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consumer 95 intraspecific competition 91 range of tol ranee 84
decomposer 95 keystone species 96 secondary consumer 95
denitrifying bacteria 102 limiting factor 84 speciation 89
detritus 97 mutualism 93 species 87
ecology 83 mycorrhizae 93 symbiosis 92
ecosystem 95 natural selection 88 symbiotic nitrogen-fixing bacteria J 0.1
ectoparasite 92 niche 84 trophic level 96
endoparasite 92 nitrifying bacteria 101 vector 92

Review Questions
1. Define environment. 8. What are some different trophic levels in an ecosystem?
2. Describe, in detail, the niche of a human. 9. Describe the carbon cycle, the nitrogen cycle, and the phospho-
3. How is natural selection related to the concept of niche? rus cycle.
4. List five predators and their prey organisms. 10. Analyze an aquarium as an ecosystem. Identify the major abi-
S. How is an ecosystem different from a community? otic and biotic factors. List members of the producer, primary
consumer, secondary consumer, and decomposer trophic levels.
6. Humans raising cattle for food is what kind of relationship?
7. Give examples of organisms that are herbivores, carnivores, and
omnivores.

Critical Thinking Questions


1. Ecologists and political scientists look at habitat destruction dif- up these different perspectives: ranchers and conservationists.
ferently. Consider the Environmental Close-Up about habitat Which do you find the most compelling? Why?
conservation plans and the political, economic, and scientific is- 4. Concentrations of industrial chemicals are high in some species
sues that surround conservation plans. Identify some perspectives offish, high enough to call for an advisory to limit the number of
each discip~ne has to contribute to our understanding of habitat fish a person should eat within a given period of time. Many of
destructionz.What values does each place on the ideas of the other these chemicals are thought to cause cancer, but cancer is an ef-
discipline? What do you think about the issue of creating Jonser- fect that is often not felt for decades after exposure. How do sci-
vation plans? Protecting habitat from destruction? Why? entists decide how many fish can be safely eaten? Is there any
2. Even before humans entered the scene, many species 0 plants "safe" level? What evidence would convince you that there is
and animals were extinct and new ones had developed. Why are danger? How could you tell?
we even concerned about endangered species, given the fact S. You notice that after using pesticides on your farm field that the
that species have always come and gone? number of insects declines for a year. The next year, though,
3. Humans have had a major impact on many ecosystems. Con- they come back and you need to reapply the pesticide. This
sider the questions in the Issues and Analysis section about rein- time, though, there is less of an effect on the insect population.
troducing wolves to Yellowstone Park. Is this the appropriate A third application in another year has even less of an effect.
way for humans to try to repair the environmental damage they What is your hypothesis about what is happening here? Design
have caused? Identify some of the values and beliefs that make an experiment that tests your hypothesis.

106 PART TWO Ecological Principles and Their Application ('111\ 1111111 I