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BIO 201 Practical 1

 Please do not touch or point at bones, plastinized parts, or models with pens or pencils - use
only broom straws.

 Human Plastinates: These are human tissues. Please treat these specimens with respect
and care. Sign specimens in/out. Only handle them while wearing non-latex gloves. Keep
pens and pencils far away. Be gentle.

 Identifying Bones: be able to identify these bones in an intact skull and separately.
o Bones Boxes: make sure you have the correct bones in the boxes before you leave lab.

 Muscles:
 APR – all the muscles can be found in APR, and you will need to identify the
muscles on the models, plastinated specimens, and in APR. The sooner you use the APR
while learning this material, the easier the material will become.
 You are responsible for recognizing all the bolded functions in the muscles; these functions
are taken from APR and may be slightly different from what Saladin lists.
 Animation, Anatomy and Physiology Revealed [APR] shows the function.

 Histology
o The slides will be shown in lab and there are also references to APR where you can also
review the histology. The histology on the practicals will be from the real slides and not from
APR and not from pictures.

 References:
o Text: Anatomy and Physiology: The Unity of Form and Function. 5th edition by Saladin
o CD or web site: Anatomy and Physiology Revealed [APR]
o Optional Histology Atlas: A Photographic Atlas of Histology by Michael Leboffe

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CRANIAL BONES (Saladin pg, 245-258)

Be able to identify these bones and inherent features in an intact skull or separately.

Frontal Bone
o coronal suture
o frontal sinus

Parietal Bones
o sagittal suture
o middle meningeal vessel impressions

Temporal Bones
o squamosal suture
o external auditory meatus (external acoustic meatus)
o mandibular fossa
o zygomatic process
o styloid process (note: attachment for muscles of tongue, pharynx and hyoid)
o mastoid process (note: contains air sinuses)
o jugular foramen
o carotid canal
o middle meningeal vessel impressions
o petrous part

Occipital Bones
o lambdoidal suture
o sutural bones (Wormian bones)
o foramen magnum
o occipital condyles
o external occipital protuberance

Sphenoid Bone
o greater wings
o lesser wings
o optic foramen
o orbital fissure
o sella turcica
o foramen spinosum
o foramen ovale
o pterygoid processes

Ethmoid Bone
o crista galli
o cribriform plate
o perpendicular plate
o middle nasal conchae

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FACIAL BONES (Saladin, pg 245-256)
o body
o mental foramen
o alveolus (alveoli)
o ramus
o mandibular foramen
o coronoid process
o mandibular notch
o mandibular condyle

o infraorbital foramen
o maxillary sinus
o palatine process (note: anterior part of hard palate)
o alveolus (alveoli)

Palatine Bones (note: posterior part of hard palate)

Zygomatic Bones
Nasal Bones
Lacrimal Bones
Inferior Nasal Conchae
THORACIC CAGE (Saladin, pg 265-266)
o manubrium
o body (gladiolus)
o xiphoid process

Ribs (12 pairs) differentiate between:

o true ribs (1-7)
o false ribs (8-12)
 floating ribs (11-12) (note: these are false ribs not connected to sternum)
o on each rib:
 head
 neck
 tubercle
 shaft

Costal Cartilages

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VERTEBRAL COLUMN (Saladin, pg 259-267)
Parts of Vertebrae [Identify on Lumbar , Thoracic , &Cervical (except axis and atlas) vertebrae]
o body (centrum)
o vertebral arch
o lamina
o pedicle
o vertebral foramen
o spinous process
o transverse process
o superior articular process and facet
o inferior articular process and facet
o intervertebral foramen (note: formed by the intervertebral notches of two adjoining vertebrae)
o intervertebral discs

Cervical Vertebrae (7)

o atlas
o axis
• dens or odontoid process
o vertebra prominens (note: seventh cervical vertebra has the largest spinous process)
o transverse foramen (note: pair in each cervical vertebra that conducts vertebral arteries)

Thoracic Vertebrae (12)

o inferior costal facets (note: located on the centrum)
o superior costal facets (note: located on the centrum)
o facets on transverse processes (note: not found on T11 or T12)

Lumbar Vertebrae (5)

Sacrum (note: 5 fused sacral vertebrae)

sacral foramina
sacral canal
sacral hiatus (note: inferior opening to the sacral canal)
auricular surface (note: site of sacroiliac joint with pelvic girdle)

Coccyx (note: 4-5 fused coccygeal vertebrae)

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(c) - this structure can be identified on a plastinate.

Muscles of the Face and Saladin Text Actions of Muscle

Neck (pg)
platysma 326-344 elevates and creases neck; depression
of lower lip and angle of mouth
sternocleidomastoid (c) 326-344 rotates and flexes head

levator scapulae (c) 326-344 elevation of scapula (shrugging

shoulders); lateral flexion of neck
scalene (c) 326-344 lateral flexion and rotation of neck

trapezius (c) 326-344 elevation, medial rotation,

adduction and depression of scapula
splenius capitus (c) 326-344 rotation of head; extension of head and
sternohyoid (c) 326-344 depresses hyoid bone

sternothyroid 326-344 depresses larynx

thyrohyoid (c) 326-344 elevates larynx & depresses hyoid

omohyoid (c) 326-344 depresses hyoid bone

mylohyoid (c) 326-344 elevates floor of mouth

digastric (c) 326-344 elevates hyoid bone; depresses

masseter (c) 326-344 elevates mandible

buccinator (c) 326-344 compression of cheek

temporalis (c) 326-344 elevation of mandible

orbicularis oris (c) 326-344 closes mouth; puckers lips

frontalis (c) 326-344 elevation of eyebrows

orbicularis oculi (c) 326-344 closes eyelids

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Muscles of the Back, Saladin Text Actions

Posterior (pg)
Erector Spinae
1. Spinalis 344-346 lateral flexion and extension of
(c) vertebral column

2. Longissi 344-346 lateral flexion and extension of

mus (c) vertebral column

3. Iliocostali 344-346 lateral flexion and extension of

s (c) vertebral column

Histology for Practical 1

 Epithelial Tissue: Saladin (pg 155-160), Atlas of Histology (Cpt 3), APR (histology)
 Integument: [Saladin (pg 188-203), Atlas of Histology (Cpt 11)]

Epithelial Tissues
Simple squamous epithelium
o Simple cuboidal epithelium
o Simple columnar epithelium
o Pseudostratified ciliated columnar epithelium
o Stratified squamous non-keratinized epithelium
o Stratified squamous keratinized epithelium
o Transitional epithelium
Integument [Saladin (pg 188-203), Atlas of Histology (Cpt 11)]
Epidermis - Identify the specific tissue that comprises the epidermis then identify (1) the following strata (layers), with their
included cells, and (2) some structures located within the epidermis:
o stratum corneum
o stratum lucidum (in thick skin only)
o stratum granulosum
o stratum spinosum
o stratum basale
o sweat gland ducts
Dermis - Identify the tissue primarily comprising the dermis then identify (1) the following layers and (2) structures located
within the dermis:
o dermal papillae
o papillary layer
o reticular layer
o sweat glands
Hypodermis - Identify the type of tissue comprising the hypodermis and identify the
following components:
o adipose tissue
o sweat glands
Hair and associated structures

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o hair follicle
o hair bulb
o hair root
o hair shaft
o sebaceous gland

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comes from the Greek "akron", peak + "omos", shoulder = the peak of the
ACROMION shoulder; platelike extension; (acromial end of clavicle and acromion of scapula)
ALVEOLUS Latin referring to little cavity; pit or socket; tooth socket; (alveoli of the
mandibles and alveoli of the maxillae)
AURICULAR Auri – ear, (auricular surface of sacrum and auricular surface of the innominate
CANAL tubular passage or tunnel in a bone; (carotid canal)

Spanish for “shell”; shaped like an elongated sea-shell (inferior nasal conchae
bones, middle and superior nasal conchae of the ethmoid)
rounded knob that articulates with another bone; (occipital condyle, mandibular
CORACOID resemblance to crow’s beak; (coracoid process of the scapula)

CORONAL coronal plane – perpendicular to sagittal plane and divides the body into anterior
and posterior portions; (coronal suture)
CORONOID Corono – crown; (coronoid process of the mandible, coronoid process of the
CRIBRIFORM cribri- sieve, strainer; (cribriform plate of the ethmoid)

CRISTA GALLI crista – crest; (crista galli of the ethmoid)

smooth, slightly concave or convex articular surface; (articular facets of

FORAMEN hole through a bone, usually round; (foramen magnum of the skull)

FOSSA shallow, broad or elongated basin (mandibular fossa)

from Latin “frons” which means forehead; (frontal bone and frontal lobe)
HEAD prominent expanded end of a bone; (head of rib, head of femur, head of
natural fissure or opening in a stucture; inferior opening to sacral canal (sacral
hiatus); opening in diaphragm through which the esophagus travels (esophageal
LAMINA thin, flat plate; (lamina of vertebrae)

MEATUS opening into a canal; (acoustic meatus of the ear)

Latin “occipit” which means back of the head; (occipital bone and occipital
Odonto – tooth; tooth-like projection; (odontoid process of the axis)

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Latin “parietlis” means of a wall; (parietal bone and parietal lobe)
PEDICLE Latin meaning “small foot”; a stem or stalk of tissue that connects parts of the
body to each other, (vertebral lamina)
related to or resembling a rock (petrous portion of temporal bone)
any bony prominence; (mastoid process of skull)
a bony outgrowth or protruding part; (external occipital protuberance)
RAMUS Latin meaning “branch”; perpendicular portion; (ramus of the mandible)

SAGITTAL sagittal plane – passes vertically through the body or organ and divides it into
right and left portions; (sagittal suture)
means a Turkish saddle;
saddle-shaped depression;
(sella turcica of sphenoid)

cavity within a bone; (frontal sinus of the frontal bone)

sharp, slender or narrow process; (spine of the scapula)
STYLOID stylus – pen used by ancient Greeks and Romans to write on wax tablets; (styloid
process of temporal bone, styloid process of the ulna, styloid process of radius)
means to join; immovable joint between skull bones; (saggital suture)
Latin “temporlis” from Latin “tempora”, pl. of tempus, temple. Of or relating to
the temples of the skull; (temporal bone and temporal lobe)
transverse plane – passes across the body or organ perpendicular to its long axis;
divides the body or organ into superior and inferior portions; (transverse process
in vertebra)
small, rounded process; (greater and lesser tubercles of the humerus)
means “plowshare” referring to its resemblance to a blade of a plow; (vomer
XIPHOID derived from the Greek word xiphos for straight sword; (xiphoid process of the

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