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You are on page 1of 53

Prepared by

Ch.Uday

Bhaskar

M.Anil Kumar

M.Raja Babu

S.Neelima

DATA STRUCTURES

INTRODUCTION

Introduction The Problem Solving Top down design Strategy Algorithms Vs Programs

Implementations of algorithms Program Verification The efficiency of algorithms

Algorithmic Notation Asymptotic Notation Mathematical Induction Analysis of Algorithms

Recurrence Relations.

RECURSION AND LINEAR SEARCH:

Preliminaries of algorithm, Algorithm analysis and complexity, Recursion: Definition, Design

Methodology and Implementation of recursive algorithms, Linear and binary recursion, recursive

algorithms for factorial function, GCD computation, Fibonacci sequence, Towers of Hanoi, Tail

recursion

List Searches using Linear Search, Binary Search, Fibonacci Search, Analyzing search

algorithms.

SORTING TECHNIQUES:

Basic concepts, Sorting by : insertion (Insertion sort), selection (heap sort), exchange (bubble

sort, quick sort), distribution (radix sort ) and merging (merge sort ) Algorithms.

STACKS AND QUEUES:

Basic Stack Operations, Representation of a Stack using Arrays, Stack Applications: Reversing

list, Factorial Calculation, In-fix- to postfix Transformation, Evaluating Arithmetic Expressions.

Queues: Basic Queues Operations, Representation of a Queue using array, Implementation of

Queue Operations using Stack, Applications of Queues-Round robin Algorithm, Enqueue,

Dequeue, Circular Queues, Priority Queues.

LINKED LISTS:

Introduction, single linked list, representation of a linked list in memory, Operations on a

single linked list, merging two single linked lists into one list, Reversing a single linked list,

applications of single linked list to represent polynomial expressions and sparse matrix

manipulation, Advantages and disadvantages of single linked list, Circular linked list, Double

linked list

TREES:

Basic tree concepts, Binary Trees: Properties, Representation of Binary Trees using arrays and

linked lists, operations on a Binary tree , Binary Tree Traversals, Creation of binary tree from inorder and pre(post)order traversals, Tree Travels using stack, Threaded Binary Trees.

ADVANCED CONCEPTS OF TREES:

Binary search tree, Basic concepts, BST operations: insertion, deletion, balanced binary trees

AVL Search Trees basic concepts , operations: insertion ,deletion. m-way search trees operations:

insertion ,deletion, B Trees, operations: insertion , deletion

GRAPHS:

Basic concepts, Representations of Graphs: using Linked list and adjacency matrix, Graph

algorithms Graph Traversals (BFS & DFS), Topological Sort, applications: Dijkstras shortest

path, Transitive closure, Minimum Spanning Tree using Prims Algorithm, warshalls Algorithm.

SETS:

Definition, Representation of Sets using Linked list, operations of sets using linked lists,

application of sets- Information storage using bit strings

ABSTRACT DATA TYPE

Introduction to abstraction, Model for an Abstract Data Type, ADT Operations, ADT Data

Structure, ADT Implementation of array, Linked list and stack.

1. ALGORITHMS

1.1 BASICS

I. Statements

1.

complexity.

Easy:

1. What is Time complexity of an Algorithm?

It is the time required by a program to run to completion.

2. What is space complexity of an Algorithm?

It is the amount of space required by a program to run to completion.

3. What is meant by apriori analysis?

It is analysing an algorithm without implementing it in any language.

4. What is meant by posterior analysis?

It is analysing an algorithm after implementing it in some language.

5. Which analysis is best apriori or posterior?

Apriori.

6. What is meant by operation count?

Identifying an operation in the algorithm/program as a key operation and counting how many

times it took place.

7.

No. It depends on the selection of key operation.

8.

9.

This mechanism involves counting the total number of steps executed by an

algorithm/program.

Mention at least TWO algorithm design strategies.

1. Incremental

a) When we look at input sizes large enough to make only the order of growth of the

running time relevant, we are studying the asymptotic efficiency of algorithms.

b) We are concerned with how the running time of an algorithm increases with the size of

the input in the limit, as the size of the input increases without bound.

c) An Algorithm that is asymptotically more efficient will be the best choice for all but very

small inputs.

11. Define -notation.

We write f(n) = (g(n)) (read as f(n) is theta of g(n)) ,if there exists two positive constants

c, d and positive integer p such that

c | g(n) | <= | f(n) | <= d | g(n) | for all n >= p

12. Define BIG O-notation

We write f(n) = O(g(n)) (read as f(n) is big oh of g(n)) ,if there exists a positive integer p,

positive number D such that

| f(n) | <= D | g(n) | for all n >= p

13. Define notation.

We write f(n) = (g(n)) (read as f(n) is omega of g(n)) ,if there exists a positive integer p,

positive number D such that

| f(n) | >= D | g(n) | for all n >= p

Medium:

14. What is the solution to the recurrence relation T(n) =2 T(|_ n/2 _| ) + n

T(n) =O(n logn )

15. What is the solution to the recurrence relation T(n) =2 T(|_ n _| ) + log n

O( log n log log n)

16. What is the solution to the recurrence relation T(n)=T(n-1)+n

O(n2)

17. What is the solution of the recurrence relation T(n)=9T(n/3) +n

(n2)

18. What is the solution of the recurrence relation T(n)=T(2n/3) + 1

(log n)

19. What is the solution of the recurrence relation T(n) = 3T(n/4) +n log n

(n log n)

20. What is the solution of the recurrence relation T(n) =T(n/2) + (1)

(log n)

III.

1.

2.

3.

4.

a. Upper bound

b. Lower Bound

c. Both

d. None

a. Upper bound

b. Lower Bound

c. Both

d. None

a. Normal equations b. Recurrence relations

c. Both

d. None

a. Incremental

b. Divide and conquer

c. Greedy

d. None

5.

a. Incremental

b. Divide and conquer

c. Greedy

d. None

6.

a. Substitution

b. Recursion tree

c. Master method

d. All

7.

a. Processor and memory

b. Complexity and capacity

c. Time and space

d. Data and space

8.

a. Counting microseconds

b. Counting the number of key operations

c. Counting the number of statements

d. Counting the kilobytes of algorithm

9.

10.

a. Counting the maximum memory needed by the algorithm

b. Counting the minimum memory needed by the algorithm

c. Counting the average memory needed by the algorithm

d. Counting the maximum disk space needed by the algorithm

Which is true regarding the complexity of the average case of an algorithm

b. Much more simpler to analyze than that of worst case

c. Sometimes more complicated and some other times simpler than that of

worst case

d. None or above

Medium:

11.

Ackermans function is defined on the non-negative integers as follows

a (m,n) = n+1 if m=0

= a (m-1, 1) if m>0, n=0

= a (m-1, a(m, n-1)) if m>0, n >0

The value of a (1, 3) is

a. 4

12.

b. 5

c. 6

d. 7

g(n) then the order of algorithm is?

a. max(f(n),g(n))

13.

b. min(f(n),g(n))

c. f(n)+g(n)

for (inti=0; i<10; i++)

for(int j=0; j<N; j++)

d. f(n)-g(n)

cout<<i<< " " << j <<endl;

a. O(log n)

b. O(N log n)

14.

c. O(n)

d. O(n2)

for (int j = n; j > 0; j--) {

for (int k = 1; k < j; k = k+k) {

cout<<j+k<< ;

}

cout<<endl;

}

a. O(log n)

15.

b. (n)

c. (n)

d. (35)

b. Quadratic

c. Logarithmic

d. Linear

a. (n2)

18.

d. O(n2)

a. Constant

17.

c. O(n log n)

a. (n)

16.

b. O(n)

b. (80)

c. (log n)

d. (n)

When we say an algorithm has a time complexity of O (n), what does it mean?

a. The algorithm has n loops

b. The computation time taken by the algorithm is proportional to n

c. The algorithm is n times slower than a standard algorithm

d. There are n number of statements in the algorithm

19.

Read the following statements carefully, and choose the correct answer

I.

The notation is Anti Symmetric.

II.

The big Oh notation is Semi Equivalence.

a. (I) is FALSE but (II) is TRUE

20.

There are 4 different algorithms ALI, AL2, AL3, AL4 to solve a given problem

with the order log(n), log(log(n)), n log(n) ,n / log(n) respectively. Which is the

best algorithm

a. AL1

21.

b. AL2

c. AL3

d. AL4

a. It can be used to decide the best algorithm that solves a given problem

b) It determines the maximum size of a problem that can be solved in a given

system, in a given amount of time

c. Both(a) and (b)

d. None of the above

22.

a. MNP

23.

b. MP

d. NP

a. Symmetric

1. a

c. MN

2.b

b. Reflexive

c. Transitive

d. all

3.b

4.a

5.b

6.d

7.c

8.b

9.a

10.a

11. b. 12.a

13.c

14.b

15.b

16.d

17.a

18.b

19.b

20.b

21. c

23.d

22.a

I. Statements:

1.

The method of defining a function in which the function being defined is applied

within its own definition is known as Recursion.

2.

EASY:

1. Describe the steps needed to write a recursive function.

There are two steps to write recursive functions:

1.BASIS: This step defines the case where recursion ends.

2.RECURSIVE STEP: Contains recursive definition for all other cases (other than

base case) to reduce them towards the base case.

2. Write the recursive definition for the function to find the sum of first n natural

numbers.

If n=1 then return 1

else return (n + Sum(n-1))

3. Write the recursive definition for the function to find the factorial of a given number.

If n=0 or n=1 then return 1

else return (n * Factorial(n-1))

4. Write the recursive definition for the function to find nth Fibonacci number

If n=0 or n=1 then return n

else return (Fib(n-1) + Fib(n-2))

5. What is direct recursion?

In direct recursion a function makes a call to itself in its definition

6. What is indirect recursion?

In indirect recursion a function makes a call to another function in its definition and the

latter function calls the former function in its definition.

If a function makes only one call to itself in its definition, then it is known as Linear

recursion.

8. What is binary recursion?

If the function makes two calls to itself in its Definition ,then it is known as Binary recursion.

9. Write the recurrence relation for the recursive function of linear search.

T(n) = c

= T(n-1) + d

for n<=1

for n>1

10. Write the recurrence relation for the recursive function of binary search.

T(n) = c

= T(n/2) + d

III.

for n<=1

for n>1

Easy:

1.

a. Binary Search

b. Linear Search

c. Tree Search

d. Hashing

2. The time complexity of binary search in best, worst cases for an array of size N is

a. N, N2

3.

b. N, N

c. Log N, N2

d. 1, log N

Which of the following is not a required condition for binary search Algorithm.

a. The list must be sorted

b. There should be the direct access to the middle element in any sublist

c. There must be mechanism to delete and/or insert elements in list

d. None

a. Must use a sorted array

b. Requirement of sorted array is expensive when a lot of insertion and deletions are needed

c. There must be a mechanism to access middle element directly

d. Binary search algorithm is not efficient when the data elements are more than 1000

5.

a. Queue

6.

d. None

c. O(n2)

b. O(log n)

d. O(n log n)

a. O(n)

8.

c. Stack

a. O(n)

7.

b. Linked List

c. O(n2)

b. O(logn)

d. O(n log n)

a. O(n)

c. O(n2)

b. O(logn)

d. O(n log n)

Medium:

9.If memory for the run-time stack is only 150 cells(words), how big can N be in

Factorial(N) before encountering stack overflow?

a. 24

10.

b. 12

c. 26

d. 50

Sequential search has a time complexity of O(n), and binary search has a time complexity

of O(log(n)). What difference will it make when the size n is 1000?

a. You would not notice much difference because computers run very fast anyway

b. As n is 1000, binary search is twice as fast as sequential search

c. As n is 1000, binary search is 10 times as fast as sequential search

d. As n is 1000, binary search is 100 times as fast as sequential search.

11.A characteristic of the data that binary search uses but the linear search ignores is

the___________.

12.

13.

a. Sorted linked list

d. Pointer array

b. Item is not in the array at all

c. Item is the last element in the array

d. Item is the last element in the array or is not there at all

14.

a. When Item is somewhere in the middle of the array

b. When Item is not in the array at all

c. When Item is the last element in the array

d. When Item is the last element in the array or is not there at all

15.

of n elements

a. log2 n

16.

b. n/2

c. n

d. n-1

a. Sub algorithm

b. Recursion

c. Polish notation

d. None

1. d

2.d

13.d

14. a

3.c

4.d

5.c 6.a

7b

8.b

9.a

10.d 11.a

12.a

15.a 16.b

2. SORTING

2.1 INTRODUCTION TO SORTING

I. Statements/Definitions

1. Sorting is a process that organizes a collection of data into either ascending or

descending order.

2. Sorting algorithms are classified as either internal or external.

3. An internal sort requires that the collection of data fit entirely in the computers main

memory.

4. We can use an external sort when the collection of data cannot fit in the computers

main memory all at once but must reside in secondary storage such as on a disk.

Internal sorting algorithms

Distribution(Radix sort)

Merging(Merge sort)

1. What is sorting?

Sorting is the process of arranging the given items in a logical order.

2. What is the need of external sorting?

External sorting is required where the input is too large to fit into memory. So external

sorting is necessary where the program is too large.

3. What is internal sorting?

In internal sorting all the data to sort is stored in memory at all times while sorting is in

progress.

4. What is external sorting?

If the number of objects is so large that some of them reside on external storage during

the sort, it is called external sorting

I. Statements/Definitions

1. To sort elements first find the smallest element in the array. Exchange it with the element

in the first position

Find the second smallest element and exchange it with the element in the second position.

Continue until the array is sorted

EASY:

1. What is the worst case complexity for selection sort algorithm

a. O(n)

b. O(n*n)

c. O(nlogn)

d. O(logn)

a. O(n)

b. O (n*n)

c. O(nlogn)

d. O(logn)

a. O(n)

b. O(n*n)

c. O(nlogn)

d. O(logn)

4. In a selection sort of n elements, how many times is the swap function called in the

complete execution of the algorithm?

a. 1

b. n 1

c. n log n

d. n

5. A sorting technique in which successive elements are selected in order and placed into

their proper sorted positions is called

a. Selection sort

b. Quick sort

c. Bubble sort

d. Merge sort

a. Worst and Best

a. n*(n/2)

b. n*n

c. n(n-1)/2

d. none

c. n

d. log n

a. n*n

b. n(n-1)/2

a. n-1

b. n

c. n*n

d. 2*n

1. b

2.b

3.b

4.b

5.a

6.d

7.a

8.b

9.a

I .Statements/Definitions

1. Every iteration of insertion sort removes an element from the data, inserting it into the

correct position in the already-sorted list.

2. This process is repeated until no elements remain. The choice of which element to

remove from the data is random.

II. Multiple choice questions

Easy:

1.

a. Bubble sort

2.

b. O(n*n)

c. O(nlogn)

d. O(logn)

b. O(n*n)

c. O(nlogn)

d. O(logn)

a. O(n)

5.

d. Quick sort

a. O(n)

4.

c. Selection sort

a. O(n)

3.

b. Insertion sort

b. O(n*n)

c. O(nlogn)

d. O(logn)

a. Incremental algorithm

b. detrimental algorithm

c. both

d. none

Medium:

6.

What is the output of insertion sort after the 1st iteration given the following

sequence of numbers: 7 3 5 1 9 8 4 6

a. 3 7 5 1 9 8 4 6 b. 1 3 7 5 9 8 4 6

7.

9.

b. n(n+1)/2

12.

d. n*n

b. n(n-1)/2

c. n

d. logn

a. n*n

11.

c. n

a. n*n

10.

d. 1 3 4 5 6 7 8 9

a. n(n-1)/2

8.

c. 3 4 1 5 6 8 7 9

b. n(n-1)/2

c. n(n-1)/4

d. logn

a. a quadratic function of n

b. a linear function of n

c. a logarithmic function of n

d. none

a. a quadratic function of n

b. a linear function of n

c. a logarithmic function of n

d. none

1. b

12.a

2.b

3.b

4.a

5.c 6.a

7.a

8.c

9.b

10.c

11.

I. Statements/Definitions

1. Bubble sort is the simplest sorting algorithm.

2. The Bubble sort works by iterating down an array to be sorted from the first element to

the last, comparing each pair of elements and switching their positions if necessary.

3. This process is repeated as many times as necessary, until the array is sorted.

4. Since the worst case scenario is that the array is in reverse order, and that the first element

in sorted array is the last element in the starting array, the most exchanges that will be

necessary is equal to the length of the array.

II. Multiple choice questions

Easy:

1.

a. Exchange sort

2.

b.O(n*n)

c.O(nlogn)

b.O(n*n)

c.O(nlogn)

b.O(n*n)

c.O(nlogn)

a. When the numbers are placed in random

b. When the numbers are placed in descending order

c. When the numbers are placed in ascending order

d. When all the numbers are same

6.

d.O(logn)

d.O(logn)

a.O(n)

5.

d. none

a.O(n)

4.

c. Both

a.O(n)

3.

b. Sinking sort

d.O(logn)

b. When the numbers are placed in descending order

c. When the numbers are placed in ascending order

d. When all the numbers are same

7.

8.

a. Worst and Best

The most exchanges that will be necessary for bubble sort for an array of length n

is

a.n

9.

b.n+1

c.n-1

d.n*n

Which of the following sorting methods would be most suitable for sorting a list

which is almost sorted

a. Bubble Sort

b. Insertion Sort

c. Selection Sort

d. Quick Sort

1. b

2.b

3.b

4.a

5.b

6.c

7.c

8.a

9.a

I. Statements/Definitions

1.

2.

3.

4.

As the name implies, it is quick, and it is the algorithm generally preferred for sorting.

The quick sort algorithm was developed in 1960 by Tony Hoare.

Quick sort also known as Partition Exchange Sort is a divide and conquer algorithm.

Quick sort involves placing the pivot element (generally first element) in the correct

position, so that it divides the list into two parts such that the elements to the left of pivot

are less than pivot and elements to the right of pivot are greater than pivot.

5. Now we apply the technique to these sub arrays continuously until the entire array is

sorted.

II. Multiple Choice Questions

Easy:

1.

a. Pointer sort

2.

b. External sorting

c. Both

d. none

a. selection sort

b. quick sort

c. bubble sort

d. merge sort

4.

a. Divide and Conquer Technique

b. Greedy Approach

c. Back Tracking

5.

What pattern of splits gives the worst-case performance for quick sort?

a. Ascending order.

b. Descending order.

c. Any order.

d. None of the above.

Medium:

6.

a. O(n)

7.

10.

d. O(logn)

b. O(n*n)

c. O(nlogn)

d. O(logn)

a. O(n)

9.

c. O(nlogn)

a. O(n)

8.

b. O(n*n)

b. O(n*n)

c. O(nlogn)

d. O(logn)

a. first element

b. last element c. middle element d. any element

Which of the following statements about Quick sort is/are incorrect?

a. Average running time is O(N log N).

b. The best case always occurs when the pivot partitions the set of numbers to be

c. The worst case always occurs when the pivot partitions the set of numbers to be

sorted into two equal-sized subsets.

d. The worst case always occurs when the smallest item is selected from the items

to be sorted as the pivot.

11.

If one chooses the middle key as the pivot, what would be the Big-O value for the

Best case of the Quick Sort Algorithm?

a. n*n

b .n

c. a constant

d. n log n

12.

Which of the following activities is/are not relevant to the quick sort algorithm?

a. Initially divide the entire file into N sub-files.

b. Choose a pivot value and store it in a correct place.

c. The sorting technique is sorting by exchange.

d. The sorting technique is sorting by selection.

13.

If the last element is chosen as the pivot at each iteration, the Quick-sort tree for

the sequence in question 1 will have height

a.1

b.2

c. 3

d.4

14.

Given a large amount of highly random data which fits into the computers RAM,

the best choice for sorting would be

a. Bubble-sort b. Insertion-sort

c. Merge-sort

d. Quick-sort

15.

In Quick sort , after the completion of every pass the pivot/key element moves to

the ________ position.

a. First

b. second

c. middle

d. exact sorted position

1.c

11. d

2.b

3.b

12.a,d 13.c

4.a

14.d

5.b

15.d

6. c

7.b

8.c 9.d

10.c

I. Statements/Definitions

1.

Merge sort is a divide and conquer algorithm that was invented by John von

2.

Neumann in 1945

To sort elements Divide the unsorted array into two sub lists at the middle. Further

divide these sub lists into sub lists at their middles until each sub list contain only

3.

one element.

Merge these sub lists two at a time till we get the final sorted list with the

following steps:

i) Compare the sub-lists first elements.

ii) Remove the smallest element and put it into the result array.

iii) Continue the process until all elements have been put into the result array.

Medium:

II. Multiple choice questions

1.

a. O(n)

2.

5.

d. O(logn)

b. O(n*n)

c. O(nlogn)

d. O(logn)

a. O(n)

4.

c. O(nlogn)

a. O(n)

3.

b. O(n*n)

b. O(n*n)

c. O(nlogn)

d. O(logn)

a. Worst and Best

a. n

b.n-1

c.log(n)

d. nlogn

6.

Merge sort is based on the divide and conquer strategy consists of the following

steps

7.

Given two sorted lists of size m, n the number of comparisons needed in the worst

case by the merge sort algorithm is

a.mn

8.

b.max(m,n)

c.min(m,n)

d.m+n-1

A = [66, 33, 40, 22, 55, 88, 60, 11, 80, 20, 50, 44, 77, 30]

How many Passes are required to sort the above array A using the Merge sort

algorithm?

a. 3

9.

b. 4

d. 7

e. 14

a. doubles

10.

c. 5

b. halves

d. increases 4 times

a. n-1

b. n

c.log n

d. n*n

1. c

2.c

3.c

4.d

5.c

6.a

7.d

8.c

9.a

10.a

I. Statements/Definitions

1.

2.

This algorithm is based on repeated selection of either the smallest or the largest

3.

element from the elements in unsorted list and their inclusion in sorted list.

This process continues until all elements have been selected from the unsorted

list.

4.

Heap sort is built on a data structure called heap and hence the name heap sort.

Easy:

1.

a. O(n)

2.

4.

5.

c. O(nlogn)

d. O(logn)

a. O(n)

3.

b. O(n*n)

b. O(n*n)

c. O(nlogn)

d. O(logn)

a. A[Parent(i)]>=A[i]

b. A[Parent(i)]<=A[i]

c. A[Parent(i+1)]>A[i]

d. A[Parent(i+1)]<a[i]

a. A[Parent(i)]>=A[i]

b. A[Parent(i)]<=A[i]

c. A[Parent(i+1)]>A[i]

d. A[Parent(i+1)]<a[i]

The number of operations required for heap sort regardless of the order of I

input

a. O(1)

6.

b. O(logn)

c. O(nlogn)

d. O(n*n)

a. Worst and Best

a. O(n log n)

b. O(log n)

c. (log n)

d. (n log n)

Complex:

8.

a. [10,7,7,2,4,6]

b. [10,7,6,2,4,7]

c. [10]

d. [10,6,7,2,4,6]

9.

a. log n

10.

b. n log n

b. n log n

c. n*n

d. none

a. O(logn)

12.

d. none

a. log n

11.

c. n*n

b. O(n)

c. O(nlogn)

d .none

The __________ data structure is a n array object that can be viewed as a nearly

complete binary tree.

a. stack

13.

b. queue

d. linked list

a. O(n)

14.

c. binary heap

b. O(n log n)

c. O(log n)

d. O(n)

a. O(log n)

b. (log n)

c. (log n)

d. O(n)

7.d

10.b

1. c

2.c

3.a

12.c

13. c

14.c

4.b

5.c

6.d

8.c 9.a

11.b

3.1 INTRODUCTION TO STACK

I . Statements/Definitions

1.

Stack is a linear data structure which stores the elements in LIFO(Last In First

Out) order.

2.

The last element that is inserted will be the first to be removed from the stack. So

3.

It is an ordered list of elements in which addition or deletion of elements is done

4.

5.

6.

Adding an element to a stack is referred to as pushing that element onto the stack.

Removing an element from the stack is referred to as popping the stack.

The basic operations performed on stack are:

Create

Push

Pop

Top(Peep)

Empty

Display

The process of adding a new element to the top of stack is called push operation.

The process of deleting an element from the top of the stack is called POP operation.

I. Statements/Definitions

Reversing a list

Parentheses checking

Conversion of infix expression to postfix expression

Evaluation of postfix expression

Recursion

Towers of Hanoi

1. What is the difference between a stack and a Queue?

Stack Represents the collection of elements in Last In First Out order.

Queue - Represents the collection of elements in First In First Out order.

2. Can a stack be described as a pointer? Explain

A stack is represented as a pointer. The reason is that, it has a head pointer which points

to the top of the stack. The stack operations are performed using the head pointer. Hence,

the stack can be described as a pointer.

3. What is recursion?

Recursion is an approach in which a function calls itself with an argument. Upon

reaching a termination condition, the control returns to the calling function.

4. Is it possible to insert different types of element in a stack? How?

Different elements can be inserted into a stack. This is possible by implementing union /

structure data type. It is efficient to use union rather than structure, as only one items

memory is used at a time.

5. What is the data structures used to perform recursion?

Stack. Because of its LIFO (Last In First Out) property it remembers its 'caller' so knows

whom to return when the function has to return. Recursion makes use of system stack for

storing the return addresses of the function calls.

III. Multiple Choice Questions

Easy:

1. The operation for adding an entry to a stack is traditionally called:

a. add

b. append

c. insert

d. push

a. delete

3.

4.

5.

b. peek

c. pop

d. remove

a. parentheses balancing program.

a. managing function calls

b. expression conversion

c. expression evaluation

If the sequence of operations - push(1), push(2), pop, push(1), push(2), pop, pop,

pop, push(2), pop are performed on a stack, the sequence of popped out values are

?

a. 2, 2, 1, 1, 2

b. 2, 2, 1, 2, 2

c. 2, 1, 2, 2, 1

d. 2, 1, 2, 2, 2

Medium:

6.

a. A collection of stacks can be sorted.

b. Stack entries may be compared with the '<' operation.

c. The entries must be stored in a linked list.

d. There is a first entry, a second entry, and so on

7.

8.

9.

a. is empty

b. pop

c. push

a. is empty

b. pop

c. push

a. ab + cd - *

10.

c. + cd * -

d. ab + - cd *

a. Circular list

11.

b. abcd + - *

b. Array

c .Stack

d. Queue

expression?

a. Circular list

b. Array

c .Stack

d. Queue

e. Dequeue.

12.

a.600

13.

c.650

d.588

a. Queue

14.

b.350

b. Stack

c. Array

d. Linked-list

manipulating data on a------a. Heap

b. Queue

c. Stack

d. Binary tree

1.d

2.c

3.d

4.d

11. c

12.b

13.b

14.c

5.d

6. d

7.b

8.c 9.d

10.c

3.3 QUEUE

I. Statements/Definitions

1.

2.

Queue is a linear data structure which stores data in FIFO(First In First Out)order.

A Queue is an ordered collection of items from which items may be deleted at one

end (called the front of the queue) and into which items may be inserted at the

3.

The first element inserted into the queue is the first element to be removed. For

this reason a queue is called FIFO data structure.

Eg: people waiting for a bus, cars lined for filling petrol, luggage kept on

conveyor belt, cars lined at a toll bridge.

4.

1.insert: Insertion or addition of elements to a queue.Also referred to as enqueue.

2.delete: Deletion or removal of elements from a queue.Also referred to as

dequeue.

3.display: To display the contents of a queue.

I. Statements/Definitions

A Queue data structure can be classified into the following types

1. Circular Queue

2. Dequeue

3. Priority Queue

3.4.1 Circular Queue

1. In a Linear queue we cannot reuse the space i.e. it is not possible to insert a new element

into the queue though it has empty locations.

2. To avoid this problem we use circular queue which also follows FIFO order.

3. In a circular queue we can join front and rear ends to make a circle.

3.4.2 Dequeue

1. A double ended queue is a variation in linear queue in which insertions and deletions are

performed at both ends i.e. elements can be added or deleted from front or rear ends.

2. A deque is pronounced as DEqueue or Deck.

3. There are two types of dequeues:

1. Input Restricted Dequeue

-Insertion is restricted at front end.

2. Output Restricted Dequeue

-Deletion is restricted at rear end.

3.4.3 Priority Queue

1. It is a special form of linear queue where each element in the queue is associated with a

priority

2. In a priority queue an element with high priority is served before an element with low

priority.if two elements have the same priority they are served according to their order of

arrival in the queue.

II. Multiple Choice Questions

Easy:

1.

Which data structure allows deleting data elements from front and inserting at

rear?

a. Stacks

2.

b. Queues

c. Deques

If the characters 'D', 'C', 'B', 'A' are placed in a queue (in that order), and then

removed one at a time, in what order will they be removed?

a. ABCD

3.

b. ABDC

c. DCAB

d. DCBA

Identify the data structure which allows deletions at both ends of the list but

insertion at only one end.

4.

a. Input-restricted deque

b. Output-restricted deque

c. Priority queues

d. None of above

A data structure where elements can be added or removed at either end but not in

the middle

a. Linked lists

b. Stacks

c. Queues

d. Deque

Complex:

5.

a. Radix sort b. Quick sort

6.

c. Recursion

Which of the following data structure is the best example for the multitasking

systems?

a. Tree

7.

b. Queue

c. Stack

d. Linked List

To implement the Round Robin algorithm, which of the following data structure

is used?

a. Stack

b. Linear Queue

c. Circular Queue

1. b

2.d

3.a

4.d

5.a

6.b

7.b

d. Priority Queue

4. TREES&GRAPHS

4.1 TREE BASICS

I. Statements/Definitions

1.

A tree is a finite set of one or more nodes such that here is a specially designated node

called the root.

2.

The remaining nodes are partitioned into n 0 disjoint sets T1,,Tn, where each of

these sets is a tree. We call T1,,Tn the sub trees of the root.

3.

Root of the tree: The top node of the tree that is not a sub tree to other node, and has

two children of sub trees.

4.

5.

6.

7.

8.

9.

Node: It is stands for the item of information and the branches to other nodes.

The degree of a node: It is the number of sub trees of the node.

The degree of a tree: It is the maximum degree of the nodes in the tree

The parent node: a node that has sub trees is the parent of the roots of the sub trees

The child node: a node that is the roots of the sub trees are the children of the node

The Level of the tree: We define the level of a node by initially letting the root be at

level one

10. The depth of a tree: It also called height of a tree. It is the maximum level of any node

in the tree

II. Short Answers

Easy:

1. Define tree?

A tree is a non-linear data structure that consists of a root node and

potentially many

2. Define Binary tree?

A binary tree is made of nodes, where each node contains a "left" reference, a "right"

reference, and a data element.

3. Define Binary search tree?

A BST is a binary tree where nodes are ordered in the following way:

1.

2.

3.

4.

The keys in the left sub tree are less than the key in its parent node, in short l < p;

The keys in the right sub tree are greater the key in its parent node, in short p < r;

Duplicate keys are not allowed.

By using the tree traversal techniques we can visit the each vertex exactly once.

5. Explain preorder traversal?

Visit the parent first and then left and right children;

6. Explain inorder traversal?

Visit the left child, then the parent and the right child

7. Explain postorder traversal?

Visit left child, then the right child and then the parent

8. What are the operations on binary tree?

There are three operations

Insertion

Deletion

Searching

Medium:

9. What is Threaded Binary Tree?

A Binary Tree is threaded by making all right child pointers that would normally be null

point to the in order successor of the node (if it exists) , and all left child pointers that

would normally be null point to the in order predecessor of the node.

10. What are the operations of Binary Search Tree?

There are three operations

1. Insertion

2. Deletion

3. Searching

11. What is meant by Balanced Tree?

A binary tree is balanced if for each node it holds that the number of inner nodes in the

left sub tree and the number of inner nodes in the right sub tree differ by at most 1.

12. Define AVL tree?

An AVL tree is a binary search tree which has the following properties:

1. The sub-trees of every node differ in height by at most one.

2. Every sub-tree is an AVL tree.

13. What are the operations of AVL tree?

There are three operations

1. Insertion

2. Deletion

3. Searching

Complex:

14. What is the purpose of using B tree?

By using the B tree dynamically we can increase and decrease the size of tree.

15. Define B tree?

The B-Tree has additional constraints to ensure the tree is always balanced, and the space

wasted by deletion never becomes excessive.

16. What are the advantages of trees?

Trees are so useful and frequently used, because they have some very serious advantages:

Trees

Trees

Trees

17. How many types of threaded binary trees and what are those?

There are two types of threaded binary trees those are

Single Threaded

Double threaded

18. What is single threaded binary tree?

Each node is threaded towards either (right)' the in-order predecessor or' successor.

19. What is double threaded binary tree?

Each

node

is

threaded

towards both

(left

&

right)'

the

in-order

20. Define balance factor?

It is the difference between the height of the left sub tree and height of the right sub tree.

21. What are the balance factor values for height balanced trees?

BF values for height balanced trees are -1, 0 and +1.

22. How to balance the AVL tree in case of tree is in unbalanced state?

By using the rotations we can balance the tree. There are two types of rotations. Those are

1) Single rotations

i)

LL rotation

ii)

RR rotation

2) Double rotations.

i)

LR rotation

ii)

RL rotation

III. Multiple Choice Questions

1.

2.

A Binary Tree whose every node has either zero or two children is called

a. Complete binary tree

d. None of above

In a binary tree, certain null entries are replaced by special pointers which

point to nodes higher in the tree for efficiency. These special pointers are called

a. Leaf

3.

b. branch

c. path

The in order traversal of tree will yield a sorted listing of elements of tree in

a. Binary trees b. Binary search trees

4.

d. thread

Which of the following is not the required condition for binary search algorithm?

b. there should be the direct access to the middle element in any sublist

c. There must be mechanism to delete and/or insert elements in list

d. none of above

5.

6.

a. Threaded trees. b. Pointer trees. c. Special trees.

Each node N of binary tree T has how many fields.

a. 2.

b. 3.

c. 4.

d. none of the above.

Medium:

7.

When converting binary tree into extended binary tree, all the original nodes in binary

tree are

8.

d. None of above

The post order traversal of a binary tree is DEBFCA. Find out the pre order

traversal

a. ABFCDE

b. ADBFEC

c. ABDECF

d. ABDCEF

a. must use a sorted array

b. requirement of sorted array is expensive when a lot of insertion and deletions are needed

c. there must be a mechanism to access middle element directly

d. binary search algorithm is not efficient when the data elements are more than 1000.

10.

a. Every binary tree has at least one node.

b. Every non-empty tree has exactly one root node.

c. Every node has at most two children.

d. Every non-root node has exactly one parent.

11.

a. Array with pointers.

b. Single linear array.

c. Two dimensional arrays.

d. Three dimensional arrays.

12.

a. Overflow.

b. Underflow.

13.

c. Empty.

d. Full.

a. 4.

b. 2.

c. 3.

d. 5.

14.

15.

a. Route.

b. Connecting lines.

c. Two-way.

d. Path.

b. 0.

c. -1.

d. Null.

Complex:

16.

a. Left-node-right traversal.

b. Right-node-left traversal.

c. Node-left-right traversal.

d. Right-left-node traversal.

17.

a. 0 or 1.

b. 0, 1 or 2.

c. atleast 2.

d. atleast 1.

18.

While using header node in binary trees the condition LEFT [HEAD] =NULL

indicates a ___

a. Empty tree.

b. Tree is full.

c. Free space available.

d. Avail list full.

19.

The threads in a diagram of a threaded tree are usually indicated by ---a. Straight line.

b. Arrow.

c. Dotted line.

d. Curve.

20.

If node N is a terminal node in a binary tree then its -----a. Right tree is empty.

b. Left tree is empty.

c. Both left & right sub trees are empty.

d. Root node is empty.

1.c

2.d

11.b 12.c 13.c 14.d

3.b

15.b

4.c

16.a

17.b

5.a

18.a

6.b

7.a

19.c 20.c

8.c

9.d

10.a

4.2 GRAPHS

I .Statements/Definitions

1.

2.

3.

An edge connects two vertices to show that there is a relationship between them.

If the edges in a graph are all one-way, we say that the graph is a directed graph,

4.

5.

6.

7.

or a digraph.

A path in a graph is a sequence of vertices that are connected by edges.

A cycle in a directed graph is a path that starts and ends at the same vertex.

A graph with no cycles is called an acyclic graph.

Undirected Graph: The pairs in E are unordered pairs, i.e., there is no tail or head

8.

9.

10.

Adjacent Vertices - means there is an edge from u to v, i.e., (u, v)

Degree - the number of edges incident on a vertex

A self loop is a cycle of length 1, and a directed graph with no self loops is

11.

referred to as simple

Undirected graph is connected - when every pair of vertices in V is connected by

12.

a path.

Directed graph strongly connected - when every two of vertices in V is reachable

from each other

1.

graphs?

Adjacency matrix and adjacency list are used for representing the graphs.

A two-dimensional matrix, in which the rows represent source vertices and columns

represent destination vertices. Data on edges and vertices must be stored externally. Only

the cost for one edge can be stored between each pair of vertices.

3. Explain adjacency list representation?

Vertices are stored as records or objects, and every vertex stores a list of adjacent

vertices. This data structure allows the storage of additional data on the vertices.

Additional data can be stored if edges are also stored as objects, in which case each

vertex stores its incident edges and each edge stores its incident vertices.

4. How to visit the each vertex in the graph at most one time?

By using graph traversing techniques we can traverse the graph. There are two techniques

those are

1) Depth First Search

2) Breadth First Search

5. What are the operations of graphs?

1. Insert vertex

2. Delete vertex

3. Add edge

4. Delete edge

5. Find vertex

6. Traverse graph.

6. What are the differences between DFS and BFS?

BFSuses queue implementation ie.FIFO, dfs uses stack implementation ie. LIFO

DFS is faster than BFS

DFS requires less memory than BFS

DFS is used to perform recursive procedures.

Easy:

1.

a. N-1

2.

b. N

c.N+1

search

a. Stack

3.

b .Set

b. Number of vertex in a graph

c. List

d. Queue

d. Number of edges in a graph

4.

a. Spanning tree

5.

d. None of these

a. Total number of edges in a graph is even or odd

b. Total number of vertices in a graph is even or odd

c. Its degree is even or odd

d. None of these

6.

Given an undirected graph G with V vertices and E edges, the sum of the degrees

of all vertices is

a. E

7.

b. 2E

d. 2V

A graph is said to be ________ if there is a path between any two of its nodes

a. Connected.

8.

c. V

b. Coupled.

c. Attached.

d. Allied.

G.

a. Absolute.

9.

c. Inclusive.

d. Complete.

a. Tagged.

10.

b. Entire.

b. Marked.

c. Labeled.

d. Sticked.

c. Dir-graph.

d. Digraph.

a. Direct graph.

b. Digraph.

11.

12.

a. Identical end points.

a. Joined.

13.

b. Reachable.

d. circular graph.

a. u is adjacent to v but v is not adjacent to u.

15.

d. Directed.

a. free graph. b. no cycle graph.

14.

c. Connected.

d. both b and c.

a. End points of e.

b. Adjacent nodes.

Complex:

16.

A graph with no edges is known as empty graph. Empty graph is also known

as ?

a. Trivial graph

17.

c. Bipartite graph

d. None of these

a. Cyclic graph

18.

b. Regular graph

b. Regular graph

c. Tree

d. Not a graph

a. n^n-2

b. n*n

c. n^n

d. n^2

19.

a. Euler

20.

b. Hamiltonian

d. Path

a. A spanning sub graph

21.

c. Tree

(or) a path from v to u.

22.

a. Laterally connected.

b. Widely connected.

c. Un literally connected.

d. Literally connected.

a. 1.

23.

d. 2.

b. Queue.

c. Tree.

d. Array.

a. Array.

25.

c. 4.

a. Stack.

24.

b. 3.

b. Tree.

c. Stack.

d. Queue.

runs in linear time, the data structure to be used is:

a. Queue

26.

b. Stack

c. Heap

d. B-Tree

a. A spanning sub graph

d. All of above

1.b

2.d

3.a

4.b

5.c

6.b

7.a

15.d

16.a

17.c

18.a

19.a

20.d

21.c

22.d

11.a

23.b

12.b

24.c

13.a 14.d

25.a

26.d

5.1 ABSTRACT DATA TYPE

I .Statements/Definitions

1.

axioms in which only what is to be done is mentioned but how is to be done is not

2.

3.

4.

5.

6.

mentioned.

In ADT, all the implementation details are hidden.

In short

ADT= TYPE+ Function names + Behaviour of each function

The abstract data type consists of following things

Data used along with its data type.

Declaration of functions which specify only the purpose. That means What is to

be done in Particular function has to be mentioned but how is to be done must

7.

be hidden.

Behavior of function can be specified

8.

together.

Thus ADT allows programmer to hide the implementation details. Hence it is

called abstract.

5.2 ADT OPERATIONS

Various Abstract Data Type operations are

1.

2.

3.

4.

5.

Display: This operation is for displaying all the elements of the data structure

Insertion: By this operation the element can be inserted at any desired position .

Deletion: By this operation any desired element can be deleted from the data structure.

Modification: This operation modifies the desired elements value by any desired new

value.

The ADT operations are carried out with the help of data structure .this part describes the

structure of the data used in the data used in the ADT in an informal way. Various data structures

That can be used for ADT are arrays , Set , Linked list , Stack , Queues and so on.

Examples

1. ADT for Set

If you want to write ADT for a set of integers , then we will use following method

Abstract Data Type Set

Instances :Set is a collection of integer type of elements .

Preconditions :none

Operations :

1. Store( ) : This operation is for storing the integer element in a set.

2. Retrieve( ) : This operation is for retrieving the desired element from the given set.

3. Display( ) : This operation is for displaying the contents of set.

There is a specific method using which an ADT can be written. We begin with keyword

Abstract data type which is then followed by name of the data structure for which we want to

write an ADT. In above given example we have taken set data structure.

We must first write instances in which the basic idea about the corresponding data

structure must be given. Generally in this section definition of corresponding data

structure is given.

Using preconditions or post conditions we can mention specific conditions that must be

Then a listing of all the required operations must be given. In this section, we must

specify the purpose of the function. We can also specify the data types of these functions.

Abstract Data Type Array

Instances: An array A of some size, index i and total number of elements in the array n.

Operations:

1. Store()-This operation stores the desired elements at each successive location.

2. Display () This operation displays the elements of the array.

ADT Implementation of Stack and Queue

Stack is a data structure which posses LIFO i.e. Last In First Out property. The abstract data type

for stack can be as given below.

Instances: stack is a collection of elements in which insertion and deletion of elements is done

by one end called top.

Preconditions:

1. Stfull (): This condition indicates whether the stack is full or not. If the stack is

2. Stempty (): This condition indicates whether the stack is empty or not. If the

stack is empty then we cannot pop or remove any element from the stack.

Operations:

1. Push: By this operation one can push elements onto the stack. Before performing

push we must check stfull () condition.

2. Pop: By this operation one can remove the elements from stack. Before popping

the elements from stack we should check stempty () condition.

The queue is a FIFO data structure in which the element which is inserted first will be the first to

be removed. The ADT for queue will be as follows

Abstract Data Type queue

Instance: The queue is collection of elements in which the element can be inserted by one end

called rear and elements get deleted from the end called front.

Preconditions:

1.Queue_full() checks whether queue is full or not. If the Queue is full then we cannot insert

the elements.

2.Queue_empty () checks whether queue is empty or not. If the Queue is empty then we

cannot delete the elements.

Operations:

1.Queue_insert()- Inserts the element in queue from rear end.

2.Queue_delete()- Deletes the element from the queue by front end.

Thus the ADT for queue gives the abstract for what has to be implemented, which are the various

operations on queue. But it never specifies how to implement those.

I. Statements/Definitions

In general, in all searching techniques, search time is dependent on the number of items.

Sequential search, binary search and all the search trees are totally dependent on number

of items and many key comparisons are involved.

Hashing is a technique where search time is independent of the number of items or

elements. In this technique a hash function is used to generate an address from a key. The

hash function takes a key as input and returns the hash value of that key which is used as

an address index in the array.

We can write hash function as follows

h(k)=a

Where h is hash function, k is the key, a is the hash value of the key.

While choosing a hash function we should consider some important points.

It should generate address with minimum collision.

Truncation Method

Mid square Method

Folding Method

Division Method

Truncation Method

This is the simplest method for computing address from a key. In this method we take

only a part of the key as address.

A collision occurs whenever a key is mapped to an address that is already occupied.

Collision Resolution technique provides an alternate place in hash table where this key

can be placed.

Collision Resolution technique can be classified as:

1) Open Addressing (Closed Hashing)

a) Linear Probing

b) Quadratic Probing

c) Double Hashing

Easy:

1.

a. Same as an abstract class

b. A data type that cannot be instantiated

c. A data type for which only the operations defined, but none else

d. All of the above

2.

ADT consists of

a. Type

3.

5.

d. All

b. basic operation

c. both

d. None

a. To store the data items

b. Basic operation

c. Both

d. None

a. Recursion

6.

c. Behaviour

a. data items

4.

b. Function names

b.ADT

c. Storage structure

d. File structure

the collection of all ____________ operations on that model

a. Cardinality

7.

b. assignment

c. Primitive

d. Structured

with the collection of all ____________ operations on that model

a. Cardinality

8.

b. Assignment

c. Primitive

d. Structured

a. LIFO

b. FIFO

c. FILO

d. None

9.

a. LIFO

10.

c. Any of a or b

d. None

a. Push

11.

b. FIFO

b. Pop

c. peek

d. None

Parentheses is a

a. Queue

12.

c. Tree

d. List

which of the following data structure is used for evaluation of post fix expression

a. Stack

13.

b. Stack

b. Array

c. Queue

d. Linked list

a. Conversion from infix to postfix

c. Both

d. None

Medium:

14.

a. Instances

15.

b. Preconditions

c. Operations

called

16.

d. All

a. Data Structure

d. Algorithm

a. Recursive

c. Storage structure

d. File structure

17.

the collection of all ____________ operations on that model

a. Cardinality

18.

b. Assignment

c. Primitive

d. Structured

Which of the following abstract data types can be used to represent a many to

many relation?

a. Tree

19.

c. Graph

d. b&c

a. Symbol table

20.

b. plex

d. Dope vector

Which of the following abstract data types can be used to represent a many to

many relation?

a. Tree

21.

b. Plex

c. Graph

d. b &c

list than by singly linked list?

a. Deleting a node whose location in given

b. Searching of an unsorted list for a given item

c. Inverting a node after the node with given location

d. Traversing a list to process each node

22.

23.

A set is ___________

a. Collection of elements

d. None

a. Natural No set

24.

b. Integer set

d. None

a. Union

b. Intersection

c. Join

d. None

25.

a. Array

26.

d. None

b. Null set

c. Powerful set

d. Exponential set

a. Listing Method

28.

c. Both

a. Set of all sub sets

27.

b. Linked list

a. Union

b. Intersection

c. Equality

d. Dictionary

29.

Application of dictionary

a. Student register

30.

b. Telephone directory

c. Word dictionary

d. All

The situation in which the hash function returns same hash key is called

a. Clash

b. Collision

c. Synonym

d. None

Complex:

31.

a. Twins

32.

b. Synonyms

b. Location

b. Hash function

d. Memory

c. Hash domain

d. Mapping table

a. Truncation Method

35.

c. Bucket

a. Key table

34.

d. None

a. Space

33.

c. Antonym

d. All

a. Minimize collisions b. Maximize collisions c. Minimize entries d. None

36.

a. Linear probing

37.

d. None

a. Open addressing

38.

b. Closed addressing

c. Separate chaining

d. None

a. Open addressing

39.

b. Closed addressing

c. Separate chaining

d. None

a.Hashkey+i2%M

b. Hashkey+i4%M

c. Hashkey2%M d. Hashkey+i2

40.

a. Exact location number

b. Number of positions from collision

c. Any of a and b

d. None

1. d

2.d

3.a

11.b

12.a

22.c

23.c

33.b

4.b

5.d

6. c

7.c

13.c 14.d

15.b

16b

17.c

24.c

25.c

26.a

27.d

28.d

29.d

30.b 31. b

34.d

35.a

36.d

37.a

38.c

39.a

40.b

18.d

8.b

9.a

19.d

20.d

10.d

21. a

32.c

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