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frequency? (c) Find the maximum current in the resistor at resonance. (d) What is the maximum current in the inductor at resonance? (e) What is the maximum current in the branch containing

the capacitor at resonance? (f) Find the maximum energy stored in

the inductor and in the capacitor at resonance.

31.61 . You want to double the resonance angular frequency of

an L-R-C series circuit by changing only the pertinent circuit elements all by the same factor. (a) Which ones should you change?

(b) By what factor should you change them?

31.62 ... An L-R-C series circuit consists of a 2.50-mF capacitor,

a 5.00-mH inductor, and a 75.0- resistor connected across an ac

source of voltage amplitude 15.0 V having variable frequency.

(a) Under what circumstances is the average power delivered to the

circuit equal to 12VrmsIrms? (b) Under the conditions of part (a), what

is the average power delivered to each circuit element and what is

the maximum current through the capacitor?

31.63 .. In an L-R-C series circuit, the source has a voltage

amplitude of 120 V, R = 80.0 , and the reactance of the capacitor is 480 . The voltage amplitude across the capacitor is 360 V.

(a) What is the current amplitude in the circuit? (b) What is the

impedance? (c) What two values can the reactance of the inductor have? (d) For which of the two values found in part (c) is the

angular frequency less than the resonance angular frequency?

Explain.

31.64 . An L-R-C series circuit has R = 500 , L = 2.00 H,

C = 0.500 mF, and V = 100 V. (a) For v = 800 rad>s, calculate

VR, VL, VC, and f. Using a single set of axes, graph v, vR, vL, and

vC as functions of time. Include two cycles of v on your graph.

(b) Repeat part (a) for v = 1000 rad>s. (c) Repeat part (a) for

v = 1250 rad>s.

31.65 .. CALC The current in a Figure P31.65

certain circuit varies with time as

i

shown in Fig. P31.65. Find the

I0

average current and the rms current in terms of I0.

t

O

t

2t

31.66 .. The Resonance Width.

2I0

Consider an L-R-C series circuit

with a 1.80-H inductor, a 0.900-mF

capacitor, and a 300- resistor. The source has terminal rms voltage Vrms = 60.0 V and variable angular frequency v. (a) What is

the resonance angular frequency v0 of the circuit? (b) What is the

rms current through the circuit at resonance, Irms-0?(c) For what

two values of the angular frequency, v1 and v2, is the rms current

half the resonance value? (d) The quantity v1 - v2 denes the

resonance width. Calculate Irms-0 and the resonance width for

R = 300 , 30.0 , and 3.00 . Describe how your results compare to the discussion in Section 31.5.

31.67 .. An inductor, a capacitor, and a resistor are all connected

in series across an ac source. If the resistance, inductance, and

capacitance are all doubled, by what factor does each of the following quantities change? Indicate whether they increase or decrease:

(a) the resonance angular frequency; (b) the inductive reactance; (c)

the capacitive reactance. (d) Does the impedance double?

31.68 . A resistance R, capacitance C, and inductance L are connected in series to a voltage source with amplitude V and variable

angular frequency v. If v = v0, the resonance angular frequency,

nd (a) the maximum current in the resistor; (b) the maximum

voltage across the capacitor; (c) the maximum voltage across the

inductor; (d) the maximum energy stored in the capacitor; (e) the

maximum energy stored in the inductor. Give your answers in

terms of R, C, L, and V.

31.69 . Repeat Problem 31.68 for the case v = v0>2.

1049

31.71 . A transformer consists of 275 primary windings and 834

secondary windings. If the potential difference across the primary

coil is 25.0 V, (a) what is the voltage across the secondary coil, and

(b) what is the effective load resistance of the secondary coil if it is

connected across a 125- resistor?

31.72 .. An L-R-C series circuit draws 220 W from a 120-V

(rms), 50.0-Hz ac line. The power factor is 0.560, and the source

voltage leads the current. (a) What is the net resistance R of the circuit? (b) Find the capacitance of the series capacitor that will result

in a power factor of unity when it is added to the original circuit.

(c) What power will then be drawn from the supply line?

31.73 .. CALC In an L-R-C series circuit the current is given by

i = I cos vt. The voltage amplitudes for the resistor, inductor, and

capacitor are VR , VL , and VC . (a) Show that the instantaneous

power into the resistor is pR = VR I cos2 vt = 12 VRI11 + cos 2vt).

What does this expression give for the average power into the

resistor? (b) Show that the instantaneous power into the inductor is

pL = - VLI sin vt cos vt = - 12 VL I sin 2vt. What does this expression give for the average power into the inductor? (c) Show

that the instantaneous power into the capacitor is pC =

VC I sin vt cos vt = 12 VC I sin 2vt. What does this expression give

for the average power into the capacitor? (d) The instantaneous

power delivered by the source is shown in Section 31.4 to be

p = VI cos vt 1cos f cos vt - sin f sin vt2. Show that pR + pL +

pC equals p at each instant of time.

CHALLENGE PROBLEMS

31.74 ... CALC (a) At what angular

amplitude across the resistor in an L-R-C series circuit at maximum value? (b) At what angular frequency is the voltage amplitude across the inductor at maximum value? (c) At what angular

frequency is the voltage amplitude across the capacitor at maximum

value? (You may want to refer to the results of Problem 31.53.)

31.75 ... Complex Numbers in a Circuit. The voltage across

a circuit element in an ac circuit is not necessarily in phase with

the current through that circuit

Figure P31.75

element. Therefore the voltage

L 5 0.500 H

amplitudes across the circuit

elements in a branch in an ac

C5

V 5 200 V

circuit do not add algebraically.

1.25 mF

v 5 1000 rad/s

A method that is commonly

employed to simplify the analyR 5 400 V

sis of an ac circuit driven by a

sinusoidal source is to represent

the impedance Z as a complex number. The resistance R is taken to

be the real part of the impedance, and the reactance X = XL - XC

is taken to be the imaginary part. Thus, for a branch containing a

resistor, inductor, and capacitor in series, the complex impedance

is Zcpx = R + iX, where i 2 = - 1. If the voltage amplitude across

the branch is Vcpx, we dene a complex current amplitude by

Icpx = Vcpx>Zcpx. The actual current amplitude is the absolute

value of the complex current amplitude; that is, I = 1Icpx *Icpx21>2 .

The phase angle f of the current with respect to the source voltage

is given by tan f = Im1Icpx2>Re1Icpx2. The voltage amplitudes

VR-cpx, VL-cpx, and VC-cpx across the resistance, inductance, and

capacitance, respectively, are found by multiplying Icpx by R, iXL,

and - iXC, respectively. From the complex representation for the

voltage amplitudes, the voltage across a branch is just the algebraic

sum of the voltages across each circuit element: Vcpx = VR-cpx +

VL-cpx + VC-cpx. The actual value of any current amplitude or voltage amplitude is the absolute value of the corresponding complex

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