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quantity. Consider the L-R-C series circuit shown in Fig. P31.75. The

values of the circuit elements, the source voltage amplitude, and the

source angular frequency are as shown. Use the phasor diagram techniques presented in Section 31.1 to solve for (a) the current amplitude

and (b) the phase angle f of the current with respect to the source

voltage. (Note that this angle is the negative of the phase angle

dened in Fig. 31.13.) Now analyze the same circuit using the

complex-number approach. (c) Determine the complex impedance

of the circuit, Zcpx. Take the absolute value to obtain Z, the actual

source, Vcpx, to be real, and nd the complex current amplitude Icpx.

Find the actual current amplitude by taking the absolute value of Icpx.

(e) Find the phase angle f of the current with respect to the source

voltage by using the real and imaginary parts of Icpx, as explained

above. (f) Find the complex representations of the voltages across the

resistance, the inductance, and the capacitance. (g) Adding the

answers found in part (f), verify that the sum of these complex numbers is real and equal to 200 V, the voltage of the source.

Answers

Chapter Opening Question

frequencies. However, a radio is an L-R-C series circuit, and at any

given time it is tuned to have a resonance at just one frequency.

Hence the response of the radio to that frequency is much greater

than its response to any other frequency, which is why you hear

only one broadcasting station through the radios speaker. (You can

sometimes hear a second station if its frequency is sufciently

close to the tuned frequency.)

31.1 Answers: (a) D; (b) A; (c) B; (d) C For each phasor, the

actual current is represented by the projection of that phasor onto

the horizontal axis. The phasors all rotate counterclockwise around

the origin with angular speed v, so at the instant shown the projection of phasor A is positive but trending toward zero; the projection

of phasor B is negative and becoming more negative; the projection of phasor C is negative but trending toward zero; and the projection of phasor D is positive and becoming more positive.

31.2 Answers: (a) (iii); (b) (ii); (c) (i) For a resistor, VR = IR, so

I = VR>R. The voltage amplitude VR and resistance R do not

change with frequency, so the current amplitude I remains constant. For an inductor, VL = IXL = IvL, so I = VL>vL. The voltage amplitude VL and inductance L are constant, so the current

amplitude I decreases as the frequency increases. For a capacitor,

VC = IXC = I>vC, so I = VC vC. The voltage amplitude VC and

capacitance C are constant, so the current amplitude I increases as

the frequency increases.

31.3 Answer: (iv), (ii), (i), (iii) For the circuit in Example 31.4,

I = V>Z = 150 V2>1500 2 = 0.10 A. If the capacitor and inductor are removed so that only the ac source and resistor remain, the

circuit is like that shown in Fig. 31.7a; then I = V>R = 150 V2>

1300 2 = 0.17 A. If the resistor and capacitor are removed so

that only the ac source and inductor remain, the circuit is like that

0.083 A. Finally, if the resistor and inductor are removed so that

only the ac source and capacitor remain, the circuit is like that

shown in Fig. 31.9a; then I = V>XC = 150 V2>1200 2 = 0.25 A.

31.4 Answers: (a) (v); (b) (iv) The energy cannot be extracted

from the resistor, since energy is dissipated in a resistor and cannot

be recovered. Instead, the energy must be extracted from either the

inductor (which stores magnetic-eld energy) or the capacitor

(which stores electric-eld energy). Positive power means that

energy is being transferred from the ac source to the circuit, so

negative power implies that energy is being transferred back into

the source.

31.5 Answer: (ii) The capacitance C increases if the plate spacing

is decreased (see Section 24.1). Hence the resonance frequency

0 = v0>2p = 1>2p 2LC decreases.

31.6 Answer: (ii), (iv), (i), (iii) From Eq. (31.35) the turns ratio is

N2>N1 = V2>V1 , so the number of turns in the secondary is

N2 = N1V2>V1 . Hence for the four cases we have (i) N2 =

11000216.0 V2>1120 V2 = 50 turns; (ii) N2 = 1100021240 V2>

1120 V2 = 2000 turns; (iii) N2 = 11000216.0 V2>1240 V2 = 25

turns; and (iv) N2 = 1100021120 V2>1240 V2 = 500 turns. Note

that (i), (iii), and (iv) are step-down transformers with fewer turns

in the secondary than in the primary, while (ii) is a step-up transformer with more turns in the secondary than in the primary.

Bridging Problem

(b) At 8.35 * 10 4 rad> s: Vsource = 49.5 V,

I = 0.132 A, VR = 16.5 V, VL = 16.5 V,

VC = 63.2 V.

At 3.19 * 10 5 rad> s: Vsource = 49.5 V,

I = 0.132 A, VR = 16.5 V, VL = 63.2 V,

VC = 16.5 V.

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