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Flight Control Systems (Conventional &

Digital) & Enhanced Diagnostic Aid (EDNA)


2a. Identify principles of flight with
at least 80% accuracy.

2a. Identify principles of flight with at least 80% accuracy.

Overview of Principles of Flight


Basic Facts and Terms
Controls and Surfaces
Axes of Rotation

2a. Identify principles of flight with at least 80% accuracy.

Principles of Flight
Bernoullis Principle
As air velocity increases,
pressure decreases
As air velocity decreases,
pressure increases
Venturi tube

2a. Identify principles of flight with at least 80% accuracy.

Density

As air is compressed, it becomes more dense


Air has less density at high altitude
Air expands as it is heated occupies more space
Changes in air density affect flight
Climate is cold, altitude is low = dense air
Aircraft achieves takeoff speed more quickly
Takes off with less runway
High Altitude = low density (airplane flies faster)

2a. Identify principles of flight with at least 80% accuracy.

Humidity
Higher temperature of air the more water it can
absorb
Temperature the same density of air varies with
humidity
Damp days
Density is less than it is on dry days
Airplane requires longer runway for takeoff

2a. Identify principles of flight with at least 80% accuracy.

Relative Wind the direction of the airflow with


respect to the wing

2a. Identify principles of flight with at least 80% accuracy.

Angle of Attack angle between the wing chord


line and the direction of the relative wind

2a. Identify principles of flight with at least 80% accuracy.

Airfoils
Any object designed to obtain a reaction upon itself
from the air through which it passes

2a. Identify principles of flight with at least 80% accuracy.

Wing Chord Line


Distance from the leading edge to the trailing edge
Represented by a straight line called the chord line

2a. Identify principles of flight with at least 80% accuracy.

Camber
The curve or departure from the chord line
Positive Convex Surface
Negative Concave Surface

2a. Identify principles of flight with at least 80% accuracy.

Camber
Upper Surface Always positive
Lower Surface
Positive (usually)
Zero
Negative

2a. Identify principles of flight with at least 80% accuracy.

Producing Lift
High-speed flow is associated with low pressure
Low-speed flow is associated with high pressure

2a. Identify principles of flight with at least 80% accuracy.

Airfoil is designed to increase the velocity of the


airflow above the surface decreases pressure
above the airfoil
Impact of air on lower surface increases pressure
below
Pressure differential causes lift

2a. Identify principles of flight with at least 80% accuracy.

Weight the force of gravity


acting downward upon
anything that goes into the
aircraft
Reduced as fuel is burned
Reduced as missles and
bombs are released
Reduced the aircraft will
climb

2a. Identify principles of flight with at least 80% accuracy.

Lift acts vertically, by doing so counteracts


weight
Increases to a certain point with
AOA
Air Density
Airspeed

Lift is increased aircraft will climb


Lift is reduced aircraft will descend

2a. Identify principles of flight with at least 80% accuracy.

Drag forward deterrent force (caused by the disruption


of the airflow by the wings, fuselage and protruding
objects)
Increases with
Airspeed
AOA (drag increases much more rapidly than lift as AOA
increases)

Decreases with increased altitude due to decrease in air density

2a. Identify principles of flight with at least 80% accuracy.

Thrust the forward force produced by the jet engine


that overcomes the force of drag
Increased thrust increases airspeed
Decreased thrust is needed at higher altitude to achieve the
same airspeed due to less air density and drag
Thrust is decreased, airspeed will decrease

2a. Identify principles of flight with at least 80% accuracy.

Controls and Surfaces


Stick

2a. Identify principles of flight with at least 80% accuracy.

Controls and Surfaces


Mechanical/Electronic
Controls

2a. Identify principles of flight with at least 80% accuracy.

Controls and Surfaces


Electronic Controls

2a. Identify principles of flight with at least 80% accuracy.

Controls and Surfaces


Rudder Pedals

2a. Identify principles of flight with at least 80% accuracy.

Controls and Surfaces


Flap Controls

2a. Identify principles of flight with at least 80% accuracy.

Control/Surface Connection
Direct Mechanical

2a. Identify principles of flight with at least 80% accuracy.

Control/Surface Connection
Power Assisted Mechanical

2a. Identify principles of flight with at least 80% accuracy.

Control/Surface Connection
Powered, Electronically Controlled

2a. Identify principles of flight with at least 80% accuracy.

Flight Control Surfaces


Wings
Primary means of providing lift for the aircraft

2a. Identify principles of flight with at least 80% accuracy.

Flaps
Attached to wings
Moveable surfaces that provide increased lift

2a. Identify principles of flight with at least 80% accuracy.

Flaps
Trailing Edge Flaps

2a. Identify principles of flight with at least 80% accuracy.

Flaps
Leading Edge Flaps

2a. Identify principles of flight with at least 80% accuracy.

Ailerons
Moveable surfaces to provide roll control

2a. Identify principles of flight with at least 80% accuracy.

Horizontal Stabilizers
Provides stabilization against uncontrolled pitching of the
aircraft
Attached to aft section of aircraft

2a. Identify principles of flight with at least 80% accuracy.

Elevators
Moveable surfaces to provide pitch control
Attached to trailing edge of horizontal stabs

2a. Identify principles of flight with at least 80% accuracy.

Moveable Horizontal Stabilizers


Entire Surface pivots to provide pitch control
Does not require elevators

2a. Identify principles of flight with at least 80% accuracy.

Vertical Stabilizers
Provides stabilization against uncontrolled yawing
of the aircraft

2a. Identify principles of flight with at least 80% accuracy.

Rudder
Moveable surfaces to provide yaw control
Move symmetrically

2a. Identify principles of flight with at least 80%


accuracy.

Combined Surfaces
Flaperon

2a. Identify principles of flight with at least 80%


accuracy.

Elevons

2a. Identify principles of flight with at least 80%


accuracy.

Speedbrake

2a. Identify principles of flight with at least 80%


accuracy.

Axes of Rotation

Surfaces are normally streamline for straight


and level flight

2a. Identify principles of flight with at least 80%


accuracy.

Roll

The longitudal axis is an imaginary line through


center of straight and level flight

2a. Identify principles of flight with at least 80%


accuracy.

Roll

Movement about the axis is roll

2a. Identify principles of flight with at least 80%


accuracy.

Roll

Roll is initiated by applying lateral pressure to the


side stick controller

2a. Identify principles of flight with at least 80%


accuracy.

Pitch

The lateral axis is an imaginary line from the wing


tip to wing tip

2a. Identify principles of flight with at least 80%


accuracy.

Pitch

Movement about about the axis is pitch

2a. Identify principles of flight with at least 80%


accuracy.

Pitch

Pitch is initiated by applying fore and aft pressure


on the side stick controller

2a. Identify principles of flight with at least 80%


accuracy.

Yaw

The vertical axis is an imaginary line through the


center of the aircraft from top to bottom

2a. Identify principles of flight with at least 80%


accuracy.

Yaw

Movement about the axis is yaw

2a. Identify principles of flight with at least 80%


accuracy.

Yaw

Yaw initiated using rudder pedals

2a. Identify principles of flight with at least 80%


accuracy.

Trim

2a. Identify principles of flight with at least 80%


accuracy.

Summary of Principles of Flight


Defined Basic Facts and Terms
Covered Controls and Surfaces
Axes of Rotation