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Lecture 5

In previous lectures we studied motion and effects of forces on ____________________

in two- and three-dimensional spaces. From this point forward, we will perform similar

analyses again but on ______________________________________ instead of particles.

of a rigid body. A general plane motion of a rigid body, i.e. rigid body motions on a 2-D

plane, consists of _________________________________________________________.

Essentially, a rigid body has a total of six degree-of-freedom in a 3-D space which are

translations and rotations in the x-, y- and z-directions.

Figure 1

Consider a rigid body which is free to translate on the x-y plane. Points A and B are

located on the body. The position vectors of these two points are given by

____________________________________

(EQN. 1)

1/4

Lecture 5

rAB represents the vector which connects point A to point B

The vector form of the velocity of the rigid body can be obtained by differentiating the

expression in equation 1 with respect to time. This is given by

____________________________________

The term

(EQN. 2)

drAB

= 0 , since the magnitude of rAB cannot change over time.

dt

Finally, the acceleration vector of the rigid body undergoing translation motions is given

by

____________________________________

(EQN. 3)

Figure 2

2/4

Lecture 5

We will consider the disc element rotating about the vertical axis which is part of a rigid

body the figure. First, it is important to establish the positive direction of rotation. We

will use the _______________________________________________. The thumb points

toward the positive direction of the rotation axis and the direction which the fingers grasp

around the axis indicate the positive direction for rotation.

The angular motion will be denoted by the variable . The unit for angular motion is

usually radians. Measurements of angle must always be performed with respect to a

fixed reference.

The angular velocity is the time rate of change of the angular motion, hence its

mathematical representation is given by

________________________________________

Finally, the angular acceleration is given by

________________________________________

The units for angular velocity and acceleration are usually rad./sec. and rad./sec.2,

respectively.

________________________________________

________________________________________

________________________________________

3/4

Lecture 5

Figure 3

Consider point P on the rotating disc. Its position is simply given by the vector r, which

connects point O to point P.

________________________________________

Note that the positive direction of a cross product can be determined using the right hand

rule.

________________________________________

The subscripts t and n denote ______________________________________________

directions, respectively. Hence, the tangential acceleration is simply a time derivative of

the velocity. The normal acceleration always exists for angular motion and its direction

must be _________________________ of rotation, which causes its value to be negative.

Note that the scalar (magnitude) quantities for acceleration can also be given by

______________________________________________

4/4

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