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G. Skalks, NHG. Schalk, etc., G. Kalkjo, ON. Skkja, OHG. Karl, NHG. Kerl, Kegel, etc.

Author(s): George Hempl


Source: The Journal of Germanic Philology, Vol. 1, No. 3 (1897), pp. 342-347
Published by: University of Illinois Press
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342

G.

[Vol. I

Hempl,

NHG.

SKALKS,
ON.

SCHALK,
OHG.

SK^EKfA,

G.

ETC.,

KALKJO,

NHG.

KARL,

KERL,

ETC.

KEGEL,

is the object of this paper to associate


etymologically
words
of like meaning
whose
certain
Germanic
IT
kinship
Gothic kalkjo
has not, so far as I am aware, been suspected.
as "dunklen
kekel are usually
and MHG.
Ur
designated
"
no
one
has
succeeded
in
in
Indo
other
;
sprungs
tracing
the roots of the group represented
languages
European
by
churl \ and I do not know
German karl and kerl and English
that any one has explained ON. skcekja.
It.will be simplest
in a table :
to place the words
G.

ON.

skalks

ON.

kalkjo

scealc

OHG.

sclialk

MHG.

'
menial,'

?
serf,'
G.

OE.
ME.

skatkr

?
churl.'
scie Icen

OE.

skcekja

Dan.

ME.

sk'?ge

'?
harlot

OHG.

<
lady's maid,'

NHG.

kar{a)l
karl
Karl

'man

MHG.

of

low

birth,'

schtfkel

ON.

karl

OE.

cearl

carl

ME.

chert

carl

MnE.

churl

'serf,'

MHG.

<churl,'

child

of a churl

'

<
child

k%kelk^gel

OHG.

karlo
karle

?
man,'

'

sweetheart

OHG.

'

'

child

woman
'

etc.

'sweetheart,'

iman

little

Friz, tz?rl

Kerl

of low birth,'

?
fellow'

'

fellow

scalkilo

of a churl

NHG.

'

of

ceorl

(Goethe) Kegel
1

MHG.

'

of a mistress

NHG.

schelkinne

Du. & LG. ker{e)l


NHG.

'

<
young
virtue

OE.
MnE.

(name)

se etc hin

OHG.
MHG.

schelchene

easy

MHG.

scale, etc.
schale

A?r/?

(dialect)

fellow

'

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No.

3] Gc.

For

Skalk-,

Kalk-,

lack of s in kalkjo,

the

I.

Brugmann,

589,

end,

etc. 343

Karl,

p.

etc.,

487,

Noreen,

ische Lautlehre,
? 57, and the literature
sk varies with k and not h, it is evident
arose

not

in Germanic,

churl,

kekel, Kerl,

see

Urgerman

he gives.
As
the
that the variation
times.

Indo-European,

case

etc.,

There

is

was

which
in Modern
German,
possible
only
/ > HG. s. Thus, by the side of Stapfe stapfen, we
Tapfe tapfen, due to the frequent compound Fufsstapfe,

similar

after Gc.

have
now Fufstapfe,
cf. Kluge's Dictionary
and my German Orthog
loss of s- in kalkjo etc.
and
The
3.
? 156,
raphy
Phonology,
of the word in some such
is probably due to the occurrence
most

compound,
like

vowel,

likely

see

etc.,

gud-h?s

(formed

*h?s-{s)kalkjo

Gotische

Braune,

stem

without
Grammatik,

'
domestic,' OYIG. h?s
? 88 a), cf. ON. hfis-karl, OE. h?s-carl
mau
and h?s-meit
MHO
h?s-kneht
'domestic,'
'janitor,'
'
'
It should also be observed
domestics.'
domestic,' hfis-volc
occurs both in the singu
that as a fern, noun that frequently
an object that can
lar and in the plural, and that denotes
in particular
to another, Gothic
very fre
{s)kalkjo
-s
a
:
nom.
ace. pi.
and
in
followed
word
ending
quently
(1)
so
after
and
p?s
meines,
frein?s,
g?d?s {s)kalkj?ns,
{s)kalkj?ns,
izwav?s ; (2) gen. sg. g?daiz?s
sein?s, misaros,
{s)kalkj?ns and
belong

so

after

the

article

and

piz?s,

pronouns

meinaiz?s,

sumaiz?s,

izwaraiz?s
; (3) in all cases
nnsaraiz?s,
is
after
and
Jviz?s.
'his,' iz?s, his,
singular
plural
For the change of ON. *skalkja > sk kja, cf. ON. kialke and
ki ke, dialectic Norwegian
kjake, and see Noreen,
Urger

?einaiz?s,
of both

seinaiz?s,

manische

Lautlehre,

p.

222,

It is important to observe that in the matter of the feminine


the Gothic
derivatives
and Old Norse go together, while, on
the other hand, the West
Germanic
harmonize;
languages
and this is true both in the matter of the suffix and as regards
the meaning.
The Gothic
and Old Norse
forms are -j?n
stems (Kluge,
and
have a mean
? 38)
Stammbildungslehre,
ing

considerable

showing

correspond

to

'

fioLxeca
iropveia

adultery.'
are
etc.,

'
iropveia

development.

fornication

Kalkinassus

as

Matthew,

Throughout
rendered

'

by

kalkinassus

etc.,

distinguished
Mark,
etc.,

and
and

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from
Luke,
?xot^e?a

344

[Vol. I

Hempl,

etc.
From John on, I find /?oi^eia but
etc., by horinassus
as usual by
and
it is there translated
twice (Romans
7. 3),
also
the usual
horinassus
is
in
books
but
these
horinassus,
occurs but twice (1 Thes.
of iropve?a\ kalki7iassus
translation
3; Gal.

4.
Gal.

19 both

5.

late

and

kalkinassus

means

to

used

in

but

iropveia,
are

horinassus

is, kalkinassus

That

iropveia.1

to translate

times

19), both

5.

trans
and

'fornication,'

and 'adultery.'
both 'harlotry'
Kalkjo
designates
a
woman
serf
who
then,
young
skcekja,
designated
originally
was
later
of her master,
it
the concubine
got the
though
Jiorinassus

meaning

of

cases

of similar

kebsweib

'slave,'

low

numerous

course,

cf. German
: pizva-

dime

'handmaid,'
of

'person

originally

of

are,

of meaning,

development

originally

Jiarlot,

There

'prostitute.'

birth,'

'serf,'
etc.,

and

were made

with

'servant,'

see Kluge's Dictionary


under kebse.
The forms that we find inWest
Germanic

kebse

the later feminine suffix -ini (Kluge, StammbildungsleJire,


? 41,
II. ? 240) and show but slight divergence
of mean
from
of questionable
ing ('maid,'
'young woman
character')
'
'
serf ; they are, therefore,
skalk
doubtless
their primitive

Wilmanns,

much

later

formations.

forms show both -/- and -il- (Wilmanns,


II.
as
as
ff.
and
weak
declension
well
strong
{id
212),
? 205
like scJi^lkel?n,
? 205, 3). There are also extended diminutives
k?rl?n {id. ? 212 end), KerlcJien, etc. The two k's of the stem,
together with the / of the stem and the / of the ending, made
of those
to the working
the word
susceptible
unusually
The

diminutive

1
as bearing
Very interesting,
words in Mark 7. 21 :
Greek.

on

kalkinassjus

(p?poL ~/\~
' ^
/xoixetcu
same

compared

with

<p6poL \/\j
/xoLx^Tai J

of

\>
'x

/ horinassjus
rnaurj?ra-homicidia
-furta
J?ubja

the Greek

Mark.
irop pel at \
kKotto.1 A/I

relations

Gothic.

iropvetaifcXo-jrai v

The

the

and Latin

the texts,

is the order of the

Vulgate.
adulteria
fornicationes

in Matthew

15. 19:

Matthew.
f <f>6poi
jUotx?at

-homicidia
-adulteria

TToppe?ai -fornicationes
-furta
\ K\ovaL

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No.

Gc.

3]

that we

tendencies

Paul's Principie7i,
lesen,

p.

etc.,

176

designate
by the
etc.,
p. 59
Meringer,
I.

Wilmanns2,

etc.

Ka7-l,

Kalk-,

Skalk-,

p.

term

345

dissimilation

(cf.
und Ver

Versprechen
141,

cf.

Brugman

the

or becomes r\ one
is, one of the /'s disappears
index).
or becomes g.
of the k's disappears
common diminutive
is in -/-: it is found in
1) The most
That

the whole Germanic


and Low Ger
territory except Gothic
man ; in the latter the -il- form takes its place.
Everywhere
the -/- forms, and in Low German the -il- forms, have lost their
diminutive

cf.

force,

the

use

of

'boys'

and

for

'lads'

'men,'

diminutive
This
swine,
cJiicke7i, etc.
originally
was
out
kalk
aided
the
of
introduction
crowding
probably
by
'
'
of the foreign word kalk
chalk,' < Latin calx.
lime,'

also

the

*kalkl
*karkl

{pkargl-)
OHC '\ ^ar^
1 karat

OE

cearl ON.
-5
OE.
1
\ ceorl

karl

MHG.

karl

ME.

chert

ME.

NHG.

Karl

MnE.

churl

MnE.

\ carl
J

I> r ?

I?

l, cf. Lat. palliolum >


> ?pyaXeos, Meyer's
?XyaX?os
pJiellel>pJteller,
The
loss of one k may be
GriecJiiscJie Gra7nmatiMl, p. 293.
or dissimilation
due entirely to dissimilation,
may only have
as
and the loss of
one
to
in
kekel
k
below,
g,
kegel
changed

For

the

dissimilation

and

MHG.

the two sonorous


between
g is due to its untenable
position
r and /. The oldest High German texts still have
consonants
I. ? 301 ; for later
the primitive karl; for ka7-al see Wilmanns2,
The original
A2.
66
AJid.
karl.see
Grammatik,
Braune,
?
names
in
occurs
Bede's
the
OE. form cearl
among
Hist07y
to ceorl was due to the fre
the change
(cf. Sweet's O ET.);
earl for eorl is due to
quent association with eorl.
(Similarly
the influence of cearl rather than, as usually stated, to that of
ON.
*cerl,

jarl.)
due

Hitherto
to a

OE.

questionable

was

offered

explanation
for which see below.

ceorl has
gradation

for the Low

been

explained

with

carl,

German

and

as from
the

same

forms with

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e,

346
Hempl,

Gc.

Skalk-,

Kalk-,

[Vol. I

etc.

Karl,

Ger
-il- forms appear
only in continental West
2) The
one / and
dissimilation
In Low German,
manic.
changed
one k\ in High German
it caused the loss of one / and later
to observe
one
It
that LG. k%r(e)l
k.
is
important
changed
of
stated
As
HG.
is the geographical
counterpart
kegel.
the LG.

above,
Germanic

so

territory,

as meaning

the karl

*kakil

schdkel{a)HG.

(?)LG.

MHG. 5 k*kel
NHG.

*karkil

{*karg?)
*kar?

I kegel
Du.

Kegel

& LG.

LG.

fyrel

NHG.

I?

of other

is concerned.

*kalkil

*skalkil
MHG.

far

of

the place

takes

kqr{e)l

k?rl
Kerl

Friz,

tzerl

but Vogel,
and
I, cf. German Fliege fliegen
>
Association
of
English
Fl?gelmann
fugleman.
with
and
the
loss
MHG.
schalk,
schqlkiune prevented
schqlkel
this restraining
of the /. The j-less forms did not have
in *kalk, ( 1) because
*kalk was very early displaced
influence
of the early introduction
of the
by karl, and (2) because
kalk
cf.
<
Latin
word
above.
For
the
dissimila
calx,
foreign
tion of k?k>k?gin
k?kel kqgel and *karkil
*kargil,' cf.
'
ON. skcekja > Danish
skbge above; but Kegel
ninepin
may
also have had influence in the case of the former.
The loss
cf. Wilmanns2,
I. ? 81.
of g in *kar(g)il > k?rel is regular,
alone may be
Still, as stated above for *karkl-, dissimilation
For

l>

German

for the loss of one of the k's of *karkil.


too occur only in continental
diminutives

responsible
3) Weak

West

Germanic.
*kalkto

OHG.

*karfclo

skalk?o

*kalk?o

*karkdo

(*karglo)
karlo

OHG.

MHG.
The
would

karte

NHG.

development
appear

'child
(1) A
master.
her
by

Dialectic

to have

of

the chief meanings


been

*fcar{g)do
|

KerU

of the diminutives

?:

of a serf woman,' whether


The latter idea prevailed

by a serf man or
in keJzel kqgel;
but

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No.

Gennan

Fay,

3]

347

Gipfel

that a kekel was an illegitimate


it should be observed
child,
not a whoreson,
and was
cared for by his father, cf. mit
'with the whole
kind und kegel
though, to be sure,
family,'
is now no longer generally
the original meaning
of kegel
known.

(2) A
(3) A

'person
'fellow'

of low birth,'
or 'man.'

a 'churl.'

(4) A

'lover'

or 'husband,'

cf. OE.

band,'
(5)

ceoid?an

a hus

'take

'marry.'
A

'male,'

OE.

cf.

carl-cat,

even

and

carl-fugel,

'carl

man.'

like to revive the old suggestion


For skalks itself I should
from the root skal.
It
that it, like skulan sollen, is derived
an
and
to
II.
old
be
appears
? 284)
^-derivative
(Wilmanns,
'
'
to have designated
those that owed
service, etc.
HEMPL.

GEORGE

of Michigan,
University
Ann Arbor.

i. GERMAN
(in Davis'
:

KLUGE for this word


lent late MHG.
gipfel

'"

GIPFEL.
makes

translation)
summit,

the following
"

top,

from

climax

the

entry
equiva

m. ; the primitive
cannot
be
word
form of Giebel;
is scarcely an intensive
discovered;
Gipfel
summit"
is still less closely
MHG.
gupfi gupfe,
"point,
allied, and is rather a variant of Kuppe.y
In spite of all this, there must be a kinship between
these
or
the
words, proceeding
way, void
morganatic
illegitimate
by

law. Gipfel
in phonetic
is a synonym
of Zipfel,
Eng.
tip,
use
we may
to
of
the
Professor
Bloomfield,
and,
phraseology
'
'
of Zipfel with either Giebel, or
well look upon it as a blend
or
both.
gupfi
2. ENGLISH

SQUAWK.

'
colloquial word ' is, I suggest, a blend
'
squeak, with a dash
perhaps of quack.
This

Lexington,

Va.

EDWIN

W.

'

of squall
FAY.

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and