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by slack, low-resistance wires.

When the connection is made,

the wires are pushed aside by

the repulsive force between the

wires, and each wire has an inid

tial horizontal velocity of magnitude v0. Assume that the time

constant for the capacitor to dis+

C

the time it takes for any appreciable displacement in the position of the wires to occur. (a) Show

that the initial speed v0 of either wire is given by

v0 =

m0Q 02

4p lRCd

will each wire rise as a result of the circuit connection?

28.88 ... CALC A wire in Figure P28.88

the shape of a semicircle with

y

radius a is oriented in the

yz-plane with its center of

curvature at the origin (Fig.

a

P28.88). If the current in the

I

wire is I, calculate the

z

magnetic-eld components

P

I

x

produced at point P, a distance

x out along the x-axis. (Note: Do not forget the contribution from the

straight wire at the bottom of the semicircle that runs from z = - a

to z = + a. You may use the fact that the elds of the two antiparallel currents at z 7 a cancel, but you must explain why they cancel.)

Answers

Chapter Opening Question

Example 28.9 (Section 28.7), the eld inside a solenoid has magnitude B = m0 nI, where n is the number of turns of wire per unit

length. Joining two solenoids end to end doubles both the number

of turns and the length, so the number of turns per unit length is

unchanged.

28.1 Answers: (a) (i), (b) (ii) The situation is the same as shown in

S

Fig. 28.2 except that the upper proton has velocity v rather than

S

- v. The magnetic eld due to the lower proton is the same as

shown

in Fig.

28.2, but the direction of the magnetic force

S

S

S

F qv : B on the upper proton is reversed. Hence the magnetic

force is attractive. Since the speed v is small compared to c, the

magnetic force is much smaller in magnitude than the repulsive

electric force and the net force is still repulsive.

28.2 Answer: (i) and (iii) (tie), (iv), (ii) From Eq. (28.5), the magnitude of the eld dB due to a current element of length dl carrying

current I is dB = 1m>4p21I dl sin f>r 22. In this expression r is the

distance from the element to the eld point, and f is the angle

between the direction of the current and a vector from the current

element to the eld point. All four points are the same distance

r = L from the current element, so the value of dB is proportional

to the value of sin f. For the four points the angle is (i) f = 90,

(ii) f = 0, (iii) f = 90, and (iv) f = 45, so the values of sin f

are (i) 1, (ii) 0, (iii) 1, and (iv) 1> 12 .

28.3 Answer: A This orientation will cause current to ow clockwise around the circuit. Hence current will ow south through the

wire that lies under the compass. From the right-hand rule for the

magnetic eld produced by a long, straight, current-carrying conductor, this will produce a magnetic eld that points to the left at

the position of the compass (which lies atop the wire). The combination of the northward magnetic eld of the earth and the westward eld produced by the current gives a net magnetic eld to the

northwest, so the compass needle will swing counterclockwise to

align with this eld.

28.4 Answers: (a) (i), (b) (iii), (c) (ii), (d) (iii) Current ows in the

same direction in adjacent turns of the coil, so the magnetic forces

between these turns are attractive. Current ows in opposite directions on opposite sides of the same turn, so the magnetic forces

between these sides are repulsive. Thus the magnetic forces on the

solenoid turns squeeze them together in the direction along its axis

but push them apart radially. The electric forces are zero because

the wire is electrically neutral, with as much positive charge as

there is negative charge.

S

28.5 Answers: (a) (ii), (b) (v) The vector dB is in the direction of

S

S

S

d l : r . For a segment on the negative y-axis, d l kN dl points

S

S

S

in the negative z-direction and r xn an. Hence d l : r

N

N

1a dl2 1x dl2, which has a positive x-component, a negative

y-component, and

zero z-component. For a segment on the negaS

tive z-axis, d l N dl Spoints in the positive y-direction and

S

S

r x N akN . Hence d l : r 11a dl2n 11x dl2kN , which has

a positive x-component, zero y-component, and a negative

z-component.

S

S

28.6 Answer: (ii) Imagine carrying out the integral A B d l

along an integration path that goes counterclockwise around the

red magnetic

eld line. At each point along

the path the magnetic

S

S

eld B and

the

innitesimal

segment

are

both tangent

to Sthe

d

l

S

S

S

path, so B d l is positive at each point and the integral A B d l is

S

S

likewise positive. It follows from Amperes law A B d l = m0 Iencl

and the right-hand rule that the integration path encloses a current

directed out of the plane of the page. There are no currents in the

empty space outside the magnet, so there must be currents inside

the magnet (see Section 28.8).

S

28.7 Answer: (iii) By symmetry, any B eld outside the cable

must circulate around the cable, with circular eld lines like those

surrounding the solid cylindrical conductor in Fig. 28.20. Choose

an integration path like the one shown in Fig. 28.20 with radius

encloses the cable. As in Examr 7 R, so that the path completely

S

S

ple 28.8, the integral A B d l for this path has magnitude

B12pr2. From Amperes law this is equal to m0 Iencl . The net

enclosed current Iencl is zero because it includes two currents of

equal magnitude but opposite direction: one in the central wire and

one in the hollow cylinder. Hence B12pr2 = 0, and so B = 0 for

any value of r outside the cable. (The eld is nonzero inside the

cable; see Exercise 28.45.)

28.8 Answer: (i), (iv) Sodium and uranium are paramagnetic

materials and hence are attracted to a magnet, while bismuth and

lead are diamagnetic materials that are repelled by a magnet. (See

Table 28.1.)

Bridging Problem

Answer: B =

m0nQ

a

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