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NON-LINEAR

SYSTEMS
BASED ON THE INPUT AND OUTPUT
CHARECTARISTICS OF THE SYSTEM
LINEAR SYSTEMS
NON LINEAR SYSTEMS

LINEAR SYSTEMS

The systems which satisfy

Homogeneity Principle
Superposition Principle

Y1(t)=A1x1(t)
Y2(t)=A2x2(t)
A1x1(t)+ A2x2(t)=y3(t)
Then if y3(t)= Y1(t)+ Y2(t)

Then the system is said be a linear otherwise


non linear system.
Most of the systems are generally non-linear,
but in the range of operation of control system
can be made to linear systems
For example
Spring, Motors, Damper etc.

These non linear systems are represented


in linear differential equations

------------------------------------

Transient , Steady State response and


stability

Classical methods- Time Domain and


Frequency Domain methods
State space analysis

Non Linear systems and Classification


The systems which does not satisfy principles of linearity
The non linearities are due to many factors, and are
basically classified as
Inherently non linearities or Incidental non linearities
Which present in the component inherently

Intentional Non Linearities


To make the systems response in desired form we intensionally
introduce some non linearities in the system

The following are some of the non linearities

Saturation
Friction
Backlash
DeadZone or DeadBand
Hysterisis
Relays

Non Linear systems to linear systems


Operating a component in restricted region
Examples:
Relays, Amplifiers,Thermionic & Semiconductor devices
Electric Drives: 1500 rpm 1500 +/- 50
Automatic Voltage controllers: +/- 5% of the specified Voltage

Some components linear in working range


Example: Spring

Advantages of linearisation
Easy to construct mathematical models
Easy to design and analyse by use of transfer function based
techniques(i.e. Time domain and frequency domain)
The non linearties are small than the results obtained from linear
analysis do not differ from actual results

BEHAVIOR OF NON LINEAR SYSTEMS

Jump resonance
hormonic oscillations
Limit cycles ete

Jump Resonance
In the frequency response of nonlinear systems, the amplitude of
the response (output) may jump
from one point to another from
increasing or decreasing nature of
frequency.This phenomenon is
called jump resonance
Example: A second order system
with spring damper

b
x
M
K = K 1x + K2x3

Fcos(wt)

The frequency response curves of

c
a) K= 0, b) K>0 Hard spring c) K<0 Soft spring

Sub Hormonic oscillations


If a system is excited with a sinusoidal
function, the output is also a sinusoidal with
same frequency but with a different
amplitude and phase angle.
Depends upon system parameters, initial
conditions,amplitude & frequency of forcing
function
A Sin(wt)

B Sin (wt+)
Linear System

A Sin(wt)
Non-Linear System

(AnSin (wt)+Bn cos(wt)

Where n= 0 to

Limits Cycles
The response of the non-linear systems(o/p)
may exhibit oscillations with fixed frequency and
amplitude
These oscillations are called Limit Cycles

Characteristics of non linear


systems
The output response to a particular test signal does not
give any information to other inputs
Highly sensitive to input amplitude
Requires more information in addition to the usual
mathematical model
i.e. Amplitude of input
Initial conditions etc.

Non-Linear Systems posses


Limit Cycles
Jump Resonance
Harmonics & Sub Harmonics etc.

Singular points
When the all the phase
variables does not
changes with
respective to time i.e
reaching to a constant
point (may be origin,
equilibrium point

=1
Phase trajectory of a second order system for
different values of and for initial condition x1(0)

Phase Trajectories
The state equation of second order system is
dX1/dt = f1(x1,x2) ---(1)
dX2/dt= f2(x1,x2) ----(2)
Where X1, X2 state variables
dX2/dX1 = f2(x1,x2)/ f1(x1,x2)------- (3)
Equations 3 provides slope of the phase trajectory at
every point in phase plane except at singular points
(Which is indeterminate)

Phase trajectories can be


drawn
Analytically
equation (3) is integrated

Numerical method
trajectory for given set of initial conditions

Graphically
Popularly known method are
Isoclines method
Delta Method.

Construction of phase plane trajectory by


isoclines method
Introduction
From equation (3)
Slope of the phase plant at any point is S = dX2/dX1 =
f2(X2,X1)/f1(X2,X1) (4)
Let any point slope of the phase trajectory is S1, then
F2(X1,X2) = S1 f1(X1,X2)
i.e. locus of all such points in phase-plane at which the scope of
the phase trajectory is S1.

Note: for each set of initial conditions one phase


trajectory can be drawn
A locus passing through the points of same slope
in phase plane is called Isocline

Procedure to construct phase trajectories by


isocline method.
Step1: Phase trajectory starts at a point
corresponding to initial conditions
Note: For each set of initial conditions, one
phase trajectories can be constructed.
Step2
Let S1,S2,S3,etc be the slopes of associated
with isoclines 1,2,3 etc
Let 1 = Tan-1(S1)
2 = Tan-1(S2)
3 = Tan-1(S3)

Note: If a straight line is drawn at an angle from a point,


then the slope of the line at that point is tan
step2. Draw two straight lines from point A, one at a slope of
S1
i.e 1=Tan-1 (S1)] and the other at a slope of S2 [i.e at angle
of 2=tan-1(S2)]
step3. Let these two lines meet the isoclines 2 at
p and q.
Now we can say that the trajectory would cross the isoclines
2 at midway between p & q. Mark the point B. on the
isocline-2 approximately midway between p and q

step4. The constructional procedure is now


repeated at B to find the crossing point C on
the isocline-3.
By similar procedure the crossing points on
the isoclines are determined
A smooth curve drawn through the crossing
points on the isoclines are determined
A smoothe curve drawn through the crossing
points gives the phase trajectory starting at
point A

Note 2
The accuracy of the trajectory is closely related to the
spacing of the isoclines the phase trajectory will be more
accurate if large number of isoclines are used which are very
close to each other. It should be noted that using a set of
isoclines, any number of isoclines can be constructed.

X2
S7=0.5
(.5,2.5)

(1.5,2.1)

(.25,1.25)
(1,1.4)
(1,.6)

(.25,-.8)

S6=-1

(1,-.63)
(1,-.77)
(1,-1.5)

S5=-2
(2,1.2)
X1
(2,-.86)
S1=2

S2=1.5
(.75,-2.5)
(2,-2.5)
S3=.5
S4=0

Phase Portrait of example

Construction of phase trajectories by


delta method
Consider a second order non-liner or linear system represented
by the equation
d2 X/dt2+f(X, dX/dt,t) = 0
(1)
The equation (1) can be converted to the form shown below
d2 X/dt2+wn2(X+(X, dX /dt,t) = 0
In the above equation is a function of x,
dX/dt ,t but for short intervals, the change in phase variables are
negligible. Hence for a short interval, is considered as a
constant.
d2 X/dt2+wn2(X+)= 0 ----(3)
Let us choose as the state variables as
X1=x,x2 = dx/dt /wn---(4)

from above equation


Dx/dt=wnx2 = dx1/dt ----(5)
d2 X/dt2 = wn dx2/dt ---(6)
Substituting equation 4 & 5 in 3
dx2/dt = -wn(X1+ )
So the state equations are dx1/dt=wnx2,dx2/dt= -wn(X1+ )

From the above equations, the slope


equation over short interval can be written as
dx2/dx1 = -(x1+)/x2 ---(8)
using above slope equation, a short segment
of the trajectory can the drawn from the
knowledge of at any point on the trajectory,
as explained below
Procedire:
Let point A be a point on phase trajectory
with co-ordinates(X1,X2 ) as shown in fig
below (usually the point A will be the
starting point of the trajectory obtained from
the initial conditions)

=4|x2|x2

X2

Center

0(A)

C1

-.1875(B)

-.140625

C2

-.325(C)

-.4225

C3

-.375(D)

-.5625

C4

-.4375(E)

.765625

C5

.....

......

......

.....

......

..

X2

C1

C2 C3 C4

C5

A(1,0)
B(..,-.1875)

D(..,-.5625)

C(..,-.325)

X1

Thank You