise Commit of Discriminate Experience yourself to Become between Communicate Have familiar with Differentiate confidence in (-Roy B. Zuck, quoted in Expository Preaching: Principles & Practice, Haddon W. Robinson, p.111, IVP, 1986)

To confirm your understanding of the differences between the four domains try the following exercise:

DISCUSSION Write four educational objectives using a verb from each of the domain boxes above:

K. I. S.

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----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

A. ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

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What are Our Goals?
Looking at Curriculum in terms of learning domains helps us to identify our pre-suppositions and priorities. We are provoked to ask ourselves: • Are we simply providing knowledge, packing information into the heads of our students so that they simply know what to say once they leave us (but do not why or when to say it)?

• Or are we developing skills, so that our graduates will be able to handle that knowledge, apply it to the
various situations they will meet, and even be able to research further information by themselves when necessary?

• Are we seeking to be “agents of change” in human behaviour, training students so to minister to their
people that not only faith is strengthened but lives as well are radically altered to express the values and commitments of God’s Kingdom?

• Are we training our students to be able to make good judgements and wise choices, based on clear

thinking, sound values and well understood principles of conduct? Are they learning to reflect on the purpose of their actions, expressing vision and insight in their decisions?

Wisdom comes through an understanding of the purpose of things. It is not simply an accumulation of past experiences, but rather an insight into the present suitability of something for fulfilling an ultimate end that accords with the wisdom of God himself. This sense of a human purpose that is also aligned with God’s purposes (original, present and ultimate) is crucial for development. Another important way of viewing our goals is to ask questions about the levels of learning development that we are aiming at in our students. We may want them to be able to understand the significance of the information they have come already to know. But a further development occurs when they start to reflect on the application of this understanding to their situation. Development of learning continues when a student can critique the arguments of others and eventually evaluate his or her own thinking, attitudes and actions in the light of what he or she has learnt previously. This encourages the formation of mature thinking and, when combined with the development of good attitudes, contributes to the spiritual formation of the student.

DISCUSSION
List three significant attitudes that future church leaders should be encouraged to cultivate. How can training take this kind of formation into account?

1.------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

2.-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

3.-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Identify one major area of understanding that needs to be developed during training:
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

What steps can we take to include all the learning domains when reviewing our curriculum and courses?
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Note: A summary of this section, together with further examples of its application, can be found in Appendix A.

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MODES of LEARNING
As educationally we have identified several fields (domains) of learning, equally we must be aware of several modes (or ways) of learning – termed formal, non-formal and informal. Formal learning takes place in an environment where grades, classes, examinations, written work and other academic requirements are emphasised. Non-formal learning is equally well organised, but the purposeful study combines fieldwork with dialogue, evaluation and reflection, and emphasises the practical purposes of a course. Students placed under local leaders as their apprentices (e.g. curates in Anglican type churches) are learning non-formally from their elders as they get the reactions of their more experienced colleagues to their own stumbling efforts. Informal learning occurs as a consequence of the ethos of the training institution, the quality of community life where students and staff can inter-act, the latter having the role of models as well as mentors. Students learn from such mentors by absorbing their insights and whole approach to ministry. Different modes of learning can be used in any domain. The challenge for the teacher (and his / her educational institution) is to use the appropriate mode(s) for each subject and to plan a curriculum that not only covers the most relevant subjects in each domain, but also makes use of a variety of modes in each domain.
Try the next exercise with a colleague or group of colleagues. Brainstorming might be helpful as a preliminary activity before selecting the examples that might prove most significant for your programme of training.

DISCUSSION Can you think of an informal way, and a non-formal way of teaching one subject (of your own choice) in each domain? Informal ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Non-formal-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

If learning does not end at graduation, or at the end of a course, in what ways (if any!) does our curriculum encourage people to learn for themselves (not necessarily the same as learning by themselves)?
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

The next section deals with levels of learning and advocates a policy of Spiral Learning. It is presented in diagrammatic form and concludes with two Discussion questionsl

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SPIRAL LEARNING
AN EDUCATIONAL PHILOSOPHY OF CURRICULUM DEVELOPMENT
How we might view the structure of our total programme of Theological Education. AN EXAMPLE

Thirty Courses
< Degree Level

CHURCH LEADERSHIP
(Conceptual, Arguing a Case)

Twenty Courses

LOCAL CHURCH MINISTRY
Level
Ten Courses

< Diploma

(Comprehension, Biblical Studies)

Family Life

DISCIPLESHIP
Church Life Society
< Certificate Level (Emphasis on: Facts & Examples)

Three areas of “relationship” FAMILY LIFE, CHURCH LIFE and SOCIETY – form the core of each course in the above curriculum, which is constructed on three levels. These themes are expanded as the level of study rises each time they return round the spiral. Thus SPIRAL LEARNING builds on what has been previously learnt about any given subject.

Degree

F.L. Ch.L. S. Diploma Certificate

Note: All four learning domains – cognitive (knowing), sapiential (understanding), functional (doing) and affective (being) – must be advanced together. There is always a danger that knowledge and understanding will advance at the expense of skills and personal development and that knowledge and skills will squeeze out understanding and personal development.

DISCUSSION What are the advantages of applying the principle of Spiral Learning to curriculum planning? What constraints might it also put upon curriculum construction?

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PROFILE of desirable COMPETENCIES

Aims can be expressed in terms of what the student will be competent to do or what attitudes he or she will be expected to have acquired once the programme has been completed. Examples are listed below:
DISCUSSION
Take one group at a time and decide what level of learning (Certificate, Diploma, Degree) ought to be expected of each of the four competencies listed. Then write an example of one appropriate educational/training objective for each competency.
Note: The dominant learning domain (s) are indicated in the L/H margin.

Group A
K/U/D Expound clearly 20 major biblical doctrines as they relate to God’s plan of salvation. U/D Know how to interpret the different genres of Scripture. B Lead a life marked by personal holiness and devotion to God. U Know how to distinguish spiritual gifts from natural talents.

Group B
U/D Know how to use their natural leadership styles in church life. B A developing maturity in their walk with God and dealings with others. B/U Show practical compassion for people in need. K/U/D Apply significant lessons of church history to today’s church life, service and witness.

Group C
U/K B U/B/D B Understand the problems and opportunities of local church life. Demonstrate the fruit of the Spirit in significant areas of their life. Appreciate their own strengths and weaknesses in ministry to others. Demonstrate integrity and consistent honesty in their personal dealings.

Group D
B Demonstrate a servant’s heart in relationship to others. U/D Know how to minister across-culture. D/U Demonstrate conflict resolution skills in church and community life. D/U/B/K Enable a congregation to worship God in spirit and in truth.

Group E
B/U/K U B/D D/U Act courageously in ways consistent with biblical values. Understand the cultural, social and moral issues in their contemporary situation. Exercise spiritual disciplines in daily life. Demonstrate developing skills of evangelism in the local church’s outreach.

Group F
D/U Demonstrate management skills in a significant Christian ministry. B Take effective initiative in enabling others to minister and grow. D/U/B Demonstrate sound vision in the leadership of a Christian community or organization. D/U/K Demonstrate equipping, recruiting and mentoring skills.

Group G
D/U/K Exercise effective preaching and teaching skills. B/U/D Demonstrate shepherding skills in a complex pastoral situation. B Have a teachable spirit and an ongoing desire to grow in the things of the Spirit. D/U Exercise communication and listening skills in congregational life.

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CONSTRAINTS
Below are listed some constraints commonly experienced in Christian Institutions. Evaluate the most pressing in your situation and add any further constraints that come to mind. STUDENTS
 Level of Education at entry (relevance of study methods and habits, knowledge) Level of Commitment to study (motivation, distractions) Commitment to Christ (personal relationship, dedication) Powers of concentration (hence the relevance of: ‘how many consecutive classes?’) Range of general abilities (learning, initiative, understanding) Family situation / travelling in daily / other commitments (assignments) Health: physical, mental and spiritual Experience of community living and individual study Reliability with books (care and return) ……………………………………………………………………………………….. ………………………………………………………………………………………..

FACULTY
Availability (enough to cover all subjects / training exercises) Time commitment (full-time, part-time, other commitments taking priority) Experience and knowledge of the subject / field Willingness to study further / a new area in order to cover a subject / field Modeling (image presented to the students to imitate) Level of care for students Concern for maintenance of discipline Degree of initiative in developing new ideas Concern for appropriate educational methods used to teach subjects ………………………………………………………………………………….. ………………………………………………………………………………….. …………………………………………………………………………………..

TEACHING MATERIALS

…………………………………………………………………………………..  Availability of text-books Availability of Library books (accessibility, gaps in certain areas) Use of copying facilities (for what purpose?) Journals for Faculty (for book reviews, new ideas) ……………..……………………………………………………….. ………………………………………………………………………

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DISCUSSION List 10 COMPETENCIES that you and your colleagues consider ESSENTIAL for the work for which you are preparing your students. Add the appropriate LEARNING DOMAINS for each 1. ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------2. ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------3. ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------4. ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------5. ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------6. ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------7. ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------8. --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------9. ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------10. --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Thinking now of the CONSTRAINTS that apply to your programme’s goals and the situation in which you have to achieve those goals, can you create (and describe below) some NON-TRADITIONAL kinds of LEARNING EXPERIENCES that would enable you to develop the COMPETENCIES you have identified above? (These should not include class-room and Library work.) ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

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