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Challenge Problems

b

a + b - a

b - a

=

= 1 +

a

a

a

L =

m0 N 2h1b - a2

2pa

Compare this result with the result given in Example 30.3 (Section

30.2).

30.74 ... CP In the circuit Figure P30.74

shown in Fig. P30.74, neither the

1 2

battery nor the inductors have any

S

appreciable resistance, the capac75.0 V

25.0

15.0

itors are initially uncharged, and

mF

mH

the switch S has been in position

125.0

V

5.0

1 for a very long time. (a) What

35.0

mH

is the current in the circuit? (b)

mF

The switch is now suddenly

ipped to position 2. Find the maximum charge that each capacitor

will receive, and how much time after the switch is ipped it will

take them to acquire this charge.

30.75 ... CP CALC Demonstrating Inductance. A common

demonstration of inductance employs a circuit such as the one

shown in Fig. P30.69. Switch S is closed, and the light bulb (represented by resistance R12 just barely glows. After a period of time,

switch S is opened, and the bulb lights up brightly for a short

period of time. To understand this effect, think of an inductor as a

device that imparts an inertia to the current, preventing a discontinuous change in the current through it. (a) Derive, as explicit

functions of time, expressions for i 1 (the current through the light

bulb) and i 2 (the current through the inductor) after switch S is

closed. (b) After a long period of time, the currents i 1 and i 2 reach

their steady-state values. Obtain expressions for these steady-state

currents. (c) Switch S is now opened. Obtain an expression for the

current through the inductor and light bulb as an explicit function

of time. (d) You have been asked to design a demonstration apparatus using the circuit shown in Fig. P30.69 with a 22.0-H inductor

and a 40.0-W light bulb. You are to connect a resistor in series with

the inductor, and R2 represents the sum of that resistance plus the

internal resistance of the inductor. When switch S is opened, a

transient current is to be set up that starts at 0.600 A and is not to

fall below 0.150 A until after 0.0800 s. For simplicity, assume that

the resistance of the light bulb is constant and equals the resistance

the bulb must have to dissipate 40.0 W at 120 V. Determine R2 and

E for the given design considerations. (e) With the numerical values determined in part (d), what is the current through the light

bulb just before the switch is opened? Does this result conrm the

qualitative description of what is observed in the demonstration?

CHALLENGE PROBLEMS

30.76 ... CP CALC Consider the

The circuit elements are as follows: E = 32.0 V, L = 0.640 H,

C = 2.00 mF, and R = 400 . At time t = 0, switch S is closed.

The current through the inductor is i 1, the current through the

capacitor branch is i 2, and the charge on the capacitor is q2.

(a) Using Kirchhoffs rules, verify the circuit equations

di 1

b = E

dt

q2

= E

R1i 1 + i 22 +

C

of i 1, i 2, and q2 ? (c) Show by

direct substitution that the following solutions for i 1 and q2

satisfy the circuit equations

from part (a). Also, show that

they satisfy the initial conditions

Figure P30.76

R

valid for z 6 1, to show that when b - a is much less than a, the

inductance is approximately equal to

R1i 1 + i 22 + La

i 5 i1 1 i2

i1

q2

i2

L

C

2q2

E

i 1 = a b31 - e -bt512vRC2-1 sin1vt2 + cos1vt264

R

E

be -bt sin1vt2

q2 = a

vR

where b = 12RC2-1 and v = 31LC2-1 - 12RC2-241>2. (d) Determine the time t 1 at which i 2 rst becomes zero.

30.77 ... CP A Volume Gauge. A tank containing a liquid has

turns of wire wrapped around it, causing it to act like an inductor. The

liquid content of the tank can be

measured by using its inductance Figure P30.77

to determine the height of the liquid in the tank. The inductance of

Air

the tank changes from a value of

L 0 corresponding to a relative D

Liquid

d

permeability of 1 when the tank

is empty to a value of L f correW

sponding to a relative permeability of K m (the relative permeability of the liquid) when the tank is

full. The appropriate electronic circuitry can determine the inductance to ve signicant gures and thus the effective relative permeability of the combined air and liquid within the rectangular

cavity of the tank. The four sides of the tank each have width W

and height D (Fig. P30.77). The height of the liquid in the tank is

d. You can ignore any fringing effects and assume that the relative

permeability of the material of which the tank is made can be

ignored. (a) Derive an expression for d as a function of L, the inductance corresponding to a certain uid height, L 0, L f, and D. (b) What

is the inductance (to ve signicant gures) for a tank 14 full, 12 full,

3

4 full, and completely full if the tank contains liquid oxygen? Take

L 0 = 0.63000 H. The magnetic susceptibility of liquid oxygen is

xm = 1.52 * 10 -3. (c) Repeat part (b) for mercury. The magnetic

susceptibility of mercury is given in Table 28.1. (d) For which material is this volume gauge more practical?

30.78 ... Two coils are wrapped around each other as shown in

Fig. 30.3. The current travels in the same sense around each coil.

One coil has self-inductance L 1, and the other coil has selfinductance L 2. The mutual inductance of the two coils is M. (a)

Show that if the two coils are connected in series, the equivalent

inductance of the combination is L eq = L 1 + L 2 + 2M. (b) Show

that if the two coils are connected in parallel, the equivalent inductance of the combination is

Electronic

circuitry

L eq =

L 1L 2 - M 2

L 1 + L 2 - 2M

Switch S is closed at time t = 0, causing a current i 1 through the

inductive branch and a current i 2 through the capacitive branch.

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