Feedback Linearization

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Feedback Linearization

© All Rights Reserved

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You are on page 1of 17

Similarly to the approach taken in sliding mode control, in this section we wish to exploit

the form of the system equations to modify the dynamics to something more convenient.

We consider a class of nonlinear systems of the form

x = f ( x) + G ( x)u

y = h ( x)

the origin, and pose the question whether there exists a state feedback control

n

u = ( x) + ( x) v

and a change of variables

z = T ( x)

that transforms the nonlinear system into an equivalent linear system.

If the answer to this question is positive, we can induce linear behavior in nonlinear

systems and apply the large number of tools and the well established theory of linear

control to develop stabilizing controllers.

1.1 Motivation

Example 1.1: To introduce the idea of feedback linearization, let us start with the

problem of stabilizing the origin of the pendulum equation.

x1 = x2

If we choose the control

u=

a

v

sin ( x1 + ) sin +

c

c

We can cancel the nonlinear term a sin ( x1 + ) sin . This cancellation results in the

linear system

-1-

x1 = x2

x2 = bx2 + v

Thus, the stabilization problem for the nonlinear system has been reduced to a

stabilization problem for a controllable linear system. We can proceed to design a

stabilizing linear state feedback control

v = k1 x1 k2 x2

to locate the eigenvalues of the closed loop system

x1 = x2

x2 = k1 x1 ( k2 + b ) x2

in the open left half plane. The overall state feedback control law is given by

u=

a

c

sin ( x1 + ) sin

1

( k1 x1 + k2 x2 )

c

system. There must be a certain structural property of the system that allows us to perform

such cancellation. Therefore, the ability to use feedback to convert a nonlinear state

equation into a controllable linear state equation by canceling nonlinearities requires the

nonlinear space equation to have the structure

x = Ax + B ( x ) u ( x )

and : n p p are defined in the domain D n that contains the origin, and the

matrix ( x ) is nonsingular for every x D . If the state equation takes the form

x = Ax + B ( x ) u ( x ) , then we can linearize it via the state feedback

u = ( x) + ( x) v

where ( x ) = 1 ( x ) , to obtain the linear state equation

x = Ax + Bv

For stabilizing, we design v = Kx such that A BK is Hurwitz. The overall nonlinear

stabilizing state feedback control is

-2-

u = ( x ) ( x ) Kx

Suppose the nonlinear state equation does not have the required structure. Does this mean

we cannot linearize the system via feedback? The answer is no. Even if the state equation

does not have the required structure for one choice of variables, it might do so for another

choice.

Example 1.2: Consider, for example the system

x1 = a sin x2

x2 = x12 + u

We cannot simply choose u to cancel the nonlinear term a sin x2 . However, if we first

change the variables by the transformation

z1 = x1

z 2 = a sin x 2 = x1

then z1 and z2 satisfy

z1 = z 2

z 2 = a cos x 2 .x 2 = a cos sin 1

z2

(u z12 )

a

u = x12 +

1

v

a cos x2

which is well defined for 2 < x2 < 2 . The state equation in the new coordinates can

x1 = z1

x2 = sin 1

z2

a

which is well defined for a < z2 < a . The transformed state equation is given by

-3-

z1 = z2

z2 = a cos sin 1

z2

a

(z

+u

x = f ( x) + G ( x) u

where f : D n and G : D n p are sufficiently smooth on a domain D n , is

said to be feedback linearizable (or input state linearizable) if there exists a

diffeomorphism T : D n such that Dz = T ( D ) contains the origin and a change of

z = Az + B ( x ) u ( x )

Definition 1.2: f is called smooth if f C . That is, f is continuous and all

derivatives of all order are continuous.

Definition 1.3: T is a diffeomorphism if T is smooth, and the inverse exists and is also

smooth.

Remark 1.1: When certain output variables are of interest, as in tracking control

problems, the state model is described by state and output equations. Linearizing the state

equation does not necessarily linearize the output equation.

Example 1.3: Consider the previous system

x1 = a sin x2

x2 = x12 + u

If the system has an output y = x2 , then the change of variables and state feedback control

z1 = x1 , z2 = a sin x2 , and u = x12 +

1

v

a cos x2

-4-

yield

z1 = z2

z2 = v

y = sin 1

z2

a

While the state equation is linear, solving a tracking control problem for y is still

complicated by the nonlinearity of the output equation.

With the help of a Matrix T ( x ) we want to transform

x = f ( x) + G ( x) u

into the new system

z = Az + B ( x)(u ( x) )

Given the previous system with a coordinate transformation z = T ( x ) we derive

T ( x)

T ( x)

x=

( f ( x) + G( x)u )

z=

x

x

= Az + B ( x)(u ( x) )

= AT ( x) + B ( x)(u ( x) )

and obtain a system of partial differential equations

T

f ( x) = AT ( x) B ( x) ( x)

x

T

G ( x ) = B ( x )

x

By solving this set of partial differential equations for T(x), the transformation is found.

Remark 1.2: T ( x ) is not uniquely defined by this system of differential equations as

also satisfy this system but with A = MAM 1 and B = MB .

-5-

We use this fact to choose the matrix A and B to be in the canonical controllability form.

For simplicity we consider this for a single-input system. In this case, the control

canonical form is as follows.

0

1

0

0

AC =

1

0

, BC =

n 1

0

1

det( sI A) =

n 1

i =0

i si

Note that ( AC , BC ) is feedback equivalent to a chain of integrators. i.e. with the mapping

u

u+

n 1

i =0

0

A0 =

1

0

0

, B0 =

0

1

Then with

T ( x) =

T1 ( x )

Tn ( x )

we obtain

T2 ( x)

A0T ( x) B ( x) =

Tn ( x)

T

f ( x)

x

( x) ( x)

0

B0 ( x ) =

T

G ( x)

x

( x)

Solving this system of partial differential equations we can find T ( x ) .

-6-

The following theorem, stated without proof, gives necessary and sufficient conditions for

feedback linearizability of a single-input affine-in-control nonlinear system.

We need some notations first. Let f, g be smooth vector fields on

and g is defined as

.

We also define

. The Lie-bracket of f

A distribution D is a mapping that assigns to each point in the state space a subspace of

the tangent space at that point. In other words, a distribution is a family of smooth vector

fields that span a subspace of

at each point. A distribution is involutive if the Lie

bracket of any two vector fields in the distribution lies in the distribution. To wit, if D is

, then for each i, j, x, we have

spanned by

where

are smooth functions. Note that this is a natural generalization of the concept of

linear dependence of vectors. We define the following special distributions:

is involutive.

Consider the single-input-single-output system

x = f ( x) + g ( x) u

y = h ( x)

f : D n and g : D n are called vector fields on D .

Derive conditions which allow us to transform the system such that the input output map

is linear.

The derivative y is given by

y=

h

f ( x ) + g ( x ) u = L f h ( x ) + Lg h ( x ) u

x

where

-7-

h

f ( x) = Lf h ( x)

x

If Lg h ( x ) = 0 , then y = L f h ( x ) , independent of u . If we continue to calculate the second

derivative of y , denoted by y ( 2) , we obtain

y( ) =

2

( Lf h)

f ( x ) + g ( x ) u = L2f h ( x ) + Lg L f h ( x ) u

2

Lg Lif1h ( x ) = 0 , i = 1, 2,..., 1 ; Lg Lf 1h ( x ) 0

then u does not appear in the equations of y , y ,, y ( 1) and appears in the equation of

y ( p ) with a nonzero coefficient:

y ( ) = Lf h ( x ) + Lg Lf 1h ( x ) u

p

The forgoing equation shows clearly that the system is input-output linearizable, since the

state feedback control

u=

Lg L f h ( x )

1

Lf h ( x ) + v

y( ) = v

which is a chain of integrators. In this case, the integer is called the relative degree

of the system.

x1 = x2

x2 = x1 + (1 x12 ) x2 + u

with output y = x1 . Calculating the derivatives of the output, we obtain

-8-

y = x1 = x2

y = x2 = x1 + (1 x12 ) x2 + u

Hence, the system has relative degree two in 2 . For the output y = x1 + x2 2 ,

y = x2 + 2 x2 x1 + 1 x12 x2 + u

Consider a linear system represented by the transfer function

b s m + bm 1s m 1 + ... + b0

H (s) = m n

s + an 1s n 1 + ... + a0

where m < n and bm 0 . A state model for the system can be taken as

x = Ax + Bu

y = Cx

where

A=

0

a0

C = [b0

a1

bm

am

0

, B=

an 1

n n

n1

0]1n

calculate the derivative of the output. The first derivative is

y = CAx + CBu

-9-

CB = 0 and we continue to calculate the second derivative y ( 2) . Noting that CA is a row

vector obtained by shifting the elements of C one position to the right, while CA2 is

obtained by shifting the elements of C two positions to the right, and so on, we see that

CAi 1 B = 0 , for i = 1, 2,..., n m 1 , and CAn m.1 B = bm 0

y ( n m ) = CAn m x + CAn m 1 Bu

and the relative degree of the system is n m (the difference between the degrees of the

denominator and numerator polynomials of H ( s ) ).

Now let

1 ( x )

z = T ( x) =

n ( x )

h ( x)

( x)

def

def

= =

( x)

Lf 1h ( x )

1

g ( x ) = 0 , for 1 i n

x

This condition ensures that when we calculate

f ( x) + g ( x)u

x

the term u cancels out. It is now easy to verify that the change of variables z = T ( x )

transforms the system into

- 10 -

= f0 ( , )

= Ac + BC ( x ) u ( x )

y = CC

integrators, where

f 0 ( , ) =

f ( x)

x

x =T 1 ( z )

( x ) = Lg L f h ( x ) and ( x ) =

1

Lf h ( x )

Lg Lf 1h ( x )

We have kept and expressed in the original coordinates. These functions are

uniquely determined in terms of f , g , and h . They are independent of the choice of .

They can be expressed in the new coordinates by setting

0 ( , ) = (T 1 ( z ) ) and 0 ( , ) = (T 1 ( z ) )

which, of course, will depend on the choice of . In this case, the equation can be

rewritten as

= Ac + BC 0 ( , ) u 0 ( , )

The three equations of the new system are said to be in the normal form. This form

decomposes the system into an external part and an internal part . The external part is

linearized by the state feedback control

u = ( x) + ( x) v

where ( x ) = 1 ( x ) , while the internal part is made unobservable by the same control.

results in

= f 0 ( , 0 )

which is called the zero dynamics of the system. If the zero dynamics of the system are

(globally) asymptotically stable, the system is called minimum phase.

- 11 -

linearized system if = 0 is an asymptotically stable equilibrium point of

= f 0 ( , 0 )

In other words, a minimum phase input-output linearizable system can be stabilized by a

feedback law

u = ( x) ( x) KT ( x)

Proof

The idea is to construct a special Lyapunov function. By the converse Lyapunov theorem

V1 ( ) such that

V1

f ( , 0 ) < 3 (

P ( A BK ) + ( A BK ) P = I

T

V2 = T P

V=

=

V1

k

f ( , ) +

T P ( A BK ) + ( A BK ) P

T

2 P

I

V1

V

k

f 0 ( , 0 ) + 1 ( f 0 ( , 0 ) f ( , ) )

T

T

2 P

k1

3 ( ) + k k1

We see that if k < k1 , then V < 0 .

- 12 -

Remark 1.2: If the origin = 0 is globally asymptotically stable for = f 0 ( , 0 ) one

might think that system can be globally stabilized. This is not the case.

Remark 1.3: Global stability can be guaranteed if the system is input to state stable and

linearizable.

Remark 1.4: One may think that the system can be globally stabilized, or at least semiglobally stabilized, by designing the linear feedback control v = K to assign the

eigenvalues of

( A BK )

quickly approach the solution of = f 0 ( , 0 ) , which is well behaved, because its origin is

globally asymptotically stable.

1

(1 + 2 ) 3

2

1 = 2

2 = v

The linear feedback control

def

v = k 21 2k 2 = K

A BK =

0

k 2

0

2k

e( A BK )t =

(1 + kt ) e kt

k 2te kt

te kt

(1 kt ) e kt

shows that as k , the solution ( t ) will decay to zero arbitrarily fast. Notice,

however, that the coefficient of the ( 2,1) element of the exponential matrix is a quadratic

function of k . It can be shown that the absolute value of this element reaches a maximum

- 13 -

value k / e at 1 k . While this term can be made to decay to zero arbitrarily fast by

choosing k large, its transient behavior exhibits a peak of the order of k . The interaction

of peaking with nonlinear growth could destabilize the system. In particular, for the initial

states ( 0 ) = 0 , 1 ( 0 ) = 1 , and 2 ( 0 ) = 0 , we have 2 ( t ) = k 2te kt and

1

1 k 2te kt 3

2

Eventually, the coefficient of 3 will become negative, but that might not happen soon

enough , since the system might have a finite escape time. Indeed the solution

(t ) =

2

0 2

1 + 0 2 t + (1 + kt ) e kt 1

shows that if 0 2 > 1 , the system will have a finite escape time if k is chosen large

enough.

Remark 1.5: It is useful to know that the zero dynamics can be characterized in the

original coordinates. Noting that

y (t ) 0

(t ) 0

u (t ) ( x (t ))

we see that if the output is identically zero, the solution of the state equation must be

confined to the set

Z * = { x D0 h ( x ) = L f h ( x ) =

= Lf 1h ( x ) = 0}

def

u = u * ( x ) = ( x ) xZ *

- 14 -

x1 = x1 +

2 + x32

u

1 + x32

x2 = x3

x3 = x1 x3 + u

y = x2

has an open-loop equilibrium point at the origin. The derivatives of the output are

y = x2 = x3

y = x3 = x1 x3 + u

Therefore, the system has relative degree two in 3 . Using Lg L f h ( x ) = 1 and

L2f h ( x ) = x1 x3 , we obtain

= 1 and ( x ) = x1 x3

To characterize the zero dynamics, restrict to

Z * = { x x2 = x3 = 0}

x1 = x1

which shows that the system is minimum phase. To transform it into the normal form, we

want to choose a function ( x ) such that

(0) = 0 ,

g ( x) = 0

x

and

T ( x ) = ( x ) x2

x3

equation

2 + x32

+

=0

x1 1 + x32 x3

can be solved by separating variables to obtain

- 15 -

( x ) = x1 + x3 + tan 1 x3

which satisfies the condition ( 0 ) = 0 . The mapping T ( x ) is a global diffeomorphism, as

can be seen by the fact that for any z 3 , the equation T ( x ) = z has a unique solution.

Thus, the normal form

= ( + 2 + tan 1 x3 ) 1 +

2 + 22

2

1 + 22

1 = 2

2 = ( + 2 + tan 1 2 ) 2 + u

y = 1

is defined globally.

nonlinearities, which is, in practice, not often practically possible. Most likely we have

only approximations , and T ( x ) of the true , , and T ( x ) . The feedback control

law has the form

u = KT2

and the closed loop system

= f ( , )

= A + B ( x ) ( ) KT2

Adding and subtracting BK to the equation we obtain

= f ( , )

= ( A BK ) + B ( z )

where

( z ) = ( ) KT2 K T2 T2

The local closed loop system differs from the nominal one by an additive perturbation.

Thus, it is often assumed that in most cases no serious problems are to be expected.

- 16 -

Remark 1.7: In some cases it might be useful not to cancel all nonlinearities. For instance

x = ax bx 3 + u

x = Kx bx 3

- 17 -

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