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Jen Mazzeo October 25, 2009

Dr. Nardi AP Euro p. 4

1. Describe the background, nature, and outcome of the civil and religious
wars in France in the sixteenth century. How does the illustration on page
133 in Palmer depict the struggle? Was the war chiefly a religious or political
event?

In 1559, the Spanish/French wars ended with a Spanish victory. This


led to warfare that focused on religious and national issues. These wars were
larger and used bigger armies and more gunpowder, causing the need for
administrative reorganization. To affect public opinion, forms of propaganda
such as the printing press. The Peace of Westphalia (1648) ended religious
wars but also ended the idea of a unified Christian society. France was
recovering from a terrible plague in 1500. On top of this they had disorder
and the nobility was beginning to lose power. Although King Francis I and
Henry II continued the policies of centralization and were great patrons of
Renaissance art, they ended up spending more money than they had been
rising. Another major cause of debt for the French government was the
Hapsburg-Valois wars (the wars between France and Emperor Charles V). To
raise money, Francis sold public offices and signed the Concordat of Bologna
(1516), in which he recognized the supremacy of the papacy in return for
the right to appoint French bishops.

2. What took place during the Saint Bartholomew’s Day Massacre? What
were the consequences of this event?

On the day of the marriage of Margaret of Valois to Henry of Navarre,


a marriage that was intended to fix the relationship between the Calvinists
and the Catholics, something very important occurred. Catharine de Medici
ordered the attack of all the Huguenots present at the wedding. Many were
killed and others fled the area. This massacre led to the War of the Three
Henrys, a civil conflict. King Henry, a Catholic, recognized that the Catholic
Guise group wanted to take over the throne in France. Henry now fought
with Henry of Guise in order to prevent him from gaining the throne. The
Saint Bartholomew’s Day, August 24, 1572, massacre led to many things
that did not help get rid of French wars.

3. Of what long-range significance was the position taken by the politiques in


the civil wars in France?

The politques were people who ultimately saved France. They were a
small group from both the more perfunctory Catholics and the moderate
Protestants. The politiques believed that the restoration of a strong
monarchy is the only way to escape the collapse of the empire. They
accepted the Huguenots and had some form of religious toleration. The
politiques believed that too much importance was being placed on religion at
that nothing was more important than the welfare of the state.

4. How did Henry IV come to the throne in 1589? What is the deeper
meaning of the remark, “Paris is well worth a Mass”?

1589 Henry II the reigning king and Henry of Guise the Catholic party
chief who was trying to depose him were assassinated. The throne was of
legal inheritance to the third of the three Henry’s, Henry of Navarre. Popular
among his people and most remembered. Henry IV in 1598 abjured the
Calvinist faith and subjected himself to the elaborate processes of papal
absolution. The Huguenots happy that their leader should become king were
not only upset by Henry’s abjuration but also alarmed for their own safety.

5. Discuss Henry IV’s attempt to settle the religious issue. Of what


significance was his reign for the development of the French monarchy?

In the ends of the 1500's many religious wars were breaking out, and
Protestants, Catholics, and Calvinists were in conflict with each other. Many
of the Catholics still believed that the Protestants could be re-converted back
to Christianity. This was not the case however in France. These Protestants
were called “Huguenots” in France. After, Bartholomew’s Day Massacre, “The
Politiques” arose in France. These people believed that religion was being
made too much of a big deal, and that endless wars should not be meant to
fight over endlessly. Henry of Navarre, who later became Henry IV, was a
“politique’ at heart. Although first Protestant, he was smart enough to
convert, and lay down his faith to Catholicism and was crowned king of
France. Henry IV issued the Edict Of Nantes, a doctrine granting rights to
every single seigneur, or noble who was also a manorial lord, the right to
hold the Protestant services in his own household. It allowed for Protestants
to leave peacefully and safe in France, in its fortified cities. Henry IV’s reign
set a base for France to slowly get back in line. He worked to restore the
ruined government, to collect taxes, pay officials, discipline the army, and
supervise the administration of justice.

6. Assess the objectives and accomplishments of Cardinal Richelieu.

Cardinal Richelieu was an accomplished man in France and worked to


strengthen the state, as opposed to the church. He attempted to draw
impoverished gentlemen into trade by allowing them to engage in maritime
trade without loss of noble status. He supported many commercial
companies to further enhance this process of strengthening the economy.
Richelieu was against internal warfare, but this policy was disturbed when
the Huguenots revolted against the state. This revolt was suppressed by
Richelieu, and the lost their fortified cities, their armies, and their military
and territory rights. Richelieu then soon found the perfect opportunity to
attack the Habsburgs, which began to afflict Germany.