Language for Specific Purposes
Dr. Cecilia Cheong Yin Mei
Email: ceciliac@um.edu.my

Room: TD13, 2nd Floor
Bakawali Building
Faculty of Languages and Linguistics
Tel. no.: 03-7967 3139
Multimedia Planning Unit
Anggerik Building
Faculty of Languages and Linguistics

(Weeks 9, 11 - 14)


Week 9
G1: 11 Nov
G2: 31 Nov

Approaches/ Practices in LSP
Application of Approaches to LSP

Week 11
G1: 25 Nov
G2: 27 Nov

The Practice of LSP in the Academic and Research Domain

Week 12
G1: 2 Dec
G2: 4 Dec

The Practice of LSP in the Professional Domain

Week 13
G1: 9 Dec
G2: 11 Dec

New Media genres & Multimodality
Seminar: Reflective paper (based on Weeks 8-10 work)

Week 14
G1: 16 Dec
G2: 18 Dec

Seminar: Reflective paper (based on Weeks 8-10 work)

31 Dec 2014
@ 3 – 5 p.m.

Final Examination

Approaches/ Practices in LSP
 Earliest work, 1960s, quantitative study of the formal features of
broad language varieties or registers (e.g. Barber, 1962; Halliday,
McIntosh & Strevens, 1964)

 Rhetorical approach to the description of scientific and
technological text; rhetorical purpose: defining, classifying,
contrasting, sequencing, identifying cause and effect, etc (e.g.
Trimble, 1985)

 Dynamic situational-functional facets of communicative practices

 Focus on specific genres and communicative purposes, not just
formal features (Swales, 1990)

A fundamental concept in philosopher Aristotle’s system of classification of entities having some common characteristics: “… a particular class or category or type or kind or style of a communicative practice. classified and recognized to belong to its group in accordance to some characteristic and distinctive features of its form. content or employed technique …” . which is described.What is Genre? The term genre comes from the Latin genus.

Application of Approaches to LSP (Discourse Analysis) Genre Analysis 1) The American New Rhetoric School . stressed the flexible and dynamic nature of generic structure potential 2) Hallidayan linguistics / SFL in Australia.focused on primary and secondary school genres rather than those of the university .more contextually than linguistically grounded.

1994) .business.g. Bhatia . Swales & Feak.Genre Analysis 3) The British and now internationally practised ESP • Deeper and narrower approach with models for genre analysis (e. Swales 1990. academic and legal genres • Predictable formulaic aspects of certain genres (move structure and typical patterns of linguistic realisation) • Models of generic structure used as a basis for the development of pedagogic materials (e. Bhatia 1993.) • Swales .academic discourse.g.

Sinclair & Cobuilt project.g.contrastive rhetoric. assumptions. Connor. corpus linguistics and ethnographically influenced methods 4) Contrastive rhetoric . 1991. Biber’s register analysis. roles. emphasises direct observation.g.Other discourse analysis .views text as one feature of the social situation which includes the values. interview and other modes of analysing the situational context in addition to textual analysis . structuring and analysis of large amounts of discourse usually with the assistance of computers (e. attitudes and patterns of behaviour of participants or text producers and receivers. 1996) 5) Corpus linguistics .collection. 1988) 6) Ethnography . Kaplan 1966.study of similarities and differences between two languages and how the influence of the L1 may affect the way individuals express themselves in the L2 (e.

and also o helps them provide appropriate discourse awareness for their students.LSP & Genre Theory Attempt to describe and explain regularities of purpose. . Why Genre Theory & Analysis? Pedagogic potentials of genre analysis • Genre Analysis is known for its various pedagogic implications. and also—considering its social context and purpose—it can explain “why a discourse is the way it is” (Kay and DudleyEvans. 1998 : 310). 2002: 76): o it aids writing instructors via yielding analyses of different academic/professional texts. Genre is a “very powerful pedagogic tool” because it defines the kinds of discourse the students need to be able to produce. form and situated social action. • The “best-realized link between discourse analysis and contemporary L2 pedagogy” (Poole.

Miller (1984) defines genre as “typified rhetorical actions” that respond to recurring situations and become instantiated in the communities’ behaviour. Recurrent use of conventionalised forms. socially recognised ways of using language. Relates a text to other texts like it. . and to the choices and constraints.Genre Abstract. A similar group of texts depend on the social context of their creation and use.

These purposes are recognized by the expert members of the parent discourse community. If all high probability expectations are realized.Swales’ definition of genre: “A genre comprises a class of communicative events. Communicative purpose is both a privileged criterion and one that operates to keep the scope of a genre here and conceived narrowly focused on comparable rhetorical action. In addition to purpose.” Swales (1990: 58) . and thereby constitute the rationale for the genre. exemplars of a genre exhibit various patterns of similarity in terms of structure. the exemplar will be viewed as prototypical by the parent discourse community. content and intended audience. This rationale shapes the schematic structure of the discourse and influences and constrains choices of content and style. the members of which share some set of communicative purposes. style.

p. (Swales. 1990). 1990.Explanation on Swales’s (1993) definition: Genre is seen as a class of communicative events that are characterized both by their ‘communicative purposes’ and by various patterns of ‘structure. style. and intended audience (Swales. and are responsible for shaping a genre and providing it with an internal structure – a schematic structure. These shared ‘communicative purposes’ and structures are recognized by the expert members in the area/discpline. 53) . The rational that shapes the schematic structure of the discourse also gives rise to constraining conventions . content’.

..Bhatia (1993) concurs with Swales in that the most important aspect of genre is the recognisability and sufficient standardization. a recognizable communicative event characterized by a set of communicative purpose(s) identified and mutually understood by the members of the professional or academic community in which it regularly occurs. positioning. are often exploited by the expert members of the discourse community to achieve private intentions within the framework of socially recognized purpose(s). Bhatia offers his definition of genre as: “. in that the members of the discourse or professional community may recognise the genre as a typical and valid example of the particular genre. which is based on “a set of mutually accessible conventions” which most members of the professional or institutional organisation share. however. Most often it is highly structured and conventionalized with constraints on allowable contributions in terms of their intent.” Bhatia (1993: 13) . These constraints. form and functional value.

construction and use of specific genres than the non-specialists.Explanation on Bhatia’s (1993) definition: Even though genre is a recognizable communicative event …. it is primarily the communicative purpose(s) that it is intended to fulfil. . Members of the professional or academic community have greater knowledge of the conventional purpose(s). The writer has the freedom to use linguistic resources in any way s/he likes to achieve its communicative purpose(s) but must conform to certain standard practices within the boundaries of a particular genre without being noticeably odd. The communicative purpose(s) is the factor that shapes the genre and gives it an internal structure. Specialist members of any professional and academic community can recognized the genre of its discourse community.

the purpose of a research paper differs from that of a newspaper article.The texts that belong to one genre share a set of communicative purposes. which means that the purpose of a genre constructs a particular text structure. The recognition of the structure is important in understanding the genre as the rational that shapes the structure gives rise to constraining conventions. . and the lexical and grammatical choices. For example. The above definition by Swales (1990) emphasises the purposive nature of genres and concerns the way genres look. the discourse structure. Thus. the different communicative purpose places constraints on the formal features of the text. The communicative purposes constitute the rationale for the genre. and a host of conventionalised verbal and visual rhetorical strategies.

The diagram below conceptualises the interdependency of the three constituents of Swales’ genre model. which capture the essence of what is called ‘genres’. Communicative purpose realised by Move Structure realised by Rhetorical strategies Swales’ three-level genre model .

1990). According to Swales. the importance of the discourse communities is highlighted. . In Swales’ genre analysis. One of the characteristics that established members of these discourse communities possess is familiarity with the particular genres that is used in the communicative furtherance of those sets of goals (Swales.Discourse Community Within a community. language plays an important role in discourse practices. discourse communities are socio-rhetorical networks that form in order to work towards sets of common goals.

Swales (1990) has identified six characteristics of a discourse community as follows: A discourse community: 1. 6. has mechanisms of inter-communication among its members. 2. 5. utilizes and hence possesses one or more genres in the communicative furtherance of its aims. 4. has a broadly agreed set of common public goals. uses its participatory mechanisms primarily to provide information and feedback. 3. has acquired some specific lexis. has a threshold level of members with a suitable degree of relevant content and discoursal expertise. .

An example – Academic/Research Domain Samraj (2005: 141) researched on genre sets in academic communities. An example – Professional Domain Within professional communication.Genre set as a system of interrelated genres Bazerman (1994) has extended Devitt’s concept of genre set into the notion of systems of genres. a set of genres interacting to accomplish the work of the tax department’’ and shown that ‘‘any text is best understood within the context of other texts’’ (1991. 340) has investigated ‘‘the accountant’s genre system.Genre set A set of genres interacting to accomplish communicative purposes. Concept . p. She categorized research articles introduction and abstracts as a genre set. He has explored the system for patent creation and has stated that studying a genre system entails analyzing interrelated genres produced through generic turns by multiple participants belonging to that system . 336). Devitt (1991. p.

Disciplinary norms in academic writing may be manifested not just in terms of the genres important to that discipline and variation in generic structure but also in the relationships among related genres. we need to not just consider how a particular genre varies across disciplines but we also need to investigate how two or more genres are related to each other in different disciplines.Function – Analyzing genre sets for characterizing disciplinary and interdisciplinary genres Miller (1994) has stated that we can characterize a culture by its genre set. we might claim that the comprehensive characterization of a disciplinary culture will need to include a discussion of its genre set. to understand academic writing across disciplines. Thus. In other words. .

Both genres are related to the research article: one genre is central to the research article itself. and the other has been said to be an article synopsis (Bhatia. including research article introductions.two genres fulfill different communicative purposes and hence possess different macro-organizations. the two genres. research article introductions and abstracts. though the nature of the relationship is not completely clear. 1997).A Genre within another Genre Bhatia (1993) . 1990). Bhatia has stated that these two genres fulfill different communicative purposes and hence possess different macro-organizations. it has also been shown to have a well-defined purpose and overall organization (Swales. as genres. Bhatia (1997) refers to all academic introductions. . Samraj (2005: 142) noted that though the research article introduction is strictly a part of the research article and hence a part-genre (Dudley-Evans. appear to be related. In addition. 1993).

. the set of social relationships as it has been enacted.” Bhatia (2004:55) stated that the notion of systems of genres is more comprehensive than the notion of genre sets. and is a very useful tool for investigating intertextually and interdiscursively related genres embedded within a specific professional activity. which refer to all the interrelated genres that interact with each other in specific settings’. Bazerman (1994:97) proposed the concept of systems of genres..would be the full interaction.Systems of Genres Bazerman (1994:97) . the full event. but attending to the way that all the intertext is instantiated in generic form exablishing the current act in relation to prior acts.all the interrelated genres that interact with each other in specific settings.. He described the systems of genre: “. It embodies the full history of speech events as intertextual occurrences.

Oral Presentation … Conference proceedings/Selected papers for publication . such as official documents.Genre Chain Fairclough (2003) defines ‘genre chains’ as different genres which are regularly linked together. Swales (2004:18-20) illustrated a genre chain: Call for Abstract – Conference Abstract – Review Process (Accept/Reject) – Instructions . involving systematic transformations from genre to genre... reports in the press or on television. etc. associated press releases or press conferences.

Disciplinary Genre
Bhatia (2004:54-55) proposed that it is often necessary and more useful to go
beyond a system of genres to consider a more general category of genres. He
suggested the study of well-defined and closely linked group of genres in a
particular professional and disciplinary domain, rather than just a particular
professional activity on its own.

E.g. In the case/discipline of Law, there are professional legal activities such as
lawyer-client consultation, drafting of wills, drawing contracts, conveyance of
property, etc. Law centrally depends on two of the most conventionally
standardized disciplinary genres – legislation and judgments to achieve its
disciplinary goals. This centrality signals the intertextual and interdiscursive
patterning displayed in all forms of legal discourse.
E.g. In the discipline of Education?
In the discipline of Medicine/Health?
In the discipline of Advertising?

Genre Networks
Tadorov (1990:15) remarked:
Where do genres come from? Quite simply, from other genres. A new genre is
always the transformation of an earlier one, or of several: by inversion, by
displacement, by combination.

Geertz (1983: 20-21) perception of the development:

“... we more and more see ourselves surrounded by a vast, almost continuous
field of variously intended and diversely constructed works we can order only
practically, relationally, and as our purposes prompt us.”

Genre Colony and Supergenre
Bhatia (2004:57-59) noted that most super genres can be regarded as “colonies”
of related genres, with members not necessarily respecting disciplinary or
domain boundaries. In the case of business, there are advertisements, sales
promotion letters, news reports, business reports, book reviews, book blurbs,

Genre colony brings a degree of versatility to genre identification and
description. It allows principled relationship between supergenres, genres and
sub-genres. It also makes it possible to relate these categories to features of

2004) .Generic Description GENRE SPECIFICATION IDENTIFICATION CRITERIA Rhetorical Act DESCRIPTION Communicative Purpose (General) Communicative Purpose (Specific) Medium Product/Service Participants GENRE LEVEL EVALUATION Generic value Promotional Genres Book Blubs TV Ads Car Ads Advertisements Genre Colony Job Applications Genre Print Ads Internet Ads Sub-genres Airline Ads Cosmetic Ads Sub-genres for business travellers Sub-genres for holiday travellers Versatility in Generic Description (Adapted from: Bhatia.

Bhatia (2004: 90) and Fairclough (1992: 207) identified “hybrid genres”. 2003). and to the forms of ‘hybridity’ or mixing of social practices (Fairclough. Genre mixing is an aspect of the interdiscursivity of texts.Genre Mixing and Hybrid Genres The relationship between texts and genres is a potentially complex one. as it may “mix” or “hybridize” different genres (Bhatia. 2003: 35) . A number of social researchers and theorists have drawn attention to ways in which social boundaries are blurred in contemporary social life. 2004. Fairclough. They are: genres which are the result of the blurring of boundaries between discourses. and which appear to be especially prominent in the domain of contemporary media. (Fairclough. A text may not be “in a single genre”. 2003).

Schools of genre theory (1) The New Rhetoric approach .more contextually oriented (2) Systemic Functional Linguistics (SFL) approach more linguistic in approach (3) The English for Specific Purposes (ESP) approach Differ in:  the emphasis they give to text or context  the research methods they employ  the types of pedagogies they encourage .

beliefs . and the ways that one reshapes the other. rhetoric and first language composition It studies genre “as the motivated. The focus here is mainly on the rhetorical contexts in which genres are employed rather than detailed analyses of text elements (e. functional relationship between text type and rhetorical situation” (Coe. and emphasises on the social purposes and the actions resulting from these purposes within specific situations. As the focus is in the action (rather than substance or form) that the genre is used to accomplish.g. The emphasis on the socially constructed nature of genre has helped to unpack some of the complex relations between text and context. Freedman & Medway. Focuses more on situational context.(1) The New Rhetoric approach This approach. 195). adopted particularly in North America. values and patterns of behaviour (culture) of the discourse community engaging in the genre(s) . 2002: p. is influenced by poststructuralism. the methodology is ethnographic – the activities. attitudes. 1994).

linking these changes to the changing social needs and that texts are dynamic and not static products. . The studies in this approach indicate that genres are shaped by social factors and that texts occur in social contexts and employed by specific communities to achieve recognized goals.The New Rhetoric approach emphasizes the flexible and dynamic nature of genres and the link between rhetorical forms and social needs. Studies in this approach tend to explore how genres evolve in different sociocultural settings to achieve particular purposes. making them dynamic in nature. The New Rhetoric approach to the study of research articles helps us to see the changes that have taken place in text production over a long period of time.

1996 Atkinson In his analysis of research writing from the seventeenth century found that papers became less affective and more focused. The changing nature of scientific articles is necessary to cater to changing social needs. more informational rather than narrative-like over a period of time. 1995 Berkenkotter & In their analysis of biology research articles since 1944 argued that Huckin the increasing promotion of results was brought about to accommodate the increasingly selective reading by researchers who are usually such busy people inundated with an expansion of information in the sciences. competition amongst other researchers and readers’ expectations.Year Researcher Research 1987 Bazerman Traced the evolution of the scientific articles. highlighting that the rhetorical forms have arisen from social needs. referencing and argument in research articles in physics which are a reflection of increasing knowledge. how production of texts evolved in order to negotiate scientific knowledge at differing times and places. 1988 Bazerman Observed changes in the length. .

This model of genre stresses the purposeful. interactive. Hyon. 1997). . Genre theory here suggests that texts occur not in isolation but in social contexts and they are goal oriented and culturally determined (Martin. because it was developed at the University of Sydney based on Halliday’s (1994) Systemic Functional Linguistics. a model that identifies the close correlations between form and function. links language to its context of use. and the ways language is systematically linked to context through patterns of lexico-grammatical and rhetorical features (Christie & Martin. 1994). studying how language varies from one context to another and the underlying patterns which organise texts so that they are culturally and socially recognised as performing particular functions. 2002) .(2) The Systemic Functional Linguistics (SFL) approach Known in the US as the “Sydney School” approach (e. It is interested in both the context in which genres are produced as well as in the linguistic features of the genres themselves.g. 1984 in Eggins. Motivated by a commitment to language and literacy education. and sequential character of different genres. 1996 and Johns.

Discourse is analysed for its structural characteristics. 2001.g. different social situations will produce different genres because each social situation has its own configuration of values. in this case first year students. tenor and mode (the components of its contextual configuration) determine the range of textual structures available within a genre. 8). Systemic functional linguists show how lexico-grammatical choices are determined by topic and writer-reader relationships (Halliday and Martin. 1984. E.. 1993). . p. 1985.Certain cultures in a discourse community may have certain restrictions regarding language use by its members in the community requiring a particular structure for its communicative purpose to be achieved. Thus. the values of the field. The lecture can be identified by the mode (form/style/manner) of discourse which usually would be semi-spontaneous speech (Lewin et at. its crucial semantic attributes of the structural elements and its lexico-grammatical patterns (Hasan. 1994). In examining the generic structures. A first year university lecture in Biology combines choices from that particular field (topic) with the ways in which lectures are conducted and the lecture activates the choices brought about by the (tenor) relationship between the lecturer and the audience. Halliday.

1994 Halliday Views language as a resource for making meaning and proposes that the language system has evolved to express three kinds of meanings: experiential meaning (how language is used to represent our understanding of the world around us). This approach suggests that each stage of a genre exhibits certain predictable lexico-grammatical choices. 1985 Martin Provides a generic systems network which captures the features of a genre based on the similarities and differences between text structures which thereby define text types.Year Researcher Research 1985 Halliday &Hasan Classified texts according to genre. The distribution of material. and the textual meaning (how textual resources are necessary to create cohesive and coherent texts). mental. 1987 Ventola System of genre realization which allows for texts which have missing obligatory elements to be recognized as being within a genre. relational and existential processes in the different sections of the research article shows a relationship between the characteristic process types and the functions of the sections. . 2001 Martinez Examined research articles within the context of genre analysis using the framework of transitivity in Systemic Functional Linguistics. The Generic Structure Potential specifies the obligatory and typical optional elements of the genre and the ordering. the interpersonal meaning (how language is used to create relationships with others). verbal.

to provide students with a knowledge of relevant genres so that they can work effectively in their target contexts. John Swales. grounding teaching in a solid research base and drawing strength from an eclectic set of pedagogies and linguistic theories. .(3) The English for Specific Purposes (ESP) approach Developed by practitioners working in the field of ESP in the 1980s . The motivation for GA was the goal of developing pedagogic materials for non-native speakers of English. Influence L2 writing instruction. This approach is more linguistic in orientation and sees genre as a class of structured communicative events employed by specific discourse communities whose members share broad social purposes (Swales. 45–47).i.e. Vijay Bhatia. These social purposes are the rationale of a genre and help to shape the ways it is structured and the choices of content and style it makes available (Johns. 1990: pp. 1997).

textual patterns or organisation in a genre is analysed by breaking the text up into moves.The most influential ESP genre-analysis framework was established by Swales (1981. In the ESP approach. . The ESP approach focuses on the structure and typical linguistic realizations of certain genres. 1990) and has set the standard for a formalistic approach to genre analysis of academic. professional and scientific discourse studies. Swales’ moves analysis not only looks at the structure but also studies the lexico-grammatical features of moves.

and the Social Sciences: An Investigation of the Structure of Research Article Discussion Sections in Three Disciplines The Medical Research Paper: Structure and Functions Results Sections of Medical Research Articles: Analysis of Rhetorical Categories for Pedagogical Purposes The Schematic Structure of Computer Science Research Article A Preliminary Analysis of Law Review Notes Generic Moves in Ph.D Thesis Introductions .Genre Analysis Studies based on Swales’ Framework Year 1981 1984 Researcher Swales Crookes Title Aspects of Article Introductions Towards a Validated Analysis of Scientific Text Structure 1986 Dudley-Evans 1988 1990 Hopkins Dudley-Evans Swales Genre Analysis: An Investigation of the Introduction and Discussion Sections of MSc Dissertation A Genre-Based Investigation of the Discussion Sections in Articles and Dissertations Genre Analysis: English in Academic and research Settings 1991 1991 Bhatia Nwogu 1993 Bhatia 1994 Brett 1997 Holmes 1997 1999 Nwogu Williams 1999 Posteguillo 2000 Feak. Reinhart Sinsheimer Button 2002 A Genre-Based Approach to ESP Materials Structure of Science Popularizations: A Genre-Analysis Approach to the Schema of Popularized Medical Texts Analysing Genre: Language Use in Professional Settings A Genre Analysis of the Results Section of Sociology Articles Genre Analysis.

58) Pedagogical Primary. content and intended audience” (Swales. style. adult education for minorities. p. EAP. English for Professional Communication for adult L2 learners Genre as “Communicative events’ characterized by their communicative purposes” and by various patterns of “structure. 1984) Structural move analyses to describe global organizational patterns Analysis of linguistic features within Hallidayan schemes of linguistic analysis Text analysis based on ethnographic methods Genre Theory Text Analysis New Rhetoric Studies North American scholarship interested in L1 teaching Pedagogical Native Speakers of English in undergraduate schools . 1987) “Genre as social action” with social purposes (Miller. secondary.Comparison of the ESP Analysis 3 genre schools Researchers ESP scholarship interested in L2 teaching Australian Genre Theories Systemic-functional linguists Objective Setting Pedagogical Non-Native Speakers of English. 1990. migrant workers and other mainstream groups Genre as “Stagedgoal-oriented social processes” (Martin. Christie and Rothery.

Dubois (1982). Barber (1962). Noun-verb combinations in legal texts Halliday et al. (1964). de Beaugrande and Dressler (1981). Oster (1981). Brown and Yule (1983) . Nominals in academic writing Swales (1974). Coherence in text interpretation. Tenses in reporting past literature. Spencer (1975) Textualisation of distinctive lexicogrammatical resources Tenses in the rhetoric of science.Historical development of written discourse analysis (1) STAGE T E X T U A L I Z A T I O N ANALYSIS FINDINGS EXAMPLES Statistical significance of lexico-grammar Passives in EST: Nominalizations in legal English. Intertextuality Van Dijk (1977). Crystal and Davy (1969). Trimble (1985) From textualization to text and discourse Relationship between semantics and pragmatics of text. Enparticiples in chemistry texts.

Bhatia (1982. Schematic structures. Qualificational patterns. Hoey Macro-structures (1983). (1973). Problem-solution Coulthard patterns. Hasan (1985) .Historical development of written discourse analysis (2) STAGE O R G A N I Z A T I O N ANALYSIS FINDINGS EXAMPLES Textual patterns leading to text types. 1990). Tadros (1985). Rhetoricalgrammatical structures in science texts. Selinker et al. (1980) General global patterns of discourse organization Rhetorical patterns. van Dijk (1988) Cognitive structures and rationale in genres Move structures in genres. Candlin et al. Generic structure potential Swales (1981a. (1977). Predictive structures in economics textbooks Widdowson (1973). highlighting rhetorial patterns Rhetorical structures. 1993).

Swales 1981. specifically those embedded in scientific. as these were seen as crucial for the development of LSP programmes. business. in that the focus of much of genre analysis was on a limited range of specialized genres. Trimble 1985). . genre theory was used for the description of variations in the use of language for specific purpose texts as a basis for designing language learning and teaching programmes (Bhatia 1991. Swales 1990). although the basis of genre theory has always been the relationship between text and context both in a narrow sense of what surrounds the text as well as in a broader sense of what makes a particular genre possible and how it is used in specialized contexts.Explanation: In its initial phase. 1990. 1993. technological. As such the main emphasis during this phase was on the analysis of linguistic form with some attention given to context. Kathpalia 1992. legal and research contexts (Bhatia 1982. The earlier phase was also restricted in another sense.

Language as mediated discourse Fairclough (1992. Language and ideology. Bazerman (1994). Language as social control. Candlin and Hyland (1999) Language as critical discourse. 1998a) Multidimensional. change and hegemony. 2000). Disciplinary variation and conflicts in genres Swales (1998). and multi-perspective analyses of professsional and institutional genres Why do professional use language the way they do?.Historical development of written discourse analysis (3) STAGE C O N T E X T U A L I Z A T I O N ANALYSIS FINDINGS EXAMPLES Socio-cognitive aspects of genres. Social control in institutionalized discourses. Scollon (1998) . Genre mixing. Systems of genres Berkenkotter and Huckin (1995). development and exploitation of generic resources Genre development and change. Language in and as social interaction Discourse. embedding. Bhatia (1999c.1995). Hyland (2000). 1993. Appropriation of generic resources. Sarangi and Slembrouck (1994). Bhatia (1997a.

paying particular attention to more comprehensive understanding of text/context interactions focussing not simply on form and context of LSP genres. interpreted. used and exploited in the achievement of specific goals in highly specialized academic. but more importantly on how these specialized genres are constructed. genre theory has taken a more serious look at context in a much broader sense. Genre analysis has become firmly established as one of the most popular frameworks for the study of specialized genres in academic. professional and institutional as well as other workplace contexts. professional and institutional as well as other workplace contexts.Explanation: In more recent years. . however.

sociocognitive. corpus-based. (some of which include ethnographic. and socio-critical discourse analytical approaches). . Smart 1998. to supplement the analyses of lexico-grammar. With the availability of a diverse range of methodological tools for the analysis of specialized genres. rhetorical and generic structures.Genre Movement. Swales 1998). Changes and Focus These relatively recent concerns have also developed genre theory in the direction of a more comprehensive and powerful multidimensional and multiperspectived framework to handle not only the text but also the context in a much more meaningful manner than had ever been done earlier (Bhatia 2004.

. There is an increasing interest in looking beyond the conventional LSP genres to explore a much wider range of professional. 1999. including the visual and the Internet.... Swales (2007:9-10) noted: “Sunny Hyon’s paper was a valuable map-making exercise that made much sense in the mid 1990s.. but also through a variety of nontraditional semiotic modes.what might be called the genre movement has coalesced somewhat so that the divisions among the traditions have become much less sharp—although by no means disappeared. This rapprochement can be seen in a number of recent books. 2005) realized not only through the conventional spoken and written modes.There has also been a corresponding expansion of the range of specialized genres targeted for analysis. Gillaerts & Gotti. Even a cursory reading of the following quartet shows trends toward assimilation of views and a shared appreciation of previous work. corporate and institutional as well as workplace genres (Bargiela-Chiappini & Nickerson.” .

in contrast. Swales (2004: 31. used and exploited in specific institutional or more narrowly professional contexts to achieve specific disciplinary roles. extends the analysis beyond the textual product to incorporate context in a broader sense to account for not only the way the text is constructed. and context of genres. . that genre be seen not as a response to recurring situation but as a nexus between an individual’s actions and a socially defined context. Devitt (2004: 31): I propose. Frow (2006: 3): And I try to stress that genres are not fixed and pre-given forms by thinking about texts as performances of genre rather than reproductions of a class to which texts belong. but also the way it is often interpreted. stressing the open-endedness of generic frames. context of culture. then. in Bazerman 2007:148): However. Genre is a reciprocal dynamic within which individuals’ actions construct and are constructed by recurring context of situation. and by following Derrida in stressing the importance of edges and margins—that is.ESP tradition: Vijay Bhatia (2004) Worlds of written discourse: A genre-based view NR tradition: Amy Devitt (2004) Writing Genres SFL tradition: John Frow (2006) Genre ESP tradition: John Swales (2004) Research Genres: Explorations and applications One short quotation from each to indicate something of this coming together of views: Bhatia (2004: 20): Discourse as genre. there is a need—at least at times—to see genres as networks of variously distributed strategic resources.

Some of the consolidating trends that seem to emerge from these volumes and from other publications would include: a) a balance between constraint and choice. and d) a consequent more nuanced (hardly noticeable difference in) approach to genre awareness-raising and genre acquisition. . c) a greater sense that genres and genre sets are always evolving in response to various exigencies (difficult/urgent situations). b) the role of local contextual coloring in the realization of genre exemplars.

unfamiliar. Socio-critical and Sociocognitive perspective) Speech Acts (Linking Genre-Discourse analysis. mixed and deceptive genres. discursive practices) . especially when analyzing new.This coming together of views shows that: The description and explanation of genre is more comprehensive now compared to the definition by Swales in 1990. Therefore. GA is moving away from textualization to contextualisation. Genre Analyst Frames of Social Action (Using templates to analyze familiar genres) Language Standards (Identifying genres which comply or deviate) Genre Analyst and Applied Genre Analyst Biological Species (Tracking down unfamiliar genres and linking them) Families and Prototypes (Identifying new genres – colony/constellation) Applied Genre Analyst Institution (How/Why the genre is developed? Ethnography. a more comprehensive genre analysis is required to analyze texts/genres comprehensively.

or so it now seems to him.” (Swales. true to the grand academic imperative. genres tend to drift through time and geographical space.What is the current and workable definition of genre? Swales offered one such elaborated definition in Genre Analysis back in 1990. the work of genre is to mediate between social situations and the texts that respond strategically to the exigencies of those situations. he felt that there was actually little wrong with that old earlier characterization. His rationale for retreat was a little forced. would have to offer something new. 2007: 9 – 10) . they perform the genre. partly inherently and partly as a result of intertextual acceptances and rejections. he confessed. “As I see it. When he came to revisit the topic a few years ago. As Frow notes. Even though. he decided that he couldn’t repeat himself but. when texts are well conceptualized and well constructed. in his heart of hearts. When these performances proliferate.

they can become more transparent to those who would wish or need to become better consumers or producers of textual exemplars in the targeted genre or genres. by comparison and contrast. 2.Swales (2007) identified two categories of genre analysts: 1. by episodic dissection. The work of those genre analysts with applied aspirations would then refashion these findings so that. by rhetorical consciousness-raising. . and by task designs such as the systemic-functionalists’ “wheel of genre”. The work of genre analysts is to track these textual regularities and irregularities and explain them in terms of the relevant and pertinent social circumstances and the rhetorical demands they engender.

Usually. a genre analyst will analyze linguistic features to explain the 3rd level (Rhetorical Strategies). . To explain the 2nd level (Rhetorical Structure). a genre analyst can use Swales’s (1990) three level model genre analysis. a genre analyst can adopt Swales’s (1990) CARS model or Swales’s (2004) revised CARS model.Example 1: To analyze Introduction in a Journal Article (Research Genre).

Since the genre is richer compared to Introduction in a Journal Article. To explain the 2nd level (Rhetorical Structure). a text analyst with applied aspiration may analyze beyond linguistic features to explain the 3rd level (Rhetorical Strategies) such as metadiscourse. a genre analyst can use Bhatia’s (1993) 7-move structural description for sales letter. advertising/promotional discourse). .Example 2: To analyze a Sales Letter (Professional and Promotional Genre).g. disciplinary discourses (e. a genre analyst can use Swales’s (1990) three level model genre analysis.

one can use Bhatia’s (2004) 9-move structural description for advertisements. intertextuality and interdiscursivity to explain the 3rd level (Rhetorical Strategies). To explain the 3rd level (Rhetorical Strategies). He may also adopt ***a more comprehensive 7 step models/frameworks such as Bhatia (1993. To explain the 2nd level (Rhetorical Structure). . 2004).Example 3: To analyze a Webpage (Professional and New/Promotional/Mixed Genre). a text analyst with applied aspirations may include **analysis of multimodal discourse analysis. a genre analyst can use Swales’s (1990) three level model genre analysis. However. a genre analyst may limit his explanation to the text in the webpage. navigational modes.

intertextuality and interdiscursivity *** 7 step models/frameworks such as Bhatia (1993. navigational modes. To explain the 2nd level (Rhetorical Structure). a text analyst with applied aspirations will adopt ** and ***. _________________________________________________ ** multimodal discourse analysis. a genre analyst can use Swales’s (1990) three level model genre analysis. To explain the 3rd level (Rhetorical Strategies). instead of Swales’s (1990) three level model genre analysis which focuses on the textual level. 2004) . a genre analyst can use Bhatia’s (1993) 9-move structure for advertisements. a genre analyst may limit his explanation to the text in the advertorial.Example 4: To analyze an advertorial (Professional and Mixed/Unfamiliar Genre). However.

socio-critical and social) perspective/dimensions. . A text analyst with applied aspirations may need to use Bhatia’s (2004) revised 7 step model genre analysis and Bhatia’s (2004) multidimensional and multiperspective genre analysis. intertextuality. The models address the textual perspective/dimension (linguistic/lexicogrammatical features. interdiscursivity) and social (ethnographic. unfamilar and deceptive genres. generic/rhetorical structures. the genre analyst requires more applications in GA.Example 5: To analyze non-established.

Metaphors of genre Swales (2004: 61-68) offered a suite of six metaphors to illuminate the understanding of genres: Frames of Social Action Language Standards Biological Species Families and Prototypes Institutions Speech Acts       Guiding Principles Conventional Expectations Complex Historicities Variable Links to the Center Shaping Contexts. Roles Directed Discourses .

. (Devitt. Genres are forms of life. Similarly. genres also have “etiquette”. ways of being. 1997: 19) Language Standards  Conventional Expectations Language standards provide linguistic “etiquette” or rules. (Bazermam. They are frames of social actions. 1997). Etiquettes for genres are not absolute but they are conceived in terms of what is socially and rhetorically appropriate and thus are subject to change over time.Explanation: Frames of Social Action  Guiding Principles Genres are not just forms.

In the analogy of genre. spread. 2004: 65-66) . presents. (Swales.Explanation: Biological Species  Complex Historicities It is a useful way of thinking about how genres evolve. or the development of some splinter groups. (Swales. One family member can take on many of the characteristics of another member as part of the process of generic evolution. The history of genres and evolutionary understanding provides the perspectives of their texted pasts. the influence of some remarkable individual. the periphery might be the places where some technological advance first took root. and decline. and futures. 2004: 63-65) Families and Prototypes  Variable Links to the Center An extension of “Biological species” metaphor.

(Swales. The institutional metaphor allows one to identify the genre’s primary and typical roles. Speech acts can give a new kind of precision to rhetorical aims and means. . 2004: 66-67) Speech Acts  Directed Discourses Fishlov (1993) noted the metaphor is only “pertinent to those cases in which the organizing principle of the text can be described in terms of a distinct communicative situation”.Explanation: Institutions  Shaping Contexts. Bazerman (1994) related speech acts to the systems of genres (interrelated genres that interact with each other in specific settings) that orchestrate the patents. Roles A genre is not just a visible and/or audible product but a complex institution involving more or less networks and the values they support.

Placing genre-text in a situational context Surveying existing literature Refining situational/contextual analysis Selecting corpus Studying the institutional context Levels of linguistic analysis a. 2. 3. Studying institutional context (similar to No 5 in Bhatia 1993) . Ethnographic analysis 7. 6. 5. 5. Specialist information in genre analysis Bhatia 2004 (pp. Analysis of text-patterning or textualization c.ANALYTICAL FRAMEWORK 7 Steps in Analyzing Unfamiliar Genres: Bhatia 1993 (pp. 4. 22-36) 1. 4. Placing genre-text in a situational context Surveying existing literature Refining situational/contextual analysis Selecting corpus Textual. 3. Lexico-grammatical features b. intertextual and interdiscursive perspective (an extension of No 6 in Bhatia 1993) 6. Structural interpretation of the textgenre 7. 2. 163-167) 1.

etc. Placing the given genre-text in a situational context 2. methods or theories of linguistic/discourse/genre analysis which might be relevant to this situation. •tools. beliefs. relevant to the speech community in question. of the professional or academic community that uses the genre in question. goals. guide books.Bhatia’s (2004: 163-168) seven steps in analysing genres: 1. . •discussions of the social structure. •practitioner advice. Surveying existing literature on: •linguistic analyses of the genre in question or other related or similar genres. history. manuals etc. interactions.

the audience. their relationship and their goals. •defining the historical. . socio-cultural. and •identifying the topic/subject/extra-textual reality that the text is trying to represent.3. •identifying the network of surrounding texts and linguistic traditions that form the background to this particular genre-text. change or use and the relationship of the text to that reality. Refining situational/contextual analysis •defining the speaker/writer of the text. philosophic and /or occupational placement of the community in which the discourse takes place.

and some distinctive textual characteristics of the genre-text or some combination of these. A long single typical text for detailed analysis. Selecting corpus •define the genre/sub-genre that one is working with well enough so that it may be distinguishable from other genres either similar or closely related in some ways. •make sure that one’s criteria for deciding whether a text belongs to a specific genre are clearly stated. The definition may be based on the communicative purposes and the situational context(s) in which it is generally used. . a large statistical sample to investigate a few specified features though easily identified indicators. •decide on one’s criteria for an adequate selection of the corpus for one’s specific purpose(s). etc.4. a few randomly chosen texts for exploratory investigation.

Textual. intertextual and interdiscursivity •statistical significance of lexico-grammar •text patterning or textualization •cognitive or discourse structuring •analysis of the role of intertextuality and interdiscursivity .5.

manuals written for members of the relevant discourse community in question. Ethnographic analysis This may focus on some of the following issues in the context of the typical sites of engagement: •What physical circumstances influence the nature and construction of genre? •What are the critical moments of engagement or interaction? •What modes of genre construction or communication are available at the critical moments or sites? Information on most of these aspects may be achieved through a set of ethnographical procedures. history. goals. which may include the following: •Accounts of practitioner advice. interactions. and are products of the environment in which each takes shape. •Lived experiences of expert members of the community of practice. . guide books. •Convergent narrative accounts of first-hand experiences of active professionals. beliefs. •Detached observational accounts of expert behaviour. •Discussion of the social structure. Genres are social actions situated in disciplinary practices. •Textography of discursive practices.6.

. or even explicitly enforced in some institutional settings.7. Studying institutional context The study of institutional context may include the system and methodology in which the genre is used and the disciplinary conventions that govern the use of language in such institutional settings. These conventions are most often implicitly understood and unconsciously followed by the participants taking part in the communicative situation in which the genre in question is used.

Flowerdew & Jones.Interrelationship of Approaches to Discourse Analysis: text. 2008) Context Ethnographic analysis Multimodality Multimodal discourse analysis Text Conversation analysis Corpus-based analysis . context and semiotic mode (Bhatia.


It draws on: • textual data by treating genre as a reflection of discursive practices of disciplinary communities. . as it draws on historically and structurally grounded accounts of the conditions under which systems of genre are constructed. in that it seeks to observe genres in action. grounded in narrated insightful experiences of expert members of the community of practice • socio-cognitive and institutional data. • ethnographic data. used and exploited by expert members of disciplinary cultures of achieve their typical goals within the construct of their everyday professional activities. interpreted.Critical Genre Analysis (CGA) Multidimensional and multi-perspective approach to genre-based analysis of written discourse draws on several types of analytical data.

intercultural constrains SOCIO-COGNITIVE PERSPECTIVE SOCIO-CRITICAL PERSPECTIVE . ideology and power * Interaction of language and social structures * Interaction between discourse and social changes * Discourse and social practices * Cross-cultural. 2004) ETHNOGRAPHIC PERSPECTIVE TEXTUAL PERSPECTIVE Analysis of: * Statistical significance of lexico-grammar * Textual corpora * Textualisation of lexico-grammatical resources * Discoursal / rhetorical or cognitive structures * Intertextuality and interdiscursivity * Generic conventions and practices Analysis and understanding of: * Critical sites of engagement or moments of interaction * Practitioner advice and guidance * Social structure. beliefs. interactions.Multi-dimensional analytical perspective (Bhatia. goals of professional community * Physical circumstances influencing genre construction * Modes available for genre construction & communication * History and development of the genre MULTI-DIMENSIONAL ANALYTICAL PERSPECTIVE Analysis and understanding of: * Patterns of generic integrity * Patterns of audience reception * Nature and function of disciplinary cultures * Modes and patterns of professional practice * Appropriation of generic resources * Use of exploitation of rhetorical strategies * Patterns of Interdiscursivity Analysis and awareness of: * Patterns of language. history.

Tip of the Iceberg analogy .

Tip of the Iceberg analogy Genre Analysis Critical Genre Analysis .

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