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# 8

Sequencing
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Sequencing is concerned with determining the optimal sequence in which a set of given
jobs may be performed. In such cases, effectiveness is a function of the order or sequence
in which the tasks are performed.
The problems dealt with are of the following types:
(i)
Processing n jobs on two machines.
(ii)
Processing n jobs on three machines.
(iii)
Processing n jobs on k machines.
(iv)
Processing 2 jobs on k machines.
The Assumptions There are some general assumptions made to solve the sequencing
problems. They are:
1.
The processing times are independent of the order in which different jobs are
processed on them.
2.
The time taken by different jobs in going from one machine to another is
negligible.
3.
A job would start on a machine as soon as the job and the machine on which it
is to be processed are both free.
Solution to Sequencing Problems Sequencing problems can be solved using the Gantt
chart and by applying an algorithm. Gantt Charts can be used to determine optimal
sequence in relatively small-sized problems. In a Gantt chart, the time is shown on one
axis and the machines on the other. The work on different jobs is shown by means of
lines of varying styles and the total time taken by all jobs is determined. Gantt Charts,
however, can be used to solve only relatively small-sized problems.
Algorithm for Solving Sequencing Problems
Rule, is given below.

## Processing n jobs on two machines

Here only two machines, say A and B, are
involved on which each of the jobs is to done in the order AB. The processing times for
all jobs are given. The optimal sequence is the one that results in minimum total time in
which the jobs may be done and minimum idle time on the second machine.
In terms of the algorithm used, the optimal sequence is obtained by using the following
rule:
Job j precedes job j + 1 if Min (Aj, Bj+1) < Min (Aj+1, Bj)

In operational terms, we locate the minimum processing time from all the jobs, do the job
first if the minimum time happens to be on the first machine (A) and do it at the end if it
is on second machine (B). Select either in case of a tie. Once the optimal sequence is
obtained, total elapsed time, T, is obtained by considering the performance of jobs in that
order using the given times.
Processing of n jobs on three machines It is also considered in some limited cases.
The rule works where
Min Ai Max Bi and/or Min Ci Max Bi.
In such cases, the problem is converted in to a 2-machine problem by creating
hypothetical machines G and H, where Gi = Ai + Bi and Hi = Bi + Ci. The optimal
sequence is then found as for a 2-machine problem and T is then determined by using
times on three machines considering the performance of jobs in that order using the given
times.
Processing of n jobs on k machines There is no general method available for handling
such problems where n jobs are required to be processed on k machines. However, like in
case of three machines case, if either or both of the following conditions are met with, we
can apply the algorithm.
Let there be n jobs to be processed on k machines A, B, , K in the order ABCJK, then
we have
Condition 1: Min Ai Max Bi, Max Ciand Max Ji
Condition 2: Min Ki Max Bi, Max Ciand Max Ji
In such a case, the problem is converted in to a 2-machine problem by creating
hypothetical machines G and H, where Gi = Ai + Bi + + Ji, and Hi = Bi + Ci + Ji + Ki.
The optimal sequence is then found as for a 2-machine problem and T is then determined
by using times on the K machines considering the performance of jobs in that order using
the given times.
Processing 2 jobs through k machines
In case of two jobs needing processing on
some machines in varying order, the problem may be solved graphically. This is done by
first plotting overlapping on different machines on the graph and then determining work
on the jobs through horizontal, vertical and diagonal lines drawn to connect the lower left
corner and upper right corner of the graph.