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# CHAPTER

32

SUMMARY

## Maxwells equations and electromagnetic waves:

Maxwells equations predict the existence of electromagnetic waves that propagate in vacuum at the speed
of light c. The electromagnetic spectrum covers frequencies from at least 1 to 10 24 Hz and a correspondingly broad range of wavelengths. Visible light, with
wavelengths from 380 to 750 nm, is only
a very
small
S
S
part of this spectrum. In a plane wave, E and B are uniform over any plane perpendicular to the propagation
direction. Faradays law and Amperes law
bothSgive
S
relationships between the magnitudes of E and B;
requiring both of these relationships to be satised gives
an expression for c in terms of P0 and m0 . ElectromagS
S
netic waves are transverse; the E and B elds are
perpendicular to the direction of propagation and to
each
other.
The direction of propagation is the direction
S
S
of E : B.
Sinusoidal electromagnetic waves: Equations (32.17)
and (32.18) describe a sinusoidal plane electromagnetic
wave traveling in vacuum in the +x-direction. If the
wave is propagating in the -x-direction, replace
kx - vt by kx + vt. (See Example 32.1.)

E = cB

(32.4)

B = P0 m0 cE

(32.8)

y
Planar wave front

c =

1
2P0 m0

E
O

E max = cBmax

(32.18)

x
S

## Energy and momentum in electromagnetic waves: The

energy ow rate (power per unit area) in an electromagS
netic wave in vacuum is given by the Poynting vector S.
The magnitude of the time-averaged value of the
Poynting vector is called the intensity I of the wave.
Electromagnetic waves also carry momentum. When an
electromagnetic wave strikes a surface, it exerts a radiation pressure prad . If the surface is perpendicular to the
wave propagation direction and is totally absorbing,
prad = I>c; if the surface is a perfect reector,
prad = 2I>c. (See Examples 32.332.5.)

1
2Pm
c

z
E

v =

y
(32.17)
S

Electromagnetic waves in matter: When an electromagnetic wave travels through a dielectric, the wave speed v
is less than the speed of light in vacuum c. (See Example 32.2.)

B50

E50

B
S

(32.9)

2KK m 2P0m0

(32.21)

2KK m

S
1 S
E : B
m0

(32.28)

c dt
S

I = Sav
=

1
2

E max Bmax
E max2
=
=
2m0
2m0 c

B
OO
z

P0
E max2
A m0

= 12 P0 cE max2

(32.29)

S
EB
1 dp
= =
c
A dt
m0 c

(32.31)

plane
time dt later

## (flow rate of electromagnetic momentum)

Standing electromagnetic waves: If a perfect reecting surface
is placed at x = 0, the incident and
S
reected waves
form
a
standing
wave.
Nodal
planes
for
occur
at kx = 0, p, 2p, ,Sand nodal
E
S
S
planes for B at kx = p>2, 3p>2, 5p>2, . At each point, the sinusoidal variations of E and B with
time are 90 out of phase. (See Examples 32.6 and 32.7.)

Perfect conductor
S

B
z
S

1073