non linear systems

© All Rights Reserved

12 views

non linear systems

© All Rights Reserved

- Damped+Simple+Harmonic+Motion
- Response spectrum analysis of girder bridges with seismic isolators using effective stiffness
- Process Control
- Computer Algebra Recipes - An Advanced Guide to Scientific Modeling Richard H Enns(Springer 2007 372S With Maple)
- 12 Damped Harmonic Oscillator
- Vibration 2nd Assinment
- Impact Damper
- Bridge Hill
- Control System and Automationmae345lecture7
- Articulated Pipes Conveying Fluid Pulsating With High Frequency
- simscape mecanico con matlab
- Transfer Function on RLC Circuits
- Damper Airflow Theory
- webchapter 2
- A 0360107
- List of Experiments for 2017 (2)
- 4. Management-Effect of Power -Abdolah Abertavi For
- UGW06DA2
- ECAT Entry Test Syllabus 2017
- Stability of Pneumatic & Hydraulic Valves - Fluid Springs & Dashpots

You are on page 1of 37

SYSTEMS

BASED ON THE INPUT AND OUTPUT

CHARECTARISTICS OF THE SYSTEM

LINEAR SYSTEMS

NON LINEAR SYSTEMS

LINEAR SYSTEMS

Homogeneity Principle

Superposition Principle

Y1(t)=A1x1(t)

Y2(t)=A2x2(t)

A1x1(t)+ A2x2(t)=y3(t)

Then if y3(t)= Y1(t)+ Y2(t)

non linear system.

Most of the systems are generally non-linear,

but in the range of operation of control system

can be made to linear systems

For example

Spring, Motors, Damper etc.

in linear differential equations

------------------------------------

stability

Frequency Domain methods

State space analysis

The systems which does not satisfy principles of linearity

The non linearities are due to many factors, and are

basically classified as

Inherently non linearities or Incidental non linearities

Which present in the component inherently

To make the systems response in desired form we intensionally

introduce some non linearities in the system

Saturation

Friction

Backlash

DeadZone or DeadBand

Hysterisis

Relays

Operating a component in restricted region

Examples:

Relays, Amplifiers,Thermionic & Semiconductor devices

Electric Drives: 1500 rpm 1500 +/- 50

Automatic Voltage controllers: +/- 5% of the specified Voltage

Example: Spring

Advantages of linearisation

Easy to construct mathematical models

Easy to design and analyse by use of transfer function based

techniques(i.e. Time domain and frequency domain)

The non linearties are small than the results obtained from linear

analysis do not differ from actual results

Jump resonance

hormonic oscillations

Limit cycles ete

Jump Resonance

In the frequency response of nonlinear systems, the amplitude of

the response (output) may jump

from one point to another from

increasing or decreasing nature of

frequency.This phenomenon is

called jump resonance

Example: A second order system

with spring damper

b

x

M

K = K 1x + K2x3

Fcos(wt)

c

a) K= 0, b) K>0 Hard spring c) K<0 Soft spring

If a system is excited with a sinusoidal

function, the output is also a sinusoidal with

same frequency but with a different

amplitude and phase angle.

Depends upon system parameters, initial

conditions,amplitude & frequency of forcing

function

A Sin(wt)

B Sin (wt+)

Linear System

A Sin(wt)

Non-Linear System

Where n= 0 to

Limits Cycles

The response of the non-linear systems(o/p)

may exhibit oscillations with fixed frequency and

amplitude

These oscillations are called Limit Cycles

systems

The output response to a particular test signal does not

give any information to other inputs

Highly sensitive to input amplitude

Requires more information in addition to the usual

mathematical model

i.e. Amplitude of input

Initial conditions etc.

Limit Cycles

Jump Resonance

Harmonics & Sub Harmonics etc.

Singular points

When the all the phase

variables does not

changes with

respective to time i.e

reaching to a constant

point (may be origin,

equilibrium point

=1

Phase trajectory of a second order system for

different values of and for initial condition x1(0)

Phase Trajectories

The state equation of second order system is

dX1/dt = f1(x1,x2) ---(1)

dX2/dt= f2(x1,x2) ----(2)

Where X1, X2 state variables

dX2/dX1 = f2(x1,x2)/ f1(x1,x2)------- (3)

Equations 3 provides slope of the phase trajectory at

every point in phase plane except at singular points

(Which is indeterminate)

drawn

Analytically

equation (3) is integrated

Numerical method

trajectory for given set of initial conditions

Graphically

Popularly known method are

Isoclines method

Delta Method.

isoclines method

Introduction

From equation (3)

Slope of the phase plant at any point is S = dX2/dX1 =

f2(X2,X1)/f1(X2,X1) (4)

Let any point slope of the phase trajectory is S1, then

F2(X1,X2) = S1 f1(X1,X2)

i.e. locus of all such points in phase-plane at which the scope of

the phase trajectory is S1.

trajectory can be drawn

A locus passing through the points of same slope

in phase plane is called Isocline

isocline method.

Step1: Phase trajectory starts at a point

corresponding to initial conditions

Note: For each set of initial conditions, one

phase trajectories can be constructed.

Step2

Let S1,S2,S3,etc be the slopes of associated

with isoclines 1,2,3 etc

Let 1 = Tan-1(S1)

2 = Tan-1(S2)

3 = Tan-1(S3)

then the slope of the line at that point is tan

step2. Draw two straight lines from point A, one at a slope of

S1

i.e 1=Tan-1 (S1)] and the other at a slope of S2 [i.e at angle

of 2=tan-1(S2)]

step3. Let these two lines meet the isoclines 2 at

p and q.

Now we can say that the trajectory would cross the isoclines

2 at midway between p & q. Mark the point B. on the

isocline-2 approximately midway between p and q

repeated at B to find the crossing point C on

the isocline-3.

By similar procedure the crossing points on

the isoclines are determined

A smooth curve drawn through the crossing

points on the isoclines are determined

A smoothe curve drawn through the crossing

points gives the phase trajectory starting at

point A

Note 2

The accuracy of the trajectory is closely related to the

spacing of the isoclines the phase trajectory will be more

accurate if large number of isoclines are used which are very

close to each other. It should be noted that using a set of

isoclines, any number of isoclines can be constructed.

X2

S7=0.5

(.5,2.5)

(1.5,2.1)

(.25,1.25)

(1,1.4)

(1,.6)

(.25,-.8)

S6=-1

(1,-.63)

(1,-.77)

(1,-1.5)

S5=-2

(2,1.2)

X1

(2,-.86)

S1=2

S2=1.5

(.75,-2.5)

(2,-2.5)

S3=.5

S4=0

delta method

Consider a second order non-liner or linear system represented

by the equation

d2 X/dt2+f(X, dX/dt,t) = 0

(1)

The equation (1) can be converted to the form shown below

d2 X/dt2+wn2(X+(X, dX /dt,t) = 0

In the above equation is a function of x,

dX/dt ,t but for short intervals, the change in phase variables are

negligible. Hence for a short interval, is considered as a

constant.

d2 X/dt2+wn2(X+)= 0 ----(3)

Let us choose as the state variables as

X1=x,x2 = dx/dt /wn---(4)

Dx/dt=wnx2 = dx1/dt ----(5)

d2 X/dt2 = wn dx2/dt ---(6)

Substituting equation 4 & 5 in 3

dx2/dt = -wn(X1+ )

So the state equations are dx1/dt=wnx2,dx2/dt= -wn(X1+ )

equation over short interval can be written as

dx2/dx1 = -(x1+)/x2 ---(8)

using above slope equation, a short segment

of the trajectory can the drawn from the

knowledge of at any point on the trajectory,

as explained below

Procedire:

Let point A be a point on phase trajectory

with co-ordinates(X1,X2 ) as shown in fig

below (usually the point A will be the

starting point of the trajectory obtained from

the initial conditions)

=4|x2|x2

X2

Center

0(A)

C1

-.1875(B)

-.140625

C2

-.325(C)

-.4225

C3

-.375(D)

-.5625

C4

-.4375(E)

.765625

C5

.....

......

......

.....

......

..

X2

C1

C2 C3 C4

C5

A(1,0)

B(..,-.1875)

D(..,-.5625)

C(..,-.325)

X1

Thank You

- Damped+Simple+Harmonic+MotionUploaded byrodwellhead
- Response spectrum analysis of girder bridges with seismic isolators using effective stiffnessUploaded byJózsef Simon
- Process ControlUploaded bymariamercedees
- Computer Algebra Recipes - An Advanced Guide to Scientific Modeling Richard H Enns(Springer 2007 372S With Maple)Uploaded byÓscarillo Valdés
- 12 Damped Harmonic OscillatorUploaded byBora Canbula
- Vibration 2nd AssinmentUploaded bySandeep Bhaskar
- Impact DamperUploaded byPrasad Panse
- Bridge HillUploaded bynostromo1979
- Control System and Automationmae345lecture7Uploaded byJOHN
- Articulated Pipes Conveying Fluid Pulsating With High FrequencyUploaded byDávid Borbély
- simscape mecanico con matlabUploaded byRaphaelCalde
- Transfer Function on RLC CircuitsUploaded byMarasigan Ryan
- webchapter 2Uploaded byTom Winter
- A 0360107Uploaded byFernando Ramos
- List of Experiments for 2017 (2)Uploaded byAbdur Rahman
- UGW06DA2Uploaded byHafid Scooterist
- Damper Airflow TheoryUploaded byAnish Pai
- 4. Management-Effect of Power -Abdolah Abertavi ForUploaded byBESTJournals
- ECAT Entry Test Syllabus 2017Uploaded byMoore12
- Stability of Pneumatic & Hydraulic Valves - Fluid Springs & DashpotsUploaded bycataice
- Pendulum FrictionUploaded bynadbrahma
- relnotes_87Uploaded byCarlos Gustavo Méndez
- Vibration of a Beam Induced by Harmonic Motion of a Heat SourceUploaded bySami Sawalha
- Report for control of a 1 dof system using matlabUploaded byMauricio Guzman
- 1Uploaded byNikhil Kumbhar
- 292841.pdfUploaded bykangsungjin
- 7.2 TransientUploaded bydev1712
- Rumus crop eldin.docxUploaded bySuhardi Effendy
- 2014 3P4 Assignment 3 SolutionsUploaded bykiet
- Lecture_8Uploaded byMamdouhAlhanafy

- Combined Graduate level Examination 2010 Question PaperUploaded byVarnika Tiwari
- New Rich Text DocumentUploaded bySriram Kumar
- Vacancy 240Uploaded bySriram Kumar
- Advt_25feb2015_01Uploaded byelexboy
- 1391969106Uploaded bySriram Kumar
- Slides Ch3Uploaded byelectrotehnica
- 1391969341Uploaded byjeetendrasidhi
- 1391969151Uploaded bySriram Kumar
- fpgaUploaded byAbrolsahil333
- Lecture 31Uploaded byRahul Agrawaal
- 01 RIC Network SolUploaded bycooldude99344
- Nonlinear Control Systems Analysis and Design - Horacio J. MarquezUploaded byW0549160
- 1391877017Uploaded byjeetendrasidhi
- Notification Office Subordinate 1477 RRDC 0Uploaded byjagan36
- Eee 6sem SyllUploaded bySriram Kumar
- 22Uploaded bySriram Kumar
- 11Uploaded bySriram Kumar

- Announcement: Installation of PA sound system for National Soccer Stadium In Iceland – Laugardalsvöllur.Uploaded byrafe788
- AquaLab Series FourUploaded byLuisaGordon
- circuitbreakers.pptxUploaded byrajesh
- Deccan Grameena Bank Tender Notice for TFT Monitors tendernoticesap.blogspot.comUploaded byTenderu Prakatanalu
- NPSC.pdfUploaded byShashi Ranjan
- FSMsUploaded bylaxmi
- Ad 711Uploaded byegrumel
- anujUploaded byAnuj Gupta
- Related Literature and ReviewsUploaded byClaudine Christiane Caparas
- CH2 BondingUploaded byDoc Croc
- Cadstar Schematic DiyUploaded byAvk Sanjeevan
- rs422Uploaded byshilpa_rehal
- Glossary of Blasting TermsUploaded byNitesh Jain
- Load Balancer FeaturesUploaded byElango SP
- Atomic Theory Worksheet (1)Uploaded bySamiha Torrecampo
- es237-205-sh-v14Uploaded byHugo I. H. Jimenez
- 32pf9731d_10_dfu_engUploaded byHanif Rathore Prince
- Improving electric energy result by using composition wavelengthUploaded byDustin Ward
- Mekatronika 3 - Sensor - Genap 2013-2014Uploaded byNovita Sari
- OM E840 Tube Poweramp 2 x50WUploaded bynifnifnafnaf
- 10.Coherence Bandwidth Characterisation at mm-wavesUploaded byBismark Obinim Akoto
- CODE PICUploaded bymytran1325
- Gopro Studio Manuale ItalianoUploaded byErica
- Dewatering Pumps for MiningUploaded bysieged_rj3165
- QTMS Brochure Rev2Uploaded byManibalan
- CPU Scheduling AlgorithmsUploaded byAchal Shantharam
- Ccs c ManualUploaded byanupam_mnit
- Meaning of Open SourceUploaded bysujenesh
- Curtis Lcd2226fr ManualUploaded byJake Espino
- psmaitrey DSP_VI UNIT.pdfUploaded bySatya Krishna