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Dynamic Stability of Grid Connected Photovoltaic Systems

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photovoltaic systems

C. Rodriguez, Student Member, IEEE, G. A. J. Amaratunga, Member, IEEE

photovoltaic energy sources suitable for stability studies is

presented. The power electronic conditioning unit is modelled

from basic power transfer relations. Using this model, it is

demonstrated that there exist two solutions for a given power

output, one of which is unstable. By doing eigenvalue and

eigenvector analysis, dynamic orbits are presented that help

visualize any potential problem that may occur under

disturbances. Simulations are carried out showing instances

where the voltage at the photovoltaic panel collapses, in

particular when operating close to the maximum power point.

Index Terms Eigenvalues, photovoltaic cells, power system

dynamic stability, solar energy.

I. INTRODUCTION

significantly in the United States, Germany, and Japan,

among others. Photovoltaics are particularly attractive as

a renewable source for distributed urban power generation

due to their relative small size and noiseless operation. To

gain wide scale penetration, residential modules in the range

100 to 250W with dc-ac conversion are an attractive option

[1]-[3]. However, there are various concerns associated with

photovoltaic modules, such as the impact of their

interconnection to the grid and the transparent operation of

inverters. Some studies have been carried out on this, for

example [4], but in general there is little information on the

topic. It is of major concern for utilities in deregulated

environments that these devices operate safely and meet

specific standards such as those recommended by the IEEE

and IEC [15], [16]. Fortunately, many of the readily available

commercial inverters comply with these regulations [5], the

disadvantage being their generic nature. In particular,

photovoltaic panels suffer from nonlinear behaviour which a

generic inverter does not take into account. Therefore, we

present a study on the nonlinear characteristics of

photovoltaic modules at constant power aimed at future

development of robust control algorithms for power

conditioning units. Results in dynamic stability of gridconnected photovoltaic modules are presented in an effort to

Kingdom.

C. Rodriguez (e-mail: cr310@cam.ac.uk) and G. Amaratunga (e-mail:

ga@eng.cam.ac.uk) are with the Department of Engineering, University of

Cambridge, Trumpington Street, Cambridge, CB2 1PZ, UK.

pervasive and reliable.

First, the power electronic conversion unit is introduced.

The topology presented is very robust and is currently used in

research experiments at the University of Cambridge.

Additionally, it features electrical isolation, which is a

requirement in grid-connected applications in Great Britain.

This topology is then approximated with a mathematical

model in order to apply stability analysis. Although the model

completely eliminates high frequency components resulting

from the switching devices, it characterizes accurately the

dynamic behaviour of the entire system. We then continue

with the stability analysis of a photovoltaic array under

constant power. Finally, some simulation results related to the

stability of solutions are presented.

II. POWER CONDITIONING UNIT

Fig.1 shows a typical topology for a grid-connected

photovoltaic array with isolation. The first stage of conversion

comprises of a dc-ac-dc converter operated at 50 kHz. In

addition to isolation, the transformer steps up the voltage of

the array (typically around 36 volts) to an acceptable level for

grid interconnection (around 350 volts). The inductance and

capacitance in the dc link filters any ripple resulting from the

rectification stage. In fact, the inductance may be neglected if

one takes into account the leakage inductance of the

transformer. Finally the inverter at the output operates under

sinusoidal pulse-width modulation (SPWM). Control of real

and reactive power is achieved through the magnitude and

angle of the modulating signal.

III. MATHEMATICAL MODEL OF POWER CONDITIONING UNIT

The power conditioning unit shown in Fig.1 comprises

several switching elements under various control schemes. It

would be excessively complex to characterize the system fully

in order to assess its stability considering the nonlinear nature

of switching functions. Instead, a mathematical approximation

is realized based on the principles of energy conversion, and

considering ideal switching devices only.

First we consider an ideal transformer whose well-known

relations are: N2v1=N1v2, N1i1=N2i2. Consequently the dc

voltage across the PV capacitor is stepped-up to a value of

Nvpv after the diode bridge. Conversely, the current across the

dc link is N times smaller to the one leaving the PV capacitor.

as a true sinusoidal source. Although this is a simplification,

the power transfer is not considerably affected. The

magnitude of the voltage source is proportional to the voltage

in the dc link and is related through the amplitude modulation

index, K, of the PWM scheme. In order for this approximation

to be complete and to satisfy instantaneous power balance, the

current drawn from the dc link has also a sinusoidal

component proportional to the output current.

di pv

dt

I L i pv ( v pv + Rs i pv ) / Rsh

1

ln

+ 1

L pv

Is

1

( v pv + Rs ipv )

Lpv

(2)

dv pv

dt

1

i pv Nidc

C pv

(3)

link results in,

didc

1

Nv pv Rdc idc vdc

=

dt

Ldc

dvdc

1

=

idc Kiout cos ( t + )

dt

Cdc

Finally, KVL at the output of the inverter yields,

diout Kvdc cos ( t + ) Rout iout vg

=

dt

Lout

(4)

(5)

(6)

aforementioned is shown in Fig.2. We have included the

equivalent model of a photovoltaic array where IL is the light

generated current, ION is the dark diode characteristics of the

photocells, and Rsh and Rs are the shunt and series resistances

of the array respectively.

Kirchhoffs current law (KCL) in the PV terminals yields,

di pv

I L I s exp v pv + Rs i pv + L pv

1

dt

v pv + Rs i pv + L pv di pv / dt

i pv = 0

Rsh

(1)

constant, q=1.6022x10-19 C is the electronic charge, T =

298K is the temperature, and ns is the number of series cells

in the array. Since Lpv and 1/Rsh are very small, it is possible to

neglect the term ( L pv / Rsh ) di pv / dt and we can solve for

dipv/dt,

Equations (2)-(6) constitute a system of nonlinear, timevarying differential equations defining the dynamics of grid

connected photovoltaic modules, and has the form,

x& = f ( x,t )

(7)

greater than zero, and f R+ R R is a vector function.

Hence, an equilibrium of (7) must satisfy,

n

f ( x, t ) = 0

(8)

solution. These, nevertheless, can be transported into a new

time-invariant coordinate system, thus satisfying (8). The

details of this procedure are beyond the scope of the present

document and can be found in [14].

is tangent to the PV arrays I-V characteristics. Several

algorithms have been developed in order to operate at this

peak power point [6]-[10].

However, with changing atmospheric conditions the I-V

curve may shift thus creating the possibility of two solutions

for a given set point P*. It is therefore essential to assess the

stability of either point.

SOLUTIONS

Grid-connected photovoltaic modules are characterized by

the constant power injection into the mains. However, for a

given power injection set point P* there exist two fixed points

satisfying equation (8) as is explained below.

For the sake of simplicity we focus first on the dynamics of

the PV array with constant power load and neglect any

resistive component. The simplified circuit is shown in Fig. 3,

where the state vector is defined by, x = [i v ] .

T

di

I L I s exp v + L 1 i = 0

dt

dv p

=0

dt v

Therefore the dynamics of the system are given by,

i C

di 1 1 I L i

= ln

+ 1 v

dt L I s

dv 1 p

=

i

dt C v

(9)

The fixed points of the system are found by solving the

system of coupled nonlinear equations,

(10)

1 I i

0 = ln L

+ 1 v

Is

(12)

p

0=i

v

This requires a numerical solution, for example, through

Newton-Raphson.

(11)

the state vector, x, vary slightly by an interval x, so that the

change in the sensitivity is given by,

x& = Jx

where J is the Jacobian matrix,

J=

and three curves at different load levels.

1

( IL i ) + Is

(13)

p

Cv 2

1

C

(14)

1,2 =

( J11 + J 22 ) ( J11 J 22 )

2

+ 4 J12 J 21

(15)

filtering and is in the order of mF. Therefore the ratio L/C is

in the order of 0.001 and the roots of the characteristic

(16) polynomial of (14) are real. As a result, stability of solutions

is assessed by relation (20) as depicted in Fig. 5.

Let us assume that the radical is positive. Then the system will

be stable if,

( J11 + J 22 ) + ( J11 J 22 )

+ 4 J12 J 21 < 0

( J11 + J 22 ) < 0 for the system to be stable. Therefore,

( J11 + J 22 )

( J11 J 22 )

>

+ 4 J12 J 21

(17)

(18)

( J11 + J 22 )

(19)

v 0; i I L , and following some manipulation results in,

v2 >

(20)

[ IL i + Is ]

130W.

Assuming we have real valued eigenvalues and

eigenvectors, the dynamical orbits can be studied through the

phase portrait. A stable node is that with two negative

eigenvalues. In this case, the eigenvectors point into the node.

A saddle node has one negative and one positive eigenvalues

and the eigenvectors point into and out of the node

respectively. If both eigenvalues are positive then it is an

unstable node and the eigenvectors point out of it [11].

According to the Hartman-Grobman theorem [11], the

direction of the eigenvectors for nonlinear systems is valid in

a relatively close neighbourhood to the fixed points, while

they may curve in an outer region. Fig. 6 shows the phase

portrait in the state space of the PV array where a saddle node

(considered unstable) and a stable node are present. From the

figure we can observe that any state with a voltage higher to

the one for the saddle node solution will eventually converge

to the stable solution. In the opposite case, the voltage will

eventually collapse. In fact, since the inductance is very low,

the dynamics of the states are confined to the I-V

characteristics of the PV array, that is, any initial condition

will swerve towards the I-V curve in a vertical direction. To

make the analysis complete, the saddle node will be a stable

solution if and only if the initial state is along its stable

eigenvector.

discriminant in (15). Following an algebraic procedure it can

be proved that the argument will be non-negative under the

following conditions,

i > IL + Is

i < IL + Is

1

L C p

2

C L v2

1

L C p

2

C L v2

if

v2 >

p L

2 C

(21)

Fig. 6. Phase portrait of photovoltaic array solutions.

if

v2 <

p L

2 C

defined as follows,

(22)

parameters of a cable and is in the order of H, whereas the

B ( x ) = x R 2 lim x ( t ) x*stable = 0

t

(23)

*

2 _ unstable

where x

(24)

depicted in Fig. 6 will change when all the states and elements

in the power conditioning unit are taken into account. It is not

possible to carry out graphical analysis in this case, and we

must rely upon numerical methods.

As an example consider the following operating conditions.

The light generated current of a PV array with 72 cells in

series, at 1000 W/m2 of irradiance is IL = 4.7 A, the saturation

current of the diode is Is = 9e-11 A. The constant power load

is drawing p = 130 W. The series inductance and shunt

capacitance are L = 1H, and C = 10 mF respectively.

Through Newton-Raphson we find the two solutions are

i1=4.6997; v1=27.6612 and i2=2.9691; v2=43.7837. The

eigenvalues corresponding to the first solution and their

respective eigenvectors are: e11=-6.54x109; e12=16.97, and

v11=[-1 0]T; v12=[0 -1]T. The eigenvalues corresponding to

the second solution are: e21=-1.06x106; e22=-86.83 and their

respective eigenvectors: v21=[-1.0 0.0]T; v22=[0.6834 -0.73]T.

These are shown in Fig. 6 in the phase plane with their

respective directions.

f 2

1 f 2

N

=

=

;

x1 C pv x3

C pv

(29)

R

f3

f

N f3

1

;

=

= dc ; 3 =

Ldc x4

Ldc

x2 Ldc x3

(30)

K cos ( t + )

f 4

1 f 4

=

=

;

x3 Cdc x5

Cdc

(31)

f 5 K cos ( t + ) f5

R

=

= out

;

(32)

x4

x5

Lout

Lout

Notice that the states directly affecting the Jacobian matrix

are only the PV array voltage and current.

The system parameters are the following: Rs = 0.0819 ,

Rsh = 72k, Lpv = 1H, Cpv = 10mH, Rdc=0.1, Ldc=1mH,

Cdc=400F, Rout=0.1, Lout=10mH, transformer ratio N = 15.

The systems fixed points (state 5 is actually a periodic

solution) and control parameters in steady state are listed in

TABLE I.

TABLE I.

FIXED POINTS OF PHOTOVOLTAIC CONVERTER

We now extend the analysis to include the whole converter.

The Jacobian matrix of f in (7) is defined as,

J=

f

=

x

f1

x

1

f n

x

1

f1

xn

f n

xn

obtained for an entire period T = 20ms resulting in values

with half the period. However, the first eigenvalue is constant

(25) with a real part equal to e11 = -1.146x106 for fixed point 1 and

e21 = 6.38x109 for fixed point 2. Therefore, only fixed point 1

is stable.

V. SIMULATION EXAMPLES

(26) The converter includes all stages with ideal switching devices.

The set-points K and are determined through phasor

analysis and the state values. In addition, a PID controller is

Consequently the non-zero partial derivatives of the Jacobian

included to track the set-point.

matrix are,

x = i pv v pv idc vdc iout

df1

Rs

1

1

=

1 +

dx1

L pv I L + I s (1 + Rs / Rsh ) i pv v pv / Rsh Rsh

Rs

L pv

df1

1

1

=

dx2

L pv Rsh I L + I s (1 + Rs / Rsh ) i pv v pv / Rsh

Lpv

instant t = 2s, the grid voltage magnitude decreases by 300

(27) volts for 200 ms. Fig. 7 and Fig. 8 show the voltage and the

current across the photovoltaic array.

(28)

Fig. 7. PV array voltage with a fault duration of 200 ms.

doesnt lose its stability and returns to its original state.

the disturbance occurs. The voltage drops sharply causing an

inrush current to flow. When the fault is cleared after 200 ms

the original state cannot be re-established, causing the voltage

to droop and eventually collapse. Notice however, that since

the inverter is still connected to the mains, the voltage at the

dc-link is maintained at approximately 325V. Therefore the

voltage at the PV terminals does not go to zero but rather

stays at 22V due to the transformer turns ratio as shown in the

Figure. At this point the photovoltaic array is injecting real

power into the grid (100W only) but the reactive elements are

absorbing a great amount of reactive power.

Case 2) The power injected to the grid is 130 W. At time

instant t = 2s, the grid voltage magnitude decreases by 300

volts for 60 ms. Fig. 9 and Fig. 10 show the photovoltaic array

voltage and current respectively during the transient.

that under many types of disturbances the system states return

to its original values. It is important to note, however, that the

system is more prone to losing stability when operating close

to the maximum power point due to the change in the regions

of attraction as shown in Fig. 11. The voltage and current are

shown for a power output of p = 150 W and a fault duration

of 60 ms. We observe a similar behaviour as in Fig. 7 and Fig.

8 but with a shorter fault duration time. In this instance,

however, the system is not capable of re-establishing the

original conditions.

Fig. 11. PV array voltage and current for power p =150W and a fault duration of

60 ms.

photovoltaic maximum power point tracking converter, IEEE Transactions

on Industrial Electronics, Vol. 44, No. 6, pp. 769-773, 1997.

[7] I.H. Altas, A.M. Sharaf, A novel on-line MPP search algorithm for PV

arrays, IEEE Transactions on Energy Conversion, Vol. 11, No. 4, pp. 748754,1996.

[8] E. Koutroulis, K. Kalaitzakis, N.C. Voulgaris, Development of a

microcontroller-based photovoltaic maximum power point tracking control

system, IEEE Transactions on Power Electronics, Vol. 16, No.1, pp. 4654, 2001.

[9] C. Hua, J. Lin, C. Shen, Implementation of a DSP controlled photovoltaic

system with peak power tracking, IEEE Transactions on Industrial

Electronics, Vol. 45, No. 1, 1998.

[10] H.S.H. Chung, K.K. Tse, S.Y. Ron Hui, C.M. Mok, M.T. Ho, A novel

maximum power point tracking technique for solar panels using a SEPIC or

Cuk converter, IEEE Transactions on Power Electronics, Vol. 18, No. 3,

pp. 717-724, 2003.

[11] A. Medio, M. Lines, Nonlinear Dynamics: A Primer, Cambridge

University Press, 2001.

[12] D.P. Atherton, Stability of Nonlinear Systems, John Wiley and Sons,

Research studies press, 1981.

[13] P.C. Parks, V. Hahn, Stability Theory, Prentice Hall, 1993.

[14] J. Kato, A.A. Matynyuk, A.A. Shestakov, Stability of Motion of

Nonautonomous Systems, Gordon and Breach Publishers, 1996.

[15] IEEE Std 929-2000, IEEE Recommended Practice for Utility Interface of

Photovoltaic (PV) Systems.

[16] IEC 61727, Characteristics of the utility interface for photovoltaic (pv)

systems, 1995-06. (New revision is under development).

VIII. BIOGRAPHIES

VI. CONCLUSIONS

We have presented a mathematical model suitable for

stability analysis that includes the nonlinear behaviour of gridconnected photovoltaic modules. Utilizing the model we have

shown there exist two solutions for a specific power injection

into the grid mains, one of which is a saddle node and

therefore unstable in practical terms. Moreover, eigenvalue

analysis was introduced to define regions of attraction that

determine the dynamics of the converter states.

Simulations including the entire power converter were done

to support the mathematical analysis. Results showed that the

system is more susceptible to instability under high loading

levels, i.e. when operating close to its maximum power point.

This is mainly due to the small margin available in order to

withstand any disturbance.

Further research focuses on the determination of stability

margins and operating limits, as well as the development of

better control strategies to cope swiftly with disturbances in

the grid.

VII. REFERENCES

[1] S.W.H. de Haan, H. Oldenkamp, E.J. Wildenbeest, Test results of a 130

W AC module; a modular solar AC power station, IEEE Fist World

Conference on Photovoltaic Energy Conversion, Vol. 1, pp. 925-928, 1994.

[2] R.H. Wills, F.E. Hall, S.J. Strong, J.H. Wohlgemuth, The AC photovoltaic

module, Twenty Fifth IEEE Photovoltaic Specialist Conference, pp. 12311234, 1996.

[3] B. Kroposki, R. DeBlasio, Technologies for the new millennium:

photovoltaics as a distributed resource, IEEE Power Engineering Society

Summer Meeting, Vol. 3, pp. 1798-1801, 2000.

[4] Li Wang, Ying-Hao Lin. Random fluctuations on dynamic stability of a

grid-connected photovoltaic array, IEEE Power Engineering Society

Winter Meeting. Vol.3, pp.985-989, 2001.

[5] A. Woyte, R. Belmans, J. Nijs, Testing the islanding protection function of

photovoltaic inverters, IEEE Transactions on Energy Conversion, Vol. 18,

No. 1, pp. 157 162, 2003.

obtained his B.S. with honours in Electronics and

Communications

Engineering

from

ITESMMonterrey, Mexico, in 2000. He then joined the

American-based company Symtx, where he worked as

a design engineer. In 2003 he graduated from the M.

Eng degree in electrical engineering from McGill

University, Montreal, Canada. His research focused

on power system stability and load flow analysis. He

is currently a PhD candidate at the University of

Cambridge, UK, where his main interest falls in the

interconnection of photovoltaic sources to the electric

grid.

Gehan Amaratunga (M 90) . obtained his B.Sc from Cardiff University and

PhD from Cambridge, both in EE. He has held the

1966 Professorship in Engineering at the University

of Cambridge since 1998. He currently heads the

Electronics, Power and Energy Conversion Group,

one of four major research groups within the

Electrical Engineering Division of the Cambridge

Engineering Faculty. He has worked for 20 years on

integrated and discrete electronic devices for power

conversion; and on the science and technology of

carbon based electronics for 15 years. His group was amongst the first to

demonstrate integration of logic level electronics for signal processing and high

voltage power transistors in a single IC ( chip). His current research on

integrated power conversion circuits for connecting solar modules directly to the

AC grid draws directly on his research in power ICs . This work on novel solar

inverter technology is currently being commercialised through a start up

company, Enecsys Ltd. He also leads an active research effort in novel solar cell

technologies. His group has developed a new approach to enhancing the

performance of low cost polymer solar cells by combining semiconducting

polymers with carbon nanotubes.

He has previously held faculty positions at the Universities of Liverpool (Chair

in Electrical Engineering), Cambridge, and Southampton. He also held the UK

Royal Academy of Engineering Overseas Research Award at Stanford

University. He has published over 300 journal and conference papers.

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