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One application of L-R-C series

circuits is to high-pass or lowC

Vs

pass lters, which lter out

R

L

either the low- or high-frequency

components of a signal. A highpass lter is shown in Fig.

Vout

P31.51, where the output voltage is taken across the L-R combination. (The L-R combination

represents an inductive coil that also has resistance due to the large

length of wire in the coil.) Derive an expression for Vout>Vs, the

ratio of the output and source voltage amplitudes, as a function of

the angular frequency v of the source. Show that when v is small,

this ratio is proportional to v and thus is small, and show that the

ratio approaches unity in the limit of large frequency.

31.52 .. A Low-Pass Filter. Figure P31.52 shows a low-pass

lter (see Problem 31.51); the output voltage is taken across the

capacitor in an L-R-C series circuit. Derive an expression for

Vout>Vs, the ratio of the output and source voltage amplitudes, as a

function of the angular frequency v of the source. Show that when

v is large, this ratio is proportional to v-2 and thus is very small,

and show that the ratio approaches unity in the limit of small

frequency.

Figure P31.52

Vs

R

Vout

constant voltage amplitude V and variable angular frequency v.

(a) Show that the current amplitude, as a function of v, is

V

I =

2

2R + 1vL - 1>vC22

(b) Show that the average power dissipated in the resistor is

P =

V 2R>2

R + 1vL - 1>vC22

2

(c) Show that I and P are both maximum when v = 1> 2LC, the

resonance frequency of the circuit. (d) Graph P as a function of v

for V = 100 V, R = 200 , L = 2.0 H, and C = 0.50 mF. Compare to the light purple curve in Fig. 31.19. Discuss the behavior of

I and P in the limits v = 0 and v S q .

31.54 .. An L-R-C series circuit is connected to an ac source of

constant voltage amplitude V and variable angular frequency v.

Using the results of Problem 31.53, nd an expression for (a) the

amplitude VL of the voltage across the inductor as a function of

v and (b) the amplitude VC of the voltage across the capacitor

as a function of v. (c) Graph VL and VC as functions of v for

V = 100 V, R = 200 , L = 2.0 H, and C = 0.50 mF. (d) Discuss the behavior of VL and VC in the limits v = 0 and v S q .

For what value of v is VL = VC ? What is the signicance of this

value of v?

31.55 .. In an L-R-C series circuit the magnitude of the phase

angle is 54.0, with the source voltage lagging the current. The

reactance of the capacitor is 350 , and the resistor resistance is

180 . The average power delivered by the source is 140 W. Find

(a) the reactance of the inductor; (b) the rms current; (c) the rms

voltage of the source.

31.56 .. The L-R-C Parallel Circuit. A resistor, inductor, and

capacitor are connected in parallel to an ac source with voltage

amplitude V and angular frequency v. Let the source voltage be

given by v = V cos vt. (a) Show that the instantaneous voltages

vR, vL, and vC at any instant are each equal to v and that

i = i R + i L + i C, where i is the current through the source and i R,

i L, and i C are the currents through the resistor, the inductor, and the

capacitor, respectively. (b) What are the phases of i R, i L, and i C

with respect to v? Use current phasors to represent i, i R, i L, and i C.

In a phasor diagram, show the phases of these four currents with

respect to v. (c) Use the phasor diagram of part (b) to show that the

current amplitude I for the current i through the source is given by

I = 2I R2 + 1IC - IL22. (d) Show that the result of part (c) can be

written as I = V>Z, with 1>Z = 21>R2 + 1vC - 1>vL22 .

31.57 .. Parallel Resonance. The impedance of an L-R-C parallel circuit was derived in Problem 31.56. (a) Show that at the resonance angular frequency v0 = 1> 2LC, IC = IL, and I is a

minimum. (b) Since I is a minimum at resonance, is it correct to

say that the power delivered to the resistor is also a minimum at

v = v0? Explain. (c) At resonance, what is the phase angle of the

source current with respect to the source voltage? How does this

compare to the phase angle for an L-R-C series circuit at resonance? (d) Draw the circuit diagram for an L-R-C parallel circuit.

Arrange the circuit elements in your diagram so that the resistor is

closest to the ac source. Justify the following statement: When the

angular frequency of the source is v = v0, there is no current

owing between (i) the part of the circuit that includes the source

and the resistor and (ii) the part that includes the inductor and the

capacitor, so you could cut the wires connecting these two parts of

the circuit without affecting the currents. (e) Is the statement in

part (d) still valid if we consider that any real inductor or capacitor

also has some resistance of its own? Explain.

31.58 .. A 400- resistor and a 6.00-mF capacitor are connected

in parallel to an ac generator that supplies an rms voltage of 220 V

at an angular frequency of 360 rad>s. Use the results of Problem

31.56. Note that since there is no inductor in the circuit, the 1>vL

term is not present in the expression for Z. Find (a) the current

amplitude in the resistor; (b) the current amplitude in the capacitor;

(c) the phase angle of the source current with respect to the source

voltage; (d) the amplitude of the current through the generator.

(e) Does the source current lag or lead the source voltage?

31.59 .. An L-R-C parallel circuit is connected to an ac source of

constant voltage amplitude V and variable angular frequency v.

(a) Using the results of Problem 31.56, nd expressions for the

amplitudes IR, IL, and IC of the currents through the resistor, inductor,

and capacitor as functions of v. (b) Graph IR, IL, and IC as functions of v for V = 100 V, R = 200 , L = 2.0 H, and

C = 0.50 mF. (c) Discuss the behavior of IL and IC in the limits

v = 0 and v S q . Explain why IL and IC behave as they do in

these limits. (d) Calculate the resonance frequency (in Hz) of the

circuit, and sketch the phasor diagram at the resonance frequency.

(e) At the resonance frequency, what is the current amplitude

through the source? (f ) At the resonance frequency, what is the

current amplitude through the resistor, through the inductor, and

through the capacitor?

31.60 .. A 100- resistor, a 0.100-mF capacitor, and a 0.300-H

inductor are connected in parallel to a voltage source with amplitude 240 V. (a) What is the resonance angular frequency? (b) What

is the maximum current through the source at the resonance

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