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EPC PROGRAM ACADEMY, BARODA

Larsen & Toubro Limited

I-)

2 4 JUL 2002
TEcHNlCA!. LlaRnRY (PRDH)

Five Days Programme on

Piping Flexibility Analysis

22nd - 26th July, 2002


PRDH Auditorium, R&D Bldg.
Powai

EI'C Centre, 8 I' Estate, Chliiisi, BAKODA,TEL: 776206,774509 F A k 7 7 6 2 I 1, E-MAIL: rajesh-patel@enc.ltindiit.con~

INTENSIVE COURSE ON PIPING ENGINEERING


Conducted by

MATHIMITATION TECHNOLOGIES PRIVATE LIMITED


MUMBA1
For

LARSEN & TOUBRO LIMITED


MUMBA1

PROGRAMME
MODULE111 - FLEXIBILITY ANALYSIS
MONDAY, 22.07.2002
0930 - 1100
1115- 1245
1330 - 1515
1515 - 1645

Pipe Stresses
Pipe Stresses
Pipe Supports
Pipe Supports (contd.)

ASM
ASM
TNG
TNG

Thermal
Thermal
Thermal
Thermal

TNG
TNG
TNG
TNG

TUESDAY, 23.07.2002
0930 - 1100
1115- 1245
1330 - 1515
1515 - 1645

Stress Analysis
Stress Analysis
Stress Analysis
Stress Analysis

WEDNESDAY, 24.07.2002
0930- 1100
1115- 1245
1330 - 1515
1515 - 1645

Slw Demo
Slw Demo
Expansion Joints
Expansion Joints

ASP
ASP
TNG
TNG

Dynamic Analysis
Dynamic Analysis
Dynamic Analysis
Dynamic Analysis

GB
GB
GB
GB

Problem Solving
Problem Solving
Case Studies
Case Studies

GB
GB
ASPIASM
ASPIASM

THURSDAY, 25.07.2002

0930 - 1100
1115- 1245
1330 - 1515
1515 - 1645

FRIDAY, 26.072002
0930 - 1100
1115- 1245
1330 - 1515
1515 - 1645

Coffee- 11.00 - 11.15


ASM :A S MOHARIR

Lunch - 12.45 - 13.30


ASP :A S PATlL

Tea - 14.15 -14.30

GB :G BALASUBRAHMANYAM

TNG :T N GOPINATH

PIPE UNDER STRESS


PROF. A. S. MOHARIR
INTRODUCTION
Pipes are the most delicate components in any
process plant. They are also the most busy
entities. They are subjected to almost all kinds
of loads, intentional or unintentional. It is very
important to take note of all potential loads
that a piping system would encounter during
operation as well as during other stages in the
life cycle of a process plant. Ignoring any such
load while designing, erecting, hydro testing,
start-up, shutdown, normal operation,
maintenance etc. can lead to inadequate design
and engineering of a piping system. The
system may fail on the fust occurrence of this
overlooked load. Failure of a piping system
may trigger a Domino effect and cause a
major disaster. This is the lesson from the
infamous Flixborough disaster that everybody
having anything to do with design,
engineering, maintenance, operation etc. of a
piping system must learn. It is not sufficient to
do 99 right things and 1 wrong thing while
designing a piping system. The end result
would be disastrous. One must score a perfect
100 in piping system design.
The idea of this paper is to discuss all possible
potential loads that are developed in a piping
system and their implication on the stresses
that would be generated in the pipes. Some
guidelines to minimize the effect of such loads
and keep the resultant stresses under limits
specified by the codes are then given. Final
design and engineering of a piping system
may have to go through rigorous calculations,
either manual or on computer, of the collective
effect of all such loads and sound analytical
skills to take engineering decisions to mitigate
this effect.
Stress analysis and safe design normally
require appreciation of several related
concepts. An approximate list of the steps that
would be involved is as follows.

PIPE UNDER STRESS

1. Identify potential loads that would come


on to the pipe or piping system during its
entire life
2. Relate each one of these loads to the
stresses and strains that would be
developed in the crystalslgrains of the
Material of Construction (MoC) of the
piping system.
3. Decide the worst three-dimensional stress
state that the MoC can withstand without
failure
4. Get the cumulative effect of all the
potential loads on the 3-D stress scenario
in the piping system under consideration.
5. Alter piping system design to ensure that
the stress pattern is within failure limits.
The goal of quantification and analysis of pipe
stresses is to provide safe design through the
above steps. Of course, there could be several
designs, which could be safe. A piping
engineer would still have a lot of scope to
choose &om such alternatives the one which is
most economical, or most suitable etc. Good
piping system design is always a mixture of
sound knowledge base in the basics and a lot
of ingenuity. This paper attempts to create the
necessary base.

CLASSIFICATION OF LOADS
FAILURE MODES

AM)

Pressure design of piping or equipment uses


one criteria for design. Under a steady
application of load (e.g. pressure), it ensures
against failure of the system as perceived by
one of the failure theories. If a pipe designed
for a certain pressure experiences a much
higher pressure, the pipe would rupture even if
such load (pressure) is applied only once. The
failure or rupture is sudden and complete.
Such a failure is called cataskophic failure. It
takes place only when the load exceeds far
beyond the load for which design was carried
out. Over the years, it has been realized that

systems, .especially piping systems can fail


even when the loads are always under the
limits considered safe, but the load application
is cyclic (e.g. high pressure, low pressure, high
pressure,..j. Six5 ? failure is not guarded
against by' conventional pressui-i kr-igr.
formula or compliance with failure theories.
Once this was realized and it was seen than
systems may fail after prolonged use under the
load they could withstand till that time, it
became clear that system design must comply
with at least two different types of loads
causing two different types of failures. For
piping. system design, it is now well
established that one must treat these two types
of loads separately and together guard against
catastrophic and fatigue failure.
The loads the piping system (or for that matter
any sbxktural part) faces are broadly classified
as primary loads and secondary loads. There
examples and characteristics are given here in
brief.

Primary Loads
These are typically steady or sustained types
of loads such as internal fluid pressure,
external pressure, gravitational forces acting
on the pipe such as weight of pipe and fluid,
forces due to relief or blow down, pressure
waves generated due to water hammer effects.
The last two loads are not necessarily
sustained loads. All these loads occur because
of forces created and acting on the pipe. In
fact, primary loads have their origin in some
force acting on the pipe causing tension,
compression, torsion etc leading to normal and
shear stresses. Too large a load of this type
leads to deformation, often plastic. The
deformation is limited only if the material
shows strain hardening characteristics. If it has
no strain hardening property or if the load is so
excessive that the plastic instability sets in, the
system would continue to deform till rupture.
One says, that primary loads are not self
limiting. It means that the stresses continue to
exist as long as the load persists and
deformation does not stop because the system
bas deforxed int; a no-stress condition but
because strain hardening has come into play.
PIPE UNDER STRESS

The design to guard against failure by primary'


loads is based on one or more failure theories
such as the ones discussed later in this paper.
Secondary Loads
Just as the primary loads have their origin in
some force, secondary loads are caused by
displacement of some kind. For example, the
pipe connected to a stonge tank may be under
load if the tank nozzle to which it is connected
moves down due to tank settlement. Similarly,
pipe connected to a vessel is pulled upwards
because the vessel nozzle moves up due to
~essel'ex~ansion.
Also, a pipe may vibrate due
to vibrations in the rotating equipment it is
attached to. A pipe may experience expansion
or contraction once it is subjected to
temperatures higher or lower respectively as
compared to temperature at which it was
assembled.
The secondary loads are often cyclic but not
always. For example load due to tank
settlement is not cyclic. The load due to vessel
nozzle movement during operation is cyclic
because the displacement is withdrawn dliring
shut-down and resurfaces again after firesh
start-up. A pipe subjected to a cycle of hot and
cold fluid similarly undergoes cyclic loads and
deformation.
Failure under such loads is often due to fatigue
and not catastrouhic in nature.
Broadly speaking, catastrophic failure is
because individual crystals or grains were
subjected to stresses, which the chemistry and
the physics of the solid could not withstand.
Fatigue failure is often because the grains
collectively failed because their collective
characteristics (for example entanglement with
each other etc.) changed due to cyclic load.
Incremental damage done by each cycle to
their collective texture accumulated to such
levels that the system failed. In other words,
catastrophic failure is more at microscopic
level, whereas fatigue failure is at mesoscopic
level if not at macroscopic level.

This part of the paper focuses more on


primary loads and catastrophic failure. A brief
implication of cyclic loads and fatigue failure
on design is also presented. The subsequent
parts would deal more,comprehensively with
secondary loads including thermal loads and
stress analysis concepts.

...........................

.....
.

Fig. 1: Commonly Used Coordinate System

THE STRESSES
The MoC of any piping system is the most
tortured non-living being right from its birth.
Leaving the furnace in the molten state, the
metal solidifies within seconds. It is a very
hurried crystallization process. The crystals
could be of various lattice structural patterns
such as BCC, FCC, HCP etc. depending on the
material and the process. The grains, crystals
of the material have no time or chance to
orient themselves in any palticular fashion.
They are thus frozen in all random orientations
in the cold harmless pipe or structural member
that we see.
When we calculate stresses, we choose a set of
orthogonal directions and define the stresses in
this co-ordinate system. For example, in a pipe
subjected to internal pressure or any other
load, the most used choice of co-ordinate
system is the one comprising of axial or
longitudinal direction (L),circumferencial (or
Hoope's) direction 0 and radial direction (R)
as shown in Fig.1. Stresses in the pipe wall
are expressed as axial (S ), Hoope's (S ) and
L

radial (S ). These stresses, which stretch or


R

compress a grainlcrystal, are called normal


stresses because they are normal to the surface
of the crystal.
But, all grains are not oriented as the grain in
Fig.1. In fact the grains would have been
oriented in the pipe wall in all possible
orientations. The above stresses would also
have stress components in direction normal to
the faces of such randomly oriented crystal.
Each crystal thus does face normal stresses.
One of these orientations must be such that it
maximizes one of the normal stresses. The
mechanics of solids state that it would also be

PIPE UNDER STRESS

orientation, which minimizes some other


normal stress.

The mechanics of solids state that it


would also be orientation, which
minimizes some other normal stress.
Normal stresses for such orientation
(maximum normal stress orientation) are
called principal stresses, and are designated S
(maximum), S and S
2

(minimum). Solid

mechanics also states that the sum of the three


normal stresses for all orientation is always the
same for any given external load. That is

Importance of principal stresses can be


stressed at this time. Assume that a material
can be deemed to fail of any normal stress
exceeds some threshold value. If conventional
co-ordinate axes are used, one- may &id for
certain stress state that S ,S and S -are within
L

this threshold limit. The design would then


appear to be safe. However, grains, which are
oriented in maximum normal stress
orientation, may have one of the stresses (S )
I

more than this threshold. The pipe would thus


fail as far as these grains are concerned.
Design has- to be safe for such worst case
scenario. Principal skesses are thus a way of
defming the worst case scenario as far as the
normal skesses are concerned.

In addition to the normal skesses, a grain can


be subjected to shear stresses as well. These
act parallel to the crystal surfaces as against
perpendicular direction applicable for normal
stresses. Shear stresses occur if the pipe is
subjected to torsion, bending etc. Just as there
is an orientation for which normal stresses are
maximum, there is an orientation, which
maximizes shear stress. The maximum shear

stress in a 3-D state of stress can be shown to


be

i.e. half of the difference between the


maximum and minimum i;%clps! stiesszs.
The maximum shear stress is important to
cz!cvlate because fai!.tc
occ:!r or may be
deemed to occur due to shear stress also. A
failure perception may stipulate that maximum
shear stress should not cross certain threshold
value. It i s therefore necessary to take the
worst case scenario for shear stresses also as
above and ensure against failure.
It is easy to define stresses in the co-ordinate
system such as axial-Hoope's-radial (I.-H-R)
that we define for a pipe. The load bearing
cross-section is then well defmed and stress
components are calculated as ratio of load to
load bearing cross-section. Similarly, it is
possible to calculate shear stress in a particular
plane given the torsional or bending load.
What are required for testing failure-safe
nature of design are, however, principal
stresses and maximum shear stress. These can
be calculated from the normal stresses and
shear stresses available in any convenient
orthogonal co-ordinate system.

All failure theories state that these principle or


maximum shear stresses or some combination
of them should be within allowable limits for
the MoC under consideration. To check for
compliance of the design would then involve
relating the applied load to get the net S , S ,r

"
..

ail; ihen calculate S , S and .r


I

rn

and some

combination of them,

NORMAL AND SHEAR STRESSES


FROM APPLIED LOAD
As said earlier, a pipe is subjected to all kinds
of loads. These need to be identified. Each
such load would induce in the pipe wall,
normal and shear stresees. These need to be
calculated ftom standard relations. The net
normal and shear stresses resulting from all
such actual and potential loads are then arrived
at and principle and maximum shear stresses
calculated. Some potential loads faced by a
pipe and their relationships to stresses are
summarized here in brief.

Axial Load
A pipe may face an axial force (F ) as shown

..

in Fig. 2. It could be tensile or compressive.

In most pipe design eases of interest, the radial


component of normal stresses (S ) is
negligible as compared to the other two
components (S and S ). The 3-D state of
H

stress thus can be simplified to 2-D state of


stress. Use of Mohr's circle then allows to
calculate the two principle stresses and
maximum shear stress as follows.
S

= (S

+ SH)/2 +[{(S L - SH)/2}2 + .r2Ia5

~ i ~ . pipe
2 : under ~

~~~~di

What is shown is a tensile load. It would lead


to normal stress in the axial direction (S 1. The
.I

load bearing cross-section is the .crosssectional a& of the pipe wall normal to the
load direction, A . The stress can then be
m

calculated as
r

=0.5 [(S - S )'+4r2loS

"tax

S =F /A

The third principle stress (minimum i.e. S ) is


3

zero.

PIPE UNDER STRESS

The load-bearing cross-section may be


calculated rigorously or approximately as
follows.

=rrd t
0

(based on Outer Diameter)

The axial load may be caused due to several


reasons. The simplest case is a tall column.
The metal cross-section at the base of the
column is under the weight of the column
section above it including the weight of other
column accessories such as insulation, trays,
ladders etc. Another example is that of cold
spring. Many times a pipeline is intentionally
cut a little short than the end-to-end length
required. It is then connected to the end
nozzles by forcibly stretching it. The pipe, as
assembled, is under axial tension. When the
hot fluid starts moving through the pipe, the
pipe expands and compressive stresses are
generated. The cold tensile stresses are thus
nullified. The thermal expansion stresses are
thus taken care of through appropriate
assembly-time measures.
Internal / External Pressure
A pipe used for transporting fluid would be
under internal pressure load. A pipe such as a
jacketed pipe core or tubes in a Shell & Tube
exchanger etc. may be under net external
pressure. Internal or external pressure induces
stresses in the axial as well as circumferential
(Hoope's) directions. The pressure also
induces stresses in the radial direction, but as
argued earlier, these are often neglected.

Fig. 3: Hoope's Stress d u e to Internal


Pressure
The stresses are maximum for grains situated
at the inner radius and minimum for those
situated at the outer radius. The Hoope's stress
at any in between radial position (r) is given
as follows (Lame's equation)

For thin walled pipes, the radial stress


variation can be neglected. From membrane
theory, S may then be approximated as
H

follows.

Radial stresses are also induced due to internal


pressure as can be seen f?om Fig. 4.

9*

The internal pressure exerts an axial force


equal to pressure times the internal crosssection of pipe.

This then induces axial stress calculated as


earlier. ~f outer pipe diameter is used for
calculating approximate metal cross-section as
well as pipe cross-section, the axial stress can
often be approximated as follows.

S = P d l(4t)
L

PIF'E UNDER STRESS

Fig. 4: Radial Stresses Due to Internal


PreSSu"
At the outer skin, the radial stress is
compressive and equal to atmospheric
pressure (P ) or external pressure (P ) on the
m

=I

pipe. At inner radius, it is also comprmive


but equal to absolute fluid pressure (P ). In
.bt

between, it varies. As mentioned earlier, the


radial component is often neglected.

For fixed supports, the maximum bending


moment occurs at the ends and is given by
beam theory as follov~s.
N!-. . = w L2112 for fixed support
..&

Bending Load
A pipe can face sustained loads causing
bending. The bending moment can be related
.to normal and shear stresses.
Pipe bending is caused mainly due to two
reasons: Uniform weight load and
concentrated weight load. A pipe span
supported at two ends would sag between
these supports due to its own weight and the
weight of insulation (if any) when not in
operation. It may sag due to its weight and
weight of hydrostatic test fluid it contains
during hydrostatic test. It may sag due to its
own weight, insulation weight and the weight
of fluid it is carrying during operation. All
these weights are distributed uniformly across
the unsupported span and lead to maximum
bending moment either at the center of the
span or at the end points of the span (support
.location) depending upon the type of the
support used.
Let the total weight of the pipe, insulation and
fluid be W and the IenHh of the unsumorted
.
span be L (see Fig. 5).

r,

Total load

.
i
,

The pipe configuration and support types used


in process industry do not c o n f m to any of
these ideal support types and can be best
considered as somewhere in between. As a
result, a common practice is to use the
following average formula to calculate
bending moment for practical pipe
configurations as follows.

Also, the maximum bending moment in the


case of actual supports would occur
somewhere between the ends and the middle
of the span.
Another load that the pipe span would face is
the concentrated load. A good example is a
valve on a pipe run (see Figure 6).
Pointe Load W

--

)C--

b
-

Pinned Support

+
jJ

Fixed Support

Plnned Support

-.Fixed Support

Fig. 5: Distributed Load

Fig. 6: Pointed Load


The load is then approximated as acting at the
center of gravity of the valve and the
maximum bending morrient occurs at the point
of loading for pinned supports and is given as

The weight per unit length, w, is then


calculated (w = WE,). The maximum bending
moment (M*), which occurs at the center for

the pinned support, is then given by the beam


theory as follows.
M = w ~ ~ for
1 pinned
8
support

For rigid supports, the maximum bending


moment occurs at the end nearer to the pointed
load and is given as

"ax

=W a b / L

"lax

PIPE UNDER STRESS

= W a2b/L

"us

A is to be taken as the longer of the two arms


(a and b) in using the above formula.

The maximum tensile stress occurs where c is


equal to the outer radius of the pipe and is
given as follows.
S at outer radius = M r 11 = M. 1Z
L

As can be seen, the bending moment can be


reduced to zero by making either a or b zero,
i.e. by locating one of the supports right at the
point where the load is acting. In actual
practice, it would mean supporting the valve
itself. As that is difficult, it is a common
practice to locate one support as close to the
valve (or any other pointed and significant
load). With that done, the bending moment
due to pointed load is minimal and can be
neglected.

where Z (= Vr ) is the section modulus of the


pipe.

Shear Load
Shear load causes shear stresses. Shear load
may be of different types. One common load
is the shear force (V) acting on the crosssection of the pipe as shown in Fig. 8.

Whenever the pipe bends, the skin of the pipe


wall experiences both tensile and compressive
stresses in the axial direction as shown in
Fig. 7.

Fig. 8: Shear Force on a Pipe

Fig. 7: Axial stresses due to Bending


The axial stress changes &om maximum
tensile on one side of the pipe to maximum
compressive on the other side. Obviously,
there is a neutral axis along which the bending
moment does not induce any axial stresses.
This is also the axis of the pipe.
The axial tensile stress for a bending moment
of M at any location c as measured from the
b

It causes shear stresses, which are maximum


along the pipe axis and minimum along the
outer skin of the pipe. This being exactly
opposite of the axial stress pattern caused by
bending moment and also because these
stresses are small in magnitude, these are often
not taken in account in pipe stress analysis. If
necessary, these are calculated as

Q is the shear form factor andA

is the

",

neutral axis is given as follows.

metal cross-section.

S =M c/I

Torsional Load

inertia of the pipe crossI is the moment


section. For a circular cross-section pipe, I is
given as

This load (see Fig. 9) also causes shear


stresses. The shear stress caused due to torsion
is
at outer pipe radius, ~~d is given
there in terms of the torsional moment and
pipe dimensions as follows.

PIPE UNDER STRESS

This is r!so called 3 ~ : t i n eT;?eory. According


to Cis ~.,ory, iailixe occurs when the
m2xirr.11.~
principle stress in a system (S ) is
I

greater than the maximum tensile principle


stress at yield in a specimen subjected to
uniaxial tension test.
Uniaxial tension test is the most common test
carried out for any MoC. The tensile stress in
a constant cross-section specimen at yield is
what is reported as yield stress (S ) for any
Fig. 9: Shear Force Due to Torsion

material and is normally available. In uniaxial


test, the applied load gives rise only to axial
stress (S ) and S and S as well as shear
L

stresses are absent. S is thus also the principle


L

R is the torsional resistance (= twice the

normal stress (i.e. S ). That is, in a specimen

moment of inertia).

under uniaxial tension test, at yield, the


following holds.

All known loads on the pipe should be used to


calculate contributions to S , S and z. These
L

then are used to calculate the principal stresses


and maximum shear stress. These derived
quantities are then used to check whether the
pipe system design is adequate based on one
or more theories of failure.

THEORIES OF FAILURE
A piping system in particular or a structural
part in general is deemed to' fail when a
stipulated function of various stresses and
strains in the system or structural part crosses
a certain thfeshold value. It is a nornlal
practice to define failure as occurring when
this function .in,the actual system crosses the
value of a similar function in a solid rod
specimen at the point of yield. There are
various theories of failure that have been put
forth. These theories differ only in the way the
above-mentioned fimction is defined.
Important theories in common use are
considered here.

The maximum tensile principle stress at yield


is thus equal to the conventionally reported
yield stress (load at yield I cross-sectional area
of specimen).
The Rankine theory thus just says that failure
occurs when the maximum principle stress in a
system (S ) is more than the yield stress of the
I

material (S ).
Y

The maximum principle stress in the system


should be calculated as earlier.
It is interesting to check the implication of this
theory on the case when a cylinder (or pipe) is
subjected to internal pressure.
As per the membrane theory for pressure
design of cylinder, as long as the Hoope's
stress is less that the yield stress of the MoC,
the design is safe. It is also known that
Hoope's stress (S ) induced by internal
H

PIPE UNDER STRESS

pressure is twice the axial stress (S ). The


I.

principle stresses in the cylinder as per the


earlier given formula would be

+ SH)I2 +[{(SL - SH)/2)' + e]O5

= (S

=S

= (S
L

+ S )I2 - [{(S - S )/212+ r']Os


H

=S

It should also be interesting to check the


implication of this theory on the case when a
cylinder (or pipe) is subjected to intemal
pressure.

As the Hoope's stress induced by intemal


pressure (S ) is twice the axial stress (S ) and
L

The maximum principle stress in this case is


S (=S ). The Rankine theory and the design
2

The maximum shear stress in the system


should be calculated as earlier.

criterion used in the membrane theory are thus


compatible.
Check that the same is the case if we consider
the design formula for sphere based on
membrane theory. Membrane theory widely
used for pressure thichess calculation for
pressure vessels and piping design uses
Rankine theory as a criterion for failure.

Maximum Shear Theory


This is also called Tresca theory. According to
this theory, failure occurs when the maximum
shear stress in a system (Tmax) is greater than
the maximum shear stress at yield in a
specimen subjected to uni-axial tension test.
Note that it is similar in wording to the
statement of the earlier theory except that
maximum shear stress is used as criterion for
comparison as against maximum principle
stress used in the Rankine theory.

the shear stress is not induced directly (r = 0)


the maximum shear stress in the cylinder as
per the earlier given formula would be

r
"?ax

= 0.5

[(S - S )'+ 4 r2]0.5


L

= 0.5 S
H

This should be less than 0.5 S as per Tresca


Y

theory for safe design. This leads to the same


criterion that Hoope's stress in a cylinder
should be less than yield stress. The Tresca
theory and the design criterion used in the
membrane theory for cylinder are thus
compatible.
Check whether the same is the case if we
consider the design formula for sphere based
on membrane theory.

Octahedral Shear Theory


This is also called von Mises theory.
According to this theory, failure occurs when
the octahedral shear stress in a system (T ) is
m

In uniaxial test, the maximum shear stress at


yield as per definition of maximum shear test
given earlier is
r

= 0.5

[(S - S )'+ 4 rz]0.5


H

rn

= S 12=S 12
L

The Tresca theory thus just says that failure


occurs when the maximum shear stress in a
system (r ) is more than half the yield stress
rn

of the material (S ).
Y

PIPE UNDER STRESS-

greater than the octahedral shear stress at yield


in a specimcn subjected to uniaxial tension
test. Note that it is similar in wording to the
statement of the earlier two theories except
that octahedral shear stress is used as criterion
for comparison as against maximum principle
stress used in the Rankine theory or maximum
shear stress used in' Tresca theor$.
The octahedral shear stress is defined in terms
of the three principle stresses as follows.

In.view of the principle stresses defined for a


specimen under uniaxial load earlier, the
octahedral shear stress at yield in the specimen
can be shown to be as follows.

The von Mises theory thus states that failure


occurs in a system when octahedral sheai
stress in the system exceeds 2 O . 9 1 3 .
Y

a c;:qressive load of
a r i ' s ~ s m e gradiilly
s
W (is. z !old of -W), .then I .knsile load of W
a r t ss on. Time w m g e d load is thus zero.
T k &es to fzilure are then measured. Tne
ex.~xiii:ents are repeated with different
a r q l i ~ d e sof load. The results would be
typicdly as in Table 1.
Table 1: Typical Fatigue Test Results
Experiment Applied Cyclic Cycles to
Number
Stress, psi
Failure

The reader should check what it implies for


the case of cylinder and sphere and how it
compares with the membrane theory criteria
for design.
For stress analysis related calculations, most
of the present day piping codes uses a
modified version of Tresca theory.

SECONDARY

This table was for a MoC with yield stress of


57000 psi. Some interesting observations can
be made and questions raised.

As pointed earlier, a pipe designed to


withstand primary loads and to avoid
catastrophic failure may fail after a sufficient
amount of time due to secondary cyclic load
causing fatigue failure. The secondary loads
are often cyclic in nature. The number of
cycles to failure is a property of the material of
construction just as yield stress is. While yield
stress is cardinal to the design under primary
sustained loads, this number of cycles to
failure is the corresponding material property
important in design under cyclic loads aimed
at ensuring that the failure does not take place
within a certain period for which the system is
to be designed.

If the material has a reported yield stress of


57000, how were stresses far more than that
number created during fatigue tests on the
specimen as reported in the above table? This
question is very common and natural for all
those who do stress analysis and observe
reported stresses at various nodes of a piping
system which are often far beyond the yield
stress. In the stress-strain curve generated for
the specimen using uniaxial tensile load, such
a possibility would not be seen because for
any stress more than the yield stress, the
material would seem to strain more and more
without allowing a possibility of significantly
increasing the stress further. This question can
be answered as follows.

While yield stress is measured by subjecting a


specimen to uniaxial tensile load, fatigue test
is camed out on a similar specimen subjected
to cycles of uniaxial tensile and compressive
loads of certain amplitude, i.e. magnitude of
the tensile and compressive loads. Normally
the tests are camed out with zero mean load.
This means, that the specimen is subjected to a
gradually increasing load leading to a
maximum tensile load of W, then the load is
removed gradually till it passes through zero

One must always remember that stresses are


always derived rather than actually measured
quantities. What is actually measured is the
load or the strain. The stresses are either
reported as applied load divided by the
original load-bearing cross-section or the
values corresponding to the observed strain as
noted on the elastic line's intersection with the
strain vertical. What the later gives is the
hypothetical stress that would have been

DESIGN
LOAD

UNDER

PIPE UNDER STRESS

generated had the material stayed in the elastic


region and still produced that much strain. The
stress calculated in this way is called code
stress and what are reported are code stresses.
In actual practice, material wodd crossover to
the plastic deformation range and cause
observed strain for much smaller actual stress.
Another observation is that even when the
loads on the piping system are far below the
yield stress (say 30000 psi), the system would
fail after a certain number of cycles. The
design approach based on primary loads and
guarding against catastrophic failure is thus
simply not adequate for cyclic load.
When the amplitude of the cyclic stress is
approximately the same as the yield stress for
the material, the number of cycles to failure is
about 7000. What does that mean in terms of
real time? What would be the life of a piping
system or its component, which is subjected to
such a stress cycle? That would depend on the
frequency or period of the stress cycle. That in
turn would depend on the process and
operating philosophy. If the process is such
that the cycle period is 24 hours and the
process operates round the year, then there are
365 cycles per year. The cycles would cross
7000 in about 20 years and then the system
would fail due to fatigue. This means that if
we have an operation, which requires start up,
and shut down every day, the life of the plant
designed for sustained load would be about 20
years. For processes, which have larger
periodicity of stress cycles, the fatigue life
would be proportionately smaller. For
example, if the process requires a shut down
and start up in every 8 hour shift and the plant
operates three shifts a day and 365 days a
year, The fatigue life of a component subject
to cyclic load due to this cyclic operation
would be just 7 years or so if the component is
stressed to yield sbess in each such cycle. If
the life still has to be 20 years, the component
must be designed for smaller sbess level (i.e.
of larger thickness) so that it requires more
cycles to failure (approximately 21000). If the
allowable stress taken in design for sustained

PIPE UNDER STRESS

load is appropriately reduced, desired fatigue


life also can be achieved. The cyclic stress vs.
cycles to failure data is thus useful to decide
the factor by which allowable stress should be
reduced to guard any design against
catastrophic as well as fatigue failure. This
consideration is behind the cyclic reduction
factor associated with the stress analysis.
It has been shown that cycles to failure are
also a fwction of the mean stress. For
example, a particular system may be cycling
between 50000 psi to 20000 psi stress, both
tensile. The mean stress is thus 35000 psi and
not zero. Under this sustained mean stress,
fatigue failure would take place much earlier
than under zero mean stress. Laboratory tests
are also carried out to study the effect of
sustained load over and above which the
cyclic load is imposed.

CONCLUSION
Stresses in pipe or piping systems are
generated due to loads experienced by the
system. These loads can have origin in process
requirement; the way pipes are supported,
piping system's static properties such as own
weight or simple transmitted loads due to
problems in connecting equipments such as
settlement or vibrations. Whatever may be the
origin of load, these stress the fabric of the
MoC and failure may occur. This paper
attempted to present a rather simplistic view of
common loads and their implications on
stresses and failure.
Fatigue failure is an important aspect in
flexibility analysis of piping systems. Often
cyclic stresses in piping systems subjected to
thermal cycles get transferred to flexibility
providing components such as elbows. These
become the components susceptible to fatigue
failure. Thermal stress analysis or flexibility
analysis attempts to guard against such failure
through very involved calculations. That is the
subject matter of a series of papers to appear
in the columns of this jovmal.

SELECTION OF SUPPORTS
MR. T. N. GOPINATH

DATA TO BE COLLECTED TO START DESIGN

=m,,,.,n..

. ...

A complete set of piping general arrangement


drawings.
2.

A complete set of steel and structural drawings


including the equipment foundation .

3.

A complete set of drawing showing the location


of ventilating ducts, electrical trays, instrument
tray etc.

4.

A complete set of piping specification and line


list which includes pipe sizes, material of
construction, thickness of insulation, operating

..

temperatures etc.
5.

A copy of insulation specification with densities.

6.

A copy of valve and specialty list indicating weight,s.

7.

The movement of all critical equipment connections


such as turbines, compressors, boilers, etc.

On collection of the above data, the steps in which the


engineer will apply this basic information are as follows.

1.

The determination of support location.

2.

The determination of thermal movement of


the piping at each support location.

3.

The calculation of load at each support


location.

4.

The selection of the type of support i.e. Anchor


Guide, Rest, Constant or Variable spring etc.

5.

Checking the physical interference of the


support with structures, tray, ducts equipment's,
etc.

Anchors are provided to secure the desired points of


piping whereas guides are provided to direct or absorb the
same. They shall permit the piping to expand and cont.:act
freely away from the fixed points. Sliding or Rest suppxts
permit free movement of piping and shall be designed to
include friction resistance along with the dead weight of
the piping. Resilient supports are those which support the
dead weight throughout the expansion 1 contraction of the
piping.

The 'primary' is the supporting element which is attached or


in contact with the piping "secondary support" is the
supplementary steel provided to carry the load on the
structures.

'Y &

+-- 1?"0

..Q
.:

" i l
nM

'1

Fig. 1.1

i:

+- 12"0

-,/T
Anchor

6"@
8

Fig. 1.2

Intermediate Anchor

LINE STOP
---- ---------_--- ---I
A3

E I

2.0 THE DETERMINATION OF SUPPORT LOCATIONS


The support location is dependent on the pipe size, piping
configuration, the location of heavy valves and specialties
and the structure available for support. The simplest method
of estimating the support load and pipe stress due to weight
is to model the pipe as a beam loaded uniformly along the
length, the length of the beam equal to distance between
supports.
There are two possible ways to model the pipe,
depending upon the end conditions - the simply supported
(pinned end) beam or the fixed end beam.
For a simply supported beam , the maximum stress
and support loads are.

where,
%ax

CT

= maximum bending moment, ft-lb


=

Bending stress, psi (N/mm2)

(N-m)

w = weight per unit length, lbhn


1 = length of pipe, in (mm)

force on support, lb (N)

section modulus in3 (mm3)

(Nlmm)

For either model, the support load remains the same. However,
depending upon the model chosen the stress in pipe varies. In
actual practice the pipe at the point of support is not free to
support fully, since it is partially restrained through its
attachment to piping segment beyond the support. If the pipe
runs between supports are equally loaded and of equal length,
segment end rotation could cancel each other causing the pipe to
behave as fixed-end beam. Therefore, the true case lies
somewhere between the two beam models. Hence, as a
compromise case, the stress is calculated as

Hence, support spacing is decided by the formula


102s
2 =

where
S is the allowable stress as per the code in psi (N/mm2)

The suggested maximum spans between the supports as


recommended by ASMEB 3 1.1 in Table 121.5 are as follows:

Span
Pipe Size
NB Inch
1
2
3
4
6
8
12
16
20
24

Water Service

Steam, Gas or
Air Service
M (ft)
2.7 (9)
4.0 (13)
4.6 (15)
5.2 (17)
6.4 (21)
7.3 (30)
9.1 (30)
10.7 (35)
11.9 (39)
12.8 (42)

The above spacing is based on fixed bean


support with a bending stress not to exceed
2300 psi and insulated pipe filled with water or
the equivalent weight of steel pipe for steam,
gas or air service and 2.5mm (0.1 inch) sag is
permitted between supports.

The selection of supports should consider the following


guidelines
i) The support should be located as near as possible to
concentrated load such as valves, flanges etc. to keep the
bending stress to the minimum.
ii) When changes of direction in a horizontal plane occur, it is
suggested that the spacing be limited to 75% of the tabulated
values to promote stability and reduce eccentric loadings. Note
that the supports located directly on elbows are not
recommended since that will stiffen the elbow and no flexibility
will be available.
iii)The standard span does not apply to vertical run pipes (risers)
since no moment and no stress will develop due to gravity load
in the riser. The support should be located on the upper half of

a riser (above the center of gravity) to prevent instability in


overturning of pipe under its own weight. Guides may be placed
on long vertical risers to reduce pipe sag resulting in excessive
pipe deflection. These guides are usually placed in span intervals
of twice the normal horizontal span and do not carry any dead
weight.

Support location should be selected near the existing


iv)
building steel to minimize the use of supplementary steel.

In case of pipeline running in Multiplan, the support load is


determined by applying a method called 'weight balancing'.
This method involves breaking the larger piping system
into smaller segments of pipe with supports, which are
modeled as free bodies in equilibrium and solved statically.

SIGN AND
ENGINEERING
In case of concentrated loads, the support should be placed
as close as possible. When change in direction occurs, it
is considered a good practice to keep the span to 75% of
the tabulated values.

50mm IJP

m\

Nm::
EOlJlPMENT NOZZLE AT 'A' MOVES UP BY 5 0 m m FROM COLD TO HOT.
EOUIPMENT NOZZLE AT ,B. MOVES UP BY 25mm FROM COLD TO HOT.

PIPE-

150 NB SCH 160

ASTM A335 Gr P12.

OPERATING TEMP 550' C


ALL ELBOWS ARE L R ELBOWS

ILLUSTRATED
EXAMPLE- PIPE HANGER DESIGN

.*.-\

For the illustrated problem, the following vertical movements


are known,
Point A - 50 mm up, Cold to Hot
Point B -35 mm up, Cold to Hot

The above data is as furnished by the manufactures of


equipment. .
H, - 0 mm Cold to Hot

..,~.,>,:..,
,.

y multiplying the
Coefficient of expansion by the vertical distance of each point
from the position of zero movement on the riser CD.

3.0 x 7.62

22.86 mm up at point C

6.1 x 7.62

46.48 mm down at point D

The calculation of the loads for hangers involves dividing the


system into convenient sections. A free body diagram of each
section should be drawn to facilitate the calculation with simple
arithmetic solution to the problem.

DISTRIBUTION OF VERTICAL MOVEMENT TO


INTERMEDIATE POINTS 0N:HORIZONTAL LEG

a
,/

A X =

aX(~1)

a
CASE-

A2

Step I1
Make a simple sketch between two adjacent
points of known movement

'

(Refer

Case 3 o f
of

>,

Distributiot~
movements")

(Refer Case3 of 'Distribution of movements')


The vertical movement at hanger location can be calculated by
proportioning the same.

Vertical movement of A H I = 22.86 + 24.03


= 46.89
Say 47 mm
i.e. 47 nim up

Vertical movement of A H2 = 22.86 + 6.74


= 29.60
Say 30 mm
i.e. 30 mm up

Step I11

Make the sketch of piping between the points B and D,

(Pefer

>

Case 1 of
Distribution
of m o v e m e n t s " )

= -42.99 mm

say -43 mm
Vertical movement at H4 =43 mm down

= -19.70

mm say -20 mm
Vertical movement at H5 = 20 mm down

= -3.41 mm say -3

mm
Vertical movement at H6 = 3 mm down

= -20.81 mm

say 21 mm
Vertical movement at H7 = 2 1 mm up

For easy reference, when selecting the appropriate


hanger, let us make a simple table of hanger movement.
Hanger Number Movement (mm)
47 up
30 up
0
43 down
20 down
3 down
21 up

ThLh t step in the solution is to prep~1.ea table of weights


--

Weight

150NB Sch
160 pipe
150 NB Sch
160 90 BW
LR Elbow
150 NB BW
1500 Ib class
Gate Value

Weight of
Insln (Ca Si)

Total Weight

Weight
Used in
calculation
'

Taking moments about HI,

kg-

kg.m

461.01
Reaction at the point A

0.9

Reaction at the hanger H1

Fig. 4.1:

787.4 - 512.2
275.17 kg.

DISTRIBUTION OF LOAD BETWEEN EQUIPMENT CONNECTION A & H1

Reaction at the point H1 & H2

Fig. 4.2: DISTRIBUTION OF LOAD


BETWEEN H I & H2

.,.,; ..,.

Taking moments about H3

161.10

Reaction at H2

Reaction at H3

1.95
=
82.62 kg
= 411.57 - 82.62

'

328.95 kg.
Fig.4.3: DISTRIBUTION OF LOAD BETWEEN H2 & H3
=

The various distances to the center of gravity of the


bend can be calculated using the formula as below
>,,,.!.>..~.*

R Sin 8

Applying the above formula for the distance of CG from the center of the
arc for 150 NB LR elbow.

Distance of the CG forrn the center line of the straight


pipe = 229.0 - 145.8
= 83.2 mm

Taking moments about H4


M
: x
& -

ICE M

0.2605 x
0.6668 x

44.0
32.0

=
=

1 1:46
2 1.34

496.1

372.08

0.750

404.88
404.88
Reaction at H3

0.750

Reaction at H4 .

539.84 kg

572.1 - 539.84

32.26 kg.

Fig. 4.4: DISTRIBUTION OF LOAD BETWEEN H3 & H4

Reaction at the point H4 & H5 =


2
= 211.25 kg.

Fig. 4.5: Distribution of Load Between H4 & H5

Taking moment about H6

Kg-

.356.2
Reaction at H5

=
=

Reaction at H6

2.5
142.48 kg
268.5 - 142.48
126.02 kg

Fig. 4.6: Distribution of Load Setween H5 & H6

H6

439.4 Kg

'I'

2600

5200
5350
5800

1,

300>00

6100

4
king moment about H6

5.80

762.0

4419.60

1226.8
As the nozzle B is relieved of load

Reaction at H7

5697.93
5697.93
5.2

Reaction at H6

1226.8 - 1095.76

--

13'1.04kg.

Fig. 4.7: DISTRIBUTION OF LOAD BETWEEN H6 & H7 TO MAINTAIN ZERO REACTION AT NOZZLE B

SUMMARY OF LOADING

L
O
C
P
T
im !

..

... ..

REACTIO
N FO R m AD
ING
.
.

HANGER
m K G

512.23
486.42

TOTAL

WEIGHT OF PIPNG SYSTEM

*When vertical displacement occurs as a result of


therrnal expansion it is necessary to provide a
flexible support which apply supporting force
throughout the contraction and expansion cycle of
the system.
.Flexible hangers are two types :
Constant Spring
Variable Spring.

1Pivot

(P)

LOW P~5IUIOW

Sina
Considering,

Substituting in Eqn.

Sin$

Sinp

Y
Sina

Since Y Sinp = X

Sinp

The Load 'L' is suspended from the lever at point 'A'


and at any point within the load travel range the moment
of the load about the main lever-pivot 'P' is equal to the
load times its moment arm.
Thus load moment =L (WSin$), where WSin4 is the load
moment arm.
The spring is attached to one of its ends to the
fixed pivot "B". The free end of the spring is attached by
means of a rod to the lever-pivot 'D". This spring
arrangement provides a spring moment about the main
lever-pivot "P" which opposes the load moment and is
equal to the spring force, "F' times its moment arm.
Thus spring moment

--F x = F(YZSirrp>

Where X is the spring moment arm


The spring force "F' is equal to the spring constant "K"
times to the spring deflection "Em

Thus F = KE

Spring Moment=

KE (YZSin4)
A

To obtain PERFECT constant spring, the load


moment must always equal to spring moment.

LW Sine =

KEY2 Sin 4

By proper design 4 and 8 are made equal

Therefore

LW

KEY2

The spring and the rod are so designed that


the spring deflection "Emalways equals the distance
"A"
Between pivots "B" and "Dm
Therefore LW = KYZ

This equation holds true for all position of load within its
travel range and "K", "Y", "2" and " W remain constant. It
is therefore true that perfect constant support is obtained.
But due to spring hysteresis, bearing friction, '
sliding friction of moving parts and manufacturing
tolerances, it is not normally possible to keep constant
effort throughout the travel range. The deviation is kept
very minimum by using PTFE washers and bushes at all
pivot points and life time lubricated antifriction bearings.

But due to spring; hysteresis. bearing friction, sliding friction


of moving parts and manufacturing tolerances, it is not
normally possible to keep constant effort throughout the
travel range. The deviation is kept very minimum by
using PTFE washers and bushes at all pivot points and
life time lubricated antifiiction bearings.
There are different models of constant springs available
based on the type of supporting arrangement. These are
manufacturer specific and generally as below.
a) Spring located horizontally with the supporting structure
above and the supported pipe line below the spring called
model "H" by the manufacturers.
b) Spring located horizontally with the supporting structure
below and the supported pipe line also below the spring
called model "E"by M/s Sarathy and Model "My' by M/s
Myricks.
-*

Spring located horizontally with the supporting structure


c>
below and the supported pipe line above the spring called model
"F" by MIS Sarathy and Model "S" by MIS Myricks.
Spring located vertically with the supporting structure
d>
above and the supported pipe line below the spring called model
"V" by the manufacturers.
Spring located vertically with supporting structure above
e>
and the supported pipe line below the spring called model "P" by
MIS Myricks.

Constant Load Spring Hangers &Supports


Typical arrangements

11'

MODEL V

MODEL - S

CONS TANT SUPPORT

MODEL - K

MODEL - P

HOW TO SELECT A CONSTANT SPRING SUPPORT

=mw, . w c a . .

2.

3.
4.

5.

6.

t ~ !

First select the basic model best suited for piping layout and the
physical structure available for mounting.
Establish the total travel by giving a positive allowance of about
20% to the calculated actual travel and in no case less than 25 mm
in order to allow for a possible discrepancy between calculated and
actual piping movement.
i.e. Total travel = actual travel + Over travel
Use the selection table supplied by manufacturer and locate the total
travel required at the corresponding table.
Move along the line until load nearest to the operating load to be
supported is located such that the load fits within a reserve range of
f 10% of the average of the maximum and minimum loads
specified.
If the total travel lies between the two indicated figures, the loads
between the successive travels can be incorporated.
The corresponding hanger size can be read fiom the respective
column.

Size
.... . ..
A,

B .

l3
B
A

I/

C 4
.

..J

Al
I

~ 1 5
I

Ci

D!

~.
.. .

The following data is required to be specified while


inquiringlordering for a constant spring,
The exact Hot or Operating load required to be
supported during the working condition.
Hydrostatic test load.
The total travel and its erection.
The direction of travel, either upwards or
downwards fiom the erected position.
The set pin locking position (Top, Middle, Bottom
or as required).
The basic model.
Requirement of bottom accessory components such
as rods, clamps etc.

.
.
.

.
.

Any hazardous environmental conditions.


any special finish on the body such as galvanizing etc.
Tag or Identification number.

5.2.1

How to select the series?

5.2.2

How to determine the type?

5.2.3

How to determine size?

5.2.2

How to determine the type

ger to be used depends


upon the physical characteristics required by the suspension
problem 1.e. available head room, pipe to be supported above the
spring or below the spring etc. The type should be selected from
the seven standard types available. (See sketch for types A
through G)

TYPE-A

TYPE-D

TYPE-G

TYPE - E

TYPE - F

5.2.1

How to select the series


WWK

The selection of the hanger series shall be done to limit


the supporting force within the allowable range. In choosing
between the series VS 1, VS2 and VS3 it must be ensured that the
calculated movement will fall within the working load range. The
series VS1 has the maximum variation in supporting force and
hence is not a competitive selection but an invention of necessity
where head room is not sufficient to use VS2.
Good engineering sense combined with available space and
reasonable economic considerations should ultimately determine
which series of variable spring hangers should be used.

5.2.3

How to determine size

For determining the size of the hanger the load deflection table
shall be referred. In order to choose the proper hanger size the
data required is the actual load or the working load (alsofcalled
the hot load) and the amount and direction -of the pipe line
movement from cold to hot .
Locate the hot load in the table. To determine the cold
load, read the spring scale up or down for the amount of expected
movement. The chart must be read opposite fiom the direction of
pipe movement. The load arrived is cold load.
If the cold load falls outside the working load range of
hanger selected, relocate the hot load to the adjacent

mu.","

column and find the cold load. When both the hot and cold loads
are within the working range of a hanger, the size of the hanger is
the number found at the top of the column.
Should it be impossible to select a hanger in any
series such that both loads fall within. the working range,
consideration should be given for a constant spring hanger. Once
selected, the percentage load variation shall be checked as
follows:
Travel x Spring Rate x 100
Load Variation Percentage =
Hot load
This should be within 25% as specified in the code.

Variable S p ~ i n gHangers &Support

SPECIFICATION FUR ORDER


The following data is required to be specified while
inquiringlordering for a variable spring:

The exact hot or operating load required to be supported during


the working condition.
Hydrostatic test load.
The calculated vertical movement and
The direction of travel, either upwards or downwards from the
erected position.
The hanger series, type and size.
The allowable percentage variation of load from cold to hot.
Requirement of accessory components such as rods, clamps .
etc.
Any hazardous environmental conditions.
Any special finish on the body such as galvanizing etc.
Tag or Identification number.

COMMISSIONING OF SPRING SUPPORTS

Securely attach the spring to the building structure


by identifying and locating at each support point in
accordance with hanger installation drawing. The
location should be such that the hanger should be
perpendicular in the hot or operating positiodthe
load should act vertical.
Make sure the moving parts are unobstructed.
The .locking should not be disturbed till complete
erection is over. The lock that makes the support
work as a rigid support during erection, hydrostatic
testing or chemical clearing etc.
The locking pins must be removed after the hanger
is fully loaded to put the piping systems into
operatior In case of top mounted support, this lock
shall be treelv

removed by the hand after adjusting the distance between the


hangers and pipe by rotating the turn buckle.In case of foot
mounted supports the load flange is rotated till it touches
equipmentlpipe being supported. Then the threaded bush with
hexagonal sides is rotated so that it moves up and the load is
gradually transferred on to the support. The preset pin becomes
loose when the pipe load becomes the preset or factory calibrated
load. The support is then ready for use.
2.5.5 Once the preset pin is removed the support allows
movement up or down by the specified amount of
travel in accordance with the expected pipe
movement.
2.5.6 When the line is in operation, carefully check the
support for its free movement. Generally no further

adjustment is necessary. In case of any adjustment,


the same shall be achieved by turning the threaded
bush with hexagonal sides in case of foot mounted
support or the turn buckle in case of top mounted
support.

STRESS ANALYSIS

T. N. GOPINATH

The objective of pipe stress analysis is to ensure


safety against failure of the Piping System by verifying the
structural integrity against the loading conditions, both
external and internal, expected to occur during the lifetime
of the system in the plant. This is to be undertaken with the
most economic considerations.

1.1

Objectives of stress Analysis are to:

1.1.1 Ensure that the stresses in the piping


ystem
-.are within
the allowable limits.
1.1.2 Solve dynamic problems developed
due to mechanical vibration, acoustic
vibration, fluid hammer, pulsation,
relief valves etc.
1.1.3 Solve the problems associated due to
higher or lower operating temperature
such as:
a) Displacement Stress range
b) Nozzle loadings on the
connected equipments
c) Pipe displacements
d) Loads and moments on the
supporting structures.

1.3

1.3.2.
1.3.3.
1.3.4.
1.3.5.

Hence the steps involved in the stress


analysis can be listed as

..

Identify the potential loads that the


piping system would encounter during
the life of the plant.
Relate each of these loads to the
stresses and strains developed.
Get the cumulative effect of the
potential loads in the system.
Decide the allowable 1imits.The system
can withstand without failure.
After the system is designed, to ensure
that the stresses are within the safe
limits.

1.4

Types of loads

All the American code for Pressure Piping


classify theloads mainly into three types . .
1.4.1. Sustained Loads: Those due to
forces present during normal
operation
1.4.2. Occasional Loads: Those present
during rare intervals of operations
1.4.3. Displacement Loads: Those due to
displacement of pipe

1.5

Conditions of Acceptability of Piping System

i:

'l'he Piping bngineer has the iollowing choices


to establish that the required flexibility has been
provided in the piping layout.
1.5.1 As per clause 119.7.11319.4.1 of the code
ASME B 3 1.1lB 3 1.3, no formal analysis is
required in systems which
i)
are duplicates of successfully
operating installations or
replacements.
can readily be judged adequate
ii)
by comparison with previously
analyzed systems.
iii)
satisfy equation specified in
clause 119.7.1(A3)/ 319.4.1 (c)

1S.2

Analyzing the layout by an approximate


method.

P Approximate method shall be applied


only if they are used for the range of
configuration for which adequate
accuracy has been demonstrated.
1.5.3

Carrying out a comprehensive analysis.


i)
ii)
iii)

Analytical
Model test
Chart method

The Piping Specification nominates the code to be

Every such code will contain recommendations


and mandatory requirements on the following aspects:
i)
ii)
iii)
iv)

Minimum flexibility requirements for


therrnal expansion
Allowable stresses for various piping
materials
Reinforcement requirements of branch
connections
Support criteria

2.2

Magnitude Of Thermal Load


.

Fig. 2.1

>

Fig. 2.2

Fig. 2.3

The strain developed in the pipe, E , is then calculated


as & = A L / L = a
Internal stress developed due to this strain,
f = EE (Hooke's Law)
=Ea
The force required to compress back is
P=Af=AEa

where,

A = Area of cross section of pipe,In2(mrn2)


E = Modulus of elasticity of material, psi (Kpa)

P = Compressive force on pipe, lbs (N)


f = Stress developed, psi (Kpa)
AL = Axial compression of pipe, In (mm)

= length

of pipe, In (rnm)

To evaluate the magnitude of such a force, let us


consider Carbon Steel pipe of 600 mm outside
diameter with 10 mm thickness, operating at a
temperature of 300C.
a-

Referring to ASME B 3 1.3, Table C6,


E = 26.85 Msi (1.888 x lo4 kg/rnm2 )
Referring to Table C1

Area of the pipe


A = Pi / 4 [(600)2 - (580)2]= 18535.4 rnm2

P = 18535.4 x 1.888 x lo4 x 3.625 x ~ O - ~


= 12,68,563 kg = 1269 tons

TIME -

STRESS

Range of imposed displacement t o

effect complete stress reversal

Fig. 2,5

+
I

t-

fR
y7

inplane displacement

\I(

Range o f outplane displacement

Fig. 2,6

Range o f inplane displacement

Range of outplane displacement

Fig. 2,7
Range of inplane displacement

-1- 1p

Range of outplane displacement

Fig.

..a

TIME ----b

ELASTIC SHAKEDOWN (RELAXATION)

Fig. 2.9

Allowable Stresses
--z

The American piping codes covered under


ASME B 31 subscribe to the failure of the piping
system to the basis the 'Maximum principal stress
theory'. The theory states that the yielding occurs
when the magnitude of any of the three mutually
perpendicular stresses exceeds the yield strength of the
material. Temperature and pressure are the significant
factors governing the stresses created in the piping
systems.

There are other factors that influence the

Wind load
Seismic load
Relief valve forces
Fluid hammer
Settlement
Equipment vibration
Weight of attachments
Weight of contents

All these factors contribute to two distinct


forms of stresses.

The sustained stresses - Generated by


Pressure, dead w e ~ ~ f ~ o n t e and
n t sattachments,
which can be expected to be present virtually at all
time of plant operation.
CI

dm

The self-limiting stresses - Generated by


thermal effects.
Stress

UTS

I--7
Fig.

2.10

The basic allowable material stress at the hot


(operatingldesign) temperature (Sh) is defined by the
code as minimum of
As per the ASME B 31.1
;..,..

114 of the ultimate tensile strength of the material at


operating temperature
114 of the ultimate tensile strength of the material at
room temperature
518 of the yield strength of the material at operating
temperature (90% of the yield stress for austenitic
stainless steels)
518 of the yield strength of the material at room
temperature (90% of the yield stress for austenitic
stainless steel)
and
100% of the average stress for a 0.01% creep rate per
1000 hrs.

As per ASME B 31.3

sile strength,ofthe material


operating temperature.
113 of the ultimate tensile strength of the material
at room temperature.
213 of the yield strength of the material at
operating temperature (90% of the yield stress for
austenitic stainless steel)
213 of the yield strength of material at room
temperature (90 % of the yield stress for austenitic
stainless steel) 100% of the average stress for a 0.01 %
creep rate at 1000 hrs
67% of the average stress for rupture after
1,00,000 hrs 80% of the minimum stress for rupture
after 1,00,000 hrs.
".,,..

- ..,.,.

Time dependent allowable stress is usually


related to the "creep rupture strength" at high
temperature. At temperature above 113 of the
melting point, most metals will exhibit creep in
standard tensile test, if the load is kept constant
the specimen will continue to deform with time.
Under constant load, the rate of creep strain will
decrease initially to a steady state and later will
increase rapidly until it fails due to creep rupture.

The code uses an allowable stress, which is .


the smaller of time dependent, and time independent
allowable stress. The time dependent allowable stress
is the smallest of 67% of the average stress to cause
creep rupture in 1,00,000 hrs, 80% of the minimum
stress to cause rupture in 1,00,000 hrs or 100% of the
stress to give 0.01% of creep rate per hour (Ref.
2.4.1)

The self limiting stress in piping system are


essentially cyclic and the initial hot stresses, if they are
of sufficient magnitude, will decrease with time because
of the plastic strains and will reappear as a stress of
reverse direction when the pipe cools. This phenomenon
forms the basic difference between the self-limiting
stresses and the sustained stresses.

The degree of self-springing, as explained


earlier, will depend on the magnitude of the initial hot
stresses and the temperature, so that while the hot
stresses will gradually decrease with time, the sum of
hot and cold stresses will stay the same. This sum is
called the EXPANSION STRESS RANGE. This
leads us to the selection of an ALLOWABLE
EXPANSION STRESS RANGE.

-.r,.,-.,- ., ..

Self-springing occurs only when the system is


subjected to higher temperatures. For the expected strain
(expected expansion per unit length), if the modulus of
elasticity at this high temperatwe is used to back
calculate stress, the stress value will be lower than when
it is calculated using modulus of elasticity value at lower
temperature (cold condition). That is, stress value is
higher when material properties in cold condition are
used. This provides a built in safety in design. Hence the
stresses are calculated using the cold modulus of
elasticity. This is a very important point to note. Actual
stresses under hot condition would be less than the
calculated stresses.

There are other failure modes that could


affect the piping system. They include buckling,
stress corrosion and brittle fracture. These topics are
not correctly considered in the piping code. The
effects of these must be considered by the Piping
Engineer while selecting the materials or restraining
the piping system.

2.4.3

ALLOWABLE STRESS RANGE

ping code addresses are


excessive plastic deformation or bursting; plastic instability
or incremental collapse due to cycling in the plastic range
and fatigue which may be developed in a system as its
temperature is raised from the lowest to the highest that it
will experience in service or when it is shut down. Each of
this failure, modes is caused by a different type of stress and
loading. However 'Fatigue failure' is recognized by the
code as the most likely mode of failure of the component
and place the limit on the maximum stress which may be
developed in a system as temperature is raised from lowest
to highest that will experience in service or when it is shut
down.

From this total stress range 1 Sh is reserved for the


longitudinal stresses developed due to loading such as
pressure, weight and other sustained loading, giving
the allowable stress range for flexibility as

S Allowable

1.25 SC+ 0.25 Sh

The above value does not consider the excessive cyclic


conditions.

The code allows it by multiplying by a stress


range reduction factor. Accordingly,ASME B 3 1.1 in
clause 102.3.2(c) and ASME 31.3 in clause 302.3.5
specify the Allowable Expansion Stress Range as :
[The value of Sc and S, are available in Table A1 of the
Code]
f = Stress range reduction factor for displacement cycle
conditions for the total number of cycles over the
expected life

The factor 'fhas a value of 1.0 for situation where


total number of cycles is 7000 or less. This represents one
cycle per day for nearly 20 years, which is a common
design parameter. Further, if we look at endurance curve
for carbon steel and low alloy steel available in the ASME
Section VIII Division 2, Pressure Vessel Code, it can be
seen that at some point in the vicinity of 7000 cycles, the Sc
+ Sh limitation intersects the fatigue curve.
The code gives the value of 'f in the table 302.3.5 (B 3 1-3)
and 102.3.2 (c) (B 3 1.1) as follows:

Factor f
Cycles N

Factor f

--

7,000 or less

..

--

1.0

over 7,000 to 14,000

0.9

over 14,000 to 22,000

0.8

over 22,000 to 45,000

0.7

----

over 45,000 to 1,00,000

0.6

over 1,00,000 to 2,00,000

0.5

over 2,00,000 to 7,00,000

0.4

over 7,00,000 to 20,00,000

0.3

This applies essentially to non corroded piping. Corrosion


can decrease the cycle life. Therefore, corrosion resistant
material should be considered where large number of stress
cycle is anticipated.

A pipe supplies Dowtherm to the limpet of a


reactor, which is operated on a batch process with a 4
hour cvcle everv 24 hours.
The Dowtherm
and pipe material is
esign life of plant considered
20 years.
J

A llowable
stress at ambient
S , = 20,000
Allowable
stress at Max. metal, temp.
S = 17,300
psi
24
of cycles = -' 365 x
Number
4
= 43,800
(total')
factor
The stress range .reduction

hence,

SA

f (1.25 S
0.7 ( 1.25

20527

psi

psi

..

2.4.4

Effect of sustained loads on fatigue strength

If the alternating stress is plotted against the


cycle to failure, it can be seen that the mean stress has
an effect on the endurance strength of the material. As
the mean stress increases, the maximum permissible
absolute stress (S, + Sm) increases, while the
permissible alternating stress decreases. The relation
between the allowable alternative stress and the
average stress follows the Soderberg line, which
correlates fairly well with test data of ductile
materials.

Alternating Stress Axis


Sa from endurance curve for
completely alternating stress

Compressive S,
4

,
Mean Stress Axis

The equation for the Soderberg line is


S, (Allowed) = Sa(forR=l) x (I-Srn/Syield)
where, R = Smi,/ S,
S m = Smax + Smm. 1 2

- API610
s - API 676
- API 617fNEMA
SM 23
Reciprocating compressors - API 6 18
Steam turbines
- NEMA SM 23
Air cooled heat exchangers - API 661
Shell and tube heat exchangers- Manf.Specific.
- Manf. Specific.
Fired heaters
For other static equipment such as Reactors, vessels
and tanks interaction with the fabrication engineer is
required to establish that the local stress developed
due to nozzle loadings are within the acceptable
limits.

1. Centrifugal pumps

Table 3.1; NOZZLE LOADING

PER API 610

F is Force in pounds ;M is Moment in footpounds ;R is the resultant ;X, Y, Z :Orientation of


Nozzle Loads. API 610 specifies that the pump casing should be designed to withstand double
the forces avd moments as above. The piping configuration that produces loads and moments
outside the above range is also acceptable provided the conditions as specijied in Appendix F of
the above code are satisfied. For direction of forces and moments see Fig. 3.1

3.2

Positive Displacement Pumps

The American Petroleum Institute Standard 676


specifies in clause 2.4.7 the limiting values for the
Rotary Positive Displacement Pumps with Alloy Steel or
Steel Castings at inlet and outlet nozzles as :
\

Fx
F
F'2

75 D lbs
75 D lbs
75 D lbs

Mx
M
M'z

125 D ft.lbs
125 D ft lbs
125 D ft lbs

where D is the nominal diameter of nozzle in inches.

3.3

Centrifugal Compressors
",=?~..

Clause, 2.5.1 of API 6 17 "Centrifugal Compressors


for General Refinery Service" specifies that the
compressors shall be designed to withstand external
forces and moments on each nozzle at least 1.85 times
the value calculated in accordance with NEMA - SM
The allowable forces and moments are calculated as
per NEMA-SM 23 as below.
The forces and moments acting on compressor(s) due to
the inlet pipe and discharge pipe connections are :

The total resultant force 2nd total resultant moment


imposed on the Compressor at any connection must not
exceed the following :

forces where unrestrain ed expansion


joints are used at the connection - except
on vertica 1 connection s covered under 3.
M = Resultant Moment (ft.lbs.)
D = Pipe size of the connection (IPS) in
inches upto eight (8) inches in diameter.
For sizes greater than this, use a value of D
16 +IPS
inches.
equal to

moments of the inlet side and discharge connections


resolved at the centre line of the discharge connection
must not exceed the following two conditions.
These resultants must not exceed

Fc

of inlet side and


-.... .
unds.
M , = Combined resultant of inlet side and
discharge moments resulting from
forces in ft lbs.
D , = Diameter (in inches) of a circular
opening equal to the total area of
inlet side and discharge opening upto
a value of nine (9) inches
in diameter. For values beyond this use
value of
- (18 + Equivalent
Diameter)
inches
Dc 3
=

Combined

resultant

The components of these resultantsshall not exceed

where,
Vertical component of Fc
Horizontal components of Fc
at right angles to compressor shaft
Horizontal component of Fc
Parallel to compressor shaft
Component of Mc in a vertical plane at
right angles to compressor shaft
Component of Mc in a horizontal plane
Component of Mc in a vertical
plane parallel to the compressor shaft

+Y

Right angle t o
compressor shaft

Parallel t o
compressor shaft

Fig. 3.2: Components of forces a n d m o m e n t s


on .compressor connection

a*

SUCTION

PLAN

Fig. 3.3
DISCHARGE

DISCHARGE
I

SUCTION

END VIEW

ELEVATION

Fig. 3.4

Fig. 3.5

+Z

Fig. 3.6

3. For installation of compressors with vertical


connections with unrestrained expansion joints, an
additional amount of force caused bv pressure loading
nal force referred to is
e flange and is deemed to
act at its center). For this type of application, calculate
the vertical force component of the vertical connection
excluding pressure loading. Compare with value of 115
of the pressure loading. Use the larger of these two
vertical force components on connections in making
calculations outlined in (1) and (2).The force caused by
the pressure loading on the vertical connection is
allowed in addition to the values established in the
above up to a maximum value of vertical force (in
pounds) on the connection (including pressure loading)
of 15%times the connection area in square inches.
d

J.

4. These values of allowable forces and moments


=%,"%>~

d moments in the
connecting piping flanges and flange bolting which
should not exceed the allowable stress as defined by
applicable codes and explanatory notes.
Forces on inlet connections are to be transferred along
with moments to discharge connection to analyze the
compressor for resultant forces and moments. But, the
transfer of force will generate additional transfer
moments, which are added to the total of moments to
give resultant moments.

ALLOWABLE FORCES AND MOMENTS ON


COMPRESSOR

DESIGN CONDITION
Installation Temperature
Suction Temperature
Discharge Temperature
Inlet Piping
Fx =-11 kg
Fy = 266 kg
Fz = 52 kg
Mx = 292 kg.m
My = 104 kg.m
Mz = 94 kg.m

3OoC
35OC
55OC

Hence resultant force at compressor inlet is within safe limits

Discharge Piping
Fx = -34 kg
Fy = 274 kg
'J
I

1
I

't,

9250- M
3
16+IPS - 16+20 =12"
Where D =
3
3
.'. Fall = 925x12-1419 = 3227 Ibs
3
> Fr

Fall =

Hence resultant force at compressor Discharge is within safe limits

COWRES SOR
DETAILS

-&DISCHARGE

Force at the inlet connection are to be transferred along


with moments to discharge side to analyze for resultant
forces and moments. But the transfer of forced will give
additional transfer moments which are added to the tatal
-Moment vector at any point is given by the cross
product of the distance vector with force vector

Here

ie. Mr

D x F

0.591 i - 1.626J - 0.432 k

Hence,

MTX

MTY

30.36 KG.M
25.98 KG.M
9.32 KG.M

TOTAL FORCE AND MOMENTS AT


COMPRESSOR DISCHARGE
CASE

Fx(KG)

Fy(KG)

Fz(KG)

Suction

-1 1

266

52

292

104

94

Disch

-34

274

133

133

182

50

Transfer

120

26

139

TOTAL

-45

540

185

455

312

283

Mx(KG.M)

My(KG.M)

Mz(KG.M)

Fc All =
where

462 DC

- Mc

18 + Deq
Dc -

Deq = Equivalent DIA. Of a circular opening equal


to total area of inlet and discharge

Fc is marginally higher than

Area = 29 1.04in2
~ o t a l ~ r=58208in2
ea

:.

Tc

-~ e =58208in2
d

J582:8x4

Deq =

Approx. 1.2%
Hence Forces (Total) on
compressor can be accepted

Individual component check

Allowable

Remarks
Ok

Fz

-45kg

185DC= 1267kg

Ok

My = 3 12 kgm 23 1 DC = 482 kg.m

Ok

Mx = 283 kgm 462 DC = 964 kg.m

Ok

Mz = 455 kgm 231 DC = 482 kg.m

Ok

Conclusion
The routing is acceptable as the values of forces
and moments are within limits except the combined
resultant force which is only marginally higher.

F = Resultant force (lbs) including pressure forces


where unrestrained expansion joints are used at the
connection except on vertical exhausts. Full vacuum
load is allowed on vertical down exhaust flanges.

D = Nominal pipe size of the connection in inches up to


8 inches in diameter.

For sizes greater than this, use a value of

D (in inches)

3
1. The combined resultants of the forces and moments
of the inlet, extraction, and exhaust connections, resolved
at the centerline of the exhaust connection should not
exceed the following two conditions.

These resultants shall not exceed :

where,
f inlet,
extraction, and
.

,..-,.

.<.

Combined resultant of inlet, extraction, and


exhaust moments, and moments resulting from
forces, in ft lbs.
Dc = Diameter (in inches) of a circular opening equal
to the total areas of the inlet, extraction, and
exhaust openings up to a value of nine inches in
diameter.
For values beyond this, use a value of DC (in inches)
equal to :
(18 + Equivalent diameter in inches)

Mc

The components of these resultants should not


exceed :
= 250 DC
X
Y =

125 Dc
125 DC

Fz = 100Dc
MZ =
The components are as follows :
FX = Horizontal components of Fc parallel to the
turbine shaft.
FY = Vertical component of FC
F2 = Horizontal component of Fc at right angles
to the turbine shaft.
Mx = Component of Mc around the horizontal
axis parallel to the turbine shaft
MY = Component of MC around the vertical axis
Mz = Component of Mc around the horizontal
axis at right angles to the turbine shaft.

Vertical

+Y

Right angle t o
turbine shaft

+Mx

Fx

+'

Parallel to
turbine shaft

Fig. 3.8: Components of forces and moments


on turbine connection

3. For installation of turbines with a vertical exhaust and an


unrestrained expansion joint at the exhaust, an additional
amount of force caused by pressure loading is allowed. (This
additional force is perpendicular to the face of the exhaust
flange and is deemed to act at its centre), For this type of
application, calculate the vertical force component on the
exhaust connection excluding pressure loading. Compare this
with one sixth of the pressure loading on the exhaust.

Use the larger of these two numbers for vertical


force component on the exhaust connection in making
1 and The
force caused by the
is allowed in addition to
the values established by the foregoing up to a
maximum value of vertical force in pounds on the
exhaust connection (including pressure loading) of 15 ?4
times the exhaust area in square inches.

4. These values of allowable force and moment pertain


to the turbine structure only. They do not pertain to the
forces and moments in the connecting piping, flange,
and flange bolting, which should not exceed the
allowable stress as defined by applicable codes and
explanatory notes.

.
,

3.6 Air Cooled Heat Exchangers


.... . ..
~

The American Petroleum Institute Standard 66 1


for "Air Cooled Heat Exchangers for General Refinery
Services" covers the allowable loads on the vertical,
collinear nozzles found in most single multibundled aircooled heat Exchangers. API 661 has the following t ~ o
requirements.
3.6.1 Each nozzle in corroded condition shall be
capable of withstanding the following moments and
forces.

,a"=-.7

Nozzle size
I

NB In

Forces in lbs

Moments in ft ibs

Fx

FY

Fz

Mx

MY

Mz

100

150

100

50

70

50

150

200

150

70

120

70

150

250

300

200

300

200

Table 3.2: Nozzle loading as per API 661

3.7 Shell & Tube Type Heat Exchangers

The designer has to set the limiting values or


to check the vessel connections for the nozzle loading
imposed by the connected piping.The rough guide
generally followed is :Resultant Maximum Force 200 lb./in NB of nozzle
Bending Moment Equivalent to bending stress in
standard schedule pipe between 4000 to 50001bs./in2

3.8

Fired Heaters

The limiting values for forces and moments


should be laid down by the manufacturer. Restrictions
are applied on nozzle rotations also in this case to take
care of the clearances between the tube and refractory
lining. The thumb rule used is :
Forces = 200 to 300 lblin. nominal bore of nozzle
Moments - Equivalent to Sh14
Nozzle Rotation - From 1/20 to 10

Table 3.3: Recommended Nozzle loading in Static Equipment


Axial force
size NB
inch .

lbs

Shear force each


direction
Lbs.

900

400

Bending moment each


direction
Ibs.

Twisting moment

1300

1300

ft-lbs

The local stress intensity at the nozzle connection due


to attachment of piping can be computed using the
welding research council bulletin 107 setting the
limitations as.

3.9.1

The local sustained stress intensity at the nozzle


connection should be less than 0.5 sm

3.9.2 The sum of local sustained stress intensity and the


local expansion stress intensity at the nozzle
connection must be less than 2 sm

DESIGN CASES TO BE CONSIDERED


=-,

NORMAL OPERATION
STEAMOUT
START-UP
CRASH SHUT-DOWN
ANY OTHER NEAR GOVERNING
CONDITIONS

flexibility calculations if it is carried out manually or


by the use of software. It is therefore prudent to have
this ready before starting.
The direction of coordinates are fixed as below:

Fig. 4.1

.
I

.
.

cod^ ~f Practice
Basic Material of Construction of Pipe
Ambient I Installation temperature
Number of Thermal Cases
Flexibility Temperature (See Note)
Type of construction of pipe
Nominal Thickness of Pipe
Manufacturing tolerance
Corrosion allowance
Pipe Weight
Insulation Weight
Specific Gravity of Contents
Young's Modulus at AmbientIInstallation Temperature
Young's Modulus at Flexibility Temperature
Thermal Expansion at Flexibility Temperature
Allowable stress at Ambient1 Installation temperature
Allowable stress at flexibility temperature
Bend radius and type of bend
Branch connection type
Weight of attachments - Valves and Specialties
Terminal movements with directions

No specific thumb rule for the selection of pipelines


for flexibility analysis. The following guide lines can
be considered.
C. S Lines 2 2"(50) NB having temperature
difference of 2100C for hot & 60C for cold.
C S Lines2 8"(200) NB and S. S. lines 2 2"(50) NB
having temperature difference 50C.
All lines of strain sensitive equipment
3.1>2" (50)NB < 8"(200)NB - 50C difference
3.2>10" (250)NB

aSE as close as possible to SA.


*No safety factor. On SA & acceptable nozzle loading.
oweightage
.Accepted Flex. Analysis - 65%
.Wt. Analysis - 15%
.Support selection - 5%
Support DrawingsNendor drawing Approvals - 15%

5.1 Check As Per Clause 119.7.11 319.4.1 of the Code

Clause 119.7.1(A3)l 3 19.4.1(c) specifies that no


systems which are of
two points of fixation,
no intermediate restraints and fall within the empirical
equation.
where,
D = The outside diameter of pipe in inch (or rnrn)
Y = Resultant of total displacement strains in inch
(or mrn) to be absorbed by the Piping system.
L = Developed length between the anchors in ft.or (m)
U = Anchor distance, straight line between anchors in
ft. or(m)
K1= 0.03 for USCS units.
= 208.3 for SI units.

For example, consider the following pipe routing


b
-1 I'

- -- --

'

-.-.

--

- - \

JJ>

'I''\-3

+z

J\\

---

c
Fig. 5.1

6" (150 rnm NB) Sch. 40


carbon steel to ASTM A1 06 Gr.
Design Temperature 400 O F (204OC)
Pipe

+/

To establish the anchor to anchor distance U


Total length in X direction

Total length in Y direction =


Total length in Z direction =

Step 2
To determine value of L.

Step 3
To calculate resultant total displacement Y
From Appendix C, ASME B 3 1.3
Linear Expansion. between 70F and 400F.
e = 2.7"

I100

ft.

since K < K , 3 the configurat ion is safe

Please note that no general proof can be offered that


this equation will yield accurate and conservative
results. It is not applicable to systems used under
severe cyclic conditions. There is no assurance that
the terminal reactions will be acceptably low, even if
the system safisfies the above equation.

Fig. 5.2

Fig. 5.3

Fig. 5.4

Fig. 5.5

Fig. 5.6

As per Elastic Theory,


If L is length of BC in ft. ( 1 = 12 L)

Maximum bending moment at Bor C =*P L12


=M ft. lbs.
MY'12
Maximum bending stress f =
Ibsl in
I
v = OD of pipe

Substituti ng P =

EI 6
144 L~

e.g. :- In the previous layout if we restrict the stress at


16,000 psi and consider modulus of elasticity of carbon
steel as 29.5 x lo6 psi and assume the pipe size as 6" NB

Expansion of piping between T1 and T2,

This indicates that the length BC should not be less


than 6.5 m.

-,.-

.=>

In Fig.5.5 if the vessels are arranged in such a way


that AB and BC are eoual and 10 M each, then the
stress developed can be calculated as;
I

1 = AB = B C = l o r n = 394 inches
E = 29.5 x lo6 lbsl in2
R = 6.62512 inches
6 = 1.7312 inches

(394)2 x
3267 psi

2 x 2

We can also calculate the stress developed in such a


system of known dimensions of leg BC by the same

hence, P = 12 E I 11'
~

=IIZ

Z =IIR
Solving for f(S ) = 6 ER 6 / 1'
Where; R = Outer radius of pipe, inches
I = Moment of inertia of cross section, in4
E = Modulus of elasticity,lbslin2
1 = Length, inches

Quick Check Method


Min.
Min L =

h2= 0.0025DoLT ft

ft.

Where ;
Do = Outside diameter in inch. (to nearest 1/z )
T = Temp. difference O F
(Design Temp. - Instln. Temp.)
'7

5.3

Piping Elements - Their Individual Effects


STRAIGHT PIPE : FLEXIBILITY IN TORSION
I

If a bending moment M is applied to the end of a straight


piece of pipe, it behaves as a uniform beam and exhibits
change of slope from end to end, as given by the
expression.

M = Bending Moment, in lbs ( m - N)


E = Young's Modulus, lbs / in2 (Kpa)
I = Moment of Inertia, m 4
L = Length, inches (mrn)

Fig. 5.8

If the same pipe is subjected to a constant twisting


moment, the rotation of one end relative to the other

where,
0 =Anglaf twistradians
T=Torsiormomentjn- i'us(mm N)
L =Lengthjnchegmrn)

It can be shown that for metals,


G = E l 2 . 6 and
J = 2 x I for circular cross section
TxL
Hence,

TL

This shows that flexibility can be provided in a layout


by permitting leg to bend or twist. This alone is a rare
means of obtaining flexibility. But influences the
engineer to select alternate route. Also it should be
ensured that this does not add unacceptable forces and
moments.

Fig. 5.9

Fig. 5.10

Fig. 5.11

Fig. 5.12

Fig. 5.14 - Circumferential Stress in Pipe wall

Fig. 5.15

Using this parameter code indicates that


The flexibility factor = k = 1.65lh
Inplane S.I.F.= i.1 = 0.9/h213
Outplane S.I.F.= IO= 0.751h213
Flexibility Characteristic h = TR, / (rJ2
T=Wall thickness, inches (mrn)
R,=Mean Radius of bend, inches (rnm)
r,=Mean radiw of pipe wall, inches hn.rn)

When any problem is analyzed, the following


considerations are made:

a)

The Flexibility Factor applies to bending in


any plane.

b)

The stress intensification factor is greater for


"inplane" bending than for "outplane"
ending. ASME B 3 1.3 permits the use of
inplane SIF for any plane whereas B 3 1. 1
does not separate out these two.

FLEXIBILITY FACTOR K AND STRESS


INTENSIFICATION FACTOR
DESCRIPTION

FLEXIBILITY
FACTOR

( STRESS INTENSIFICATION
FACTOR
-

Closely spaced
mix bend
Single mitre
bend

L a
h516
152
h516

Tit--

aP
h 213

(r>
c o t e Ts
2 (r) 2

0.9

A%-

l+cot

h 213

1213

09
h 213

Welding Tee
as per ANSI
B 16.9

Q.9h 213

314 i.0 + 114

Reinforced fab
Tee with pad
or saddle

0.9

314 i.0 + 114

Unreinforced
Fabricated
Tee

0.9

Extruded
Welding Tee

-0.9-

Welding in
contour insert

0.9
h 213

314 i.0 + 114

Branch welding
on fitting

Q.%h 213

D . L
h 213

h 213
314 i.0 + 114

h 213

h20

314 i.0 + 114

T
rz

used in the equation to calculate h . The equivalent


bend radius (Re) is estimated by
1

Re = r2(l+0.5slr2c o t e ) for closed spaced mitres


Re = r 2 ( 1 + cot 0 )

for widely spaced mitres

where,
s = mitre spacing at centerline, inches (rnm)
8 = one half of angle between cuts
r; = mean radius of pipe, inches (rnrn)

The unreinforced fabricated tee is modelled


using same formula for widely spaced miter bend with
single miter i.e. half angle of 45". This produces the
flexibility characteristic of
h = T r ,
For buttweld tees, Markyl adapted bend equation with
equivalent radius (Re) and equivalent thickness (Te).

where,
c = ratio of tee to pipe section modulii.
y ARC Markyl. .
c h e s s inches (rnm)
= 1.60T as recommended by ARC Markyl
Re = Equivalent bending radius inches (mrn)
= 1.35 r2 as recommended by ARC Markyl
Substituting these values in the expression
for h

h = (Te I T )

312

.(Te1.35r/r22)

5.3.4 FLANGES

For flanges also the flexibility factor is 1 and the


various types of flanges are considered to h a v e the
following Stress Intensification Factors.

S I F for Flanges:

Weld neck flange


Slip-on flange
Socket weld flange
Lap joint flange
Threaded flange

The flange when attached to the bend exerts a severe


restraint to the flattening of the cross section due to
its heavy construction. Hence attachment of the
flange to an elbow or a mitre bend reduces 'the
flexibility as well as the stress intensification factor.
Flange at both ends of the elbow reduces these factors
further.
ASME B 3 1.3 indicates these correction (reduction)
factor as:
hlJ6 for one end flanged
Cl
Cl

hlJ3 for both ends flanged

Pig. 5.16

1 5.3.7

I
I
I

EFFECT OF PRESSURE ON SIF AND


FLEXIBILITY FACTOR

In large diameter thin walled elbows and bends,


pressure can significantly affect the Flexibility Factor 'k'
and Stress Intensification Factor 'i'. Hence the correction
factor as below should be applied on the values available
from the table.
Divide 'k' by

Divide 'i' by

T=Nominal wall thicnkess of fitting, inches (mrn)


r,=Meanradius of matching end,inches (mrn)
P =Gauge pressure, psi (KPa)
E=Modulus of Elasticity, psi ( m a )
R,=Bend radius, inches (rnm)

This stiffening effect of pressure on bends are not


considered in ASME B 31.1.

6.0 CODE STRESS EQUATIONS

ASME B 3 1.1 specifies under clause 104.8 that


to validate a design under the rules of this clause, the
complete piping system must be analyzed between
anchorstfor the effects of thermal expansion, weight,
other sustained loads and other occasional loads.

STRESS DUE TO SUSTAINED LOADS


- -The effects of pressure, weight and other
sustained mechanical load must meet the requirements of
the following equation.
< S, in USCS units

5 S, in SI units

Where;
S, = Sum of the longitudinal stresses due to
r sustained loads,
i

= Stress intensification factor

(ref. Appendix D- 1)
The product 0.75i shali never be taken as less than 1.
MA=resultant moment due to weight and
sustained loads, in-lb ( m - N)

Z = Section Modulus, in3 ( m 3 )


tn = Nominal Thickness, in ( m )
Sh = Basic allowable stress at the operating temp.,
psi (KPa)

6.1.2 THERMAL EXPANSION STRESS RANGE


.=

The effects of thermal expansion must meet the


requirements of the following equation.
i Mc

SE =

SE

5 SA + f (S,-S,)

In USCS units

5 SA f (S, -S3 In SI units


+

SE

MC

S,

= Expansion stress range psi

(KPa)
= Range of resultant moments due to thermal
expansion, in- lb (mm - N)

= Allowable

OcPa)

stress range (Ref 2.4.3 above) psi

6.1.3 STRESS DUE TO OCCASIONAL LOADS.


The effects of pressure, weights, other sustained loads
and occasional loads including earthquake must meet the
requirements of the following equation.
P Do

4 tn

0.75 i MB

4 tn

P Do

0.75 i MA

5 KS, in USCS units.

lOOO(0.75 i) MA

lOOO(0.75 i) MB
5 KS, in SI units.

Where;

K = 1.15 for occasional loads acting less than 10%


of any 24 hr. operating period.
K = 1.2 for occasional loads acting less than 1%
of any 24 hr. operating period.
MB = Resultant moment loading on cross section
due to occasional. loads.
If calculation of moments due to earthquake is
required, use only one half of the earthquake
moment range. Effect of anchor displacement
due to earthquake may be excluded from the
equation if they are covered in Therrnal
Expansion stress range calculation.

..

6.2.1 ASME B 3 1.3 does not provide an explicit


equation for sustained stress calculation, but requires
that Piping Engineer should compute the longitudinal
stresses due to weight, pressure and other sustained
loading and ensure that these do not exceed S,. The
shall be the
thickness of pipe used in calculating S,
nominal thickness less the
erosion and corrosion
allowance. This is calculated by looking at Clause
302.3.5 (c)

SL

SL

Fax

Am

(iiM i)

+ (ioM,)
Z

Am

S, in USCS units

4t

Pdo

IS, in SI units

S, = Sum of longitudinal stress due to pressure

weight and other sustained loading, psi KPa)


Fax = Axial force due to sustained (primary)
loading, lbs (kg)
Am = Metal cross sectional area, in2 (mm2)
M.1 = In-plane bending moment due to sustained
(primary) Loading, in-lb ( m N )
M0 = Out-plane bending moment due to sustained
(primary) Loading, in-lb ( m N )
..
li lo = In-plane and out-plane stress intensification
factors
S, = Basic allowable stress at the operating
t-np., psi (KPa)
9

6.2.2

THERMAL EXPANSION STRESS RANGE


-

The computed displacement stress range shall be


done as below (Ref. Clause 319.4.4). The range of
bending and torsional stresses shall be computed
using the as installed.
Modulus of Elasticity 'E a ' and then combined
as below to determine the computed stress range.

s,=Jsb2+4st2
where
S, =Resultantbendingstress,psi(KPa)
St=TorsionalStress= Mt/2z,psi
1000Mt/2z,KPa
Mt =Torsionalmomentjn - lb (mm- N)
Z=SectionModulusof pipe,in3 (mm3)

(b) The resultant bending stress to be used in the above


equation for elbows and full size branch connection
shall be calculated as follows

where
&=in- planeSIF
io'out - planeSIF
Mi=in - planeBendizgMoment
Mo=out- planeBendngMoment
Z=SectionMo~lusofPipe

Mo

Fig. 6.1 - Moments in Bends

Fig. 6.2 - Moments in Tees

shall be as follows.
For Header,
-

- J(i

SL-

4,

)2

+ (i M

)2

in USCS units

in SI units.

For Branch,

g. = J

P+~~M,P

(ii~i

S =Resul.tant bending stress


Z, =effective section modulus of branch
2

T,
r, =mean branch cross - sectional radius
T, =effective branch wall thicnkess ,
lesser of ?;h and (ii)wb)
Th=Thickness of pipe matching run of tee
or header exclusive of renforceme nt
T b=Thickness of pipe..matching branch
= 1%

For branch connection, the resultant bending stress


needs special care as section modulus Z of header and
branch is different.

6.2.2

STRESS DUE TO OCCASIONAL

ASME B 31.3 do not specifically define the


equation for calculating the stresses due to occasional
loads. The code, under clause 302.3.6 only states that the
sum of longitudinal stresses due to sustained and
occasidnal loads shall not exceed 1.33 times the basic
allowable stress. The method adopted is to calculate the
sustained and occasional stresses independently and to
then add them absolutely.

The pipe thickness has no significant effect on


bending stress due to thermal expansion but it affects end
reaction in direct ratio so overstress cannot be nullified by
increasing the thickness. On the contrary this makes the
matter worse by increasing end reactions.

'"

COMPARISON OF CODES
tify the difference in

approach between these two codes


.Stress increase due to ocxasis~zalloads are different in each
code.
.Allowable stresses are different for each code.
.ASME B 3 1.3 include Fax in the stress calculation due to
sustained load where as ASME B 3 1.1 neglects all forces
.ASME B 3 1.3 calculation methods are undefined for sustained
and occasional loads whereas ASME B 3 1.1 is explicit for the
same.
.For calculation of stresses due to sustained loads ASME B3 1.3
neglects torsion where as ASME B3 1.1 includes it.
.ASME B3 1.1 intensifies torsion where as ASME B 3 1.3 does
not.

,,

//

,/
/
/
/
/

6"(150mm) NB Sch. 40

------

- \

--..

.....
.

Fig. 7.1

6"(150mm) NB S c h 80

Fig. 7.2

For simple cantilever, the deflection is given by the


formula

3EyI
Hence, P

L3
E, y, L remaining the same, P = k I
3E Y
where k =
L3
For 6"(150 mm) NB Sch. 40 pipe
I = 1170 cm4
Z = 139 cm3
For 6" (150 mrn) NB Sch. 80 pipe
I = 1686 cm4
Z = X J cm3

Therefore,

Load P
Moment M
Stress = M/Z

Sch. 80
1686 k
1686 k L
8.4 k L

Form the above it can be seen that although


the stress remains the same, the forces and moments
increase with the increase in thickness of the pipe.

Where the piping system encounters large end


reactions or detrimental over strain and it lacks
built in changes in the direction to absorb the
same, the Piping Engineer should consider
adding flexibility by one or more of the following
means; addition of bends, loops or offsets, swivel
joints, corrugated pipes, expansion joints or other
means permitting angular, rotational or axial
movements. Suitable anchors shall be provided to
resist the end forces.
'

COLD SPRING

Piping Engineer may also provide cold cut or cold


spring to limit the value of stress and moment. Cold
spring is defined by the code ASME B 3 1.3 under clause
3 19.2.4 as the intentional deformation of piping during
assembly to produce a desired initial displacement and
stress.
No credit for cold spring is permitted in the stress
range calculation since the service life of a system is
affected more by the range of stress variation than by
magnitude of stress at a given time.

ASME B 31.3 gives the formula for calculation of


maximum reaction or moment when cold spring is
ing system in clause
d instantaneous maximum
reaction force or moment at maximum
or minimum metal temperature.
R = Range of reaction force or moments
derived from flexibility analysis
corresponding to the full displacement
stress range and based on E,.
E, = Modulus of elasticity at installation
temprature
Em= Modulus of elasticity at design temperature
c = Cold spring factor from zero for no
cold spring to 1.0 for 100% cold spring

The factor 2/3 is based on experience, which shows that specified


cold spring cannot be fully assured even with elaborate precautions.

I
d

The value of reaction forces or moments at the


temperature at which the piping is assembled is
given by :

R = CR or C R, whichever
a

is greater

C , =l- S h E a
SEE",
R a = Estimated

instantaneous
reaction
or moments
at the installation

temperature
S
S

,= Computed
=

Maximum

displacement
allowable

stress

range

stress

at design temperature

ASME B 31.1 deals with these factors under the clause


119.9 and 119.10.
The reaction thus computed shall not exceed the limits
which the attached equipment can safely sustain.

PIPE SIZE
- 1" SCH 160
DESIGN TEMP. - 450' F

y
F

PIPE MUC

FY

25'

,/'

1 O',

,My2

AB = L, = 25'
BC = L 2 = 10'
CD=L3=5'
L,/L, = m = 2515 = 5
L2/L, = n = 1015 = 2

By referring to chart,
we get :

- CS (A106 Cr. B)

I
M/Y

1
FY

Fig. 9.1

K, = 8.61 K, = 4.35

Y(

1.60 K,

0.09 Kz

= 0.57

The book gives the following formula


The stresses are evaluated from the equation,
lbsl sq. inch

Turns
PIPE SIZE
- 4" SCH 160
DESIGN TEMP. - 450' F

Fig. 9.1

The forces are evaluated fkom the equation,


Moments are evaluated from the equation,

where C is the expansion factor calculated from the


expression
C=

Expansion in inches1100 " Ec


1728 ' 100

Torsional

Stress

=K t C D

- 4.35

'

3
510

4.5

Expansion Stress Range = SE =


= Z1(3952)2 + (1997)2
= 56 191bsIin2

Reaction Fy =K C Ip / L32

Reaction FZ=K

cI

p/b2

-Moment

Moment

XY

X2:

L 3k

= K xz C

AIL
L 2

= K xy

ft. lbs.

2035

0.4

10
5
543 ft. lbs.

3.3

Pipe
size

= 4"

std. wt. ASTM A106Gr.B

Operatin = 450
g Temp.

OF

From table
Effective Elbow Diameter
Effective Elbow Length

From Chart, shape


factor
Lr

4.7 feet

Square comer length


Length of Short Vertical Leg

5'

Length of Long Vertical Leg

: H=

25'

Length of horizontal offset

: W = 5'

Sum of elbow lengths


Total effective length
Effective Diameter
length

From Table 1
Expansion factor fe for 450 OF = 73,000 psi [This can
also be calculated by the formula Expansion
incheslinch x Young's Modulus i.e

For C.S. Ec = 27.9 x lo6


Expansion in inches per 100' for C.S. = 3.16 from
Appendix C. ANSI B31.3

Hence,

Computed

Stress Range

- 73000 ' 1.66 =23948 psi


5.06
S A= f (1.25 SC+O.25 ~ h )
For CS to A 106 Gr. B,
S ,= 20,000 psi

S,=19,450

psi at 450

=1(1.25 ' 20,000


=29,862 psi
SE (SA

O F

+ 0.25 ' 19450 )

RATIO WN OFLOOP wmm ANCHORDISTANCE (NARROW LOOPS)

SHAPE FACTOR Fs for SYMMETRICAL EVANSION LOOPS

SHAPE'FACTORFs for Z-, L- and U-BENDS with small Hlw-Ratios

SHAPE FACTOR Fs for Z-, L- and U-BENDS v"h small Hlw-Ratios

There are computer soffware available to handle such


complex problems. Some of the software available are :1.
ADL PIPE

CAESAR I1
4.
CAEPIPE
5.
PIPEPLUS
6.
TRIFLEX
7.
Q-FLEX
The pipe line geometry is fed into the system along with
all the parameters such as design temperatures, pipe sizes,
bend radii, type of branch connections, locations of anchor
points and restraints. This is termed as 'Modeling' the
problem. The model can be generated by anybody who
knows how to prepare the input. The programme executes
the solutions. First complete Analysis was done in the year
1957.The analysis of the solutions is the real engineering
and is the job of a Piping Engineer.

The layout and the design of the piping and its supporting
elements shall be directed towards preventing the

1. Piping stresses in excess of those permitted in


the code.
2. Leakage at joints
3. Excessive thrust and moments on connected
equipment (such as pumps and turbines)
4. Excessive stresses in the supporting (or
restraining) elements.
5. Resonance with imposed fluid induced
vibrations.
6. Excessive interference with thermal
expansion and contraction in a piping
system which is otherwise adequately flexible.

10.

Unintentional disengagement of piping


fiom its supports
Excessive piping sag in systems requiring
drainage slope.
~xcessivedistortion or rag of piping (e.g.
thermo plastics) subject to creep under
conditions of repeated thermal cycling.
Excessive heat flow; exposing supporting
elements to temperature extremes outside
their design limits.

ARRGT-1

:: VERTICAL THERMOSYPHON REBOILER WITH FIXED TUBESHEETS

COLUMN

VAPOUR R n U R N CONNECTION

/-A

Top T U B m H E m

SUPPORT LUG

LIQUID LEG

Fig. 11.1

ARRGT-3

:: VERTICAL FIXED TUBESHEET REBOILER WITH INDEPEDENT'

SUPPORT STRUCTURE.

COLUMN

Fig. 11.3

ARRGT-2

::

VERTICAL FIXED TUBESHEET REBOILER, SPRING MOUNTING

BOTTOM TRAY OF COLUMI\I'

VAPOUR RETURN CONNECTIObI

'=-

q J L 3 7 r

COLUMN

P
SHELLSIDE INLET

COLUMN SHELL

SUPPORT LUG

b'

BELLOWS EXPANSION JOINT

SHELLSIDE OUTLET
COLUMN SKIRT

-4
SUPPORT BRACKET

Fig. 11.2

..

ARRGT-1

:: VERTICAL THERMOSYPHON REBOILER WITH FIXED TUBESHEETS

VAPOUR RETURN CONNECTION

TOP TUBESHER.

COLUMN

SUPPORT LUG

REBOILER SHELL

LIQUID LEG

-;-1

Fig. 11.1

SHELLSIDE OUTLEI

7.

8.

9.
10.

Unintentional disengagement of piping


from its supports
Excessive piping sag in systems requiring
drainage slope.
~xcessivedistortion or rag of piping (e.g.
thenno plastics) subject to creep under
conditions of repeated thermal cycling.
Excessive heat flow; exposing supporting
elements to temperature extremes outside
their design limits.

Mr. T. N. Gopinath

When piping lacks inherent flexibility due to


routing andlor develops large reactions or
detrimental overstrain on the strain sensitive
equipments, the Piping Engineer considers
provision af expansion joints to overcome the same.
Expansion joints are also. provided to isolate the
vibrating equipment from piping and also to
facilitate free movement of the equipment mounted
on .load cells.

Slip type of expansion joints

Fig 2.1

I The Point of usage could be identified as


At the suction and discharge nozzles of vibrating equipments such as
pumps, blowers etc.,
On large diameter pipes and ducts operating at high temperatures but at lower
pressures.
a
In piping where the space is inadequate for conventional arrangement for
providing flexibilities.
It is not advisable to use the expansion joint in all piping systems.
The major areas of applications where its use is not advisable are following
piping systems.
where hazardous chemicals are handled.
where the service is high pressure.
in which slurry or suspended solids are handled.

MATERIALS OF CONSTRUCTION
P

<

Based on the service for which the expansion joint is


selectedlused, the material of construction of the same is
selected. Expansion joints are available in the following
materials of construction.
Rubber
PTFE
Canvas
Metal

ovements

Lateral Deflection

Fig. 5.2

Fig. 5.3

Fig. 5.4

-s.

-m<,n.

IN ADDITION TO AXIAL,
LATERAL
AND
ANGULAR
MAVEMENTS, AN
EXPANSION JOINT MAY BE
SUBJECTED TO TORSIONAL
MOTION
OR
TWISTING,
TORSION IMPOSES SEVERE
STRESSES ON THE EXPANSION
JOINT AND ALL SUCH CASES
SHOULD BE REFERRED TO THE
MANUFACTURER.

Pig. 5.5

COMPONENTS AND ACCESSORIES

Fig. 6.1

--.-...

Bellow

1 1

- 1

Convolution Depth

Mean Dia.

Tangent
Crest

Root

Fig. 6.2

Bellow
Tangent
Collar
Reinforcing Rings
Lagging Shroud
Internal Sleeves
Limit Rods
Tie Rods

w
w

Shipping Devices
Pantographic Linkages Axial - Sing@ Doublt
Universal
swingH
~in~ed'
~imbal'
Pressure BalancedEll
Tied

AXIAL- SINGLE EXPANSION JOINT


This is the simplest form of expansion joint of single bellows construction. It
absorbs all of the movement of the pipe section into which it is installed. Fig. 7.la

UNIVERSAL EXPANSION JOINT


A universal expansion joint is one containing two bellows joined by a
common connector for the purpose of absorbing any combination of three (3) basic
movements. A universal expansion joint is used in cases where it is necessary to
accommodate greater amounts of lateral movement than can be absorbed by a single
expansion joint Fig. 7.2

DOUBLE EXPANSION JOINT


A double expansion joint consists of two bellows jointed by a common connector
which is anchored to some rigid part of the installation by means of an anchor base.
The anchor base may be attached to the common connector either at installation or at the
time of manufacturing. Each bellow of a double expansion joint functions independently
as a single unit. Double bellow expansion joints should not be confused with universal
expansion joints.

SWING EXPANSION JOINT


A swing expansion joint is designed to absorb lateral deflection andlor angular
rotation in one plane only by the use of swing bars, each of which is pinned at or near
the ends of the unit.

HINGED EXPANSION JOINT


A hinged expansion joint contains one bellow and is designed to permit angular
rotation in one plane only by the use of a pair of pins running through plates
attached to the expansion joint's ends. Hinged expansion joints should be used in
sets of 2 or 3 to function properly.

GIMBAL EXPANSION JOINT


A gimbal expansion joint is designed to permit angular rotation in any plane by the
use of two pairs of hinges affixed to a common floating gimbal ring.

PRESSURE BALANCED EXPANSION JOINT


A pressure balanced expansion joint is
designed to absorb axial movement and/or lateral deflection while restraining the
bellows pressure thrust force by means of the devices interconnecting the flow bellow
with an opposed bellow also subjected to line pressure. This type of joint is installed
where a change of direction occurs in a run of pipe

Axial Expansion Joints Tied / Untied


IA

Fig 9.2

Fig 9.3
qzr

Axial Expansion Joints Tied / Untied


Fig 9.4
HOT POSITION

COLD POSITION

Fig 9.5
4

'
a

1-

, !: Cl I
.I .

. -.!.
!

COLD POSITION (COLD SPRUNG)

HO?'
POSITION

NEUTRAL POSITION

1.

Universal Expansion Joints

Fig 9.7

Universal Expansion Joints

,,

Process

Vessel

Fig 9.9

Fig 9.8

Fig 9.10

Pressure Balanced Expansion


Joints
Turbine
j

!G

IA

Fig 9.11

Fig 9.13

IA

Pressure Balanced Expansion Joints

Fig 9.15

Fig 9.14

Hinged Expansion Jomts

Fig 9.16

Process
Vessel

Fig 9.18

Hinged Expansion Joints

EQUIPMENT

Fig 9.19

/////l//l////i//

Fig 9.20

Gimbal Expansion Joints

Selection Chart

Sr.

No.

Type of
Expansion Joint

Elimination
of Pr. Thrust

Axial
Movement

Lateral
Movement

Angular
Rotation

Universal

Yes

Yes

Yes

No

Swing

No

Yes

Yes

Yes

Hinged

No

No

Yes

No

Yes

No

--

Axial
I

Gimbal

Pressure Balanced

Tied

Yes

Pipe Anchor
Main Anchor
Intermediate Anchor
Pipe Guides
Directional Stop / Anchor
Spring Rate
Spring Force
Pressure Thrust
Cycle Life
-

+----

BELLOWS CONVOLUTION

-------+

__+

INTERNAL (P0SITIVE)MPRESSURE

EXlERNAL (NEGATIVE) PRESSURE

Fig 8.1

Fig 9.1 Pipe guide location

SINGLE EXPANSION JOINT APPLICATION

GUIDE

MAN ANCHOR

FIG B.

GUIDE

GUIDE

DOUBLE EXPANSION JOINT APPLICATION

MAIN ANCHOR

I'

INTERMEDIATE AN CHORE
1I

I - - -

_ l]1

-GUIDE

MAN ANCHOR

FIG C.

UNIVERSAL TIED APPLICATION

INTERMEDIATE ANCHOR
COU) POSITKIN

I-..;.

HOT P OS ITKIN
I,

PLANER GUIDE

FIG F.

UNIVERSAL TIED APPLICATION (THREE PLANE)

ANCHOR

Two Hinge Application

Fig. F

Three Hinge Application

Fig. H

Two Gimbal Application (Three Plane)

Fig. I

One Hingle / Two Gimbal Application (Three Plane)

Fig. J.

Pressure Balanced Application

&/+

INIR(MEDIA1E N C HOR

NNIERMEDIAIE ANCHOR

-..

GUDE

.........

GUDE

Fig. M

--

1.

Squirm or Buckle
-m -r

Expansion joints in a system may squirm or buckle


when subjected to high pressure. Bellows become
laterally unstable and the suddenly squirm out ways
thereby stretching and deforming configurations. Once
squirm develops, bellow gets damaged.
Meridional bulge come after the squirm failure. When
stress reaches plastic range, the side wall bulges and
the rate of deformation acceleratesSlight increase in
pressure, ruptures the bellow.

T. N. GOPINATH

en a pipe of higher diameter is put over


the service pipe, and when heatinglcooling

called the core pipe and the outer pipe is called

The combination of core and jacket pipes shall


be selected based on :
i) The properties of the heatinglcooling
medium.
ii) The flow required to maintain the
temperature.
iii) The criticality of the service

iv) The differential expansion


of the core
and jacket when the material of construction of
core and jacket are different.

The jacketed pipe poses problems, in design


fabrication and erection, different from that of the
non-jacketed piping. This article is intended to
highlight the problems of mechanical design of
jacketed piping.

Size Combination of Core and Jacket Pipe :

ISize of Core
I Pipe
Size of
Jacket Pipe
NB (mm)

Elbows :
Core pipe
NB (mm)

Bends Radius
(man)

Jacket Pipe
NB (mm)

Bend
Radius

(mm)

4
Remarks

NOTE 1

NOTE 1

76 (1.5D)

80

76 (ID)

95 (1.5D)

100

102 (ID)

NOTE 2

NOTE 2
NOTE 2

NOTE :
i> Use 1.SD(LR) std. elbow for jacket.
ii) Use l.SD(LR) std. elbow for core and lD(SR)
std. elbow for jacket. (Refer Fig. 2.1)

JACKETTED ELBOW
JACKET ELBOW

Pig. 2.1

Types of Jacketing :

Only on a straight pipe keeping all bends and


flange welds exposed.
--

I
I

c o r e pipe
-.jacket

Fig. 2.2 a

pipe

On straight pipes and elbows but keeping


the flange size same as that of the core pipe

Fig. 2.2 b

(iii) On straight pipes and elbows with flange


size that of the jacket pipe. (Reducing flanges)
,-

flange

Fig. 2.2 c

Jumper Pipes :

Fig. 2.3 a

P a t t e r n II

Fig. 2.3 b

Pattern I l l

Fig. 2.3 c

Pattern IV

Fig. 2.3 d

Pattern V

Fig. 2.3 e

Spacers :
/

*CORE

PIPE

PIPE

TYPE ' A'

~ S T I C T H
WELD

PlPE

CORE PlPE

6 THK 'W' WIDE X


50 MM LONG FLAT
TYPE ' 6 '

Fig. 2.4

Spacer Details :
Process pipe NB (mm)

Jacket Pipe NB (mm)

Dia of rod
'd' (mm)

Width of
flat 'WY

Minimum span
(mm)

(mm)

15

40

20

40

25

50

40

65

50

80

65

100

80

100

100

150

150

200

2000

2500

3000

14

3000

3500

19

4000

16

5000

1500
2000

BARRIER
-JACKET
.--.
-

Core Pipe JKT Pipe


Size
Size

FIG. 2.5

NOTE :- THE
MATERIAL OF
CONSTRUCTION OF
JACKET BARRIER
SHALL BE SAME AS
THAT OF CORE PIPE.

ID

OD

DIM Remarks
'X'

Cond./out
Hot oil/in

I
I

Jacket barrier

-*

Fig. 2.5b

SLEEVE
SLIP-ON FLANGE
WITH MODIFIED HUB

Reducing Flange with modified Hub

--FINISli

125-250 AARH

MOC - REFER PIPING SPECIFICATION.

Fig. 2.7a 150 # Rating Flanges

SIA.
..
'

. . . .
D"WT
RF ~
0
.'ORE HOLEDZ DIA THK.
:~l,
:'TI
. . . . .

. : .:
-

FORIS:.
1239

,HW.
CLASS.

.
.

37.5 .

...

....

.,.

.
.

22 .

'28.0
...

u
.

.22.5
.
.

.. . ..

~-

. . .
I

37.5
.

..

.'

'

is

n .

25

92

.28

.. -

~~~

'34.5

19&

-..

.....

. ..-,.... -..

-.-..

.- . .

......

.~..
.. - .

"

'

) 74.5

loo

iw
.

~~

. ..

. 91.0
.

151' . 1116.0
.

'

.
.. --~.. . . .
.

'

22 .,. 157

22

41'

'

.-.

157

. 41

. . . . . . . .
22
. '

216 . 47

, .I

Code ASME I33 1.3 under clause 304.1.3


specifies that to determine the wall thickness for
straight pipe under external pressure, the
procedure outlined in the BPV Code Section V
Division 1, UG - 28 through UG - 30 shall be
followed.

A sample calculation of the jacketed piping


system normally handled by design engineers is

The pipe sizes under consideration are


a) Core -- 6" (150) NB.
b) Jacket- 8" (200)NB.
Materials of construction
a) Core - Austenitic stainless steel to ASTM
A3 12 TP304L, seamless quality (for core pipes,
always seamless quality is considered due to
inaccessibility of the weld joint for inspection.)
b) Jacket - Carbon steel to ASTM A106 Gr. .B
Design.Temperature
a) Core -- 700" F (x 375' C)
h\ TIIPITP) -- 7 C O O G' f e A n n o

PI

Design Pressure
a) Core - 300 psig (2 lKglcm2)
b) Jacket - 400 psig (28 KgIcm2)
Corrosion Allowance
a) Core -Nil
b) Jacket - 1/16" (1.6 mm)
Design Basis - ASME B3 1.3

'8

Thickness Selection to withstand the


Internal Pressures
{Refer ASME B31.3 clauses 304.1.1 and
PD
304.1.2)
tm = t + c And, t =
2(SE + P Y )
Where, tm = Minimum required thickness
including mechanical, corrosion and erosion
allowances.
t =. Pressure design thickness
c = Sum of mechanical, corrosion and erosion
allowances
P = Internal design gauge pressure
D = Outside diameter of pipe
E = Quality factor from Table A - 1
S = Stress value from Table A - 1
Y = Coefficient from Table 304.1.1
I

Core Pipe:
P = 300 psig
D = 6.625" ( for 6" NB )
S = 13500 psi ( for SS 304L pipe at 700" F )
E = 1.O ( seamless 'quality )
Y = 0.4
300 x 6.625
= 0.073"
t=
Hence,
2(13500 x 1-t 300 x 0.4)

Consider SCH 5 s pipe as per ANSI / ASME 836.19


t = 0.109''
t ( considering mill tolerance)
= 0.109 x 0.875
= 0.095 "
Hence SCH 5s is adequate .

b) Jacket Pipe:
P

E
Y

400 psig

106 Gr. B pipe at 750" F )


1.0 (seamless quality)
0.4

Consider SCH 20 pipe as per ANSI I ASME


2

- -*..

t ( considering mill tolerance)


= 0.25 x 0.875
= 0.2187 "

Hence SCH 20 is adequate.


The above pipe selections were based on the
sustainable internal design pressure of the core &
jacket pipes.

+#Thickness Selection for

the core pipe to withstand the

external
pressure
..

E5ECtion VIII Division 1, UG -28 )

To check 6"NB SCH 5Spijpe-for an external pressure o f 400


psig L- = 50
D0

Thickness 't' of SCH 5s pipe after mill tolerance


{Refer section 5.2 a) )

Factor'A = 0.000225
{ Refer ASME Section I1 Part D)

= 0.095"

Factor B = 2750
Refer ASME Section 11Part D Fig HA3)
-,.-

Allowable Working Pressure,


4
Pa = - x

B 4 2750
- -X
D o l t 3 69.7.
'

52.6 psig

Hence SCH 5S is not suitable.

<+

To check 6" NB SCH 40s pipe for the


edternal pressure,

Thickness 't' of SCH 40s pipe after mill


tolerance = 0.28 x 0. 875
= 0.245"

Factor A
Factor B

=
=

0.0015
4800

237 psig

Hence SCH 40s pipe is not suitable

':*

Torheck6"NBSCHBOSpipeforthe
ternalpressure of 400 psig.

Thickness 't' of SCH 80s pipe after mill tolerance


= 0.875 x 0. 432
= 0.378"

Factor A
Factor B

=
=

0.0038
5500

Allowable Working Pressure,

Hence use SCH 80s pipe

The selected combination shall be Core of 6"


' NB SCH 80s (6.625 OD x 0.432 " nominal
thk.)
Jacket of 8" NB SCH 20 (8.625 OD x 0.25 "
nominal thk.)

+++
+ To check the Selected Combination of pipe
ess for stresses due to Differential Expansion.

jacket pipe will restrict the expansion of the core


pipe and the core pipe will try to pull the jacket pipe.
The differential expansion accordingly gets divide
between the two. The proportion in which the
differential expansion gets distributed can be
calculated as below. The principle employed is that
the differential expansion will develop stress and
accordingly the force. There will be compressive
force in the core pipe and tensile force in the jacket
pipe. Since the system remains in equilibrium both
the forces will have the same magnitude.

Strain due to differential expansion,

Stress
Strain =
Modulus of elasticity

Force
Area

Stress,

f =

Hence,

e = - f- E

P/A

Al/l

- P
-

.................. 3

ss and/or
ss or cs is the same,
.

-..b.,.,rs>...,

Suffix 'c' stands for carbon steel and suffix 's' stands for
stainless steel.
Hence,

Hence,

The Differential Expansion gets divided between carbon


steel and stainless steel
-

Substituting for hlc from above equation

Es As
Als
A2 =
EcAc

+A

....................10

Q . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
.

$-

derived from eqn. 9

Applying the above formulae in the example


Modulus of Elasticity of ss at 700' F
Es

24.8 x 106 psi


(Refer ASME B3 1.3 Table C6)

Modulus of Elasticity of cs at 750' F


6

E =248xlO psl

(Refer ASME B3 1.3 Table C6)

Metal area (As) of 6" NB SCH 80s ss pipe


= Pi/4{6.6252- (6.625 - 2 x 0.432)2}

Metal area (As) of 8" NB SCH 20 cs pipe


= Pi14 (8.625' - (8.625 - 2 x 0.25)2}
= 6.578 in2
Expansion of cs pipe from 70' F to 750' F
6.26"/100' (Refer Appendix C of
ASME B3 1.3)
Expansion of ss pipe from 70' F to 700' F
7.50"/100' (Refer Appendix C of
ASME B3 1.3)

Differential Expansion,

'.

'i,

............ .....(Refer eqn. 12)


EcAc

Tension in cs pipe,
= 1.24 - 0.542

= 0.698"/10Q9

Strain in cs pipe,

Tensile stress in cs pipe,


=E X E
= 0.?)00<82 x 24.6 x lo6
= 14317 psi
> Stress Allowable (S)

Compressive stress in SS pipe,


es
= Es X E s

Hence SCH 20 Carbon steel pipe is not suitable


for the service.
Increase the thickness of carbon steel pipe to SCH
40.
Nominal thickness of 8" NB SCH 40 pipe
= 0.322"
Metal area of 8" NB SCH 40 pipe
= ~/4{8.625
-~
(8.625 - 2 x 0.322)2)
= 8.399 in2

Compression in ss pipe (refer eq.12)


--=-.

Tension in cs pipe
= 1.24 - 0.617 = 0.623"/100'
Strain in ss pipe,

Strain in CS pipe,

12767 psi
< Stress Allowable (S)
Compressive stress in ss pipe
= 0.000514 x 24.8 x lo6
= 12747 psi
< Stress Allowable (S)
=

HENCE THE COMBINATION TO BE


CONSIDERED FOR THE DUTY IS 6" (150mm)
NB SCH 80S STAINLESS STEEL PIPE AND 8"
(200mm) NB SCH 40 CARBON STEEL PIPES

w+
+

To establish the maximum jacket trimming


distance:

It is necessary that the jacket is


stresses due to differential expansion do not
exceed these values.
The stainless steel core pipe can be
equated to a strut column with both ends
fixed to establish the maximum distance
allowed between two flanged joints.
Stress in ss pipe,
f = 12,747 psi
Metal area of ss pipe,
A
8.405 in2

Compressive force in the ss pipe,

Applying Euler's formula for column with


both ends fixed
(Ref. Brownell & Young)
Compressive force,
2

4n EI
2

Where,
I

=.
=

1
inches

(eqn. 2.22 Table 2.1)

Moment of Inertia
40.49 in4
Distance between two supports in

Therefore;

608.29 inches

HENCE THE MAXIMUM JACKET


TRIMMING DISTANCE SHALL BE
15450 MM

*:*

STRESS ANALYSIS OF JACKETED


PIPING

>While checking the stresses due to


as per clause 302.3.5 of ASME B31.3 or
102.3.2 of ASME B3 1.1, additional stresses
developed due to the load at the junction of
core and jacket i.e. P/AC for core and P/Aj
for jacket, should be added. The same
philosophy is applicable while checking the
limits of calculated stresses due to
occasional loads as per clause 302.3.6 of
ASME B31.3 or 102.3.3 of ASME B31.1
where P is the force at the junction of the
core and the jacket and Ac and A.J are the
area of the core and the jacket.

> The weld strength between core and jacket also


o be checked by considering an allowable load
= Area of weld x 60% allowable stress.

weld i.e. n x d x (0.707 x weld size ).


The force developed, available from the computer
output, shall be less than the allowable value thus
calculated.
The trimming length of the jacket shall be
established ensuring that the buckling load
calculated based on the Euler's formula is less
than the load developed of the junction point of
the jacket and the core as available from the
computer output.

............................

. .

PIPING ENGINEERING CELL .


-

DYNAMIC ANALYSIS OF PIPING


-

..

--.
. ..

..
... . ~.-.:.
-?

...

INTRODUCTION:
Piping is one of the niost important
part of a project for various process plants,
power plants, nuclear installations, refineries
and petrochemical complexes. The age-old
tradition in en,@neering was to rely on the
experience of layout engineers and draftsmen
to tackle the necessary drawing board work.
This trend changed with the advent -of
computers. The experience and learning by
failures was replaced by more scientific
methods of design and engineering.
After a few initial hurdles the basis of
design for piping systems were kproved
greatly to provide accurate solutions to piping
design problem. This ongoing process of
improvement in design procedures has
resulted in better techniques of analysis that
could be conducted-before erecting a pipeline
thereby leading to reliable designs.
Static analysis for piping has now
become very common place, thanks to the
very many people who worked hard to make
piping flexibility analysis software available
on PC platform at a reasonable price. These
packages nor only perform basic analysis but
also make conformity checks according to
various codes. These packages' also give
reports in easy to interpret form.
Most software packages are based on
Finite Element Method (FEM). After
perfecting the static analysis modules most
flexibility znalysis software authors turned
their attention to dynamic andysis. However,
other than nuclear codes the dynamic analysis
requirements are not rigorously dealt in the
Dynamic Analysis of piping

..

.,.

-.-

. ..:. .>.. .:.::: .. . .


. SST India P V ~~. t d .

codes. The users have consequentially used


dynamic analysis modules to a lesser extent.
In this article we would make an
attempt to guide the user in the use and
interpretation of dynamic analysis methods for
practical application. This session may not
prepare the user to be able to perform
complete manual calculations for dynamic
analysis. In other words you would need to
possess a flexibility aalysis package capable
of dynamic analysis.
This article keeps predominantly silent
about static analysis requirements. The user's
knowledge about static analysis is presumed.
Since as a part of the tmining, static analysis
would have been dealt with rigorously, please
refer notes on topics related to static analysis
if you encounter any difficulties.

WHAT IS DYNAMIC ANALYSIS?


Mcst of the basic design analysis
methods use the concept of the failure against
external loads. In the static realm we refer t o .
loads that are applied in such a fashion, that
the strain energy is-dissipated slowly. This is
achieved by stating that the external loads.are
applied slowly. The statement is often true in
practice and on some selected occasions this
may not be valid. The strain energy (a form of
potential energy) is stored cumulatively in the
system as the external loads are applied. But,
this potential energy is not converted to
kinetic energy in 2 shorr intr.n;ai of time in
this case md hence no dynamic excitation
occurs.

.. .

PIPING ENGINEERING CELL


When the time period of applicationof ':But thetrue nature of failure a
d the effects of
the b a d is such that it is much larger than the the change of energy status cannot be ignored
"natural time period" of the piping 1 structure in the dynamic analysis.
On being dynamically excited the
then the behavior is essentially static behavior.
Looking at this another way, if the frequency. piping would fail due to fatigue. The peak
of application of external force is much lower stress levels may not be.too high but due to
than the natural frequency of the structure then the nature of repeated loading the material
the situation remains static.
may give in due to crack propagation. In
If the frequency of the applied force is critical piping such as nuclear applications this
comparable to the natural frequency of the is of paramount importance and calls for
structure then the system tends to store the rigorous analysis.
energy and release it according to certain
Any analysis is only at best as good as
scientific laws. This leads to a response of the the load values and the accuracy of the time
structure that may be different from the variant behavior of the external forces. Hence
applied external load. The cycles of response most such analysis calls for details of time
also drastically alter the rate of energy variant functions of loading. The loads have to
releases. This is a feature that is different from be obtained fiom measurements and historic
the normal concepts of dissipation of energy data. Some cases the loads may have to be
from external forces. Such a system is obtained from other analysis as well.
In the next topic we would be
dynamic in nature and the study of the
response of such structures is referred as attempting to understand the characteristics
"Dynamic Analysis". The capacity to store influencing the dynamic behavior of a system.
such energies is con&olled by parameters of The system characteristics almost entirely
the body of the piping. The storage and the influence the response and hence m&y design
subsequent release of this energy can be under problems can be overcome by changing the
certain circumstances even catastrophic. The physical characteristic of the piping than any
.intent of perforrriing dynamic analysis is to other me&. With reference to piping the
judge the safety of the system during such dimensions of the pipe layout, the section
energy cycling and suitably alter the design to properties, material properties, the mass of the
avoid failures.
pipe, the mass of the contents, the location of
The failure criterion used in static supports and the mass of other components
analysis is largely derived from the maximum such as valves play an important role in
shear stress theory. Designer checks the stress dynamic response.
...
In dynamic analysis representing a real
levels against allowable seess levels and the .
system is declared acceptable if the actual life situation the variation of the force level is
stress levels do not exceed the allowable not the lone criteria, but also as to how fast
limits.
and at which moment such a variation occurs
Since dynamic analysis involves the is as important. In most practical situation the
study of the change in energy levels and so material under dynamic excitation is forced
also the shape and strain levels in the system into the plastic and elasto-plastic zones. At
due to loading, the criteria has to be based on . present we would stick to the analysis based
cumulative damage to the piping. Since this on elastic behavior. The localized plastic
approach to analysis is rarhe: complex -10s:
behavior, in f ~ c tacts
,
as a limiting factor and
daily problems are solved using suess helps che pan avoid a failure.
measurement similar to the static solutions.
:

Dynamic Analysis of piping

PIPING ENGINEERING CELL


- EQUATIONS OF MOTION - 'Energy conservation of a spring mass
system:

Initial spring
length when
fiee

The potential energy of the system is as


foliows

,1

7
Static
deflection

0'
Static
E q ~ y b

The change in potential energy due to a


displacement 0 to x induced can be equated as
follows

Mass(m)

(mg + kx) dx - mgx

Fig.1 Spring mass system

A s&nple spring mass system a s shown in


Fig.1 can be representative of a large number
of real life systems. The energy inherent in the
system can be equated according to laws of
conservation of energy.

Substituting equation (2) in equation (4) we


have
'

Let the kinetic energy of the system be


KE and let the ~otentialenergy be. PE. Since
noexternal energy input is taking place into
the system the sum of these two energies is a
constant.

Where, TE is ti constant. This implies @at

..

---((112) m x2+ (112) k x2= (mx + !a)x = 0

(5)

dt

Since the velocity cannot be always zero in


the equation therefore it implies that

..

mx+kx=O
(6)
Substituting on= $klm) the equation can be
re-written in the form

..

Initially the spring is at a distance, such that,


the gravitational force on the mass is balanced
by the spring pull force. If the spring is
:s;ended then the potential. energy of the
system would change. Let us assume that the
spring is of negligible mass.
Dynamic Analysis of piping

x+o:x=o
Solution to this equation is of the form
~ ( t =) CI cos 0.1

f C? sin ant

(7)

(8)

PIPING ENGIiWERlNG CELL


Where, C1 and C2 are arbitrary constants.
These constants are determined by the initial
conditions at t=O for x and velocity. .The on
defined above is the circular natural frequency
of the harmonic equation x(t).
From the above formula we can
conclude the following:
The above system is a single degree of
freedom system with only one natural
frequency.
The natural frequency is a function of the
stiffness of the system.
The natural frequency is an inverse
function of the mass of the system.
It is in no case a function of the forcing
function f(t). This is an important observation
and is the basis of the whole dynamic analysis.
The stifhess of a continuum is a
function of the material properties, the end
conditions, section properties and the span
between supports.
As the stifiess of a system is a function of
material proper6es, it follows that the
natural frequency of a system is a function
of the material properties.
Similarly as the stiffhess of a system is a
function of section properties, it follows
that the natural frequency of a system is a
function of the section properties of the
element.
In the same lines it follows that the natural
frequency of a system is a function of the
length between supports.
The natural frequency of the system can also
be expressed as follows

This exarcple is a system with one


degree of freedom. The spring and the mass
are constwined to move only in one direction.
This was restricted with the view to be able to
write equations of motion easily.
In real life any body will have the
possibility of adopting a variety of movements
and normallv have muitivle degrees
of
freedom. These can be idealized as a series of
interconaected spring mass system. The
continuum of mass and stiffness encountered
in a real life ~roblemactually makes the
number of natural frequencies innumerable.
Study of a system response for external
excitation function:
Free body
dia,oram

mg

Fig.2 'Generalized model for system under


external excitation
A dynamic system can be represented
by a simple system consisting of a spring, a
mass and a damper. We would start here to
understand the dynamic behavior of piping.
The free bcdy diagram of the spring
mass damper system shown in Fig.:! can be
summed up in the following equation:

..

mx = Z (forces in the x-direction)

Dynamic Analysis of piping

F sin wt

(1 1)

Since the gravitational force mg is


equal to the static spring force k6,\ we have

Since Ces' cannot 5e 0 for all values of time


the following equdon can be derived fiom
equation (18)

This is called ch~-meristic equation and has


the following roo^
This equation is true for all positions
of the mass. Equation (1 1) can also be written
as below:

..

Z(forces in the x-direction) - rnx = 0

(14)

This equation is referred as d'Alembert's


principle. The quantity -mx, is called inertia
force.
Equation (13) is a second order linear
differential
equation
with
constant
coefficients. The general solution x(t) is the
sum of the complementary function x,(t) and
the particular solution x,(t).

Since the values, sl & s2 are two roots of the


characteristic eqczion the complementary
function can be re26ned as
x, = CleS l t - cles2'
01)
where, CI and C: are arbitrary constants.

These constants zre governed by iniual


conditions.
We define the foLming two parameters for
handling the equaiin more easily:

This would mean that

On considering the two parts of the solution


separately for the sake of ease of working. The
complementary function satisfies the
corresponding homogeneous equation

Substituting the a k v e values in equation (20)


the roots can be mdiiied as follows:
-. .:
sl,s2 = j ~ onk4 1
(23

The solution of equation (6) is of the form

a, is commonly rexed ai the natural circular


frequency of the iystem.
is commonly
known as damping %tor.

X, = Cest

(17)

where, C and s are constants. Substituting


equation (17) in equation(16) we get
Dynamic Analysis of piping

-r2
<

<

From equation (21- \ve can conclude that is


posirive. Since r. r:zm constmt jdxnping
factor) c of the dz;cr is positive. The value
of can however -.XI fiom 0 to any positive

<

PIPING ENGINEERING CELL


number. The cases were = 1 is important for
scrutiny.

<

<

We can conceive that for the case when is


less than 1, then
will be > 0. When the
values of is less than 1 the roots s l & s2 are
real and distinct and negative. Since, both the
roots are negative the motion would decrease
exponentially with time and would eventually
die out. Such a system is termed "over
damped".

<

<

When = 1 both the roots are equal. The


value of s1,2 = -<on,.Since = 1 s l = s2 = a, Such a system is termed "critically
damped".
.When L; > 1 the roots are complex conjugates.
Such a system is termed "under damped".
The vibratory motion would exist only in such
a system.

<

If there is no damping in the system, then the


frequency of oscillation will be close to the
excitation
frequency.
Under
such
circumstances, if the natural frequency
(fundamental frequency) of the system is close
to the excitation frequency, then'the amplitude'
of the response will have virtually infiite
ma-~fication.
The . system
would
consequentially store large amounts of
potential energy in each excitation cycle. This
energy would be transformed into kinetic
energy in each cycle of excitation and back to
potential energy as the cycle repeats. Since the
magnification factor is infite, the energy
input from the excitation force would continue
to add to the potential energy of the system in
each cycle. Thus the energy inherent in the
system increases during each cycle. This
would lead to cumulative potential energy that
would be eventually released as kinetic energy
of a large mabitude leading to destxuction of
the structure. Physically this would lead to
failure or permanent plastic deformation. It is
'

Dynamic Analysis of piping

this additive nature of energy under dynamic


excitation that makes it extremely destructive.
Most real life systems have inherent properties
of damping and hence the magnification factor
has a predetermined ceiling. It is this damping
that reduces the probability of self-destruction
by excitation.
This is not to conclude that real life failures
due to dyiimic excitation do not occur due to
the presence of damping. Real life failures
have occurred in spite of damping being
inherent in the system.
From equation (22) the damping factor (<) can
be defmed as follows:

<=

-----------2 doan)

(24)

The similarity of the spring mass


damper system with real life systems cannot
be over emphasized. Piping is no exception.
The mass of the system is determined by the
weight of the pipe together with the weight of
insulation, appendages and the fluid inside.
The stiffness of the pipe can be determined
from the geometry of the layout, material
properties and the section properties. Since
piping layout is in all 3 dimensions, there will
be multiple stiffness values governing the
behavior in each direction. Due to the
numerous supports the number of stiffness of
a piping layout is even more numerous. The
whole layout becomes a large set of stiffness
arid even though the concept is the same the
problem is no longer a simple one. This is
exactly where the computational techniques
come to our rescue.

In the illustrative example discussed


above the damper was an element that was

PIPING ENGINEERING CELL


acting so -as to .resist a change in velocity of
the movement of mass. The damping is an
inherent phenomenon in most real life
systems.
The factor in the equation represents
the effects of damping. The physical
.excitation of a damped system would depend
upon the magnitude of the damping. If the
system oscillations die out eventually then the
system is over damped. If the system

<

- .. . .. . .
AMPLIFICATION

If the excitation frequency is very


close to the natural frequency of the system
then the system may land up storing large
amounts of energy (potential energy). This
energy would then be s'uddenly released as
kinetic energy and could possibly lead to
cat~tr'opbicfailure. The conversion of energy

Ratio of excitation frequency to natural frequency

Fig.3 AMPLIFICATION FACTOR

continues to respond with increased


amplitudes as time progresses then the system
is under damped and in resonance. The third
case could be a status where the system
reaches an equilibrium response level that
neither increases nor decreases but follows the
excitation function. This status is critically
damped status.
The possibility of resonance is highest
in an under damped system which can-lead to
uncontrolled energy cycling leading to
destructive levels of kinetic energy. This is
controlled by the closeness of the excitation
frequency to the natural frequency of the
. .
oi' ihz closeness of tk
. ..-.. ...-.. Ths F:x:
excitation frequency to the natural frequency
can be evaluated by the study of amplification
factor.

Dynamic Analysis of piping

from potential energy to kinetic energy may


lead to this f a h e . The response of a system
to a forcbg function can be obtained based on
their relative closeness of frequencies. This is
evaluated by the amplification factor. Fig.3
shows the amplification factor as a function of
the frequency ratio of the excitation frequency
to the natural frequency of the system.

NATURAL
VALUES)

FREQUENCIES

@IEGEN

The given piping layout has a set of


natural frequencies. These a k determiried by
the layout, t k jjsc:ioxl ? m ~ e ~ k sr.xcrid
:
properties and the i o m and type of supports.
Each of the namal frequency has its own
contribution when an external excitation is

PIPING ENGINEERING CELL

experienced. However, from engineeriug .of the system due to excitation at the specific
practice- the f&t 7 modes are significant. The frequency. The mode shapes are also referred
effects of these modes are most pronounced to as "Eigen vectors".
The descriptions of the mode shapes
and are dangerous. Typically in piping the
frequencies tend to remain low. This would give a means of physical identity to the
mean that a high frequency excitation i- Iess response of a system. This is also the link
likely than a low frequency one.
between the conceptualization in the analysis
There zre situations where in the s u n and the physical moveLents of the piping.
.When the forcing function is a
of the effects of the higher frequencies have a
significant effect and need to be taken into combination of several frequencies of
account. Unlike other common machinery the excitation then the response for all of them
piping can get locally excited and the direction .can be evaluated based on the individual
of excitation can be complex with several responses by super imposing the effects of
segments of piping moving in unrelated each of these frequencies.
fashion. The excitation response would very
often result in displacements and velocities in SEISMIC ANALYSIS
planes other than the one in which forcing
Earthquake results in ground motions
function is acting.
The forcing function is the external that are a set of time variant excitation and
load applied on the system. However, the certainly deserves such analysis. The
inherent properties of the system control the frequency distribution would vary depending
response as much. This is related to the natural upon the location. The intensity or amplitude
frequencies of the system. Tke natural varies from time to time. The historic data
frequencies of a system are also referred as collected by seismological studies is utilized
"Eigen values".
to derive the excitation pattern. The data can
be obtained frdm broad divisions of
geographic categories.
, In most projects in order to ensure the
MODE SHAPES (EIGENVECTORS)
The equations of motion were safety of the plant and equipment site specific
developed for a single degree of freedom data is derived and provided foi the
system in the preceding paragraphs for engineering contractors. It is the duty of the
illustration purposes. The real life piping can people involved in engineering to ensure that
be imagined to be made up of a number of the equipment and piping are built to be able
spring mass damper system inter connected in to withstand the excitation forces due to
a complex fashion. This leads to the earthquakes.
possibility of innumerous combinations of
Such data is compiled into site specific
displacements. There are imumerous natural spectra giving excitation force in g's as a
frequencies associated with such a piping or fimction of time period.
Most seismic occurrences have a cut
structure.
The description of the preferred off frequency of 33 Hz. A seismic excitation
responsz of the system corresponding to each has never been found to be beyond 33 Hz.
of rhe natural irequencies can be derived from This makes the job of computing excitation a
rhe sysxm proprzies. This preferred response little easier. Nevertheless the practical piping
is referred ro as mode shapes. The mode has to be deliberately built to avoid a number
shape is a ser of vectors describing the motion
Dynamic Analysis of piping

PIPING ENGINEERING CELL


.
of frequencies for sdety against failure due to
earthquake. '

.......

ground mot& for all piping subports attached


to the ground is referred as "Uniform
Response Spectra Analysis".

UNIFORM RESPONSE SPECTRA


MULTI-LEVEL RESPONSE SPECTRA
The seismic excitation recorded as
acceleration vs. time period can form the
excitation function for the pipe - supports.
Using this excitation function the piping
response and the consequent moments and
forces can be computed. One of the options
would be to extract the acceleration for
discrete points of time periods and input to the
s o h a r e . This approach is a simple and easy

0.5

When the ground is subject to


excitation due to seismic movements the
confi,gmtion of a building can be such that
the different parts of the building undergo a
differing excitation. This effect is most
pronounced in RCC shhctures where the
floors are large masses of slabs that control
the local amplification and response

2
25
TIME PERIOD (SECONDS]
1.5

3.5

Fig.4 W I C A L SEISMIC SPECTRA

method for specifying the seismic forcing


function to the piping. The software evaluates
the response of the piping based on the
discrete values of the forcing function. This
method of dynamic analysis is termed
"response spectra analysis". A typical
seismic excitation spectra is shown in Fig.4:
The seismic event can result in an
excitation function acting at all points of the
piping that are connected to the ground. The
other parts of the piping receive the resulting
inertial motions at differing times by
. .
:
U
L
. Since i k p u s d nocon
experienced by the whole system of interest is
identical this is referred to as "uniform
spectra". The analysis involving such uniform
Dynamic Analysis of p?ping

si,gifkantly. Hence, when piping spans


different floors or different buildings the
points to which the piping is attached in these
buildigs would transfer excitation to the
piping differently. This leads to a situation
where the excitation of a s o u p of suppofts
would be different from the excitation of
another s o u p of supports. Such multiple
excitation experienced by piping is termed
"blultilevel excitation". The analysis of such
piping can be performed by "&lultilevel
Response Spectra" analysis technique.
The often . source
. . . . of
. . muhi
. . . level
r q o n j ? 3;ec::2 '.vl.: 2: <:.: ct..2:.::
:. :.x::c
analysis of the building itseli. This andysis
involves evaluating the response of a building
in totaliry due to seismic accelerations of the

PIPING ENGINEERING CELL


ground movement. The buildjng will be
receiving the excitation only f;om the points
attached to the earth, but the floor being large
masses supported by slender columns will
experience a response pattern of its own. The
response of each floor can be output from the
analysis and shall be used as input for the
nultilevel response spectra analysis of the
piping.
Since the multilevel response spectra
analysis is razher complex and needs to take
into account the phase angle differences
between different levels it is recommended
only when it is absolutely essential. More
often satisfactory analysis can be carried out
based on the individual floor response - one
floor at a time. &lost piping can be idealized
based on the floor containing them. This
method could lead to a satisfactory solution
for a large number of problems. The main
difference is that the response due to the phase
difference betweer, two floor spectrums that
may affect the interconnecting piping between
floors would be ignored. The multilevel
spectra analysis would ensure that the
interconnecting piping is also satisfactori!y
analyzed.

TIME HISTORY ANALYSIS


The true dynamic representation of
excitation event is a time variant phenomenon.
The force or acceleration as a function of time
describes the event most accurately. Select the
points of the structure where the forcing
function is applicable and study the response
of the structure at discrete time intervals.
During the analysis the time intervals of
interest can be varied and a set of results
compiled as a function of time. This study is
relevant for short interval shocks with largely
localized excitation, such as safety valve
.
hammer, steam
re!ease and c h x r i n ~ wte:
hammer.
Dynamic .Analysis of piping

The aialysis technique of time histoh.


should preferably used for studying the local
effects during dynamic events rather than
apply to thewhole structure. The analysis is
time consuming, expensive and for larger
systems may not be. worth the while. Ln
localized zones it is very effective. The ideal
situation would be to conduct 2 complete
study of the structure using response spectra
method and use the time history analysis on
localized spots where the excitation has been
found to be critical.

FINITE ELEMENT METHOD


We wrote simple differential equations
to describe a spring mass system capable of
unidirectional motion. Such a system is a
system with a single degree of freedom It is
easy to imagine the number of equations that
we would need to solve even for a simple
problem capable of displacement in any three
directions in space and rotations about all the
three axes system. The differential equations
would grow astronomically as we approach a
real life piping system. We would soon fmd it
out of bounds of manual calculations. At least
we can say that we may not be able to work
out solutions in reasonable time frame. This is
exactly where computational techniques can
help us. The intent is to develop a
methodology that can be applied to solve
differential equations in digital computers. .
Dynamic analysis involves finding out
the stiffness and mass distribution of the body
being analyzed. This involves solving a large
set of partial differential equations. Since the
manual
mathematical
capabilities
is
insufficient to provide. solutions for such
equations alternate methods have been
evolving continuously. One of the most
successful methods is "Finite Element
Method" also referred as "Finite Element
Technique".

..

..

PIPING ENGINEERING CELL


Other techdiques which- have been
developed and have their own realm of
successful application to such mathematical
solutions is "Finite Difference Technique" and
"Boundary Element Method".
As mentioned earlier you would need a
co&only acceptable software package for
doing dynamic analysis. These software
packages are available on PC platform and are
relatively less expensive. Most of the
packages are based on Finite Element Method.
These packages are built to apply this method
to both static and dynamic analysis.
In the application of Finite Element
domains. The domains are so selected, that the
properties of the domain in terms of mass
distribution, stifhess, etc. can be determined.
These domains are joined at specific coordinates to satisfy the continuum's
properties. The domains with known
properties are called elements. The points at
which such domahs are joined are called
nodes. The accuracy of the representation of
the continuum depends upon the refinement of
the original structure and the mathematical
quality of the elements. This process of
dividing a continuum into such elements i s
termed discretization. The discretization leads
to linear simultaneous equations instead of
partial differential equations. The known
parameters at the extemal boundaries of the
continuum are specified as boundary
conditions. There are many well-established
techniques for solving linear simultaneous
equations using computers. Hence, finite
element technique converts our real life
complex problem into a form thaf can be
solved effectively using digital computers.
In the case of piping the continuum
..,v; I..I L,
.i..=
:!.. la:;out of the pi?ing. ccnr.sctin: m
equipment 19 another. T i e elcncnrs will be
pipes, elbows, tees, valves, ex. Plrxse note
that an elbow element is different from a pipe
dement. The boundary conditions will be the
Dynsn:i Axiysis of piping

support movements, including cases of no


movement such as anchors.
Detailed discussion regarding the
Finite Element Method (FEM) has been
deliberately with held and is beyond the scope
of this lectwe. However, audience is advised
to understand the fundamentals about FEM to
be able use the piping flexibility packages
without falling into error traps.

WHAT DO THE CODES SAY?


With the exception of ASME Sec.111
and other nuclear codes, the codes do not
specify very many directives with respect to
the dynamic analysis. However ASME Sec.111
is very specific and complete with respect to
dynamic analysis. However, no code excludes
or prohibits dynamic. analysis. The .codes
essentially leave the dynamic analysis
requirements to the discretion of the user.

LOAD CASES
The load cases are defined by the
codes depending upon the mode of failure,
type of loads and the
of
occurrence. The types of load are as follows:

Primary loads:
These loads relate to the external
forces in a direct manner. They result in stress
levels in the body of the pipes, fittings, etc.
The stress levels increase with the increase in
the extemal load. There is no ceiling the
stress experiences as a consequence of such
loads. Typical example is the stress due to
internal pressure inside the pipe. These loads
result in direct yielding and failure of the pipe
if they exceed predetermined limits.
Increasing the section thickness can reduce
primary stress levels. The maximum shear

'

P I P m G ENGINEERING CELL
stress theory is the most *dely accepted
theory of failure for these loads.

'.

The commonly experienced primary loads can


be listed as follows:
Internal pressure
Extemal pressure
Wind '
Earthquake (seismic)
Weight
Impact
Water hamiier
'

Secondary loads:
The secondary loads are generated
from external loads that are indirectly related
to the external loads. They are of self-limiting
nature. The failure is often result of repetition
of the loading cycle. This leads to fatigue
damage.
A typical example of secondary load is
the thermal load on piping due to temperature
change. The resulting stresses are due to
constraining the piping. Hence, by judicious
layout and use of proper bends and filtings the
stress levels can be limited.
In case the material reaches yield point
then the thermal expansion stress is relieved
and seizes to exist of the same order as it was
prior to the yielding.
The commonly experienced Secondary loads
are as follows:
Pressure transient
Thermal expansion
Vibration .
Anchor movement
Themal transient
OCCASIONAL LOAD CASE
The occasional load case may be
defined by the user according to the choice of
Dynamic Analysis of piping

the types of loading experienced by the


piping. However it is broadly defined as the
sum of the Sustained Loads and the loads due
to occasional load such as wind and
earthquake.
Sustained loads are defined as the sum
of the effects of internal pressure, dead
weight, weight of insulation, weight of piping
components, weight of fluid and external
applied forces and moments.

. ALLOWABLE STRESSES
The basic allowable stresses are
calculated for each of the materials as a
function of the material properties. The basic
allowable stresses must have been dealt with
thoroughly in the static analysis lectures..
The fundamental requirement of most
codes is that the dynamic event is classified as
"Occasional load case" and the allowable
stress is therefore 1.33 times the hot allowable
stress, when it is considered together with the
sustained loads.
However, ASME Sec.111 gives a rnorejudicious evaluation of the allowable stresses
under various loading conditions.

ANSI R31.1 code specifies the following


allowable stresses:
Basic allowable stress (hot allowable stress,
Sh):
Minimum of the following:
% of tensile strength at room temperature
213 of yield strength at room temperature
% of tensile strength at design temperature
213 of yield strength at design temperature
100% of average stress for 0.01%/100 hr
strain
6. 67% of average stress for rupture at
100,000 hrs.

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

PIPING ENGINEERING CELL


7. 80% of minimum stress for. rupture at
100,000 hrs.
In the above-expression if items 3 and 4 are
ignored then we obtain the cold allowable
stress (Sc).
Other allowable stresses are related to the hot
allowable stress and cold allowable stress.
For circumferential stresses resulting
due to occasional loads the allowable stress
may be exceeded by 33% provided the event
does not occur for more than lOhrs at a time
and no more than 100hrsIyear.
The sum of longitudinal stress due to Pressure, Weight, other sustained loads and
those produced by occ&ional loads may
exceed the basic allowable stress by 15% if
the occasional load duration is less than 10%
of any 24hour operating period.
The sum of longitudinal stress due to Pressure, Weight and those produced by
odcasional loads may exceed the basic
allowable stress by 20% if the occasional load
duration is less than 1% of any 24hour
operating period.
ANSI B313 code specifies the following
allowable stresses:
Basic allowable stress (hot allowable stress,
Sh):
M i m u m of the following:
1. 113 of tensile strength at room temperature

2. 213 of yield strength at room temperature


3. 113 of tensile stre@
at design
temperature
4. 213 of yield strength at design temperature
5. 100% of average stress for 0.01%1100 hr
:-::;:.

6. 6701 of average stress for rupture at


100,000 hrs.
7. 80% of minimum stress for rupture at
100,000 hrs.

In'the above expression if items 3 and 4 are


ignored then we obtain the cold allowable
stress (Sc).
Other allowable stresses are related to the hot
allow2ble stress and cold allowab!e stress.
The sum of longitudinal stress due to Pressure, Weight, other sustained loads and
t!!ose produced by occasional loads may
exceed the basic allowable stress by 33%.
CLASSIFICATION OF STRESSES
Stresses can be classified based on
their nature of occurrence and their selflimiting characteristics as Primary and
Secondary.
Stresses can also be classified based on
the distribution across the section of the pipes
and the nature of failure that can result. This
classification leads to the following types of
stresses:
Membrane stress: This type of stress is
constant throughout the cross section under
observation. This type of stress would lead to
yielding if it exceeds the yield stress at the
temperature at which they occur.
good
example of such membrane stress is the
circumferential and the longitudinal stress due
to internal pressure. Circumferential stress
due to pressure P on a cylinder of internal
diameter D and thickness t will be PD12t. The
longitudinal stress on the same cylinder shall
only be PDl4t.
Since in pipes the circumferential
stress is roughly twice the longitudinal stress
due to internal pressure the circumferential
siress controls the direct failure of?i:e ud!.

80

Dynamic A n d p i s of piping

Bending stress: These are stresses generated


due to lateral loads such as, bending due to
self weight, flexing due to seismic excitation,
13

PIPING ENGINEERING CELL


etc. The stress levels vary acrgss the. cross
section and these are normally caused due to
transverse loading. The peak stress usually
occurs only on the fibers of the pipe and the
stress level decays through the thickness. In
fact these stresses are as envisaged in
"Strengh of materials". Typically when the
bending stress becomes equal to material yield
stress at the temperature the outer fibers start
yielding. This. leads to a situation where no
significant failure will be observed even
though the stress level has reached' yield.
These stresses are also commonly termed fiber
stresses.
Combined stress: Most practical situation
results in combined stresses. For example
when a pipe is pressurized the internal
pressure results in the membrane stress in the
circuderential and longitudinal directions.
But, the pipe needs to be supported at some
external locations there is a bending between
the supports that results in bending stress.
Undzr such circumstances we are dealiag with
a sum of longitudinal primary membrane
stress due to internal pressure and
longitudinal primary bending stress duc to
flexing alder self-weight. The hot allowable
stress specified in the code is the
reconmended limit for such combined
primary strcsses.

..The first mode or. the fundamental


frequency is perhaps 'the most important one.
Any excitation that has frequency close to the
fundamental mode is sure to lead to
catastrophic failure. The second mode is not
too far off in its destructive nature, but is a
shade lesser in its resonance response. In
practice it has been found that the fmt 7
modes are of engineering significance and
should not be ignored. In piping natural
frequencies tend to be rather low and are
crowded ui a rather low bandwidth.
Hence, the number of modes to be
extracted, need to be c o d e d so that the
solution will converge and would still give
meaningful results.
As pip*
is characteristically
associated with different parts of the piping
having capability of highly localized
displacements during excitation the individual
segments could very well behave as a
subsystem by itself. It is therefore advisable
on critical applications to go as high as 50
modes for piping andysis. This is of utmost
importance in nuclear analysis.
Most of the software proprams provide,
a value forcut off frequeilcy. When you enter
any value for cctoff frequency as input data,
the program +not
calculate -natural
frequencies beyond the given number of
modes.

NUMBER OF MODES OF ENGINEERIG


SIGNIFICANCE

MODAL EXTRACTION CUT OFF


FREQUENCY ( P R O G M INPUT)

The number of natural frequencies for


any system is infinite. This would mean that
there is a need to perform infinite amount of
calculations and thzt all the natural
frequencies of a systen cannot be listed
completely. Like any other real life system
the natural frequencies of interest are finite
and the effect of others can safely be ignored
for most problems,

Usually the software provides user


input cut off frequency beyond which the
modal extraction need not be performed. This
is particularly helpful during seismic analysis
as the seismic events are known to generate
frequencies below 33Hz only.
The number of modes and cut
off frequency are both program inputs in
majority of the software. When both ar;
specified t!e modal extraction stops at number

Dynamic Analysis of piping

'

'

14

..

..

PIPING ENGINEXRING CELL


of modes or cut off frequency which ever is
encountered earlier.
IMETHODS OF ADDITION OF FORCES

:.

forces but having a


simultaneous occurrence.

probabiiity

of

FUGID BODY CUT OFF FREQUENCY


The dynamic phenomena are assumed
to be linear in the practical sense. Hence, the
analysis can' be split into several smaller
loading solutions and the results can be'added
UP.
The addition of multiple linear
solutions can be done in several ways. The
forces and moments experienced by the piping
for each load set can be summed up in three
different ways:
Vector addition as square root of sum of
squares
Scalar addition as absolute sum
Algebraic addition with sign
The three methods of summation would lead
to different results. Vector addition is often
advocated. But cases like addition of pressure
longitudinal s e e s with bending stress due to
self weight and bending stress due to seismic
excitation in the transverse direction may lead
to less conservative values.
The nuclear codes (codes like ASME
Sec.111) are emphatic on the addition methods
and the load case combinations so derived.

METHODS'
STRESSES

OF

ADDITION

OF

Methods of addition of linear static


and dynamic events C ~ J I be also achieved by
means of addition of stress scalars. This
method is actually advisabk when we are
dealing with rwo totally different excitation or

Dynamic Analysis of piping

Most stnictures have a response


different than the excitation at frequencies
close to its first few modes of natural
frequencies. But as the excitation frequency is
increased the body starts approac'hin,o the
behavior and time cycle of the forcing
function. This frequency of the structure and
piping is called rigid body cut off frequency.
Beyond this frequency the response of the
system is equal to the excitation function.
Needless to state..-this frequency would be
quite high and the amplification factor will be
minimal.
. .

SUM OF HIGHER MODES BEYOND


RIGID BODY CUT OFF FREQUENCY
As we .have referred to the effect of
rigid body cut off frequency in previous
paragraph we would like to understand the
impact of the excitation frequencies
.

.
beyond the rigid body cut off frequency.
Since there is no amplification the
stress levels are not of importance. But the
support loads may be significantly affected by
the frequencies beyond the rigid body cut off
frequency.

PIPING ENGINEERING CELL


MISSING MASS EFEECT
The effects of excitation frequencies beyond
the rigid body cut off ffequencies can be
accounted for by opting for missing mass
effect. The missing mass effect can be used to
evaluate the effect ~f higher modes beyond the
rigid body cut off frequency.

FTG.5 PIPING LAYOUT - EXAMPLE

- . The flow velocity has to be reduced by


reducing the throughput or by increasing the
pipe diameter. Resorting to the use of flow
s t r e d h u n g longitudinal baffles can also
substantially reduce these problems.

ILLUSTRATIVE EXAMPLES
Example 1:

We study the dynamic response of a


simple piping system connected to the
outlet of a side discharge pump.

FLOW INDUCED VIBRATION


Very many dynamic excitations are
due to flow induced vibration. This can
happen in liquid, vapor and two-phase flow.
The most frequent occurrence is in cases with
high flow velocity of compressible gases. The
velocities used could be in the sonic range. In
such cases the compression and sudden
expansion of the gasses due the shock travel
compression inside the pipe causes large
levels of excitation with several frequencies.
Support rearrangement or modification or
mechanical modifications cannot solve such
excitation problems.
Dynamic Analysis ofpiping

The static analysis involved in


evaluation has been ignored. The system
consists of a layout as shown in fig.5. We
examine the interco~ectinglayout of two
discharge lines of pumps. These are connected
together so that either of the pumps or both
can be operative at the same time. This is a
typical standby arrangement. The connections
are 8" Sch.30 A106 Gr.B pipes. This example
has been slightly simplified by deleting the
expander at the discharge. The node numbers
and the supports ori$nally conceived are
indicated in the fi,we. The internal pressure is
25 kg/c/cm2, design temperature is 230 deg.C
and the specific gravity of the fluid is 0.98.
16

PIPLNG ENGINEERING CELL


. .
The first analysis is examination of the
natural frequencies of the piping when both
the discharge lines are full of fluid.
This piping circuit from the pump to
the nearest anchor was analyzed and the
dynamic results a e summarized below.
The mode shapes corresponding to each of the
first 6 modes are shown in the following
fi,wes.

I FIG.7 MODE SHAPE -

2 AT 8.9 Hz

I .FIG.8 MODE SHAPE - 3 AT 13.907 Hrr


Dynamic Analysis of piping

~4
9
FIG.9 MODE SHAPE - 4 AT 16.953 Hz

11

R G . l l MODE SJUPE - 6 AT-22.69 Hz

'

PIPING ENGINEERING CELL


TABLE 1- FREQUENCY LISTING OF
EXAMPLE 1
Mode Frequen
cy (Hz)
1
5.579

T i e period
(secs)
0.1792

0.1124

8.900

The signiicant
modal frequencies
listed above correspond to the natural
frequencies of the pipe including the weight of
the insulation and the entire line being filled
with fluid of specific gravity 0.98. The mode
shapes are illustrated in figures 6 to 11. In
practice the displacement profile of the
response.of the piping will be as hdicated by
the mode shape plot when excited by an
excitation frequency close to the natural
frequency corresponding to the selected mode.
An important observation is that, the
frequency increases as we move away from
the first mode (funidamental mode). The
piping layout response to excitation for each
mode is characteristic. There' are parts of
piping which are hardly excited at a specific
frequency. The 5igec vectors aztually indicate
that most modes have pre-dominant
displacement dong one of the principal axes.
Typically such a discharge line could
be subjected to excitation due to slug flow,
water hammer, flow pressure variations and
other sources of external excitation forces.
One of the important sources could also be the
running frequency of the pump. R'c 5rst
investigate this possibiliry of excitation.
other sources of excitation are not investigated
Dynamic Analysis ofpiping

in &s paper and the reader is advised to start


thinking about other sources of excitation and
their effects.
The purilp could be having a running
frequency close to the natural frequency of the
piping system. In case pump-operating
frequency is close to the first mode, then,
large-scale damages and destruction would
occur. If the pump running frequency is close
to the second mode there would still be large
scale damages, but less than the first mode
excitation. As we move towards higher modes
the total energy level associated with the
excitation of the strucpxe reduces. Hence at
higher modes the level of possible destruction
also reduces. The higher modes are associated
with much lower energy levels. Hence, an
excitation frequency close to the higher modes
would produce less . amplitude and- less
possibility of destruction. The closeness of
higher modes to the running frequency could
still produce higher levels of displacements at
'he bearings
The pump in this case operates at 1430
rpm. This corresponds to a frequency of 23.83
Hz. The seventh mode of the piping layout has
a frequency of22.686 Hz. This is within about
5% of the running frequency of the pump.
Hence,.an excitation corresponding to the 7"
mode is very likely. Since the energy
associated with this mode is rather low a
destructive response is unlikely.
Example 2:

In this example we study the impact


of fluid filling inside a pipeline. The same

model that we created for example 1 is used.


We change the liquid filling condition of the
lines. One of the pumps is a stand by pump.
The line between the stand by pump discharge
and the isolation valve the fluid specific
gravity was removed. The corresponding
frequencies are tabulated in Table 2 below:

:.

... :.-.

'

%,

P I P P G ENGINEERJNG CELL
TABLE 2 FREQUENCY LISTINGOF
EXAMPLE 2
Mode Frequen
cy (Hz)
- 5.581
1

T i e period
(secs)
0.1792

The thumb rule is "when supports are


added then the natural frequencies increase".
This is due to the increase in the bending
stifhess of the system. Similarly, when
supports are deleted the natural frequency
decreases. In example 3 we are adding one
support ar~dt!e natural frequency changes
from 5.581 Hz fcr the first mode to 8.798 Hz.
This chvlge is brought about by introduction
of a 'U' clamp at node 100. This also
drastically alters the mode shapes.

A comparison of the natural


frequencies of example 3 with example 2 is
shown in table 3 below:
On comparing these frequencies with
example 1 values, we find that the impact of a
small quantiw of liquid in the lines is minimal.
However, it does alter the natural frequencies.
Though an illustrative example in terms of
higher difference arising due to liquid mass
was not available, it can certainly be
concluded that, the filling of the lines is very
important.for the dynamic analysis of inter
linked pumps in a pump house.

TABLE 3 COMPARISON OF NATURAL


(EXAMF'LE 3 VS.
FREQ-WCIES
EXAMPLE 2)

. Mode
.

Frequenc

Frequency

i z p . r 2 1 .

Example 3:
In this example we study the impact.
Support
of
support
arrangement.
arrangement has a very strong influence on the
natural frequency of a system. h he support
arrangement is often changed at site to suit
site requirements or to accommodate
structural changes or to rectify layout clashes..
This is rarely reported back to the designers Example 4:
In this example we study the impact
for their concurrence. The support
arrangement can drastically shift the natural of schedule of pipes on natural frequencies.
frequency of a system and hence cannot be The layout and the loads are retained same as
ignored at any stage. Most parts of offsite example 2. However, the schedule of the pipe
h2s been chw.cpj from sch.30 tc sch.80. This
p i : r
affecr:i by such <:^..~^.<<j.
However, piping comecred to pumps md rumple demonstrates the impact of section
turbines are significantly affected by such properties on the natural frequencies. The
resulting natural frequencies are listed in
support modifications.
Table 4.
'

Dynamic Analysis of piping

19

PIPING E N G N E F G CELL
In the field during erection it is
common place to have short supplies of
specific sizes and 1 or schedules of pipes.
Though good engineering practices do dictate
that the schedules are important in areas near
pumps, the field production pressures often
over rule such cautions. This is compounded
by .delivery problems if the pipes are of
specid wall thickness, involves special
fabrication requirements, third party
inspection, etc. So it is not rare that the site
engineers resort to using higher schedules
even near pumps assuming that they are safe
since the thickness is. higher. Unforhmately,
the higher thickness is essentially satisfactory
only for resisting internal pressure. Use of
higher schedules is unsatisfactory new pumps
due to higher thermal expansion end thrusts.
Most operating frequencies of pumps are
usually higher than the piping na0ual
frequencies. By using higher schedules we
arerunning frequency of typical pumps. Do
we understand that we are increasing the
risk by increasing the schedules?
TABLE 4 COMPARISON OF NATURAL
FREQUENCIES (EXAMPLE 4 VS.
EXAMPLE 2)

Dynamic Analysis of piping

This example demonstrates.that the natural


frequencies have increased due to increase in
the schedule. From equation (22) we find that
the natural fiequency of the system is
proportional to the square root of the ratio of
stifkess to mass. Hence, if the mass increases
then the natural frequency decreases. At the
same time it is proportional to the inverse of
square root of the stiffness. By increasing the
schedule of the pipe we are increasing the
mass and the stifhess at the same time. But
the increase in stiffness has a much greater
impact on the natural frequency than due
to increase in mass when we increase the
schedule of pipes. This is the real life effect
for most commonly used pipe dimensions
Example 5:

In this example a typical


qualification using response spectra analysis
is demonstrated. We use the same layout as
in example 2. We use the spectra
corresponding to percentage of critical
damping 2 from fig. 4. We analyze using the
spectra derived from fig.4 the pump
discharge lines. The response is plotted in
fig.12 for the whole structure in terms of
displacement. The stress levels are listed in
Appendix 1. The stress level listing is node
wise. The assumption in this case is that the
anchor at node 120 is also excited by the
same spectra as at ground level and the
pump bodies are rigid and they transmit
excitation as rigid body movement.

PIPING ENGINEERING CELL

FIG.12 DISPLACEMENT PROFILE EX4iMPLE 5 (Sustained + Response spectra

CONCLUSIONS
Dynamic analysis primarily is applied
to piping for the purpose of fail safe
performance under time variant loads. The
analysis can be conducted using PC based
software as on date. The dynamic analysis is
very sensitive to the mass and stiffness
properties of piping system.
If the natural frequency of any system
(including piping) is close to the excitation
frequency of the forcing function then, the
system experiences an amplification of the
excitation forces. This in turn leads to larger
displacements. Damping properties of piping
impose a ceiling to the magnitudes of
excitation.
Typically substitution of higher
schedules during construction should be
viewed critically or preferable referred back to
the designer in order to ascertain that the
increased stiffness and therefore higher natural
frequencies will not pose any excitation
problem to the piping.
most flow-induced vibration cannot be
solved by mechanical means and a flow
parameter correction is essential for such
problems.

Dynamic Analysis of piping

PIPING ENGINEERING CELL


.

..

. .

...

, .

.~

.-

-.

.
APPENDIX 1

. ,.'~7,z.:-

TYPICAL OUTPUT FROM PIPING ANALYSIS SOFTWARECAEPIPE


Caepipe
Version 5.02C

M-15

Oct 6,00
Table of Contents

------------------------------------

Q.A.3lock: Page 1 .
Options: Page 2
Layout: Page 2
Details: Bends: Page 2
Details: Valves: Page 3
Details: Rigid Elements: Page 3
Details: Anchors: Page 3
Details: Specified Displacements: Page 3 .
Details: Limit Stops: Page 3
Material 1: A106 Grade B: Page 4
Pipe sections: Page 4
Loads: Page 4
.
Sorted stresses: Page 6
...Code compliance: Page-7
Response spectrum: Loads on anchors: Page 8
Response spectrum: Loads on 1imit.stops: Page 8 .
Frequencies: Page 8

...........................................................................

Dynamic Analysis of piping

..

Caepipe
Version 5.02C

Client
Project
E i l e Number

Report Number :
Model Name
Title
Analyzed

F r i Oct 06 03:48:54 ZOO0

Prepared by

Checked by

Dynamic ~nalysisof piping

Date:

Date:

PIPING ENGINEERING CELL.

- ...

caepipe
Version 5.02C

. . ..

M-15.

.A_.

..

Page 2
Oct 6,00

..

---------------------*-----------------------------------------------------

Options

...........................................................................
Piping code = 631.3 (1996)
Do not use liberal allowable stresses
Do nor include axial force in stress calculations
Reference temFerature = 21.11 (C)
Number of t h e m 1 cycles = 7000.
Use modulus at reference temperature
Include hanger stiffness
Do noi include Sourdon effect
go not use pressure correction for bends
presscre stress = PD I 4t
peak pressure factor = 1.00
Cut of: frequency = 100 Hz
Number of modes = 6
include missing mass correction
Do not use friction in dynamic analysis
Vertical direction Y

...........................................................................
: ,Node Type
OX (mm)
DY (mm)
DZ (mm) Mat Sec Load
...........................................................................
1 Title
2
10
3
30
4 '40
5
50
6
60
7
70
8
80
9
90
10 510
11 530
12 540
13 550
11 560
15 570
16 580
17
90
18 100
19 110
20 120
21 701
22 702

Data

Anchor

From

i
Rigid
Bend

1
1
.1

8
8
'8
8

1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1

8
8
8
8
8
8
8
8
8
8

LI
L1
L1
L1

Valve
Bend
From
Rigid
Bend
Valve
Bend
Bend
Location
Location

Anchor
L2
L2
L2
L2
L2
. -L1
L1
L1
L1
L1 Anchor
Linit stop
Lirnit stop

Bends
Bend
Node

Radius
(nnl

50
80

304.8 L
304.8 L

Thickness Bend
~ml
Ma:l

Flex.
Int. Angle Int.
Factor Node (deg) Node

Angle
(deg)

...........................................................................

Dynamic Analysis of piping

701

45

i.

--.-... .

PIPING ENGINEERING CELL-

Dynamic Analysis of piping

PIPING ENGINEERING CELL


... .

.+
-;:.

Page 4
oct 6.00

Caepipe '
Version 5.02C
Pipe material 1: A106 Grade B
...........................................................................
Density = 7750 (kg/m3),
Temp
(C)

-28.89
21.11
93.33
148.9
204.4
260
315.6
343.3
371.1
398.9
426.7,
454.4
482.2
510
537.8
565.6
593.3

NU

0.300,

E
(kg/mm2)

Alpha
lmm/mm/C)

~llowable
(kg/nrm2)

. 21022

10.552-6
10.93E-6
11.48E-6
11.88E-6
12.28E-6
12.64E-6
13.01E-6
13.19E-6
13.39E-6
13.57E-6
i3.77~-6
13.95E-6
14.11E-6
14.24E-6
14.35E-6
14.498-6
14.62E-6

14.1
14.1
14.1
14.1
14.1
13.3
12.2
12.0
11.6
9.14
7.59
6.12
4.57
3.16
1.76
1.12
0.70

20741
20248
19897
19475
19194
18772
18350
.I7928
17506
17014
16382
15749
15046
14343
13499
12655

Joint factor

1.00, Type = CS

\
.

...........................................................................
Pipe Sections
...........................................................................
Name

Nominal
Dia.
Sch

8"

O.D.
(mm)

Thk
(mm)

219.07

7.04

C0r.Al M.To1 1ns.DensIns.Th Lin.Dens Lin.Th


(14 ( % ) (kg/m3)
(mm)
(kg/m3)
(mm)

...........................................................................
30

'

1.5

12.5

136.2

125

Acceleration load: X = 0.00, Y = 0.00, Z '= 0.00 (9's)


'~ccelerationload combination * Square Root of Sum of Squares

0.00 (m/s)
Wind velocity
Shape factor = 0.60
Wind direction: X comp = 0.000, Y comp = 0.000, Z comp = 0.000
X spectrum: ~ a t e ~ o r y l
Factor = 1.0000

Interpolation:
Period
(sec)

1:Linear

Acceleration
(g's)

Dynamic Analysis of piping

2:Linear

...

PIPING ENGINEERING CELL


~

. ...

Caepipe
Version 5.02C

M-15

Y spectrum: Categoryl
Factor = 0.5000
Interpolation:

Period
(sec)

1:Linear

2: Linear

Acceleration
(9's)

Z spectrum: Categoryl
Eactor = 1.0000
Interpolation:
Period
(secl

1:Linear

Acceleration
(9's)

Dynamic Analysis of piping

2:Linear

Page 5
Oct 6.00

. .

PIPING ENGINEERING CELL


.

Caepipe
Version 5.02C

.:.'

.~ ....

M-15

...........................................................................
0.3
0.4
0.5
0.6
0.8
1
1.2
1.4
1.6
1.8
2
2.4
2.8 .

Page 6 .
Oct 6.00

0.825
0.781
0.721
0.665
0.526
0.429
0.355
0.31
0.266
0.237
0.219
0.177
0.163

Mode sum = SRSS,


Direction sum = SRSS

t
Number of thermal loads = 1
Pipe Loads
...........................................................................
Load
Name

Pl
T1
(C) ( k g / d )

~1 .
L2

230
230

Node

SL
(kg/&)

T2
P2
(C) (kg/cm2)

. ..

P3
Specific Add.Wgt
T3
(C) (kg/cm2) gravity (kg/ml

Wind
Load

...........................................................................
25.0
0

Y
Y

0.980

...........................................................................
831.3 (1996) Code Compliance (Sorted Stresses1
------ sustained ------ ------ ~ ~ g a -----n ~ i -----~ ~ Occasional ----SLlSX

SE
(kg/&)

Node

SZ/SA

Node

SL+SO SL+SO/
(kg/&)
1.33SH

...........................................................................
120
90
580A
701
80A
508
llOA
100
808
40
30
10
1106
5806
50A
70
570
702
5508
530
543
5 10
550A

4.57
3.47
3.17
3.16
3.14
2.90
2.82
2.79
2.69
2.69
2.68
2.65
2.63
2.62
2.60
2.57
2.55
0.74
0.39
0.2i
0.21
0.17
0.12

Dynamic Analysis o f piping

0.'33
0.25
0.23
0.23
0.23
0.21
0.21
0.20
0.20
0.20
0.20
0.19
0.19
0.19
0.19
0.19
0.19
0.05
0.03
0.02
0.02
0.01
0.01

5506
702
120
550A 580A
90
701
80A
50A
506
1lOA
5808
1108
540
808
530
510
40
570
30

'

5.87
5.78
5.44
5.31
5.13
4.73
4.61
4.54
4.45
4.22
4.14
3.66
2.56
2.50
2.46
2.31
2.18
1.55
i.45
1.21

100

:.L7

70
10

1.02
0.88

0.28
0.28
0.26
0.25
0.24
0.23
0.22
0.22
0.21
0.20
0.20
0.17
0.12
0.12
0.12
0.11
0.10
0.07
0.01
0.C6
0.06
0.05
0.04

120
508
580A
BOA
llOA
808
5808
701
1100
5508
702
90
50A
10
570
70
I00
30
40
555A
5:O
530
540

11.1
8.07
7.42
7.40
7.11
6.96
6.82
6.66
6.33
5.91
5.25
5.09
4.82
4.48
4.07
3.99
3.96
3.61
3.35
2.97

251
1.45
1.04

0.61
0.44
0.41
0.41
0.39
0.38~
0.37
0.37
0.35
0.32
0.29
0.28
0.26
0.25
0.22.
0.22
0.22
0.20
0.18
0.16
0.14
0.08
0.06

25

?-??
'.:

Design of Nuclear Piping Systems

R.S. Soni
Nuclear Recycle Group (Mech.)
Bhabha Atomic Research Centre
Trombay, Mumbai- 85

Nuclear Power Plant


Power generating nuclear-reactor system
Only purpose to transfer heat from uranium or
fissionable material in the reactor core to a primary
fluid.
Primary fluid in-turn may transfer heat to a secondary
fluid to generate steam
OR Primary fluid itself becomes steam.
Engineering requirement for heat transfer from reactor
core stems from two facts:

o To prevent core melt-down


o To permit long term and continuous core

operation
Reactor core - housed in vessel.
Operating pressure - as low as atmospheric to 110
kgf/cm2
Operating temperature - ambient to 500'~.
depending upon the type of reactor

&-STEAM
OUTLET
(TO TURBINE)
STEAM GENERATOR
,'5.FEEDWATER
INLET
[FROM CONDENSER)

STEAM OIJTLET
(TO TURBliNEl

STEAM OUTLET
TO TURBINE

7DEMISTER

SECONDARy
MOISTURE SEPARATOR

,-ORIFICE

UPPER SHELL

Y-l

-SWIRL
VANE PRIMARY
MOISTURE SEPARATOR
/---

TUBE BUNDLE

RINGS

FEEDWATER INLET

ANTIVIBRATION BARS

DOWNCOMER 'FLOW
RESISTANCE PLATE
LOWER SHELL

TUBE SUPPORT PLATES


SECONDARY HANDHOLE

-BLOWDOWN LINE
TUBE SHEET

PRIMARY MANWAY
PRIMARY COOLANT
OUTLET

PRIMARY COOLANT

Fig. 13.5. Cutaway representation of a P W R steam gencr;itor (Westinghouse Electric


Corp.).

Main Srenrn Flow


l o Turbine

-.

Stear11Separators

Main Feed Flow

..
.: .
,. .... ...

.:.:::F&; 13.10. BWRf6 srean and recirculation water flow paths (General Electric

. .
..~
. .....
.
..... .;
..._
.....
...
.
.
,
.
,
:
'
:
,
r
.
~...,
: . .

.-

-.

-..

14 F L U X MONtTOH A N D POISON INJECTION


15 ION CHAMBER
16 EARTHQUAKE RESTRAINT
17 V A U L T W A L L
18 V A U L T COOLING PIPES
19 MODERATOR OVERFLOW
20 PRESSURE R E L I E F PIPES
21 PRESSURE RELIEF DISC
22 REACTIVITY CONTROL R O D NOZZLES
23 VIEWING PORT
24 SHUTOFF R O D
25 ADJUSTER ROO
26 CONTROL ABSORBER R O D
27 ZONE CONTROL ROO
28 VERTICAL F L U X MONITOR

2 CALANORIA W E L L
3 C A L A N O R I A TUBES
4 EMBEDMENT RING
5 F U E L I N G TUBESHEET
6 E N D SHIELD L A l T l C E TUBES
7 END S H I E L D COOLING PIPES
8 INLET-OUTLET STRAINER
9 STEEL B A L L SHIELDING
10 E N D FITTINGS
11 FEEDER PIPES
12 MODERATOR OUTLET
13 MOOERATOR I N L E T

Fig. 13.12.

I n t c r n a l s t r u c t u r r . nf ;I

C'ANDU

r e u c t t r r ( A r c ~ m i cEnergy

of

Cari;rda.

Ltd.1.

Nuclear Power Plant (Cont.. ..)

Core Vessel and primary piping usually handle large


amount of radioactivity
Even though designed to prevent the release of fission
products
Encased in large diameter vessel, called the reactor
containment vessel
To safeguard any uncontrolled release to the
environment which may result in health hazard.
Typical long term operation gives fission product
activity level of around 1 x lo7curies.
Secondary fluid circuit of NPPs is almost identical to
conventional steam power plants. - follows similar
design guidelines

Purpose of Nuclear Piping

Primary coolant
Secondary coolant
Moderator
Pressurizing
Feed and condensate
Instrumentation
Purification & demineralisation
Radioactive waste
Broadly classified into two groups:
o NucIear piping - handling radioactive fluid
o Other piping - handling non-radioactive and

conventional fluids

Requirements of nuclear Piping; System


Nuclear Piping - that piping designed to contain a
fluid whose loss from the system could result in
radiation hazard either to the plant personnel or to the
general public.
Hazards posed are
o Possibility of dispersion of hazardous fluids

capable of being distributed over wide areas with


lengthy radioactive potency
o Deterioration of materials such as corrosion by

high temperature liquid metals in presence of


Oxygen and other fluids
o Radiation damage to the materials.

Requirements of nuclear Piping System


(cont..)
Requires:
o Additional safety features as compared to

conventional piping
o Possibly first look - increase in safety factors

- Over designed containment


structures
o Notion - not appropriate because FOS for nuclear

piping < Conventional piping


However, it demands
o Detail design and engineering
o Sound fabrication
o Efficient and foolproof inspection
o Use of proven materials
o Use of recognized safety standards & codes

Assured integrity for the containment of fluid


o Use of tougher material

Repair & maintenance ordinarily difficult on account of


high radioactivity levels
o Requires long & expensive plant shutdown

Requirements of nuclear Piping System


(cont..)
To achieve maximum economic reliability & safety
Other associated piping whose failure could endanger
nuclear piping would also justifL the reliability and
safety expected of nuclear piping.
.a

P & T consideration
PWR - High pressure & relatively low temperature,

requires thick walled piping, susceptible to thermal


stresses due to lack of flexibility

LMFBR - Low pressure and high temperature give high


thermal & creep stresses, low pressure permits use of thin
wall pipe, but reduction in material strength prevents thin
wall construction.

Nuclear Piping System


Need
Protect plant personnel from radiation hazards
o By providing design features to avoid1 mitigate

accidents1 unusual occurrences


Protect public & environment fi-om radiation hazard
o Provide containment system & other measures

Design & entire engineering of nuclear piping systems


is based on their safety classification.

Safety Classification
Safety classification is available for
NPPs - IAEA 50-SG-D I.
Various structures, systems and components (SSCs)
classified based on their safety role and their
importance.
Safety role decided based on the safety functions to be
performed and ranking of those safety fimctions.

Safety Classification (cont.. .)


Ranking of safety function is based on;
o Consequences of failure of that safety function.

o Probability that the safety function would be

required.
o Probability that the safety function would not be

accomplished when required.


For NPPs a list of 20 safety functions starting from (a)
to (s) have been identified.
Based on the ranking of safety functions, they have
been grouped into different safety classes.
Each safety class contains safety functions with a
similar degree of importance to safety.
o Safety class- 1

ASME Section I11 (NB)

o Safety class-2

ASME Section I11 (NC)

o Safety class-3

ASME Section I11 (ND)

o Safety class-4

ASME Section VIII

o Component &

ASME Section I11 (NF)

piping supports

Safety Classes for NPPs


Safety class -1 : Avoid release of substantial fraction
of core fission products & components necessary for
safe shutdown for reactor.
o PHT system, Reactor shutdown systems

Safety class -2: Mitigate consequences of failure of


safety class -1.
o Moderator system, ECCS, containment,

shutdown cooling system


Safety class -3: Support role for safety functions in
safety class -1,2 & 3.
o Control & adjuster rods, PCW system, SFSB

Safety class -4: Other than above but handling


radioactivity.
o D20 upgrading plant

NNS (Non Nuclear Safety): Conventional systems.


o Turbine building, steam and feed system outside

containment

Important requirement

Lower safety class component should not jeopardize the


safety of a higher safety class component.
Transition between 2 different safety classes within a
system to be designed for higher safety class.

Various Loadings
Wight - DW + Live load
Pressure:
o Internal
o External

o Operating or transient

Temperature
o Operating
o Transient
o Nuclear heating

Wind loading
Dynamic loading
o Earthquake
o Flow induced vibration
o Relief valve discharge load
o Water 1 steam hammer

Why design for EQ?

Recent Eqs'
oLatur1993,

=6.3

o Bhuj 2001, M

= 7.3

o HinduKush

March, 2002 M

= 6.7

o Kobe, Japan

1995 - 1996 M

= 7.9

o Chennai

~ c t o b e r200
, 1M

= 4.3

Extreme event which occurs at regular intervals at


different places.
Even the zones or areas like Peninsular India which
was supposed to be quiet zones have started showing
surprises.

Why design for EQ? (cont.. .)


Design by IS-1893 allows
o Moderate to heavy damage in the structures for

moderate EQs.
o Total collapse ruled out for maximum credible

EQ.
o Heavy plastic deformation with lot of cracking
allowed.
Radioactive facilities
o Very little damage permitted so as to have no
cracking to avoid radioactive fallouts.
o Moderate or heavy damage and collapse is not

envisaged at all.
o Very little plastic behavior permitted.
o Designed for EQ based on detailed seismic

investigations around the site.

Seismic Categorization for NPPs


Seismic Category - 1: SSE & OBE
Seismic Category - 2: OBE
Non seismic Category (Codal): IS- 1893
SSE (Safe Shutdown EQ)
o Maximum potential EQ
o Integrity of primary pressure boundary
o Safe shutdown of reactor
o Integrity of containment
o Probability - 1o4 I year

OBE (Operating Basis EQ)


o Economical level of EQ
o Reasonably expected during the plant life

o Ensures reactor operation during this EQ


o Probability - 10-2I year

All safety class - 1,2,3 systems in NPPs are designed


for both SSE & OBE.

Design Approach
Design by Analysis - Safety Class-1 & 2
Design by Rule - Safety Class- 2 & 3

Service Levels
Various loading categorized into four service levels
depending on their probability of occurrence

- Normal operating conditions


o Service Level - B - Upset conditions
o Service Level - C - Emergency conditions
o Service Level - D - Faulted conditions
Service level - A to - D - Probability of occurrence of
o Service Level - A

load decreases.
Risk = f (probability of occurrence x allowable stress)
As probability of occurrence decreases, allowable
stress increases for the same risk-level

Service Levels (Csnt..)


Service level-A (Normal operating conditions): Piping
components and supports must satisfy these stress limits
for performing their specified service function.
o No yielding is permitted
o e.g. DW, Operating P & T.

Service level - B (Upset condition): Piping


components and supports should withstand these loadings
without damage requiring repair.
o Slight yielding is permitted

o e.g. water hammer1 steam hammer, relief valve

discharge loads, OBE.

Service level- C (Emergency conditions): Piping


components and supports may need removal from the site
for inspection or repair of damage.
o Major yielding in local structural discontinuity areas

such as near stress concentration area around holes,


welds etc.
o e.g. SSE, other transients alongwith OBE.

Service Levels (Cont..)


Service level- D (Faulted conditions): Piping
components and supports may need major repair1
replacement which may need its removal from site
o Major yielding in gross structural discontinuities

areas such as shell-to- head junction, etc.


o e.g. SSE, LOCA (Loss-of-Coolant-Accident),

pipe rupture loads

Failure Theories
Safety Class- 1 - Maximum shear stress theory
Safety Class- 2 - Maximum principal stress theory
Safety Class- 3 - Maximum principal stress theory

Gl, = ( 0 1

02)/2I SJ2

Stress Intensity = 0 1 -

Max

02

< S,

)Tresca

1 0 1 , 0 2 , a3 ( 5 Sy - Maximum principal stress theory

Primary Stress Limits


General primary membrane (P,) < S,
General primary membrane (Pb)< 1.5 S,
o Linear variation across the section
o Avoid formation of plastic hinge

Local primary membrane (PL)< 1.5 S,


o Membrane stress in a limited region

Seismic design methodology - steps (cont.. .)


Component / System design as per ASME 111, NB
The primary stress limits for various classes ( pre1995 code) are
- 1.50 S,
o Service Level - A (Normal)
o Service Level - B (Upset)

- 1.80 Sm

o Service Level - C (Emergency) - DBE

- 2.25 S,

o Service Level - D (Faulted)

- 3.00 Sm

Secondary stress limit, Q


Caused by constraint of displacement or constraint of
material
e.g. thermal expansion of piping, stresses at the shellhead junction due to pressure loading, etc.
Local yielding and minor distortions of the piping
systems relieve these - Self limiting
Limit is decided by stress corresponding to "
shakedown to purely elastic action"
Q12S,, Q53S,
Avoid incremental collapse.

o,

< 0, < 20"

02

= 20"

o,

> 20,

a , a2 o3 are fictitious stresses,

based on actual strains e, e2 e3


and modulus of elasticity E.
e

Fig. 2.1. Schematic illustration of the stress-strain relation during a shkedown.

Peak Stress Limit

Do not cause significant distortion as in case of


secondary stresses.
Highest stresses in the region and responsible for
fatigue failure.
Stress concentration areas.
Piping subjected to low cycle fatigue with high stress
levels, exceeding S,.
Cumulative fatigue usage factor (CUF)

FIG. 1-9.2.1 DESIGN FATIGUE CURVE FOR AUSTENlTlC STEELS, NICKEL-CHROMIUM-IRON ALLOY, NICKEL-IRON-CHROMIUM
A N 0 NICKEL-COPPER ALLOY FOR S, > 28.2 ksi, FOR TEMPERATURES NOT EXCEEDING 800F
(For S, 5 28.2 ksi, use Fig. 1-9.2.2.)
Table 1-9.1 Contains Tabulated Values and a Formula for Accurate Interpolation of This Curve

ALLOY,

Seismic design methodology - steps

Analysis of civil structure with Soil Structure Interaction


(SSI)
o Response Spectrum & Time History analysis
o Proper modelling of SSI important - affects

building response & FRS


o Generation of Floor Time Histories & Floor RS
o Peak broadening of FRS

Seismic design for


o Structural integrity
o Functional requirement for active components

Modeling of static parts


Modeling of rotating parts
Modeling of bearings

Dynamic Analysis of Structure


A) Time History Method

a) Linear Methods: Response of multi DOF system

B) Response Spectrum Method Linear Methods:


a) the generalized response of each mode is given by:

Where Sajis spectral acceleration corresponding to


frequency coj
b) The maximum displacement of node i relative to base
due to mode j is given by:

c) Include all the modes in the analysis having frequencies


less than the ZPA frequency or cutoff frequency,
provided that the residual rigid response due to the
missing mass calculated from the fo!lowing equation is
added.

[K]{x, G n a ~1 I= M X (

I -2
;=I

Is,.

Where SAmax
= highest spectral acceleration in the interval
between the cutoff frequency and ZPA.

Combination of Modal and Component


Responses:
a) Response Spectrum Analysis:
Modal combination rule:
10% grouping method

closely spaced modes - Absolute addition


separated modes - SRSS ( Square root of sum of
squares)
b) Combination of Spatial Components:

Alternately:

Modal Damping Ratios

Structure type

Stress level 1
(OBE)

Welded aluminum
structures
Welded and friction bolted
steel structure
Bearing bolted steel
structure
Pre stressed concrete
structure
Reinforced concrete
structure
Piping
Equipment

Piping Analysis and Design as per NB


1) The Primary stress intensity limit is satisfied if the
following requirement is met.
P Du +B,-M
Do
11 5 S ............................ (9)
B1 2 t
-21
Where Mi = Resultant moment due to a combination of
I

"

Mechanical Design Loads


2) Consideration of Level A Service Limits
a) Satisfaction of Primary plus secondary stress intensity
range
i C , ~ M , + C , E , x ~ a u T o - ~ , ~ h ~Sim~ . - . . - . .41-0)- - .
21
Where Mi= resultant range of moment when the system
S.=C,

goes from one service load set to another.


b) Satisfaction of Peak stress intensity Range

Definition of Allowable Stresses ( Cont.. .)


As per NB and NC-3200:

At temperatures in the tensile strength and yield strength


range, the least of following:
1. 113 of specified minimum tensile strength.
2. 113 of tensile strength at temperature.
3. 213 of specified minimum yield strength.
4. 2/3 of yield strength at temperature (except as noted in 5)

5. For austenitic stainless steel and nickel-alloy materials


where greater deformations is not objectionable. In
this case the criterion of 213 of yield stress at
temperature may be increase as high as 90% of yield
strength at temperature.

NB-3000 - - DESIGN

Tahle NB-M8l(a)-I

TABLE NB-3681(a)-l
STRESS INOICESIFOR USE WITH EQUATIONS IN NB-3650

--

Applicable lor Do/,

-Piping Producls and Joints


INole (311

81

Internal Pressure
INote (211

c 100 for
~ . ...

CI

Kt

lN01c (411

[Note (411

--

C o r K Indices and D,A

< 50 lor

Moment Loading
INote (211

B Indices

~-

Thermal Loading

c
2

K2

[Note (4))

[Note (411

c3

c'3

K3
[Note (411

Notes

L m q i t ~ d i n a butt
l
welds in straight
pipe
(a1 flush
(b! as-weidcd I> !/,,, in.
(c1 as.wcldcd I C
ill.

'/,,,

Girtn butt wrlds ~ C ~ W Cnominall!


C ~
identical wall lllick~wssitems
(a1 flush
(b) as-welded
Girth fillet weld l o socket weld,
fi:lings. socket weld values, slipon or Socket wclding Ranges
NB-4250 Transitions
(a1 flush
I b l er-welded
Tran5itianr within a 1:3 Slope
envelope
(a1 Rush
( b l as-welded
Bull welding reducers per ANSI
B16.9 or MSS SP-87
Curvcd pipe or butt wclding elbows
Branch connections per NB-3643
Butt welding leer

0.5

1.5

NOTES:
Ill For indices not listed, see the note referenced at the end of the apoiicablc litlc.
(21 For the calculation of presrurc and rnornellt loads m d special inrt-vctinns regarding i q s . !?I through !:3!, rcr NB-3683.11dl.
(31 For definitions, applicability, and specific restrictions, see NB-3683.
(41 For Special instructions regarding the usc of there indices for ivl!ldcd products. in:errectny welds, abutting products, o r out-of-round
prad~cts,see NB-3683.2.
151 See NB-3683.3. Straight Pipe Remo!? From Weids.
(61 See NB-3683.4(al, Longitudinal Rut1 Welds.
(71 See NB-3683.4(bI, Ginh Butt Weldr.
(81 See NB-3683.4k). Ginh Fillet Weldr.
(91 5ce NB-3683.5(a), NB-4250 Transitions.
(101 See N8-3683.5(b). Transitions Within a 1:3 Slope.
( 1 11 See NB-3683.6. Concentric and Eccentric Reducers.
(121 See N6-3683.7, Curved Pipe or But2 Welding Elbow$. See ah0 NR-3683.?!2! an" NB-3683.2(bl.
1131 See NB-3683.8. Branch Connecttonr per NB-3643. See also FIB3683.l(dl.
1\41 SCP N H - l b R ? 9 . Hutt Welding Trer. S p r also NR-3683.lldl.

Piping Analysis and Design as per NB


(Cont..)
c) Simplified ~1a;tic-plasticDiscontinuity Analysis
Do
s,=c,-M'

"3 s

............. (12)

21 '
Where M~*=
Mi in eq.(lO) except that it includes only
m

moments due to thermal expansion and thermal anchor


moment
d) Primary plus Secondary Membrane plus Bending stress
intensity

C,

Do
-M,
+ C 2 2I

C ' ; ~x, bla,^,- a , ~ ~ (Sm.


' 3............0 3)

If the above conditions are met, the value of Saltshall be


calculated by eq.(14):

.-

Where I&

S,,,=K SP ............. (14)


2
= 1.0 for S, <= 3S,
=

1.0+((1-n)/n(m- 1))(Sn/3S, -I), for

3Sm<S,<3mSm
=

I/n, for S, >= 3mS,

Fatigue Strength Reduction Factor as per NB


Value of m, n, and T,,, for Various
Classes of Permitted Materials:
Material
Carbon steel
Low carbon steel
Martensitic stainless steel
Austenitic stainless steel

Piping Analysis and Design as per NB


(Cont..)
e) Thermal Stress Ratchet: For all pair of load sets, The
value of range of AT, cannot exceed the following
A T range

Y S? c4
0.7 E a

C4 = 1.1 for ferritic material


=

1.3 for austenitic material

x = (PDo/2t)(l/S,)

y =3.33, 2.00, 1.20 and 0.80 for x = 0.3, 0.5, 0.7 and 0.8
respectively

Analysis of Piping Components for Level B


Service Loadings:
a) For service loading for which Level B Service limits are
designated which do not include reversing dynamic load
or have reversing dynamic load combined with nonreversing dynamic loads, the conditions of Eq.(9) shall
be met using Level B coincident pressure P and moment

Mi which result in the maximum calculated stress. The

allowable used for this condition is 1.8Sm,but not greater


than 1SS,

Analysis of Piping Components for Level C


Service Loadings
a)

But stresses not greater than 1.8SY


b) The sustained stress due to weight loading shall be

ii) The stresses due to weight and inertial load due to


reversing dynamic load combining with Level C pressure
shall not exceed.

Where B2' = 0.87/h2I3for curved pipes

i)

The range of resultant moments MAMand the


amplitude of the longitudinal force FAMresulting fi-om
the anchor motion due to'earthquake and other
reversing type dynamic loading shall not exceed the
following.

(01 Nonravorsing Dynemic Loed


(ReliofISefety Valvu Opun End Diachargul

(bl Reversing Dynornic Load


(Earthquake Load Cycling About Normel Operating Condition1

(cl Nonreversing Followed By Roversing


(Initial Water Slug Followed By Reflected Prussure P u l s e d

FIG. NB-3213-1 EXAMPLES OF REVERSING AND NONREVERSING DYNAMIC LOADS

Analysis of Piping Components for Level C


Service Loadings (Cont..)

Consideration for Level D Service Limits


i) The pressure occurring coincide with the earthquake and
other type of reversing loads shall not exceed the Design
Pressure.
ii) The sustained stress due to weight loading shall not
exceed

iii) The stresses due to weight and inertial load due to


reversing dynamic load combining with Level C pressure
shall not exceed.

iv) The range of resultant moments MAMand the amplitude


of the longitudinal force FAMresulting from the anchor
motion due to earthquake and other reversing type dynamic
loading shall not exceed the following.

Consideration for Level D Service Limits


(Cont..)

Analysis of Piping Design as per NC/ ND


1) General requirement

2) Consideration of design conditions:


a) The effect of pressure, weight and other sustained
mechanical loads shall satisfy the following:

Where MA= Moment due to weight and other sustained


loads.

Definition of Allowable Stresses


As per NC and ND

At temperatures in thz tensile strength and yield strength


range, the least of following:
1. 1/4 of specified minimum tensile strength.
2. 1/4 of tensile strength at temperature.
3. 213 of specified minimum yield strength.
4. 213 of yield strength at temperature (except as noted in 5)

5. For austenitic stainless steel and nickel-alloy materials


where greater deformations is not objectionable. In
this case the criterion of 213 of yield stress at
temperature may be increase as high as 90% of yield
strength at temperature.

Considerations of Level A and B Service


Limits
a) Occasional loads:
Effect of pressure, other sustained loads, and
occasional loads including non-reversible dynamic loads
'

for which Level B Service limits are designated shall meet


the following:

P r i y a r y Stress Index
Flexibility
Characteristic
Description

Welding elbow or
pipe bend [Note 1111

Flexibility
Factor k

Stress
Intensification
Factor i

Sketch

0.4 lr - 0.1 5 0.5


and r 0

Closely spaced miter


I ~ c n dINole 1111
s < r l l +tan111

st,, Cot N

2 r2

Widely spaced (niter


bend lNote 1311
s ' r , l + tan $4

I,,11 + cot 111


-

2r

Branch cnd:

0.5

Run enrl:

Reinforced fabricated
tee [Note (511

Unreinforced
labricalod tee

FIG. NC-367

I
!(b)-1

STRESS INDICES, F L E X I B I L I T Y , A N D STRESS INTENSIFICATION FACTORS (D,/l,,c 1 0 0 ) [Notes 111, 11),

(1))

Description

Branch connection [Notes 151.


(611

Primary Stress Index

81

Flexibility
Factor k

92

Branch leg:
0.5

Run legs:

("')

I>

rn

Branch leg:
0.5
Run legs:

(?)'
s

B2, = 1.3

(5f'
[G)
.

Branch leg:

"(-

R,,,
it, = 4 5 - 1
T,

. ,

Sketch--

r'

(.-)[3)
T, r,

Run legs:.
i, = 0.4

Fig. NC3673.21bl-2

? 1.5

R,,

T;,
1 (-][GI
2 3.0
I'

J;,,

R,,

Run legs:
R ?
i, = 0.8 (-"I
T,:

'

(-)R,,,

B2, = 0.9

Fillet welded and partial


penetration welded branch
conneclions [Note (611

Stress Intensification Factor i


Branch leg:
ib = 1.5 8 ,

T,

r;,,
(-1R.,,

r,,

Fig. NC3643.2(bl.2

.2 ' 1

"

Girth butt weld


I
, 2 0.237 in.
Girlh butl weld
I.,
c 0.237 in.
Circumlerenlial fillel welded or
S O C ~ P Iwelticd joints
lNotc (711
Brezcd j o ~ n l

2.1 11..C.l

INots 1211

INotc (211

30 deg. tapered transition


[ANSI 016.25)
r,, c 0.237 in.

0.5

1.O

30 d e g tapered transition
[ANSI 816.25)
I,,r 0.237 in.

0.5

'

Fig. NC-4427.1
skctclie~i c - 11.
Ic.2). a!,<! IC-3)

1.3

2.1

1.3 + 0.0036 -2

Fig. NC-4511.1

0.1 13!1, : 1.9

I,.

1.O

FIG. NC-3673.2(b)-l STRESS INDICES, FLEXIBILITY, AND STRESS INTENSIFICATION FACTORS

1.3

+ 0.0036 D,il,, .

1.9

( D , N , s 100) INotes (1). (2), ( 1 1 ) l (CONT'D)

Primary Stress Index


Description

0.5 for a c 30
deg.
1 . 0 for 30 deg. c
o 5 60 deg.

:oncentric and ecenlric


reducers (ANSI 816.91
I'Note (811

threaded flange

\
1

0.5 + 0.01

lN01e 12)l

I
121'

Stress Intensification Factor ;

Sketch

1.o

INote 1211
I

:orrugated straight pipe or


corrugated or creased bend
INote 1911

Flexibility
Factor k

8,

r,

::

(2)
c 2.0
\ t,

2.3

INote 12)l

INoIes 10 h g NC 3673 2111) I appear oir foll~w,r?g


~.?gt.r
FIG. NC-3673.2W-1 STRESS INDICES, FLEXIBILITY, A N 0 STRESS INTENSIFICATION FACTORS (DON,, 100) [Notes (11, (2), ( 1 1 ) l (CONT'D)

Thermal Expansion for Service Level A & B


a) The effects of thermal expansion must meet the
following requirement:
i M,:
S=-<S,
E
z

............................ 00)

b) The effect of any single non-repeated anchor movement

shall meet the following requirement:

c) The effect of pressure, weight other sustained loads and


thermal expansion shall meet the following requirement.

d) The effect of reversing dynamic load must meet the


following requirement.

Allowable Stress Range for Expansion


Stresses
The allowable stress range SAis given by:
SA= f (l.ZS,

+ 0.25Sh)

Where
S, = material allowable stress at minimum temperature.
Sh= material allowable stress at maximum temperature.

f = stress range reduction factor for cyclic conditions for


total number of full temperature cycle over total
expected life time of the system.
If the range of temperature change varies, equivalent full
temperature cycle may be computed as follows:
N = NE+ r 1 5 ~ 1 + r 2 5 ~ 2 + r 3..5..~..3..+..+. r n 5 ~ ,
Where:
NE= number of cycles at full temperature change ATEfor
which the expansion stresses SEhas been calculated.

N,, N2.... = number of cycles at lesser temperature


changes. AT,,AT2, AT3,
...

r,, r2, ... = The ratio of any lesser temperature cycles for
which the expansion stresses has been
calculated

Stress Range Reduction Factors


Number of equivalent full

Stress Range Reduction

temperature cycles, N

Factor, f

7000 and less

1.o

7000 to 14,000

0.9

14,000 to 22,000

0.8

22,000 to 45,000

0.7

45,000 to 100,000

0.6

100,000 and above

0.5

Level C Service Limits


a) For service loadings for which Level Service limits are
designated

But allowable stresses not greater than 1.8SY


b)
i) The sustained stress due to weight loading shall not
exceed the following:
Do
BZ-Mw<0.5S,
21
ii) The stress due to weight and inertial loading due to '
reversing dynamic loads in combination with the Level C
coincide pressure shall not exceed the following:

Level C Service Limits (Cont..)


iii) The range of the resultant moment Ma, and the
amplitude of longitudinal force Fa, resulting from the
anchor motion due to earthquake and other type of dynamic
loading shall not exceed the following:

Consideration of Level D Service Limits


1) The pressure occurring coincide with the earthquake and

other type of reversing loads shall not exceed the Design


Pressure.
2) The sustained stress due to weight loading shall not
exceed the following.

3) The stress due to weight and inertial loading due to


reversing dynamic loads in combination with the Level

D coincide pressure shall not exceed the following:

Consideration of Level D Service Limits


(Cont..)
4) The range of the resultant moment MAMand the
amplitude of longitudinal force FAMresulting from the
anchor motion due to earthquake and other type of
dynamic loading shall not exceed the following:

Pipe Break Analysis


Mandatory to consider pipe break loads in design for
the high energy piping systems.
T > 200F or P > 275 psi

Pipe breaks in high E piping systems postulated based


on:
o Primary + secondary stresses
o Cumulative usage factor (CUF)

Pipe breaks in Safety Class-1 piping assumed to occur


at:
o Terminal ends of piping e.g. extremities of piping

connected to structures, components or anchors.


o Where primary + secondary stresses > 2.4 S,

o Where CUF > 1.0

Pipe breaks for safety Class - 2 & 3 piping assumed to


occur at:
o Terminal ends of piping.
o Where primary + secondary stresses > 0.8

(1 .25Sh+ SA)
Piping-whip restraints provided to mitigate the effects.

Effect of Nuclear Radiation on Piping System


High flux density nuclear radiation affects both:
o Physical properties
o Mechanical properties

Neutron bombardment from the core


o Fast neutrons (E >1 MeV)
o Thermal neutrons (E 4 MeV)

Fast neutrons - damage by dislocation of atoms and


speeding the vacancy diffixion reaction
Thermal neutrons - damage by transmutation of trace
impurities which alters the material structure.
Radiation damage measured by integrated fast neutron
flux, called fluence.
Fluence = nvt,

n = no. of neutrons1 m3

Effects are (Radiation embrittlement)


o Increase in Y. S.

o Increase in UTS
o Increase in hardness

o Increase in nil ductility temperature (NDT)


o Decrease in ductility

Strain, in, per in.

Fig. 5.29. Stress-strain Curves of Irradiated Carbon Steel, ASTM


Irradiation Temperature 20O0FIb

5.32. Maximum Effect of Irradiation Embrittlernenr on the Transi


Temperature Increase for Stwls lrradiatrd :
Y 450F

Effect of Nuclear Radiation on Piping


System (Cont..)
o Decrease in fracture energy
o Radiation swelling
o Irradiation creep

Up to fluence level of 1X 10'' nvt, no effect

Control of residual elements such as P & Cu, which


enhance radiation embrittlement.
Other effect is on thermal stresses due to nuclear
heating by neutrons & gamma rays.

Neutron absorption, nvt , (550F) x 1019

Fig. 5.35. Effect of Copper on the Transition Temperature of ManganeseMolybdenum Steel Plate

.- 100.
'c'

"6

/'

,/--

/
50'
)

1
/
I

Low phosphorus bond


( . 004

- .0089'0)

/---

/'

.2 ,4 .6 .8

----------.

1.0.2 .4

.6 .8

2.0.2.4

.6 .8

3.0.2.4

,6 .8

4.0

Neutron absorption, nvt , ( 5 5 0 F ) x 1019

Fig. 5.36. Effect of Phosphorus on the Transition Temperature of ,


hrianpanese-Molybdenum Steel Plate Having 0.16-0.22 Per c'ent Copper
1

Testing of piping Systems


All piping systems tested for leak-tightness prior to
operation.
Methods are:
o Hydrostatic test

o Pneumatic test
o He-leak test

Hydrostatic test
o 1.25 times design pressure for safety class- 1
o 1.25 times design pressure for safety class -2 &3.

o Hold-up time 30 rnin. per inch of thickness.


o Stress < 0.9 S, during testing.

Pneumatic test
o 1.1 times design pressure.
o Soap bubbles should not be generated.

He- leak test


o Used only for critical piping handling highly

radioactive substances
o Leak rate < 5 x lo-' std cc per sec. of He.

Tolerances
Design of pipe supports based on nominal dimension.
(Similar to design of piping 1 equipment)
Good design practice call for
o Design to consider the degree of deviation from

nominal design which can be tolerated when


supports are
Manufactured
Installed
Specific tolerance values are a function of the
interrelationship between design, manufacture &
installation.

Piping installation tolerances mentioned needs to be


incorporated in the construction specification or
Design Report Summary.

TABLE K-1330-1

LOCAL 1NSTALLATlON TOLERANCES FOR PIPING SUPPORTS


Total

A1 Deviatianr i n the location of the cc~\tcrlineof m y at:x!menl !o


The flanyc centerlinc 01 buildmg rtcel nlcmueri,l 0 , piping SupDar:
steel memocrlsl; i f the support drawilly specdies a<#o1frr:t. tire
attachment may bc relocated to any distance rowards tllc reoturline
, of the member to facilitate installatian.

B ) Deviation of back-to-back distance for cha$lneis vtith rou type


component support.

' !I4 88,

. 114 in

2 2 deg.

.... .

.....
.:
... ...
h
:
.
'
,
'
;
....._,
.
F.

C I ileviatian in the centerline angolar orientation ot piping suopofl


,tee1 members in the harirantal or vertical plaws.

Duilding
~lruclure

i 2 dog

3 1 tleviatior! i n thecenterline l o m l i o n of attachments between flanges


of building stccl members.

--

- -- .. --

..

LOCAL INSTALLATION TOLERANCES FOR PIPING SUPPORTS (CONT'D)

A ) Deviations in the locatiar~of attacllmentr :O p + q support steel


member witll two ends attachcd to the building structure lends
may be pinned or fircdl.

81 Deviations in the Centerline l o ~ a t i o nof attachments along buildmg


steel m m b e r length.

Cl

Deviation i n conical angularity of snubber or strut attachments t o


piping suppori steel member or building steel member
' r '1 need not be justified
2 5'is more reasonable andshould bcconsidered i n the designer's
5- i n practice.
calc~lationsto allow
Subject to limitations defined by hardware manufacturer.

.'

Dl Deviatiora i n angularity of rod ty~ccornponentattacllmcnts to bzckto-back channclr.


r 2" need not be justified
z 5'ismore reasonableandsl~ouldbcconiideredinthedesigner's
Calculations to allow Z 5" in practice.

.- b In

Table K-1330-1

1998 SECTION 111. DIVISION I

- APPENDICES

TABLE K-1330-1
LOCAL INSTALLATION TOLERANCES FOR PIPING SUPPORTS (CONT'D)

Item

Total
Tolerance

Configuration

111. Tolerance for Piping Supporl Steel Member Inszallation

A) Deviation in the length of steel member with two ends attached to


the building structure tends may be pinned or fixed).

+3 in.
-6 in.

8 ) Deviation of component attachment centerline for a single steel


Cantilever member attached to the building structure.
Note: A cantilever with a kneebrace connection has the same
installation tolerances as a single cantilever. See items ( 0 ) and
( E ) for kneebcace tolerances.

'3 in.

C ) Deviation of connection centerline for double (or rnore)cantilevers.


See figure.
Note: Any cantilever member (single, both members of a double,
etc.) can be shortened any distance required to complete
installation.

Attachment

+I14 in.

114in.

0 ) Deviation i n kneebrace angle with respect to cantilever.

+So. -3-

1 Deviation in brace work Point with respect to cantilever.

Z 1 in.

No limit

NDT Requirements of Nuclear Piping

Weld category
Butt welds
- Volumetric &
LPIMP
Weld joint category-B

Fillet or partial
Fillet & partial
penetration
penetration weld "ioint welds
- LPMP
- LP/MP

Comer welded
branches & piping
connections
Oblique fill
penetration
branches & piping
connections
Structural attachment
welded joints

> NPS 2
- RT or
LPMP

> NPS 2
- RT or
LPIMP

Weld joint category-C


Full -penetration
butt welded
branches & piping
connections

Butt welds
- RT

RT & LPMP

> NPS 4
- RTNT & LPMP
< NPS 4
- LPIMP
> NPS 4
- RTNT & LP/MP
< NPS 4
- LPMP

NPS 2
- RT or
LP/MP

Latest Trends in Nuclear Piping Design


Leak- before- break (LBB) philosophy
o Under the worst possible scenario of loadings,

complete double ended rupture of piping is ruled


out.
o Proper material selection, fabrication, QA &

inspection.
o Leak is detected through the crack so as to take a

corrective action without allowing it to grow


further.
o Leakage size crack is % of critical crack size
o Even a through wall crack is also sub-critical in

nature

Leak detection capability is 1


of leakage
10
from leakage size crack.
o Beetles used for radiation monitoring

Latest Trends in Nuclear Piping Design


(cont..)
Use of higher damping values
o Area under hysteresis loop represents energy loss
,

i.e. damping
o Various tests on piping components and

experiments on piping systems reveal that failure


due to EQ loading takes place at very high stress
levels.
o Results in high energy loss also i.e. high damping

o Use of higher damping value reduces acceleration


levels.

Pipe size

Pre- 1998 code

1998 code

(OBE)

(SSE)

(OBE) (SSE)

F 12'

1%

2%

5%

5%

> 12"

2%

3%

5%

5%

Latest Trends in Nuclear Piping Design


(cont..)
Use of latest provisions of code for seismic design of
piping systems
o Old ASME Section 111, 1993, seismic

loading considered as primary


loading - failure by plastic collapse.
o Subsequent research, failure not by plastic

collapse but by fatigue ratcheting


o Seismic loading reclassified as reversing

dynamic loading & secondary in nature.


o Changes in 1995 & 1998 codes brought

out - allowable stresses to accommodate


seismic loading jacked up.
o New equations introduced for check of

SSE SAM loading for both moment term


and axial term.
o Changes made more rational in ASME

Section 111, 200 1 edition.

Latest Trends in Nuclear Piping Design


(cont..)
Use of energy absorbing supports for EQ
loading
o Problems with inadvertent locking of

mechanical snubbers - high thermal


stresses
o Hydraulic snubbers - oil degradation and

leakage.
o Periodic In-service-inspection (ISI) must -

requires lot of man-rem consumption.


o Alternatively, energy absorbing supports

used - go under plastic deformation absorbing energy during a seismic event


o Replaced with new ones after the EQ
event
o Lead extrusion dampers - absorb energy -

EQ.

Latest Trends in Nuclear Piping Design


(cont..)
Seismic Walk- Through of NPP
o To ensure that the design intent is

reflected at the site.


o By a group of experts in seismic design &

mechanical design of equipment and


piping systems.
o Special attention paid to the installed

supports vis-a-vis their design


requirement.

Conclusions
Duty to protect the plant personnel, public and
environment fiom 2 considerations:
o Loss of life & structural damage.
o Radiation fallout.

We talk of defense-in-depth philosophy & ALARA


principle for facilities handling radioactivity by
providing multiple barriers and redundancy in our
designs.

However this can be realized only when the designer


demonstrates that the facility is ab!e to survive during all
the normal operating conditions as well as during an
extreme event like the EQ loading.
Safety does not cost much, but remember, it needs its
due respect.

EPC PROGRAM ACADEMY, BARODA


Larsen & Toubro Limited

Two Days Programme on

Piping Layout

18th - 19th July, 2002


PRDH Auditorium, R&D Bldg.
Powai
EPC Centre, B P Estate, Chhani, BARODA, TEL: 776206,774409 FAX77621 1, E-MAIL: rajesh-patel@enc.ltindia.com

EPC PROGRAM ACADEMY, BARODA


Larsen & Toubro Limited

Two Days Programme on

Piping Layout

18th - 19th July, 2002


PRDH Auditorium, R&D Bldg.
Powai
EPC Centre, B P Estate, Chhani, BARODA, TEL: 776206,774409 FAX:776211, E-MAIL: rajesh-patel@enc.ltindia.com

INTENSIVE COURSE ON PIPING ENGINEERING


Conducted by

MATHIMITATION TECHNOLOGIES PRIVATE LIMITED


MUMBAI
For

LARSEN & TOUBRO LIMITED


MUMBAI

PROGRAMME
,

MODULE 11 :EQUIPMENT AND PIPING LAYOUT


THURSDAY, 18.07.2002
0930 - 1100
1115- 1245
1330 - 1515
1515 - 1645

Basics of Piping Drawings


Plot Plan
Equipment & Piping Layout
Equipment & Piping Layout

TNG
TNG
TNG
TNG

FRIDAY, 19.07.2002
0930 - 1100
1115- 1245
1330 - 1515
1515 - 1645

Equipment & Piping Layout


Equipment & Piping Layout
Equipment & pip in^ Layout
Nuclear Piping

TNG
TNG
TNG
Guest Speaker

Coffee- 11.00

11.15

TNG :T N GOPINATH

Lunch - 12.45 - 13.30

Tea - 14.15 -14.30

PIPING DRAWINGS BASICS


MR. T. N. GOPINATH

ere are two types of views used in the piping drawings:,

a) Orthographic- Plans and Elevations


b) Pictorial - Isometric Views
Piping layout is developed in both plan view and elevation view
and section details are added for claritywherever necessary.
These drawings are,called the General Arrangement of Piping.
In complex piping system, especially within the unitlplant building
where orthographic views do not illustrate the details of design,
pictorial view in isometric presentation is drawn for clarity.

TABLEI
-

SHEET- 1 OF 5

PIPING SYMBOLS
DESCRIPTION

CHANGE OF DIRECTION
AT 90'
DOWNWARD BENDING
1.1.1 BW elbow

1.1.2 SW elbow

1.1.3 Scrd elbow

1.1.4 Flgd elbow

UPWARD BENDING
1.2.1 BW elbow

1.2.2 SW elbow

L
1.2.3 Scrd elbow

PLAN

I END VIEW I I END VIEW i

DESCRIPTION

I END VIEW 1 I

PLAN

END VIEW 2

BRANCHING
DOWNWARD
I

3.1.3 Scrd Tee

""T B

3.1.4 Flgd Tee

3.1.5 Stub connection

3.1.6 ' ~ a l fCoupling

?+

UPWARD
3.2.1 BW Tee

+04
3.2.2 SW Tee

T 7

SHEET- 4 OF 5

DESCRIPTION
BRANCHING
3.2 I UPWARD

PARALLEL LINES

CROSS LINES

ROLLED ELBOW

ROLLED TEE

PLAN

I END VIEW 1

END VlEW 2

SHEET- 5 OF 5

DESCRIPTION

PLAN

VALVES
Hand Wheel Operated
Flgd Valve with
vertical hand wheel

Lever operated
Valve

Hand wheel operated


BW Valve with
rolled hand wheel

CONCENTRIC REDUCER

ECCENTRIC REDUCER

rD-5
FSU/ FSD

I END VIEW 1 I END VIEW 2

The Indian Standard IS 10711 standardises the

SIZE

OVERALL
DIMENSIONS in mm

HOW TO START THE PIPING GA?


.Obtain the drawings numbers and fill in the title block,
with the drawing number and title at the bottom right hand
comer of the sheet.
*Placethe north arrow at the top lefilright hand comer of
the sheet to indicate plant north.
.Do not plan drawing in the area above the title block of
drawing, as this is allotted for general notes, number and
title of reference drawings, brief description of changes
during revision and the bill of materials wherever
applicable.
*Process equipment and piping have priority on the Piping
GA.
*Thepiping drawings are started after fixing positions of
the equipments.
*Equipment layout is reproduced on the Piping GA to its
scale and drawn on the reverse side in case of manual
drafting.

*In case of CAD separate layer is used. The major primary


beams and secondary beams are also shown if area covered is
indoor.
*Pertinentbackground details which govern piping routing,
such as floor drains, HVAC ducting, electrical and instrument
cable trays, etc. are also drawn in faint on the reverse.
*Utility stations are also established so that most convenient
utility header routing can be carried out.

GENERAL NOTES

MATCHLINE AREA

I
I

1
.

REFERENCE DRAWINGS

MATCHLINE AREA - 4

KEY PAN
REVISIONS

R.NO
GNO.

I REV I

REV.

DESCRIPTION

DATE APPROVED

COMPANY NAME

Order of importancelpreference of pipe lines in a piping

Alloy steellspecial material of construction.


Large bore piping
High temphigh pr. Piping
Lined piping

C. S. Process Piping
Utility piping

DEVELOPMENT OF PIPING GENERAL


ARRANGEMENT DRAWING
The piping drawings should be developed in such a way that
all the process requirements are met with.
It is not always possible for the piping drawing to follow
exactly the logical arrangement of the P & IDS. Sometimes
lines must be routed with different junction sequence and
line numbers and subsequently the list may be changed.
*Performance and economics have to be considered in
parallel while deciding the routing.
Piping is represented by single lines up to a size of 150NB
and double lines for sizes 200NB and above. This is to save
the time of drafting and to avoid confusion.
In single line representation only the center line of the
pipeline is drawn using solid line and in double line
representation the actual size to scale is drawn with center
line marked in chain-dotted lines

Line numbers are shown against each line exactly in the


same way as represented in the P&I diagrams.
The change in specification should be shown in line with

equipment.
Valves should be drawn to scale with identification
number fkom the P&ID marked thereon.
Draw valve hand wheels to scale with stem l l l y extended.
If it is lever operated, then the movement of handle
position should be marked.
If a valve is chain operated, note the distance of the chain
fkom the operating floor.
Show location of each instrument connection with
encircled instrument number taken from P&ID.
Similar arrangement shall be shown as typical detail or
covered in a separate company standard as Instrument
Hook-up drawings.

Draw plan view of each floor of the plant and these views
should indicate how the layout will look like between
floors as seen from top.

Lines, if required, shall be broken to show the required


details of hidden lines without drawing other views.
Do not draw details that can be covered by a note.
Draw plan to a larger scale for any part needing more
details and identify it as "Detail 'A"', etc.
Draw part isometrics sketches or part elevations to clarify
complex piping or piping hidden in the plan view.
.Full sections through the plant may be avoided if isometric
drawings are drawn for the lines. Part sections where
required shall be shown to clear the hidden details in plan.
Sections in the plan views are identified by numbers say
1-1, 2-2, etc. and details by alphabets, e.g. "Detail 'A"'.

+E

EL. 1 13.650M

EL. I 0 l .%OM
L

BOTTOM PUMPS
ALL DIMENSIONS IN MM

FIG.2: TYPICA' GENERAL ARRANGFYENT OF PIPING

I G . 3 : TYPICAL PIPING ISOMETRIC DRAWING

Plant North - The direction should be so selected as to


facilitate easy checking of GA with Iso

information:
Dimensions and angles.
Reference number of P & IDS, GA Drawings, line
numbers, direction of flow, insulation and tracing.
Equipment location and equipment identification.
Give nozzle identification on the connected equipment.
Give the details of flange on the equipment if the
specification is different fiom the connecting piping.
Size and type of every valve/ Direction of operation.
Size and number of control valve.
Location, orientation and number of each equipment.

Field weld - preferred in all directions to take care of site


variations. Can also be covered with a general note.
Location of high point vents and low point drains.
Covered with a standard arrangement note.
Bill of Material.
Requirements of stress relieving, seal welding, pickling,
coating, etc.

P LAN

PROPERNORTH ORlENTATlON

PLAN

may be prefabricated. It does not include bolts, gaskets,


valves or instruments. A spool sheet is an orthographic
drawing of a spool drawn either fiom piping GA or from an
iso sheet. Each spool sheet shows only one type of spool
and,
*Instructswelder to fabricate the spool
*Lists the cut lengths of pipe, fittings and flanges. etc.
needed to make the spool
*Gives material of construction and any special treatment
of finished piping
*Indicateshow many spools of the same type are required

DIMENSIONING OF DRAWINGS
I

Sufficient dimensions to be given for positioning


equipment and for erecting piping.
Duplicating dimensions in different views should be
avoided, as this may lead to errors if changes are made.
Reserve horizontal dimensions for the plan view.
If single pipe is to be positioned or a pipe connected to
nozzle is to be indicated, then show the centre line
elevation and mark as C .
If several pipes are sharing a common support, show
elevation of Bottom of Pipes and mark as BOP EL. This
is more applicable to non-insulated lines.

In case of several pipes on a pipe rack, show the


"Top of Support" elevation and mark as TOS EL.
In case of buried pipelines in trench, show
elevation of bottom of pipes.
In case of drains and sewers, the Invert Elevation
of the inside of the pipe is marked as IE.

Centre lines of the equipment and pipelines shall be


located with reference to the building column centre lines or
the co-ordinates which can be considered as a reference base.
The distance between the lines shall be dimensioned centre
line to centre line.
.The horizontal nozzles on the equipment shall be located
f?om centre to flange face in plan. For vertical nozzles show
Face of Flange elevation (FOF).
For valves, instruments and non-standard equipments, show
the dimensions fkom flange face to flange face.

Flanged valves are located with dimension to flange faces. Nonflanged valves are dimensioned to their centres or stems.
For flanged joints show a small gap between dimension lines to
indicate gasket. Flanged joints can also be shown without
gasket but
cover the same with a general note and include gasket thickness
in the valve or equipment dimensions.
For Finished Floor (FF) the elevation shall be the high point of
the floor.

For foundation the Top of Grout (TOG) elevation is shown.


Show dimensions outside the drawn view - do not cut
pictures.
Draw dimension line unbroken with fine line. Write
dimension just above the horizontal line. For vertical lines
write sideways.
The dimension lines can be terminated with arrow heads or
oblique dashes.
If series of dimension is to be shown, string them together.
Show overall dimension of the string of dimensions. Avoid
one of the break-up dimensions to omit repetition and error
during changes.
Do not omit significant dimension other than fitting make

For field run piping, give only those dimensions which are
necessary to route piping clear of equipments and other
obstructions. Locate only those items which are important to
the process.
Underline out of scale dimensions or mark as NTS.
Do not terrninate dimensions at screwed or welded joints.

Checking shall be done only on the print or the check


plot of the drawings and by coloured pencilslpens.
A. Corrected areas and dimensions are marked yellow.
B. Areas and dimensions which are to be deleted are
marked green.
C. Areas to be correctedhncorporated on the drawing
are marked in red.
The new print after correction is "back checked" for
incorporation.
Points to be checked on the piping drawing includes:
Title of the drawing.

Title of the drawing.


Orientation - North arrow against plot plan.
Inclusion of graphic scale (if drawings is to be reduced).
Co-ordinates of equipments against equipment layout.
Equipment numbers and their appearance on the piping
Correct identification on,all lines in all views.
Line specification changes.
Reference drawing numbers and files.
Correctness of all dimensions.
Whether representation is correctly made in line with
the standard symbols or not.
Location and identification of all instruments.
Requirements of upstream/downstream straight lengths.
Insulation requirements as per P&IDs.
Piping arrangement against P&ID requirements such as
gravity flow, seals, etc.
Possible interference
Floor and wall openings..

Correctness of scale in case of General Arrangement


I Drawings
Adequacy of clearance fkom civil structures, electrical
apparatus and instrument consoles.
Accessibility of operation and maintenance space and
provision of drop out and handling areas.
Foundation drawings and vendor equipment requirements
Details and section identification match.
"Matchline" provision and accuracy.
Presence of signatures and dates.
Accuracy of BOM in Isometrics.
Number of issues and revision.

LAYOUT

-7

T.N. Gopinath

I I

It is very appropriate to say that the


design is.an ART and
not a single formula
available for the design of Equipment and Piping
layout. The equipment layout design can be as
rational as the mathematics of fluid flow but with
the language of projective geometry. Mathematics
is abstract; geometry is visual. All engineering
courses have mathematics; few have the subject of
projective geometry but none has layout design
+
."

However, systematic methods and procedures


can be developed from engineering principles,
specifications, practical engineering know-how,
and just SIMPLE COMMON SENSE.
During the planning stages, the Piping
Engineer could meet with simple ideas that can
effect substantial cost savings. Let us take a
practical example to it.

ANCHOR

STRUCTURE FOR
ANCHOR SUPPORT

--

a) AS DESIGNED

WASTE HEAT BOILER

Fig. 1.1a

Fig. l . l b

The design must take constructibility,


economics, safety, quality and operation into
account. All these should be achieved within the
shortest schedule and will demonstrate the
technical capacity along with creative talent and
common sense approach to problem solving.
Although the tools to achieve these goals have
changed from pencil and paper to computer
graphics, the responsibilities of the Piping
Engineer remains the same.
.

Design for Constructibility


Ten Commandments:
S-

GG-

GGGGGG-

G-

Keep It Straight and Simple


Keep Its Structures Simple
Keep Its Specification Simple
Keep It Shop Standard
Keep Its Standard Simple
Keep It Same Size
Keep It Square and Squatty
Keep Its Support Simple
Keep Its Schedule Sacred
Keep Its Site Suitable

The mechanical design and development of the


lant has three major steps viz.
design
design
2.3 Piping layout design
The plant layout can be the biggest cost saver in
chemical plant design next to the Process and
Equipment design. Money wasted or saved can be
substantial between alternate layouts. In addition to
capital cost, the plant layout also influences the
operating and maintenance cost. These are long term
benefits that affect profitability.

Incorrectly established plant layouts can have


serious impact on safety and operability. If the
layout do not have enough room, the plant will be
overcrowded, and unsafe and difficult to operate
and maintain. On the other hand, an overly
generous layout results in unnecessary high
ca~italinvestment.

Fig.

L.

I' . l a PLAFI GRC!Ui\lCl FI C'Ii-;lF

Equipment,layout is an extension of the


conceptual layout in more detailed manner. In
the same way as the P&I diagrams are the
basic documents of chemical engineering
design, equipment layout is the basic
document of mechanical engineering design.
This is a composite mechanical engineering
design, coordinating the design information to
produce construction drawings.
'

The essential data required for the


preparation of an Equipment Layout is as

1.

PROCESS
FLOW
DIAGRAMS
PIPING AND INSTRUMENT
DIAGRAMS (P &ID)

2.

PROJECT DESIGN DATA

3.

EQUIPMENT SIZES AND BUILINGS

(PFD)/

-.

TYPES OF LAYOUTS :
=-

Inline Layout
Similar equipment grouping
Functional equipment grouping

ARRGT-1 :: VERTICAL THERMOSYPHON REBOILER WITH FIXED TUBESHEETS

2-

-I,.

COLUMN

nn
IIII

., VAPOUR RETURN CONNECTION

TOP TUBESHEET
7

SUPPORT LUG
SllELLSIDE INLIJ'f
-

SUPPORT BRACKET
SHELL BELLOWS EXPANSIONJOINT

LIQUID LEG

LSHELLSIOE OUTLET

ARRGT-1:: VERTICAL THERMOSYPHON REBOILER WITH FIXED TUBESHEETS

BOTTOM TRAY OF COLUMN

TOP TUBESHEET

COLUMN SHELL

I/,

SUPPORT LUG
REBOILER SHELL

m..
-,

!,?id

SHELLSIDE OUTLET

BOITOMTUBESYgT

t_
''

SUPPORT BRACKET

ARRGT-3 ::VERTICAL 'FIXED TUBERSHEET REBOILER WITH INDEPEDENT


SUPPORT STRUCTURE.

TOP HEAD
TOP TUBESHEET

COLUMN

.-7
..,

SUPPORT LUG
-

SPRING SUPPORT

REBOILER SUPPORT
STRUCTLJRE

.
BELLOWS
EXPAESL0.NJOIN'I'

The following guidelines and cautions are helpful


in improving the accuracy comparisons.
Make comparison to as similar a
=-

Use similar assumptions in


analyzing both existing facilities and
new design.
iii)
For outdoor installation, where
volume has less relevance than in
and enclosed structure, rely on the
area comparison alone.
For tank farm, general guidelines
iv)
dictated for fire safety reasons or
statutory requirements govern.

GUIDELINES FOR EQUIPMENT MINIMUM SPACING

EQUIPMENT LAYOUT DRAWING - GUIDE LINES


The following are the guidelines generally
followed while making an Equipment layout
Equipment layout shall be drawn in 1 5 0 or
1:100 scale.
b)
A0 size drawing sheet should generally be used for
equipment layout. If the area to be covered is small, A1
size can be used.
Place north arrow at the top right hand
comer of
C)
the sheet to indicate plant north.
The area above title block to be kept free
for
d)
general notes and reference drawings.

e) All equipments are marked with its equipment no. as appearing


in Equipment list & dimensions (diameter, heightilength etc.)
All equipments center line are located in
plant building w.r.t. the column grid. For layout of outdoor plant /
offsite facility, the equipment shall be located by co-ordinates.
g) Conceptual layout, P & ID, vendodfabricated equipment
drawings are to be used as basic document for preparing equipment
layout drawing.
h) Walkways, cutouts, piperacks, floor drains, gutter, trenches, ramp
etc. if applicable should be clearly marked in the drawing.

should be clearly shown.


j) In equipment layout sectional drawing, for each equipment
its top most or bottom most elevations should be marked.
k) Orientation of equipment shall be clearly marked for all the
equipments by orienting one of the major nozzles.
1) In case of reactors / tanks, the location of manhole /
handhole, SG/LG,LI etc. shall be at accessible position.
m) Equipment lifting cutout shall be marked clearly in the
drawing.

n) Equipment planned to be installed in future


emoval /
cleaning space shall be marked.
p)While locating the pumps care shall be taken to ensure that
the NPSH requirement is met.
q) General notes are written on one of the drawings (first) and
shall not be repeated on all layouts but reference shall be
given.
r) Direction of north shall be maintained same for all the
plans for the same plant / project.

S)If more than one drawing is required to cover a specified


area, then the match line shall be indicated clearly with the
"-

t) One of the general notes should specify the absolute level


of the area covered with respect to the plot.
u) The equipment load, operating or test load whichever is
maximum shall be considered for design and the layout
should indicate this along with the dynamic factor
wherever applicable. This could also be covered in table as
well.

v) For reactors with agitators, lifting beam shall be


provided for agitator removal.
nts-rnaint enance
space as recommended by them for
maintenance shall be provided.
x) Equipment layout shall also indicated the
positions of utility stations, safety shower and eye wash.
to
y) Equipment elevation shall be so arranged
ensure gravity flow where specified.

In terms of the equipment arrangement, the equipment


layout (unit plot plan) can basically be divided into two
configurations:
a)

The grade mounted horizontal


arrangement as seen in the refineries
and petrochemical plants,
and
The vertical arrangement found in
b)
many chemical process industries.

basic principles to be followed while locating the equipment.


Economic piping
Process requirements
Common Operation
Underground facilities
Climatic conditions

$1:

I ~ .

518
Fig. 2.2.1 TYPICAL PLOTPLAN OF AN OUTDOOR PETROCHEMICAL PLANT

1 ) A1 l

lltlN

E L L V A I I U N S A%

iN hlhl !AN1

li,l U E l i i i S .

Moinlence
road

Platform for
Platform

Cot Walk

i
i

Tube-bundle
removal areo

-iI

- I-i
I

-'

Process
equipment

.
i

Process

- I - equipment

Pipe rack

lubc-bundle
area

I removal

Pumps
Typicol platforms
on yard steel

Access
Oavil for removal
of tower internols
Air Coolers Over
Piperock

Alternative location
o f air coolers

Fig. 2.2.2TYPICAL CROSS SECTION OF AN OUTDOOR PROCESS PLANT

Muinlence
rood

Fig. 2.2.3

Compressor
hours

Fig. 2.2.4

Fig. 2.2.5

\/f

opening
ond
removol
og itot; space
ROO(

Trolley b e o r (removable)
f o r m o t o r ond geor h o ~ l d l h q
o n d for mixer-shaft seol renewol

i' I

Elevation :

Construction ond
mointenonce occe

Main occess

'

Grade elevation

+ 100

TYPICAL CROSS SECTION OF AN INDOOR


PROCESS PLANT

Fig. 2.2.6a

1 'I 8 M

,CABLE PIPE
TRAY

TYPICAL CROSS SECTION OF INDOOR CHEMICAL PLANT

Fig. 2.2.6b

PHILOSOPHY OF IN-PLANT PIPING


0

o
o
o
o

Value Location
Electrical/Instrument Cable Trays
Statuary requirements
Miscellaneous

So, the first step in the development of pipe rack is the


generation of a line - routing diagram. A line - routing
diagram is a schematic representation of all process and utility
piping systems drawn on a copy of plot plan or it could be
planometric representation of the utility and process line
diagrams. Although it disregards the exact locations, elevations
or interferences, it locates the most congested area.

The pipe rack splits the plant area into convenient parts.
The pipe rack takes various shapes such as 'straight', 'L', 'T', and
'C' or 'U'. This configuration is based on the overall arrangement
and site conditions. Based on the incomingloutgoing lines and
locations, the pipe rack is laid.

I-.

I Process

Dead - e n d

equipment

y a r d . Lines e n t e r

a n d leave o n e e n d o f y a r d .

Fig. 2.3.1

Road

I-------

1
1

HOUSE

'
7
I

PROCESS EQUIPMENT

Road
S t r a i g h t - t h r o u g h y a r d . Lines c a n e n t e r a n d
leave b o t h e n d s o f t h e plot

Fig. 2.3.2

Process

Eq~~iptiien.I:

L-shaped y a r d . lines c a n e n t e r a n d
leave n o r t h a n d e a s t side o f t h e p l o t

Fig. 2.3.3

1
i

PROCESS EQUIPMENT '

r-i
I

L..A

FROCESS-1
i EQUIPMENT I
I

T-shaped yard. Lines c a n enter and


leave on three sides of t h e plot

Fig. 2.3.4

U-shaped
ya'rd. L i n e s c a n e n t e r
l e a v e all f o u r s i d e s o f t h e p l o t

Fig. 2.3.5

and

1 1

HOUSE

PROCESS
; EQUIPMENT

C o m b i n a t i o n o f L-

a n d T-sahped

Fig. 2.3.6

yard..

j
I

Complex yard-piping a r r a n g e ~ m e n t
f o r a very large c h e m i c a l plant.

Fig. 2.3.7

Of course, the configuration of pipe rack is not determined


while doing the plant layout.
I The arrangement results from an overall plant layout, site
nd above all plant economy.
mated as
Safety factor
= 1.5 if pipes are counted from the PFD
= 1.2 if pipes are counted from P & ID.
n=Number of lines in the densest area upto the size of 450NB
s = 300mm (estimated average spacing)
= 225mm (if lines are smaller than 250 NB)
A = Additional width for
(1) Lines larger than 450 NB
(2) For instrument cable traylduct
(3) For electrical cable tray
Future provision
2n%of(fxnxs)+A
f

TYPE 1

TYPE 2

Fig. 2.3.8

TYPE 3

The Headroom normally provided is as below.


Sr.
Description
Headroom
No.
(mm)
Clear head room under
nes
inside operating area.
2.
Head room over rail
(from top of rails)
3.
Clear headroom above
crest of road for crane
movement.
4.
Clear headroom above
crest of road for truck
movement.
Clear headroom above
crest of road between
process units.

P & I diagram, equipment layout, piping


specifications, equipment drawing and the vendor
requirement for proprietary equipment forrn the basis of a
piping layout. In areas where piping is critical, the
equipment locations are fixed only after a 'piping study'
is made.

UTILITY LINES (UPPER LEVEL)


m*LO
+
1
I

$1

$1

FUTURE

I I
PROCESS LINES (LOWER LEVEL)
I

SOURCE RESERVED FOR


CONDUIT

TYPICAL CROSS SECTION O F 2 TIER PIPE RACl

Fig. 2.3.9a

I---

IiEAVY LINES
CW, CHW, CHB

OLD
I

I
I

PROCESS

SERVICE

GAS PW

I HOT PROCCSS I

TYPICAL CROSS SECTION OF SINGLE TIER PIPE RACK

Fig. 2.3.9b

I I(! I LLINI-I;
...

...

..A

NO DIFFERENCE
I N ELEVATIOr\I

qT

T U R N IN PIPERACKS
( C H A N G E I N ELEVATION W H E N
CHANGING

DIRECTION)

Fig. 2.3.10

Fig. 2.3.11

GROUP OF LINES WITH EXPANSI(2bd L(3,(_?F"3


(HOTTEST AND LARGEYIT LINE ( 1 TtTIIPE)

FLEX1
LOOP

DRIP LEG & STEAM -[RAP


Fig. 2.3.13

ELEVATED -.,
EQUIPMENT

&,

'\

EXTENT OF
FIREPROOFING

FIREPROOF ENTIRE
COLUMN

FIRE PROOFING REQUIREMENTS O F RACK C O L U M I I

Fig. 2.3.14

-i

EXTENSION

LOCATION

RELIEF HEADER
LOCATION

NEAR CENTRE. OF
RACK

II
II
II
II
I
BI
I
I

TOP LEVEL

LOCATION RELIED HEADER

Fig. 2.3.15

II
II
II
II

PRESENT

FUTURE

EXTENSION O F FIPCRACI\

Fig. 2.3.16

Fig. 2.3.17

VALVES
IN
- -EL > 2 2 0 0
!d TO BE CHAIN OPERATED

MAX 2 2 0 0

u0
W

0
I

MIN 2 1 0 0

'ty 4APPROX 1 7 0 0

- -- -- -- --

1300

1100

800
CHAIN

600

MIN 1 5 0
MAX 6 0 0

II-

5 0 0 MAX

Fig. 2.3.18

UTILITY

CONN

TO

PROCESS

Fig 2.3.19

EQUPT

COMMON

AS REQUIRED

ELEVATION
ARRANGEMENT OF BATTERY LIMIT
ISOLATION SINGLE LEVEL RACK

Fig 2.3.20

ARRANGEMENT O F BATTERY LIMIT


ISOLATION S I N G L E LEVEL R A C K
ELEVATION C H A N G E

Fig 2.3.21a

ELEVATION b

ARRANGEMENT O F BATTERY LIMIT


ISOLATION SINGLE LEVEL RACK
-ELEVATION CHANGE

Fig 2.3.211,

HIGHER OFF-SITE
RACK

#
UNIT

ARRANGEMENT OF BATTERY LlMll


ISOLATION TWO LEVEL RACK ELEVATION CHANGE

Fig 2.3.22

yv;R
OFF-SITE
-

RACK

ing ,will need certain


ZTie duty for which it is
provided. Piping Engineer should be aware of there
requirement and should take care of the same while routing
these pipe line.
a) Flow measurement instrument need certain straight length
upstream and downstream of the instrument.This is normally
15D on the upstream and 5D on the downstream.
b) The pipe lines in which flow meters such as magnetic
flowmeters ,vortex meters ,turbinemeters etc are located should
be routed in such a way that the line will be full with liquid all
the time.The pipe line should be supported on both sides of
meter.

--

5,

c) Control valves are located at grade, at about 500mm height to


provide convenient access for operation and maintenance. Block
and bypass valve also form the same criteria. The standard
arrangements followed are as per Fig 2.3.23. If pocketing the
process line is unacceptable, then a permanent or mobile platform
should be planned, as access is very important. Locating control
values on the vertical line should be avoided.If is unavoidable; the
should actuator should be supported properly.The bypass should
be selected for easy operation.
d) Isolation valves for level gauges and pressure gauges shall be
made accessible. Access and space for the removal of level
controllers temperature probes ,conductivity probes,bottom flags
of the control values etc shall be provided. All primary and
secondary indicators of pressure, temperature, flow, level,
positioners etc. should be visible fiom the operating area.

e) Rotameters shall be placed on vertical line and the inlet


should be from the bottom of the instrument.
f) Thermowell shall be located on the pipe line of required
size.Instrument hook up shall be reffered for the requirement.

g) Enough operating and maintance occur shall be considered


while locating any instrument.

TYPE I

TYPE II

TYPE Ill

k
T

TYPE V

..

TYPE IV

CONTROL VALVE ARRANGEMENT

Fig. 2.3.23

The requirement as per the following shall be


-2

. :,.
. .... .

The Factories Act 1948.


,

. ...

. ,.'
. ,. .. .
..
:....

...
. . ,.. .
. .... ,. .

b)

The Petroleum Act 1934 & The


rules 1976.

C)

The Static and Mobile Pressure Vessels


(unfired) Rules 198 1.

d)

The Gas Cylinders Rules 198 1.

The Indian Boiler Regulations 1951.

>

Petroleum

.. .

f)

Development control rules by the State


Industrial Development Corporation.

Towers

--

Lines with both ends higher


t h a n top yard bank locoted
o n the higher side

Towers

,.

B
Platform

\4
Drums

lord irvgtn
Lines with one
and other end
can be located
yard elevotion.

end below
obove yard
o n either
--7

,
I lozzle

to nozzle
piping where
possible

Elevation for
orfice runs

I,
~~

lines

Long process lines with both ends


lower than b o t t o m yard bank
ore located o n the lower level

TYPICAI- PIPE RACK CROSS SECTION FOR PIPING ARRAIVGEMEIVT

Fig. 2.3.24

Ground
elevation
+ 1'00 M
~

The requirexilentas per the following shall be


mum-.

,,<a"

ctories Act 1948.


b)

The Petroleum Act 1934 & The


rules 1976.

Petroleum

c)

The St %ticand Mobile Pressure Vessels


(unfire d) Rules 1981.

d)

The Gas Cylinders Rules 1981.

;:.
...
;.' ? . ,':. ''
'. .

...

....
.,...
.., ... .

.._
.id,.
?:. . .. ., .
. , ...
. .. .
.. ..,.
' C...

e)
,

The Indian Boiler Regulations 1951.,

i.,.~.

Q i.' .
. .

,,

~ owtrol rules
~
by the&State
~ % @ ~ r&hn&hpmg~t
ald
g;:v~on.
~

2.3.8 CRITICAL EXAMINATION TECHINIQUE

The quality of the equipment and piping layout can be


established by the Critical Examination Technique where you
ensure that all the following parameters are well addressed
a) It is process adequate?
b) It is operator friendly?
c)It is construction clear?
d)Has adequate maintenance access provided?
e)How to evacuate in case of emergency?
f)Has safe fire fighting access provided?
g)Standard practices where applicable has been adopted?
h)Is the piping arrangement aesthetic ?
i)Is supporting arrangement adequate and aesthetic ?
j) Is piping adequately flexible ?

Pumps rarely influences the plant layout except where a


common standby for two services or multiple duty pumps
might dictate the process equipment arrangement. But the
pumps can never be treated as an independent entity, but to be
treated as part of the piping system which affects the
performance even if the basic selection is faultless.

affect the energy used and capital cost of pumps. Hence,


economy of piping and structures along with ease of
operation and maintenance are the principal aim while
arranging the pumps.

The primary goal in locating the pump is to minimize the


piping configuration while satisfying the performance and
flexibility requirements as well as allowable loads that may
be subjected to the nozzles.
'

Mechanical or Chemical Engineers can no longer consider


the pump as an independent entity, but to be treated as a part
of the Piping System.

ACCESS

CO1,ITPOL VALVE
ASSEMBLY
AC,CESS

RACK

COLUMhI

SPACING

PLAN
LAYOUT O F P U M P S
REFINERY

I1 I

P E T R O C H E M I C A L P L A I IT

Fig. 3.1.la

SPACE FOR PIPING

\,

O
/
E'-,

MAIN

\
\

,A(-: (-:

'</

'-,

'

Fig. 3.1.lb

STARTER

SINGLE P U M P ARRANGEMENT

PAIRED P U M P ARRANGEMENT

PIJMP ARRANGEMENT

Fig. 3.1.2

TANK # I

. CURBWALL
--

I N A TANK FARM

Fig. 3.1.3

VACUUM TOWER

SPRING MOUNIED C!3VRIFUGALPUMPS


FOR VACUUM SERVICE

TO
REACTION # 2

P UMP # 2

TO
REACTION # 1

PUMP # 3
,1:>

',

;!:;.

ri

k:.

PUMP# 1

....I ,
1 --.,'
. .
~,

REACTION # 1

REACTION # 2

GROUPING O F PUMPS # 2

TO
REKTION # 3

S P O O L PIECE FOR PUMP REMOVAL


ECC RED

PUMP WITH SUCTION VESSEL BELOW

Fig. 3.1.4a

SPOOL PIECE FOR PUMP REMOVAL

SPOOL PIECE
FOR PUMP REMOVAL-

P U M P WITH SUCTION VESSEL ABOVE

Fig. 3.1.4b

AT
ELEVATION

DISCHARGE PIPING ARRANGEMENT

Fig. 3.1.5

DISCHARGE PIPING

SUCTION PIPING
ISOLATION VALVE

NON RETURN VALVE

$)

PRESSURE
INDICATOR

CONCENTRIC
REDUCER

'Y' TYPE
STRAINER

REDUCER
F.S.D

PUMP CASTING

TYPICAL SUCTION LINE SUPPORT

BYPASS LINE

BYPASS LINE

COOLER

USE OF ECCENTRIC REDUCERS ALLOWS


LARGER FLANGES ON VALVES TO CLEAR

The complexity of piping system design, maintenance,


and troubleshooting requires the process Engineers, the
Maintenance Engineers and the Piping Engineers on the
same Wavelength and work more closely together.

LPLR

ELBOW

90'

TURNS

PIPE

BEND

I
LATERAL

DOUBLE

BRAN C H - O F F

OFFSET

ONE
ELEVATION

OPPOSING

CONVENTIONAL

ANGULAR

BRANCH

PLANE

TURN

CHANGES

JUNCTION

CONNECTIONS

Fig. 3.1.6

STREAM

STREAM

LINED

LINED

BRANCH

The following general concepts apply for locating the heat


exchangers.
...

Exchangers should be located adjacent to the related


equipment., e.g. Reboilers should be located attached1
next to their respective towers, condensers should be
located next to reflux drums close to tower.
b)

Exchangers should be close to the other process


equipment e.g. in case of draw off flow through an
exchanger from a vessel/reactor bottom, the exchanger
should be close to and under the vessel or reactor to
have short pump suction lines. dverhead condenser
,
shall be placed above the reactor to have minimum
horizontal piping.

c) Exchangers connecting two equipment, one on shell


side and the other on the tube side, located at a
distance, should be placed where two streams meet,
and on that side of the yard where majority of related
equipment is placed.
Exchangers between process equipment and the
d)
battery limit. e.g. product coolers, should be located
near the battery limit to reduce pipe rum.
Stack those exchangers which can be grouped
e)
together to simplify piping and save plot space.
Leave space and access around the exchanger flanges
f)
and heads, and tube bundle cleaninglpulling space in
front and in line with the shell.

h)

i)

While locating exchangers in a row, arrange the


saddle to have more economical overall (lined up or
atjFo;1;~Lstructuredesign. Further,
can be provided in such case to
handle a row of exchangers.
The heat exchanger shall be located in the equipment
layout with respect to the fixed saddle and the same is
located closer to the head
Outline the clearances and working space in the front
and around both ends of the exchanger to facilitate
shell cover and tube bundle removal as well as
maintenance and cleaning.
The channel end shall face the roadside for
convenience of tube removal and the shell cover
the rack side.

The various clearances shall be as indicated in Fig. 3.3.1.


411 Dimensions are in mrn
Fig. 3.3.la

1Clearance

between
b o t t o m of pipe a n d
g r a d e f o r d r a i n valve

_U_75Clearance
e x c h a n g e r betwee3
flanges'
a n d c o n c r e t e plint

Clearance
for swinging

Clearances a r e essential a r o u n d shell-and-tube


heat
exchangers for ease of installation and maintenance
Fig. 3.1.1b

Fig. 3.3.1b

The basic principles adopted in the heat exchanger piping

a)

b)

c)

The working spaces should be kept clear of any


piping and accessories to facilitate channel, shellcover and tube bundle removal, as well as
maintenance and cleaning.
Excessive piping strains on the exchanger nozzles
from the actual weight of pipe and fittings and
from forces of therrnal expansion should be
avoided.
The piping shall be arranged in such a way that no
temporary support will be required for removing
the channel and tube bundle.

dl

Provide easily removable spool pieces, flanged


elbows, break flanges, or short pipe runs to provide
the operation of tube
-""

e)
f)

g)

h)

The pipe lines with valves and control valves should


run along with access aisle close to the exchanger.
Pipe line connecting the exchanger with adjacent
process equipment can run point to point just above
required head room.
Steam lines connecting the header on the rack can
be arranged on either side of the exchanger
Valve handles should be made accessible from the
grade and from access way. These access way
should be used for arranging manifolds, control
valves stations and instruments

-.

j>

To avoid condensate drainage toward exchanger, the


preferred connection for steam lines is to the top of
the header. However, there is nothing wrong in having
a steam connection from the bottom of the header if
steam traps are placed at the low point
The standard dimensions related to exchanger piping
are given in sketch.
These details are illustrated in Fig. 3.3.2.

Access

Yard
piping

1-

Access l o valves
and instruments

T0-

'

exchanger having o b o d

(I

600 rrlrn s h d

Exchanger piping in plan shows arrangements f o r


heat exchangers and space required f o r access

Fig. 3.3.2a

tlian~eic~

'ford-piping
elevations

To p u m p

Dimensions of
2 to 3 ft

Elevations for piping


between exchangers

r-

Ond

Elevotions for p i ~ ) i n g
to odjocent equipwent

B
Exchanger piping i n elevation showing l o c a t i o n of
pipeline r u n s in r e l a t i o n t o

Fig. 3.3.2b

IIU~I-I

pipe ~ u c l . .

The basic types used in the chemical process

1) Fixed tube-sheet Heat Exchange


2) 'U' Tube Heat Exchangers

3) Floating Head type Exchangers


4) Kettle type Heat Exchanger

HEAT EXCHANGE NOMENCLATURE


N-2 NOMENCLATURE OF HEAT EXCHANGER

Figure N-2 illustrates types of heat exchangers. Typical part


and connections, for illustrative purposes only, are numbered
for identification table N-2
Table N-2
1. Stationary Head -Channel
2. Stationary Head - Bonnet
3. Stationary Head Flange-Channel or Bonnet
4. Channel Cover

5. Stationary Head Nozzel

6. Stationary Tubesheet
Shell Cover
Shell Flange-Stationary Head End
Shell Flange-Rear Head End
Shell Nozzel
Shell Cover Flange
Expansion Joint
Floating Tubesheet
Floating Head Cover
Floating Head Cover Flange

Slip-on Backing Flange


Floating Head Cover External
Floating Tubesheet
Packing Box
Packing Gland
Packing Gland
Klfjadlfkaj
Tierods and Spacers
Transverese Baffles or Support Plates

3 1.
32.
33.
34.
35.
36.
37.
38.
39.

Pass Partition
Vent Connection
Drain Connection
Instrument Connection
Support Saddle
Lifting Log
Support Bracket
Weir
Liquid Level Connection

FRONT END
STATIONARY HEAD TYPES

REAR END
HEAD TYPES

SHEEL T W E S

~~

-L
ONEPASSSHELL

TWO PASS SHEU.


Wrm LONGMDINAL B A m E

a
WILT ROW

BONNErmmOe.ALrnVER)

FIXED TUBESHEET
LIKEmB'STATIONARY HEAD

I
~r

NLEDNBESHEET
UKE1('STATIONARY HEAD

OLmlDE PACKED ROATMG H M D

EMOVABLE
NBE
BUNDLE
ONLY

CHANNEL INTEGRAL WITHTUB


SHEET AND REMOVABLECOVE

DIVIDED FLOW

WLLTHROUOH FLOATMO HEAD

CHANNEL INTEGRAL WITHTUB


SHEET AND REMOVABLECDVE

SPECIAL HIOH PRESSURE CLOSUl

K m L E TYPE REBOILER

-DIVIDED FLOW

EXTERNALLY SEALED
ROATMGNBESHEET

BEM

Standards Of The Tubular Exchanger Manufacturers Association

AEP

Standards Of The Tubular Exchanger Manufacturers Association

Standard Of The Exchanger Manufactures Association

AKT

The following alterations can be suggested in order to


I

achieve optimum piping arrangement.


a) Elbow nozzle permits lowering o f heat exchanger to
to valves and instruments.
".
-

b) Angular nozzle can save one or two bends in the pipe


1ine.The maximum angle from the vertical centre line can be
about 30. (Refer Fig. 3.3.4)
c) Horizontal exchanger can be turned vertical for
conserving floor space. Vertical exchangers can be changed
to horizontal when installation height is restricted
d) Exchanger saddle can also be relocated to adjust to a lineup or combined foundation design. (Refer Fig. 3.3.2)

Elbow nozzle reduces height of single exchanger

Elbow nozzle reduces height of stocked exchanger

Fig. 3.3.3

r il

.77.-, T7 7.,. /

77.71/

Ti

Angular connection for top nozzles

Fig. 3.3.4a

Fig. 3.3.4b

Interchange flow media between tube side and shell side.


This can give the following advantages.. .
w through the tube, this
will minimize the heat loss andlor avoid use of thicker
shell insulation.
If high pressure fluid flows on the tube side, only tubes,
tube sheets, channels and cover have to be designed for
high pressure. This reduces shell side thickness and the
cost.
Corrosive liquid should pass through the tube so that
only the tubes and the channels have to be made of
corrosion resistant material.
If one medium is dirty and the other is clean, passing
clean through the shell will result in easier tube bundle
removal and cleaning.

Shell side volume is much more than t h e tube side


and hence vaporization or condensation of free
flowing fluid is more effective in shell.
When hazardous chemicals are water cooled, the
water is passed through the shell. The tube leakage
will contaminate the cooling water. On the other
hand, the shell leakage can vent process material to
the atmosphere.

Undesirable
Slope

Desirable

Slope

Rool
out

i) Conventional condensor
arrangement

i) Most economical piping provided


by rotating channel 180'

Vent

wslz_t'y

Droin

Drain

ii) System hos loop and pocket

Pipe
Rock

ii) Crovilv-flow
suction line obtoined
,
by chonging direction o f flow
through exchongel

:'s -qO-

I,

17

-.-

1
iii) Zig-zag

I,

Pipe

Kz-

I
flow pattern

iii) ser piping and better flow pottern


produced by relocating nozzles.

Simplifying the flow path improves piping design

Fig. 3.3.5

The piping associated with these vessels are simple.


Economy of piping and access to valves and instruments
nozzles. The nozzle and support
ate-das-below. (Refer Fig. 3.4.1)
Inletloutlet nozzles
Vents and Drains
Relief ValvesIRupture Disc
Level gauges
Pressure and Temperature tap-offs.
Manholes
Vessel saddles

Vopour

3/5 L

Tongent line

Nozzle a n d m a n h o l e l o c a t i o n s

Fig. 3.4.1

Tongent line

r- Vessel

I. ugs

Comer Supports

Lug-supported d r u m s
(less economical design)

Lug-supported d r u m s
(More e c o n o ~ ~ i i c odesign)
l

Fig. 3.4.2

Building st,el
is /not
a t t a c h e d to reactorand drive

building and

Fig. 3.4.3

Access on wing
r

Access
steel

Building

b. Outdoor (less econor-rnicul)

-L

c. O ~ i c l c ~ (vI ~I I ~:iI

fig. 3.4.4

1.1.-I:III~

IIII~I:~)

Access

(Less e c o n o m i c a l )
Access,

(More economical)
Vertical D r u m

Fig. 3.4.5

yout and Piping design for a


distillation column, which is more of an integrated unit than the
individual equipment discussed earlier.
Interactions between hydraulic requirements and piping
configurations require close attention to many fluid and
mechanical details, in order to obtain the most efficient and
economical distillation units.

Overhead
condenser
I--

Distillation
column

,,-

Reflux return

Reflux drum

Feed
-

I TO
Q

>-(
Bollom pump
Process flow diogrom

Fig. 3.5.1

strooge

Mar
2s
lacing rood

Lines with both ends ,..,her


than lop pipe rock

Lines with one end below


ond other end above pipe
rock on either pipe
Lines with both
ends lower than
bottom pipe roc1

I V

pump J
suction

control--/

valve

Akrnote
suction line

Elevotion
Line to
equipmenl
ol grode
(reboiler)

Pipe rock
To
'\

~eament

./

equipment
0' grade

01 plotforrm bmckets

Plnn
. ,-,,

Piping oround the distillation column.

Fig. 3.5.2

Riser

Reboiler
Morimum
liquid level

Condensate pot

--7

Sleam condensote

a. Bottom of reboiler should be elevated just


above top of condensote pot.

Distillolion column

fYL-7

Condensale

b. Condemote pot regulales liquid level in exchanger tubes.


Physical relotionship belween liquid level in condensate pot
ond required liquid level in exchanger tubes is important.

Fig. 3.5.3

Minimum

liquid level

L Requit-ed

elevulion
difference between
liquid level in tower
ond exclionger

Required NPSH

Pumpout
bypass

Reboiler raised to meet pump's NPSH; in turn, top of d a m


in reboiler elevates minimum liquid level in tower.

Fig. 3.5.4

The prime consideration in all these cases is the performance


to achieve the process requirements integrated with economy.

MR. T. N. GOPINATH

Basis of Site Selection


Location
1.1Area Allocation
1.2 Transport Facilities
1.3 Manpower availability
Industrial Infrastructure
Community Infrastructure
Availability of Water
Availability of Power
Effluent Disposal
~vailabilityof Industrial Gas
Site Size
Ecology
Pollution

Plot plan is master plan locating each unitlfacility within


the plot boundary for process industry such as.. .

H
H

H
H

Refinery
Chemical IAgro Chemical / Petro Chemical / Organic
Chemical / Inorganic Chemical
Fertilizer
Pharmaceutical
Metallurgical
Power Generation

ata to be collected before starting


1 1 Civil
1.1.1. Plane table survey map.
1.1.2. Contour survey map(at 10M grid).
1.1.3. Soil Bearing capacity.
1.1.4. Nature of Soil
1.1.5. RaiVRoad Access.

ata to be collected before starting


1.2 Electrical
1.2.1. Location of Electric Supply Point.
1.2.2. Supply voltage levels.
1.2.3. Fault Levels.
1.2.4. Voltage Levels required within the unit.
1.2.5. Proposed distribution scheme.

Non Plant ~acilities


Administrative Block
Canteen
Workshop
R&D, QC Lab and Pilot Plant
Gate HouseITime office
Security Arrangements
Vehicle Parking
Medical Centre
Ware House
Covered Area
= Open Area
= Solid Warehouse
Liquid Warehouse
Steel / Scrap Yard
Fire Station
Weigh Bridge
Staff Colony

1.4 Meteorological Data


Minimum, Maximum and Normal Temperature during the
year
Rainfall
Intensity and Direction of the wind(wind rose)
Seismic zone
Wet and Dry Bulb temperatures
Flood level

1.5 Process Data


w

w
w

SizeICapacity of the process unit


Knowledge on the type of plant
Sequence of process flow
Hazardous nature of the plant
The Overall operating philosophy
Fully Automatic
Partially Automatic
Manual
Batch/Continuous
Raw material receipt and product dispatch philosophy
Storage Philosophy
Effluent plant capacity and discharge points, incirneration
requirements, etc.
Type of Hazard
No of flares

1.6 Data on Util'


Source and/or supply point of raw water
Quality of Water available
Water Consumption for the process
Requirement of different types of utilities such as Steam, Air,
Nitrogen, DM water, Brine, etc.
Capacities and Grouping philosophy
Utility grouping philosophy

1.7 Statutory Requirements


State Industrial Development Corporation(S1DC)
Central 1 State Environmental Pollution Control Boards
(PCBS)
Factory Inspectorate
State Electricity Boards (SEB)
Chief Controller of Explosives (CCOE)
Static and Mobile Pressure Vessel Rules (SMPV)
Tariff Advisory Committee (TAC)
Aviation Laws
Chief Inspector of Boilers (CIB)
Oil Industry Safety Directorate (OISD)
Food and Drug Administration (FDA)
Ministry of Environment and Forest (MoEF)

rn
H
H
H

Within the unit


Additional Units
Near future expansion
Far future expansion

Normally Construction is permitted on 50% of the plot area


with total built up area equal to area of the plot (i.e. F.S.I. = 1
(Depending upon the regulation governing the area and the
type of industry))
Area reserved for tree plantation shall be 113 of the area
occupied.
Water storage capacity - 24 hr. minimum.
1 Domestic water - 100 litres per person per day
Water requirement for Boiler - Steam rating x Working
factor
Cooling tower - 2% of capacity as drift and blow down
losses
Washing - 10-15 litres per day per sq.ft. of floor area of the
plant
Gardening - 5 litres per day per sq.ft. of garden area

Height of Boiler Chimney H (in m) = 14 Q where Q is the


amount of
SO, generated in kg/hr.Inter unit distance based on the type and
nature of
the process.
Safety distances for the storages based on the relevant statutory
regulations.

Data to be generated before developing the


1.

Process plants considering the expansion philosophy.


Utilities based on the grouping philosophy and
expansion requirements.
Electrical receiving station and sub-station.
Uncovered storage spaces.
Solid ware houses.
Non explosive chemical storages Explosive chemical
storages as per classification.
Petroleum Product as per classification.
Fire water storage requirements.
Acid 1 Alkali storage.
2.1.10 Steel and scrap yard.
2.1.1 1 Raw material storage and treatment facilities.

2.1.12 Contractor's shed.


2.1.13 Effluent treatment & Incinerator plants.
2.1.14 Flare stacks.
2.1.15 Control room.
2.1.16 Administrative buildings, workshop, canteen,
laboratories, pilot plant etc.
2.2 Tentative details of pipe rackJsleepers.
2.3 Fire water storage requirements based on the hazard
classification.

ayout of liquid storage


Classification of Petroleum Products

* Class-A - Liquid which has flash point less than 23


deg cel.
* Class-B - Liquid which has flash point 23 deg cel. and
above below 65 deg cel.
* Class-C -Liquid which has flash point of 65 deg cel.
and above but below 93 deg cel.
* Excluded
Petroleum : Liquid which has flash point above 93 deg
cel.

Pig.3: Equipment Layout - Explosive Tank farm

Regulatory quantity above which License-

* Petroleum Class A - 30 litres in case of motor conveyance of


stationary engines, capacity of fuel tank.

* Petroleum Class B - 2,500 litres

provided it is contained in a
receptacle not exceeding 1,000 liters capacity.

* Petroleum Class C - 45,000 litres

Layout consideration for Explosive Tank


es
rn

rn

with roads all around the enclosures.


Dyked enclosure should be able to contain the complete
contents of the largest tank in the tank farm in case of an
emergency. Enclosure capacity shall be calculated after
deducting the volume of the tanks (other than the largest tank)
upto the height of enclosure. A free board of 200 mrn shall be
considered in fixing the height of the dyke.
In case of excluded petroleum the capacity of the dyked
enclosure could be based on spill containment and not
containment on tank rupture.
The height of tank enclosure dyke shall be at least 1 M and
shall not be more than 2 M above average ground level inside.
However, for excluded petroleum it can be 600 mrn.

Class A and/or Class B petroleum can be stored in the same dyked


enclosure.
When Class C is stored together, all safety stipulations applicable to Class
A
and Class B shall apply.
Excluded petroleum shall not be stored in the same dyke.
Tanks shall be arranged in two rows so that each tank is approachable
from
the surround road. The tank height shall not exceed one and a half times
the
diameter of tank or 20 M whichever is less.

Layout consideration for Explosive Tank


The tank height shall not exceed one and a half times
the diameter of tank or 20 M whichever is less.
Minimum distance between the tank shell and the
inside of the dyke wall shall not be less than one half
the height of the tank. Height is considered from
bottom to the top curb angle.
It is better that the comer of the bund should be
rounded and not at right angle as it is difficult
extinguish fire in a 90 angle comer because of the air
compression effect.

There should be a a minimum of two access points on


opposite sides of the bund to allow safe access/ escape in
all wind directions
Distances to be observed around facilities in an installation
shall be as per the relevant chart furnished in the
Petroleum Rules. (Refer Fig. 3 & relevant Table in the
Petroleum Rules).

Storage ~esse'lsare not allowed below ground 1evel.They are


to be installed above ground level.
Vessels shall be located in open.
Vessels are not to be installed above one another.
. .
If vessels in the installation are more than one, the
longitudinal axis of vessels should be parallel to each other.
Top surfaces of vessels are required to be made in oneplane.
Vessels installed with their dished ends facing each other shall
have screen walls in between them.
. The distances to be observed between two vessels in one
installation and distance from building or group of building or
line of adjoining property are given in Table 1 & Table 2.

The area where vessels, pumping equipment, loading and


unloading
facilities and direct fired vaporisers are provided shall be
enclosed by
an Industrial Type Fence at least 2 M high along the perimeter
of Safety
Zone.
The minimum distances to be observed around installa,tionshall
be as per
the guidelines in SMPV which are reproduced in Table 1 and 2.

TABLE 1

Minimum Safety distances for flammable,


corrosive & toxic gases
SI. No.

Water capacity of Vessels


( in litres )

Minimum distance
from Building or
Group of bldgshine of
adjoining property

Minimum distance
between Pressure
Vessels

Not above 2000

5 metres

1 metre

ii

Above 2,000 but not


above 10,000

10 metres

1 metre

iii

Above 10,000 but not


above 20,000

15 metres

1.5 metres

iv

Above 20,000 but not


above 40,000

20 metres

2 metres

Above 40,000

30 metres

2 metres

TABLE 2

( in litres )

Minimum distance
from Building or
Group of bldgsfline
of adjoining
properb'

Minimum distance
between Pressure
Vessels

3 metres

1 metre

Not above 2000

above 10,000

!
-Iiii

Above 10,000 but not


above 20,000

10 metres

Above 20,000

15 metres

2 metres

Diameter of l
vessel

Note : The distances specified above may be reduced by the Chief Controller in
ases where he is of the opinion that additional safety measures have been provided.

STEPS TO BE CONSIDERED WHILE


DEVELOPING THE PLOT PLAN

Establish the N-S and E-W (or X-Y) grids, the plant
north in relation to geographical north.
Establish the N-S and E-W (or X-Y) grids, the plant
north in relation to geographical north.
Establish the free area along the plot boundary as per
the statutory norrns.
Work out the area requirements for the green belt,
vehicle parking etc. as per the norms.
The process blocks shall be located in the sequential
order of process flow so that material handling
(solidlliquid) is minimum.

The blocks shall also be arranged considering


prevailing wind
direction so that flammable gases do not get carried
to sources
of ignition.
Storage tanks shall be grouped according to
process classification.
Centralised control room shall be located in safe
area close to
process plant.

STEPS TO BE CONSIDERED WHILE


EVELOPING THE PLOT PLAN
Two adjacent process units shall be located based on
annual shut down philosophy so that hot work shall not
affect the operation.
Process unit shall be located on higher ground away
from the unwanted traffic.
Process units shall be serviced by peripheral roads for
easy approach.
Utility block shall be kept at safe area close to process
plants.
Electrical sub-stations shall be placed at the load
centre to minimise cabling
Receiving station shall be placed near the supply point.
Ware houses shall be located close to the material gate
to avoid truck traffic within the process area.

Flares, FurnacesIHeaters, cooling towers, etc. shall be


placed depending on the wind direction.
Provision of future expansion shall be considered.
Raw water storage shall be placed closer to water source.
Fire and raw water tanks shall be located together.

STEPS TO BE CONSIDERED WHILE


DEVELOPING THE PLOT PLAN
Fire stations shall be away from the hazardous area and
nearer to main gate.
Effluent treatment plant shall be located away from the
process and utility area on the downwind direction.
Workshop, contractor's shed, storage yard, etc. shall
be at centralised location serviced by peripheral roads.
Two gates are preferred, one for the material entry
with weigh bridge and the other one for man entry.
Administrative block, laboratories, etc. shall be located
closer to the man entry gate.
Process unit can be separated within a fencing
providing additional gate.
.Consider recommendation from the statutory
authorities for inter unit distances.
Residential colony shall be located away from the
plant more closer to the city limits.

********

EPC PROGRAM ACADEMY, BARODA


Larsen & Toubro Limited

2 4 JUL 211112
TECHNICAL LIBRARY (PRDH)

Two Days Programme on

Piping Specifications

16th - 17th July, 2002


PRDH Auditorium, R&D Bldg.
Powai

~-

~~~

EPC Centre, B P Estate, Chhani, BARODA, TEL: 776206,771109 FAk776211, E-MAIL: rajesh-patel@enc.Itindia. .c0111

EPC PROGRAM ACADEMY, BARODA


Larsen & Toubro Limited

Two Days Programme on

Piping Specifications

16th - 17th July, 2002


PRDH Auditorium, R&D Bldg.
Powai

EPC Ccutre, I3 I' Estate, ChI~ani,BARODA, TEL: 776206, 774109 FAX:77621 I , E - ~ ~ ~ ~ : - r a j e s h - ~ a t e l @ e n c . l t i n d i a . e b ~ ~ ~

INTENSIVE COURSE ON PIPING ENGINEERING


Conducted by

MATHIMITATION TECHNOLOGIES PRIVATE LIMITED


MLTMB A1
For

LARSEN & TOUBRO LIMITED


MUMBAI

PROGRAMME
MODULE I :PIPING SPECIFICATIONS
TUESDAY, 16.07.2002
0930 - 1100
1115- 1245
1330 - 1515
1515 - 1645

Introduction to Piping
Engineering
Introduction to Piping
Engineering (contd.)
Pipe Sizing & Design
Pipe Sizing &Design (contd.)

ASM
ASM

Codes & Standards


Piping Elements
Piping Elements (contd.)
Piping Elements (valves)

TNG
TNG
TNG
TNG

ASM
ASM

.-

WEDNESDAY, 17.07.2002
0930 - 1100
1115-1245
1330 - 1515
1515 - 1645

Coffee- 11.00 - 11.15

ASM : A S MOHARIR
TNG : T N GOPWATH

Lunch - 12.45 - 13.30

Tea - 14.15 -14.30

Arun S Moharir
Present Affiliation
Professor, Chemical Engineering Department, Indian Institute of Technology, Bombay
Professor, Computer Aided Design Centre, Indian Institute of Technology, Bombay
Professional Qualification
Ph.D. (1981) in Chemical Engineering from Indian Institute of Technology, Kanpur, India
Communication Addresses
CAD Centre, IIT Bombay,
Powai, MUMB.41 - 400076, INDIA
Phone : 091-22-5726249,091-22-5767795 (office)
: 09 1-22-5704310 (Residence)
E-mail : amoharir@che.iitb.ac.in
Areas of Active Interest
Mathematical Modeling, Simulation, Optimization and Control of Chemical Processes,
Flowsheet Simulation,
Reactor Modeling,
Adsorptive Separation Processes,
Computer Aided Design and Engineering,
IT-based knowledge management in CPI (Chemical Process Industry) .
Recent Projects (2000 onwards)
Generalized Reactor Model : UOP
Parex and Molex Process Simulation : Reliance Industries L i t e d , Indian Petrochemicals
Corporation Ltd.
Generalized SMB Process Simulation : UOP
Catalyst Manufacturing Unit Operations Modeling : UOP
Distillation Column Hydraulics Modeling (Legacy Slw Conversion) : UOP
Flowsheet Simulation :UOP
Object Enabling of Legacy Slw written in Procedural Languages : Several Clients
Genomics/Proteomicsflowsheet modeling : Orochem Inc.
Hydrogen PSA Technology Development : Engineers India L i t e d , India
Training Programmes in CAD, CAE, CAPE etc. : Several Organizations
ChemicalAtlas (A Knowledge Portal for CPI) : Mathimitation Technologies, India
Other
Consultant to :UOP, Engineers India Limited, Mathimitation Technologies
Member of: Scientific Advisory Committee to Ministry of Petroleum, Govt. of India
Chairman :Fuel &Loss and Optimization group of Centre for High Technology, Govt. of India

BIOGRAPHY OF A CHEMICAL PROCESS


PROF. A. S. MOHARIR
INTRODUCTION
Like all living things, chemical processes and process plants have their distinct natures and
features. Like us, a process functions through a complex chain of operations performed by its
organs (equipment) which in turn are supported by supplies through a maize of veins and arteries
(pipes). Like us, they have a limited life span divided into various phases just as we have
childhood, adolescence, youth, adulthood and old age. The analogy can be stretched further. With
so much similarity with us living things, why not talk of biography of a process as well? The life
of a chemical process, from concept to commissioning and beyond, involves almost all disciplines
of engineering. So wide is the knowledge base required to walk a process through its expected life
span and so intricately integrated the inputs from various specialization and decision processes are,
that they make the conventional engineering disciplines such as chemical engineering, mecharical
engineering, civil engineering, metallurgical engineering, etc. look artificial. A good chemical
process engineer needs to have a very broad knowledge drawn from all these disciplines. The idea
of this biography is to take a bird's eye view of the activities during the life cycle of a process and
identify those activities, which together comprise Piping Engineering.

MAJOR PHASES
Major phases in the life of a chemical process can be identified as follows.
Determination of techno-economic feasibility
Basic Engineering
Detail Engineering
Commissioning
Normal Operation
There is an explosion of investment as one goes from the first to the last phase. Normal tendency is
to spend very little initially by way of avoiding comprehensive analysis of process options etc. The
recent trend is to squeeze an additional phase between techno-economic feasibility and basic
engineering, called conceptual design, wherein one spends more time (and money) on analysis of
available options to select the option best in some sense. Although it tends to increase expenses
initially, the cost figures by the time the.facility reaches normal operation phase. are reduced
considerably. *Click here for better visualization of the effect of 'working harder and smarter' in
the initial stages.A piping engineer has a major role to play from detail eneineering onward.
However. some appreciation of the contents of the phases involved up to basic engineering is
desirable.
-

TECHNO-ECONOMIC FEASIBILITY
Economic gain drives industry, in general. Except perhaps during early small scale production
activities in metallurgical industry, economic gain has been a major consideration in decisions
regarding the choice and scale of any production activity. Safety and pollution considerations as
well as social issues seem to be gaining importance. In a way these are dso enforced throug!!
explicit or implicit profit governing means such as rewards/penalties. All said and done, such profit
motives have led to great technological innovations. Techno-economic feasibility study evaluates
any commercial scale venture from these angles. A technically feasible and economically viable
process sees the light of the day.For new products, technical feasibility is an important first aspect
to study.
It comprises of two parts as follows.
Chemical path feasibility

Engineering/Technologicalfeasibility
Chemical path feasibility essentially checks whether a suitable chemical conversion route exists to
produce a chemical with desired molecular structure from available raw material. The suitability of
the chemical conversion route is mainly in terms of rate and degree of conversion to desired
product at manageable temperaturelpressure conditions. For more insight into these aspects, *click
here. The sequence of operation which enables a kinetically and thermodynamically feasible
conversion route to be exploited for production is called Block Flow Diagram (BFD). This is the
first diagram in the life of a process and the process can be said to be born. *Click here for more on
BFD. The process represented in a BFD is then evaluated for its engineeringhechnological
feasibility. The idea is to verify whether the current level of engineeringhechnological skills allow
exploitation of the process on a commercial scale without exposing the men, machines and
environment to undue risk. Several decisions need to be taken at this stage. The contents of this
step are becoming more and more involved and include the conceptual design stage in recent times.
One virtually thinks through the choice of equipment, important process steps, possibility of
reducing dependence on external energy sources, reducing possible extent of damage in case of a
mishap etc. *Click here for more details on engineeringhechnological feasibility studies including
conceptual design and process synthesis.With the process synthesis task accomplished, conceptual
design stage of process development is over. The various equipment have been selected and their
capacities are approximately known. The capital cost and operating costs can be estimated
reasonably reliably at this stage. This information coupled with the raw material availability and
cost as well as the product demand and its market price help establish economic feasibility of a
pr0cess.A technically feasible and economically viable process is now destined to grow further.

BASIC ENGINEERING
Physicallchemical operations in a process are normally carried out under harsh conditions. The
temperatures, pressures are either super- or sub-ambient and the chemicals being handled could be
toxic and hazardous. It must be remembered that just as it is important to know what is happening

inside a particular piece of equipment, it is equally important to know as to what are the
implications of the happenings inside on the mechanical integrity of the confining hardware
(vessels) and whether the choice of material of construction of the vessels and pipes and their
mechanical design are adequate to handle normal and abnormal operations. Traditionally, chemical
engineers address the design issues related to happenings inside and mechanical engineers the
implications on the vessels/pipes. For the overall process safety and functioning, the issues should
be treated as inseparable. That is, unfortunately, not the case.
This Phase has essentially two components; the process design and mechanical design.
Process Design :
Process design is basically the detailed material and energy balance calculations over each unit in a
flow sheet. It also establishes the operating conditions, equipment size (not necessarily shape),
utility requirement etc. The results of these chemical engineering calculations are summarized in a
Process Flow Diagram (PFD).For processes which are continuous in nature and operate at steady
state, engineering simulation software are available and are extensively used. These provide
simulations of performance for imposed design and operating conditions. However, one would like
to decide the design and operating conditions for a given desired performance. For example,
process design of a distillation column would mean calculating the number of trays, feed tray
location, sidedraw locations, reboiler and condenser duties, reflux ratio etc. A reactor design would
mean arriving at the reaction temperature and pressure, reactor volume, recycle rate for given
conversion of feed into desired product. Simulators are used to try out various combinations of
designloperating conditions os as to arrive at a combination best in some sense (quality of product,
economics etc.).For example, one would try out different feed tray locations and reflux ratios on a
distillation simulation and study simulated performance. A feed location, reflux ration which give
desired distillate quality etc. would be a candidate design. There may several such designs which
serve the purpose. The best among them in some sense is the optimal design and is recommended.
Through simulation based process design of each unit in a flow sheet and of the flow sheet itself,
the entire material and energy balance calculations for the best design are available. This process
design stage culminates in the preparation of a PFD, one of the basic documents comprising basic
engineering package.
After the development of PFD, the focus shifts on the design of pipes connecting
equipments, choice and specification of instrumentation required to monitor and control process
performance, instrumentation to ensure process safety such as provision of trips, alarms etc.
Appropriate techniques for pipe sizing, pressure design of pipes, Hazard & Operability (HAZOP)
analysis, Control System Synthesis & Design (CSSD), etc. are used. HAZOP studies and reliability
data on certain equipment and pipe components (especially those having moving parts such as
pumps, control valves etc.) suggest the need for standby equipment, bypass valves etc. Need to
isolate dynamics of one equipment from next suggests the need for intermediate storage tanks.
These project engineering activities help develop a PFD into its next incamation, the Piping &
Instrumentation Diagram (P&ID). *Click here for more information on P&ID. PFD with its focus
on processes inside the equipment and P&ID with its focus on accessories connecting the
equipment and on-line instrumentation complete the basic process documentation. With all
equipment and accessories, their sizes and functioning known. a tentative plot plan showing
relative placement of equipment can be prepared. PFD also helps categorue the requirement of
various utilities such as cooling water, tempered water, demineralized (DM) water, steam, thermic
fluid, compressed air etc. Total requirement of each utility and its distribution among the equipment

develops a quantitative Utility Loading Diagram etc which could be used to develop Utility Flow
Diagram (UFD). A full pressure drop analysis of the entire flowsheet can be done at this stage to
ensure that the desired flows can indeed take place. Some individual pipe sizes or pipe sizes in a
segment of flow sheet could call for some adjustment to ensure the desired flow behavior.
Adequacy of the pipe sizes in case of operation at lower than design capacities (turn-down
conditions) and their ability to take additional load in case of throughput enhancement could also
need some pipe size tuning etc.
Mechanical Design :
Pressure design of piping gets done during the development of P&ID. The severity of
operation of each equipment and the nature of chemicals it needs to handle similarly allows choice
of material of construction of each equipment. Indenting process for bought-out equipment and
mechanical design of fabricated equipment can be taken up. Pressure vessel design concepts are
used for this design. It would involve calculating the shell wall thickness, closure type selection and
thickness calculation, selection of suitable gasket material with adequate yield stress and gasket
factor, choice of gasket location (Mean gasket diameter), gasket thickness, gasket width, placement
of bolts (bolt circle diameter), bolt material selection, number of bolts, diameter of bolts etc. A
vessel needs to have openings to serve as inletloutlet ports as well as for drainage, hand holes, man
holes, inspection holes etc. These could be on shell or closures. The shell and closure wall
thickness are designed primarily to ensure that the stresses in the walls even at weakest parts (along
welding sams) do not cross the allowable stress value even after corrosion or inspite of nonuniform
plate thickness (mill tolerance), etc. When openings are cut, stresses concentrate along the edges of
the opening and may exceed allowable stress value used in wall thickness calculations. Provision of
extra thickness, that is choice of a thicker wall could prove expensive. Theoretical findings that the
stress concentration in the event of cutting an opening in a wall is confined within a circle of
diameter double the diameter of the opening is used here to verify if provision of extra thickness in
this circle around the opening can keep stresses within allowable range. Reinforcing pads are then
recommended around the opening if necessary. For pressure vessels subjected to net external
pressure (for example, vessels operating under sub atmospheric pressures), compressive stresses are
developed. Design is more complicated here and need for stiffening rings to reduce chances of
failure due to buckling needs to be checked. Spacing between stiffening rings and cross-section of a
stiffening ring need to be arrived at.
Above elaborate design steps are lead to adequate design of not so tall vessels. Tall vessel design
need to be further checked for its adequacy to withstand wind load, seismic load, eccentric load etc.
TIllcoL
.--,Uu...Yllal
-~,i:+:,.-.
!oads may require enhancing vessel wall thickness andlor provision of stiffeners to
prevent buckling etc.
Pressure vessel design is this quite involved. However, design procedures are very well
documented in the codes and standards. Design software also exist to help develop designs which
comply with accepted codes.After attention is paid to each and every aspect, a fabrication drawing
is issued for fabrication to begin at an early stage. Equipment fabrication is time consuming. Also
in the field work, equipment need to be installed in place quite early so that pipe routing job can be
taken up.
The process design and the mechanical design of pipes and vessels involves extensive chemical and
mechanical engineering calculations. These calculations do not need any data on actual site for

plant location. The design depends mostly on process conditions. Some aspects of mechanical
design for tall vessels, such as meteorological data (wind speed) or seismic data are location
dependent, but hot on the actual plot of land. These calculations also do not depend on actual
relative placement of equipment on the plot etc. Further evolution of the project require the
knowledge of the actual site. Site preparation work and other outdoor construction activities can
begin once the site is selected. We have included further analytical aspects also in
construction phase for this reason.

DETAIL ENGINEERING
Further analytical work needs to be done before the final blueprint of a 3-D plant layout is finalized
and construction begins. Some of the activities listed under the construction phase here may well be
considered as belonging to the above discussed design phase itself. These are included here mainly
because plant site details are a part of inputs to the decision making. The choice of plant location, if
such a choice exists, is governed by politico-socio-economic considerations. The basic approach to
site selection is to assign weight factors to various relevant considerations and to select a site which
scores maximum overall points. Once the site where the process plant and associated facilities are
to hosted is decided, locational factors such as topography, prevailing wind direction, neighboring
site etc. are used to decide on the best plot plan. Apart from the process equipment and offsite,
other requirements such as control room, fire station, hospital, weigh bridge, effluent treatment
plant, etc. are allocated space on the site. The road map of the site also emerges during plot plan
exercise. Care is taken to follow certain guidelines for the location of typical facilities such as dusty
operations, fire bearing equipment, storage tanks, noisy operations, fire station, effluent treatment
plant, etc. *Click here for some typical examples.
Plot plan is science as well as art. A good engineer is one who makes the best utilization of a given
plot to place his facilities. There is a separate module on Plot Plan in the notes where good
engineering practices are covered in more detail.
The next activity is to decide on the location of each of the equipment in the process area. A unit
has its own requirement of space for erection, operation, maintenance etc. For examplz, a shadow
area must be earmarked besides a shell and tube heat exchanger so that the tube bundle can be
pulled out for maintenance. A pump must similarly have space around it s that the motor can be
taken out for maintenance. Large, heavy equipment require large, non-interfering foundations.
There are process-related constraints also as follows. Distance between two equipment connected
by a pipe carrying hot stream must be as less as possible to minimize heat loss. A thermosiphon
reboiler must have certain barometric leg provision and should be located a certain distance below
the distillation column. Suction drum should take care of NPSH requirement of a pump. Forgravity
flow, static head should be enough to maintain desired flow. Certain inter-unit distances have
emerged based on these and similar considerations. These provide good guidelines for equipment
IayoutAnother aspect of equipment layout is the orientation of the equipment on the slot assigned
to it. It decides the nozzle orientation and hence the piping layout. It also decides the accessibility
of different parts and accessories of the equipment. Accessibility, ease of maintenance, implications
on piping layout are the main considerations here.A piping engineer is deeply involved in plot plan
and equipment layout. These are decisions which virtually freeze the parameters for Piping Layout.
Equipped with a PFD, P&ID, individual equipment sizes, erection/maintenance/operation
requirements, safety requirements and also requirement of critical piping (piping which is likely to

expandcontract significantly and/or face vibrations during operation and require additional
consideration or accessories (such as expansion joints etc. to absorb pipe movement during
operation), a good piping engineer relies heavily on experience and engineering sense to develop a
good equipment layout. His decisions could have a bearing on the project cost as the piping
requirement, which constitutes almost 25% of the capital cost of a process plant can be favorably or
adversely affected by his layout.
After the units have been located and appropriately oriented on paper, the layout of the veins and
arteries of the plant, that is the pipes have to be laid out. This activity is called Piping Layout. It is
not as simple as connecting the outlet port of one equipment to the inlet port of another equipment
by the shortest or most convenient route. In fact, such direct connections are exceptional. A pipe is
firmly attached to the nozzles on the equipment. Equipment, by nature are fairly heavy structures
and should support the weight of connected pipes, provided the pipe connections are reasonably
short. For longish connections, pipe would sag under its own weight, under weight of its contents.
Heavy items on pipe such as valves add to this scenario. Also, the connecting nozzles may move
due to expansion/contraction of vessels or simply settlement of vessels. The pipe would
expandcontract during operation. All these operating time happenings develop stresses in pipe
wall. If not properly designed to withstand these stresses, pipe would fail during operation.
Considering all loads that would come on to the pipe during operation and mitigating their effects
with provisions of pipe supports, hangars, expansion joints, or rerouting of the pipe is the job of a
piping engineer who does the piping layout. Weight analysis and thermal stress analysis are
important in piping layout. These can be done today using. However, analysis of the stress
distribution churned out by these software for a candidate pipe routing and modifying the route to
make it safe requires a lot of experience and knowledge. There could be several routes which are
safe. Only one of these would be economical. Amving at this is the exclusive domain of a piping
engineer.
Piping layout is almost the last analytical exercise in the engineering of a process. It requires as
inputs a P&ID, equipment layout, piping elements pecifications, structural drawings of
buildingslplatforms, utility flow diagram, line list, equipment data sheets and drawings etc. Once a
safe and economical layout is arrived at, a piping engineer prepares a piping general arrangement
(GA) drawing showing the pipe routing associated with equipment, piping isometrics and
equipment nozzle orientation, With isometric drawings of all pipe routes available, a complete
quantification of pipe and piping elements requirement is possible.
The course has a separate module on Equipment & Piping Layout.Depiction of equipment and
piping layout in all its details is a major task. Normally a piping general arrangement (GA) drawing
presents a layout. Since a three dimensional layout is to be presented here in a two dimensional
view, lot of symbols need to be used to represent what the piping would look like in actual three
dimensional view. Details regarding piping elements (for example an elbow, tee, valve with lever
etc. has to be shown on a GA. Not only this, further details as to whether the tee is butt welded,
socket welded, flanged or screwed should also be indicated on a GA through choice of proper
symbols.
The knowledge of these piping symbols, their proper interpretation and a mental recreating of a
three dimensional perspective from GA is one of the major skills a piping engineer needs to
possess. Without this. his preparation of GA and his interpretation of others' GAS is going to be
meaningless. Piping ison~etricsare made out of the GA drawing. Isometric (ISO) drawings at least
have the 3-D feel which GAS lack. Isometrics are then used for piping stress analysis, fabrication,

spool drawings etc. Piping drawings make sense only if standard symbols and conventions etc. are
religiously followed. Although not a subject in any conventional engineering curriculum, the fact is
that piping engineers express themselves and understand each other through the language of
drawings. We have a special module on Piping Drawing for you with all important tips, examples
and exercises.
During the detail engineering phase, there is virtually an explosion of information and detail which
leads to an explosion of documents and drawings. All implementation details of activities to be
taken up by mechanical, civii, electrical, instrumentation departments are documented. There is a
tremendous activity in the drawing office as well as in field. It is difficult to discuss all the aspects
here. Coordination of all activities is normally left to the piping department. This is logical because
the basic drawings/documents such as PFD, P&ID etc. are released from here, and the final
drawings/documents prepared by other departments have a direct bearing on the plant, equipment
and piping layout. With all activities leading to the same goal, this coordination becomes important.
An integrated software platform, which serves as a repository of all information and decisions
regarding a project, is becoming popular for internal consistency of detailed engineering activities
as well as for efficient project management. It plays a major role in effective and timely completion
of projects of this complexity and criticality.
A software model of a 3-D layout of a process plant is gaining importance. It is replacing the
conventional plastic models of plant which were necessary and useful for easy visualization and
implementation. Unlike PFD, P&ID, etc., which were schematic drawings, a 3-D model is a
dimensional graphic and can be made to contain all details of a envisaged plant. It can have all the
data associated with a project. Apart from easy visualization, it offers checks for interference (a
proposed piping layout clashing with civil structure or equipment etc.), checks on ergonomics (is an
instrument readable by an average height operator etc.), checks on aesthetics. It can lead to
generation of derivative drawings such as piping isometrics, orthographic drawings of different
sections of plant etc. Bill of material for pipes and piping elements (pipe length, piping elements
such as elbows, tees, flanges, valves, specialties, etc.), procured equipment list (pumps etc.), etc.
could be easily extracted. Preparation of specification sheets or data sheets for equipment,
accessories can be automated around a 3-D model of the plant. Progress of project implementation
can be monitored and documented using 3-D drawings. 3-D drawings, offering virtual reality and
walkthrough effects etc., can be used for acclimatization and training of personnel much before the
plant becomes a reality. A 3-D model is a complete database as well as visual of a process plant and
its use would increase in coming years.
The fieldwork involves actual placement of equipment and routing of pipelines. Necessary civil
structures to serve as foundations of equipment, platforms, housing of various facilities,
supports/hangars for pipes, racks for pipes and electrical cables etc. Welding and fabrication,
painting, hydrostatic testing for pressure integrity of fabricated equipment and associated-piping,
thermal insulation and cladding to prevent heat ingresslegress or sweating or for personnel
protection etc. go on in full swing.
A piping engineer is expected to be aware of and knowledgeable about all these field activities
apart from the design office activities.Once the plant is ready in all respects. it is time to
commission it.

Commissioning involves taking the cold assembled plant to go on-stream and produce design
capacity. If the entire design and detail engineering has been done scientifically, if design intentions
are reflected in various designlengineering documents and drawings correctly and unambiguously,
if fabrication, erection and assembly has been done as per design intentions, then (and only then)
commissioning should be a smooth affair. This is normally not the case because lots of adhoc
decisions need to be taken on field during erection to take care of fabrication errors, late or nondelivery of items, design errors which were made at an early stage and went unnoticed, or even late
second thoughts. The project is normally on critical path during field work and not all these
decisions and their implications are thoroughly analyzed or probed.
Another reason why commissioning is not so easy is that the start up conditions are significantly
different that steady state conditions for which the plant has been designed and engineered.
Dynamic process simulation is a good software tool to evolve a good start-up policy. It helps
envisage the transient performance of an equipment as it goes through the start-up procedure and
also to study alternate procedures for start-up. It is not being used to significant extent today and
conventional and time tested (not necessarily optimal) start-up procedures are followed.All the
decisions of a piping engineer, especially those regarding piping layout, piping supports etc. are on
test during commissioning. The pipe literally moves as it goes to temperatures different than
installation temperature. Inadequacy in weight and stress analysis could surface at this stage by way
of pipe jumping supports, support collapsing, etc. A piping engineer's presence on sight is
important to handle such eventualities.
NORMAL OPERATION
For a well-designed and executed project, the problems during production phase are mostly
operational. If design capacity is achieved with ease, there is always an urge to improve throughput
by way of debottlenecking, reduce on energy bill by way of reducing pressure drop or retrofitting
of heat exchangers etc. These call for minorlmajor changes involving installation of additional
equipment, bypassing an existing equipment and related changes in pipe route. These changes may
be trivial from process point of view but their implications on mechanical design aspects could be
far-reaching. A trivially simple change may lead to adverse changes in type andlor magnitude of
stresses in piping systems causing their failure and disaster. A healthy practice is to involve a
piping engineer to be associated with every hardware change or operating point shift contemplated
during normal operation of a process plant. A limited HAZOP analysis of the proposed change is
also recommended to discover a hidden serious problem in a superficially trivial change. These
aiuali jobs are normally not supported by big consulting houses and an in-house piping engineer has
to manage these mini designlengineering assignments.
CONCLUSION
Important events in the life of a typical chemical process are described in this paper. Concept,
design, engineering and operation of a chemical ljrocess plant are truly multidisciplinary in nature.
A piping engineer has a major role to play during important events during the life span of a process.
He is one engineer who must have a broad knowledge of all aspects and their interplay.

PIPE HYDRAULICS AND SIZING


DR A.S. MOHnKIR
DR P. PAIWN.IAPF.

WHY PIPE SIZING IS IMPORTANT


According to a 1979 American survey, as much
a s 30% of the total capital cost of a typical chemical
process plant goes ior piping, pipiing elemen&'and
A significant amount ofoperating cost (energy) is also
used up in forcing flow throughpipingand i s -poms.
4 significant amount ofthe maintenance cost is also for
the piping and associated things.
Proper sizing, optimal in some sense,is therefore
vry necessary.

WHY IT IS DIFFICULT ;UVD AT TIMES


MEANINGLESS
Piping must be sized before the plant is laid out.
Layout must be complete(i.e. equipmentmust be locate4
pipe racks established, layout of individual pipe runs
decided, etc.) for calculating realistic pressure drop and
doing pipe s k g for each pipe segment This 'chicken
and egg' scenario means that decisions regarding pipe
sizing md plant layout must be iterative in most cases.
That is n o d l y not the practice except in fw, very large
engineering organizationswhich can afford i t Having to
carry out pipe sizing at a p m m t m stage invariably means
that the recommended pipe size may not meet process
requirement or may not be the most economic, etc.
Normally a layout is assumed drawing on past
practices and experienceand pipes are sized No second
iterationiscarriedout Actual layoutwhichmergcs later
may be significantly different than d a t was assumed
during sizing. The sizes may thus turn out to be nonoptimal. Also, what is optimum today may not be
optimum over a long period (due to fouling, change in
r;kive mt~,
change in opelacing schedule which affects the utilintion time of h e pipeline, etc.).
Pipe sizing is thus a 101ofexpaience. engineering
foresight and judgment than just theory. This paper
anernpts to review the pipe sizing procedures, the
pressure drop dculation procedms which are integnl
ro pipc: sizing p d ~ - s L. k i f d l s L? these ulculaliocs.

the confidence limits in calculated valuesand the factors


ofsafely which rnut be incorporated in view of known
limitations ofcorrelations. Different conccpls Z t i;ci-r~
cemented through representative examples during the
lecture in the Certificate Course on Piping Engineering
c ~ n d u c t e dby Piping Cell at Indian Institute of
Technology, Mumbai.

PIPE SIZING PROCEDURES


. ..

Pipe sizing is :&leially done using one of the


following ai&
1) Velocity considerations
2) Available pressure drop c o e d d o t s
3) E~onomicconsiderations
The degree ofdifliculty increases as one goes h m
(1) to (3). While pressure drop calcularion is an integral
part of (2) and (3), it would need to be calculated in case
(I) also to quanUfy energy reaukmat,
.bdngpressureproviding eqkprrtentsuch z pumpdccmpressors, etc.
To' be conversant with pressure drop calculation
procedures for variety of flow types thatare encountered
is thus very important

a
..
v

D h 3 flow. The

T h e paper reviews ihe following:


TYPES OF FLOW

Single p&, Two ?k.


bidti-phue
Horitond, Inclk&
n r o u g hk c h t ~ ~ - through
~ i p complcx
,
mUlj7gS

;wli..c-~, non-;sc.~;.s&

BERNOULLI'S EQUATION
SINGLE PHASE PRESSURE DROP
CALCULATIONS

*
*
*
*

Horizontal. maighf constant cross-section


segment
Inclined. s~raight,constant cross-section segment
Fittings and valves
Equivalent length in actual terms
Equivalent length in diameter ierms

TWO PHASE PRESSURE DROP


CALCULATIONS.

*
*

Flow regimes and their identifications


(Baker Parameters)
Pressure drop calculations
(Lockhart Martinelli, Baker)
Confidence levels in calculated pressure drops
EffectofiMon
~cientific'a~~roach

MULTI-PHASE FLOW PRESSURE DROP


CALCULATIONS
1

A possible approach

PrPE SIZING
t

..

Velocity considerations
.r-...
,~bsire
drop considerations

Economic considerations

Although h e flow can be categorized on several


basis. the classification based on number of phases
i:l\.olvcd is the rnon commonly 4.
When the flowing
filcx!iuni h s uniform physical propcnicsacross the How
:n's.;-wcrion. the now isa sing!e phase llow. Flow of

purcsinglc liquids.solutions ol'solids in liquids. rnixturcs


ofcomplctcly rnisciblc liquids. mixture.^ of gascs andror
vapors come in this category.
AIother flows= multiphase flows.The two phase
flowwould involve two distinct ~hast.ssuchas liquid with
irsvapor,a liquid with anotherimmirible or pady soluble
1iquid.a liquid with an incondensible gas. etc. A liquid or
gaslvapor sueam with suspended solid particles is also a
two phase flow. However, a two phase flow would
normally refer to two fluid phases. When rwo immiscible
liquids are involved with their vapor andlor another inen
gas, it is a three phase flow and so on.
Energy required to sustainsuchflows inpipes/tubes
is avery important information which has to k generated
through calculationsof pressure drop that the flow would
cause in a conduit of given cross-section, and extent.
This informarion is then din locating equipents.
pipes, deciding their routes, rating pressure generating
equipments, etc.
Temperarureoftbe flowing medium affects physical
properties such as density and viscosity which in turn
have a bearing o n t h e pressure drop. When the
temperature is constant over the pipe segment under
consideration, or the [ e m p e w change along the flow
path is not significantenough so as to cause appreciable
change in the physical properric;, it is treated as an
isothermal flow. When the temperature change is
significanf it is a non-isothermal flow. When the density
of the flowing medium is not m n g l y correlated with the
pressure, the medium is termed as incompressible and
the flowas incompressible flow:Liquid flow (single, two
or multiphase) would come in this category naturally.
However, when gasedvapors which are compressible
[that is their density is a strong function of pressure) are
involved, but the pressure drop along the flowpath is not
significantenough to affect the mediumdensity, theiflow
may also be treated as incom~:essibleflow. Otherwise,
the flowofgasedvaprs is a*cornpressiblefim.
In some flow situations, especially two and
rnultiphase flows, the inclination ofthe flowconduit from
horiwnlal is of great siydicance. Also whether the flow
in h e inclined conduit is upward or downward is also an
irnportantconsidmtion. In the caw:ofsingle phase flow.
tlic inclination is imponant in thc scnse that it affccs tthc
ovcr,~llcncrgy balance given Tor the fiowsituation by h c

lbrnous I3ernoulli's equation. But.'the flow type and


hydnulic pressure drop are not affected by the pipc
inclination

BERNOULLI'S EQUATION

the tempenture ofthe fluid as it flows. 'lhis lcmpcmturc


rise is not enough to do any work and this energy
rransformed into thermal energy is as good as lost &rW.
This expressed in pressure units or expressed in terms of
an equivalent wlurnnofthe flowing fluid is called fiiaional
pressure drop or head loss.
Incorporaringrhis fan into the Bernoulli's equation
yields the following form which is generally used in
calculating fictional pressure drop in flow:

In its original form, Bemoulli'sequation~smerely


a statementofcodon
ofenergy for flowing medium.
Consider a segment of an inclined conduit of variable
crosssection as shown in Fig. 1 and fluid flowing through
it. The energy of the fluid at any location may be
expressed in terms of a vertical column of the flowing
fluid itself. This height at any point along the conduit is SINGLE PHASE PRESSURE DROP
then seen as cornpxisingofthreecomponents, t
kpresnrre
CALCULATIONS
head (Pip), velocity head (+Rg) and elevationhead (Z).
Bernoulli's theorem states that the sum of these three
Single phase flow is classified as LAMINAR.
components is constant eveqwkxe along the flow path
TRANSIENT'orTURBULEM. The deciding factor is
This is bue if there are no external energy inputs or
withdrawals h r n the conduit Applied at the t
m paints the REYNOLD'S NllMBER defined as follows.
1 and 2 of the inclined pipe shown (Figl), the Banoulli's
equation can be written as follows :

It is a Dimensionless &-dmif thequantities are in


consistent units For Reynold's n m k d u e s q to 2 0 0 ,
the flow is termed lamiprand for valuesabove 4000, it
is a turbulent flow. The range 2000-4000 is termed as
the transition region D inthe definitionof the Rvold's
number is the actual diameter ifthe flow cross-section is
circular suchas in commonly ued pipes. However, for
other cross-sections (rectangular, square, annular, etc.).
D is defined in t c m s of the Hydraulic radius (R,,) as
follov.3 :
D = 4 *.Hydraulic radius
Fig. 1
The HYDRAULIC RADIUS is defined as a ratio
When the pipeis horizontal (Z, = Z,) and tl\conduit cross-section is uniform (v, = v,), the pressures of flow cross-sectional area to the wetted perimeter. For
at the two points. I and 2. should be cqual. This is not example, in the caseof a nx+mgdarcross-section with
the c x e kcause the flow is confined by the pipe and sides a and b, tbe flowcross-section is ab while h e wetted
here is a resistance to flow caused by Friction between perimeter is2a+2b. Similarly, for an annular region as
the fluid and $e wall. friction betweendifferent layers of shown (Fig. 2), the hydraulic radius is as shown:
fluid flowing a[ different velocities and thesmall or big
swirls crated in rhc liquid due ro flow tubulence. Flow
pins; thm rcsiwnws C ~ ~ I K 'gcncntion
S
of h a t mising

roughness E by calcula~ingits ratio ~vithpipc dianlctcr

W).

With D defined in this general sense in the definition


of Reynold's number, the Liitingvalues of the number
for laminar, d e n t and turbulent flows remain the same
as givenearlier The linear velocity used in thedefinition
of Reynold's number is obtained by dividing the
volumemc flow rate by cross-sectional area for flow.
Alternative but equivalent forms of definition of
Reynold's number which are commonly used are as
follows.

wherz G is the linear mas: velocity of fluid

The log-log plot is difficult to read and the reading


is error prone due to nonlinearity of scale. Several
correlations are therefore proposed by various authors
so that the friction factor can be caiculaicif Somi the
Reynold's number. Some of the famous correlations are
given later.
In the case of implicit correlations. an iterative
approach is necessary to get the value ofthe fiction factor
for given value ofReynold's number. Neivton-Rhapson
method may be used for getting the value in fewer
iteiations.
~ a n n i n ~equationis
's
also used in place of ~ a r q ' s
equation as follows :

Comparison should show that the Darcy's fiction


factor is obviouly four times the Fanning's fiction factor.
f, While using any friction factor vs Reynold's number
graph to read fiction factor and then while using it in the
formula to calculate the pressure drop, olemust be taken
to choose the compatible graph and compatible
correlation. This is often a source oferror.
Another friction factor is alw defined by Churchill
(which is half of Fanning's
friction factor). The
corresponding formula for pressure drop calculation thus
has a factor 8 in the numerator instead of4 in Fanning's
equation. So, one needs to be really very careful in
handling this prevailing multiple definition scenario.
Generally,chemical engineering \imamreuses Fanning's
friction factor and Process indusq follows the Dmy's
-fiction factor.
If one uses the f vs Re plot. it is necessary to note
*her
it is for F&,
Darq or C o d h d c n factor.
There is a simple way to do it which any e n g a r should
know. Ifyou don't, ponder over ita little and you would
get it.
Several simplifiedcorrelations are available to
calculate friction factors from Re,mold's number undt.:
dilfcn-nt conditions of flow. Some o f k commonly used
ones are given below with reference to the Darcy's
dclinition of friction factor. Suiuble multiplying hctors
-

where W is mass flow rate in Iblhr, D is pipe ID in


inches and p is density in lb/ft3.
The frictional pressure drop is calculated using
Darcy's equation as follows.

f, is termed as the Darcy's friction factor and is


rrlated to the Reynold's number and pipe roughness. The
applicable and widely used graphs are given in several
test books.
For nubdent region. h e friction factor value should
I)c rcxl f i o n ~an appropriatc curvc for a pipe of

'-4.

must be used to convert these correlations i\)r other


fiction factors.

fl

represcntativc values are givcn in thc'l'ablc I. Note tl~c


by dilkrcnt
wide vwiilion in perceptions ofthc IOU&JXS
authors. In most plors, Moody's roughness values arc
LAMINAR REGION
used. Becauseofthevariation in fiction factordefinition
and roughness values, it is advisable to stick to one plot
f = 64/Re
with full knowledge of the friction factor it perrains to
and the roughness values it refers to.
The frictional pressure drop calculated by any of
TURBULENT REGION
the above methods should be multiplied by the effective
length of the pipe segment to get the net frictional drop
Rough commercial pipes, Reless than 50000 :
across the segment This is then used in the Bernoulli's
equation to obtain the actual pressure drop between pipe
f = 56.8 x 10-'OR .'
origin and destination ?he effectivelength is the actual
pipe length ifthe pipe l i e is stmight and long enough so
Smooth Pipe, Re less than 3400000
that pressure drop due to e x m turbulence created at the
enhance when fluid enten the pipe from an equipment
f-'* = 19.656 In
or at the exit when the pipe feeds into another equipment
are relatively insignificant as compared to overall frictional
pressure drop .In case the pipe has fittings such as elbows.
tees. valves, expanders, reducers etc., an hypothetical
Blaiius equation, hlly developed turbulent :
straight pipe length ofsame diameter as the run pipe on
/
which the fitting exists is added in place of each ofthe
f = 0.3 164 Re425
fittings, The effective length is the sum ofthe &ght-run
pipe length plus the total equivalent length for all fittings.
Another Blazius equation
Entrance and exit of fluid in and from the pipe segmtmt
also adds to turbulence and to extra pressure drop. This
f = 0.046 RC4.l
effect is also incorporatedby adding equivalent length of
s
finin@
these.
The actual ~ u i d e n t l e n g t h forimprtant
Smooth or rough pipe, Re less than 3400000,
are given in real terms (i.e. lengthofpipe to be added) in
developing tubulent flow :
Tables 2-5. m e tables are taken from the famous paper
on practical pressure drop calculations by Robert Kern)
In another approach, equivalent lengrh of fittings
f-'n=19.656 In
are mentioned in terms ofdiameters of the pipe. This
number should then be mdtiplied by the pipe size to get
the equivalent length ofpip? to be added. The equivalent
Most f vs Re
would mark -ition
between lengths for valves and$kngs in terms of diameters arc
developing and fully developed turbulent f h w s by a reported in several books and are not given h a . Analysis
broken line. Most flow situations in process industry ofhe actual equivalent lengh for fittings ofdifferentsixs
would fall in the fully developed turbulent region and as given in Tables 2-5 should show that the equivalent
Blazius equation (especially the one with Rewith exponent diameter approach is rather approximare. Using actual
pipe lengths as per tables is a more accurate approach.
-0.2) given above is widely used.
Above procedure isapplicable lo fluids. i.c.. liquids
The roughness faclor E is dcpcndent on the pipe
material and rncthod of fabrication a l ~ dsome and gascs.

['";4"'3

,C 1,

*d[

In case the temperature varies across the pipe


segment, the physical properties vary. Also if the fluid is
gadvapor. its volumetric flow rate may vary due to
pressure changes arising out oftemperature change as
well as due to pressure drop. To account for these effects.
it may be a good practice to divide the whole line into
segments over each ofwhich, the temperature change is
not so significant as to change the pmpertiesdrastically.
The properties are suitably updated to incorporate
temperature and pressure changes as one traverses these
hypothetical segments .Calculation over all the segments
thus gives the total pressure drop.
Change in pressure across the pipe may be of
importance in w e of compressible fluids. It may be
ignored if it is less than 10%ofthe total fluid pressure.
However, if it is more than this engineering tolerance,
above approach of segmenting the pipe line may be
adopted.
A good practice would be to calculate pressure
drop over the pipe run assuming fluid properties at inlet
with.
or average t e m ~ p ~ s s u r e c o n d i t i oto
n begin
s
If the pressure drop so calculated is within 10% or less
of the actual pressure levels at which the fluid is flowing,
one m q ignore the effect o f t e m p e r a t u r e / p change.
~
If the pressure drop exceeds 10% offlow presswe, the
above approach of segmenting may be resorted to.

TWO PHASE PRESSURE DROP


CALCULATIONS
Pressure drop in the case of a two phase flow is
dependent on the flow regime. For two phase flow
conditions, 7 regimes are possible as shown in Fig. 3.
Flow regime identification is done by following Baker's
procedure.
'I'wo Baker parameters Bxand Byare calculated
as follows.

In theabove definitions, following units arc used.


Wv Vapow flow rate. I b h
W, Liquid flow rate. Ibhr
pv V a p w density, lblii'
p,
Liquid density, lb/ftJ
A
Internal cross-seectional area h:
p, Viscosity of liquid. cp
a , Surface tension of liquid, dyndcm

Note that although the Baker parameters are


dimensionless, the numerical constants (2.16.53 1) in
above equations are dimensional. Given units must be
followed
The Baker parameter values are then used to
identify the flow regime from the plot given (Fig.4). j
Remember, slug flow must be avoided in process piping
applications.
The ~ r e s s u rdrop
i
calculations then proceeds as
per several correlations offered by several researchers.
Only two commoniy used ones are discussed here.

LOCKHART MARTINELLI METHOD


Assuming that only i?e'liquid flows in the pipe!inc.
calculate the pressuredrop that it would cause over unit
length. (AP),.Similarly. consideringthat only vaporlgas
flows in the pipe, calculate the pressure drop per unit
length, (AP),.Single phase correlationsare to be used in
getting these two pressure drops.
Lockhart Martinelli Modulus, X, is then defined L
as follows.

For h i s value of modulus.amultiplier Y,or Y, is


then read from the plot in Fig. 5 and it is appmpria~cly
used inone o f h e following relations to get the two phaw
pressure drop, (AP),, per unit length. Multiplying this
with the e f f d v e length (after including equivalent lengths
ofthe fittings) ofthe pipe. onegets the tot31 two phasc
Fricdond prcssurc drop.

BAKER'S METHOD
Depending on the regime identified carlicr, an
appropriate correlation or plot is used to get Bakers'
modulus. cp? and it is multiplied with pressure drop with
only gas flowing to get the two phase pressure drop.
Fig.6 is used for dispersed flow.

llowcorrclatiom and predicting two phaw: llow prchsurc


drop. The approach would be something like this.

Step I
~onsideronl~that
r h e ! i q u i d p ~ ' ~ l u d i n g h e t wliquids
o
,
is flowing through the pipe. Let these liquids bc I and I.. I
Using Lockhart Martinelli method or other method (say .:
Baker's), calculate the pressure drop per unir length that ..
would be caused in this case. Let this be hPu.
'

,....

These correlations were derived by the respective


authors by extensive experimentation on air-water flow.
but mostly on smaller diameter pipes. There applicability
for largerdimension industrial pipes issusped However,
:hese remain the most used correlations. Better
approaches to hvs phase flow pressure drop estimation
are available but are seldom used.
In two phase flow calcula$ons, confidence levels
are low. Also, it is not safe to overdesign hereas the flow
regime may change and one may get an undesirable flow
regime such as s l q flow. Exwme precaution is therefore
necessary at engineering stage in designing pipes for two
phase flow and one must be.ready to handle problems
that may surface at the commissioning stage.
Th2 Baker map is applicable only ifthe flow lineis
horizontal. Inclination has a great effect on flow pattern .
and the flowregime may change for same vapor and
liquid flows in same size pipe line ifthe inclinations are
different. Also, in inclined pipes. it matters whether the
flow is upward or downward. Extensive work has been
reported on these aspects but industrial practices ignore
this fact.

.3.
.,

.-.

;$j
.--

MULTIPHASE PRESSURE DROP


CALCULATIONS
Two immiscible or partly miscible liquid phasesand
a gas phase comprising ofvapors ofthese liquids andlor
o t h c r g ~give
s rise to three phasc flowsituaions. Then:
arc no rcponed reliable prcssure drop calculation
approaches for three phasc flow. What is proposed here
is a possiblccstcnsion of ihr Lockh~rlManinclli approach

Step II
$,
Consider only gaslvapor is flowing and calculate the ;$.
<
pressuredrop that ~ouidocctir~erunit
length using single ;
V*..
?
phase pressure drop correlation. Let this be AP,.
.:.

Step111
.
Calculate the Lockhart ~ & n e l l imodulus as wasdone
in the two phase flow situationas follows. .
.

X2= AP,

..

:*
.,.

1 AP,

Step IV
For this valueofmodulus, amultiplier YL?.e. Yu) orY,
(or Y,) is then read from the plot in Fig. 5 and it is
appropriately used in one of the follo~ingrelations to gct
thethree phase
drop, jAPjuv per unit length.
Multiplying this with the effective length (after including
equivalent lengths of the fittings) of the pipe, one ge& the
total three phase frictional pressure drop.

..
1.

i;
:..

.::

I:

?.
.\

:~
i:.
?,I'

<.

It may be appreciated that this is nothing but using

the Lockhart Martinelliapproach on itself. In the a k n c e


ofany othercot~elationwith proven merit. this is likely to
be a good engineering approach.

PIPE SIZING
...
\ .

Thc earlier mentioned three pipe sizing appnl:du


arc discussed here in brief.

?.
I;:
i

'.

SILVER JUBILEE

P I P E SIZIXC BASED ON VELOCITY


CONSIDERATIONS

PIPE SIZlNC B,\SED ON .AVAILABLE


PRESSURE DROP

This is the simplest of approaches. Herein.


recommended values oflinexvelocities for the flowing
medium are used along with the design flowrates to back
out the pipe diameter. Recommendations for the linear
velocities may arise due to process considerations.
mechanical considerations. material of construction
considerations, corrosion considerations, economic
considerations based on prior experience etc. or a
combination of these. Consider the followinr!
- examoles.

Thjs is a more involved method of pipe sizing and

In a stem carrying pipe, if the linear smrn velocity


is beyond acertain value, the flowing steam may
pick up the condensate. b d it up into fkgments.
These entrained condensate droplets may impinge
against the pipe wall causing erosion and erosion,c~rrosion
Too low a steam velocity in steam headers may
mean a l q e diameter pipe for design requirement
ofstearn. This would increase Dive
. . cost insulation
wn etc. thereby adversely affecting economics.
A gaseous stream canying particulates (such as
pneumatic solid mmprt lines) must flow above a
minimumvelocityto eliminate solidssetthing down
at pipe bottom causing flow obstruction, increased
pressure drop etc.
A gaseous &canying particulates must not
flow above a certain linear velocity &eliminate
severe erosion ofpipeline or elbows etc.
A line c q i n g two phases must be of a suitable
dimension so that certain two phase flow regimes
(such as slug flow) are avoided oracertain regime
is guaranteed (such as concentric flow).
Linear velocities in exhaust lines should be below
ce&
upper limit to keep noise within acceptable
levels.
These are just representative examples to help
appreciate the o r i ~ i nof such restrictions on linear
,,.e!witicsoffloving m$'durn.
Some ofthe more accepted linear velocities in a
aid).ofdcsign cases are compiled in Tables 6 and 7.

perhaps the most important. Pipes are sized here r


n meet
certain process requirements. These process
requirements are tramlated into the maximum hydraulic
pressure drop that one can accept over the pipe segment
of interest. A minimum pipe size which causes a pressure
drop at the most equal to this maximum acceptable
pressure drop is thus recommended. Any size more than
this size would also be acce~table,but would be
uneconomical as it would involve higher capitid cost.
The procedure would be oneof trial and error. A
commercial pipe size would be assumed in termsofNB.
The pressure design of the pipe would decide the
schedule. From the appropriate tables. the ID of the pipe
size would be obtained. Taking this as the hydraulic
diameter and for ihedesign flowrates, hydraulic pressure
drop over the proposed pipe route is calculated using
appropriate pressure drop correlations. If this pressure
drop is more than the acceptable level, a higher pipe size
is taken for next trial. Ifthe pressure drop is much smaller
than that acceptable,next lower pipe size can be tried.
Minimum pipe size meeting the pressure drop requirement
is recommended.
some importantsituatiom where piF sizing needs
drop considerations
to be done using available
'are as follows :
Suction Pipe Sizing for a Pump : ;\ liquid is to be
1.
pumped h m astorage tank to an equipment The storage
tank pressure is fixed. On its way from the storage tank
to the pump suction, the liquid would loose pressure due
to frictional pressure drop. If this pressure drop is
excessive. the fluid prepure'as i t is delivered to the
ofthe liquid
impellers may be ~ d ;hewvapor
at flowinn- temwrature. The liquid would flash and some
ofthe liquid would then evaporate..4sthe impellers impart
kinetic energy which is then converted to higher fluid
pressure insidethepumpbody.:hepressureagain rises
above the vapor pressure. Tne vqm bubbles previously
. . suddcn
formed thus collapsc back into liquid form. This
collapse creates the 'cavitation' sffcc: which could

-.... ,

i
.

,.-

d m ~ a g the
c blades and cause vibration and noise. This
must be avoided at any cost. It is therefore imperative
thar thc pressm drop in Lhe suction pipe should be such
that the liquid is delivered to the pump at not less than the
vapor pressure at flowing tempenture.
Even when there is no pump, above considention
would apply. During its passage through the pipe, the
pressure of the flowing liquid should not drop below its
vapor pressure at flowing temperature. Otherwise
vaprization would rake place.

be commissioned. pump would be damaged and so on.


I t helps to appreciate these process rclarcd
limititlions through working out suitable practical uscs..

ECONOIMICPIPE SIZING
COST APPROACH

: LEAST ANNUAL

2.

'

...

If the Linear velocity and available pressure drop


c o b n t s are not sn-ingent or these co&ts
ail1 leave
a scope of a reasonably broad choice ofpipe sizes, the
most economic among these should be chosen.
The economics is governed by the capital cost of
3.
In the case ofa feed to distillation column, it may the pipe and accessories including fining, insulation etc.
be the process requirement that the feed is a saturated and the annual operating cost. If for a given service. a
liquid.That is, at the flowing temperature, the feed is at smallerpipe size is used, the capital cost would be lower.
vw
. r .pressure and fl&es as soon as it enters the column. At the same time. smaller size would mean higher fluid
The pip- zarrying the liquid from &e reservoir or the pressure drop and therefore higher ~ u m p i n gcosts. These
prmious q u i p e n t to the distillation column must ensure two conflicting effects ofpipe size mean that there is an
that the pressure drop is suchas to deliver the liquid at optimum pipe size.
saruration p i n t
For the two costs to be compared, it is necessary
that the capital cost be annualized. Fig.7shom a typical
1. A liquid is required to flow at desig iate by gravity annualized cost of a pipe for given senice as a function
From a vessel to a lower destination. There is only one ofpipe diameter. The operating cost c w e is shown in
pipe size which would come close to this requirement. Fig. 8. The sum ofthese two costs (Fig.9) gives the total
The nearest commercial si7e should be recommended. annualized cost which passes through a minimum. The
objective ofthe Least Annual Cost (LAC) approach is
5.
.A distilhion column uses thenno>yphonreboiler. to obtain this optimum diameter. Although conceptually
This kind ofa reboiler works on the principle ofnatural simple, it is dependent on the reliability of cost data and
circulation developed due to a static head difference cost projections over the life of the pipe being designed.
between the downcomer and riser. Pipe sizing is a A possible approach which appears rearonably scientific
delicate babe bemeen barometric head that is available and practical is presented here (Nolte. 1978).
and pressure drop in downcomer and riser.
Thecostofunit lengthofrunpipeofdiameter D is
calculated as
6.
A fluid is to be tiansported h m p i n t A at pressure
PI to point B at pressure P2. There is a flow control
valve on Lhe m s p c r i line and it has been designed
ssurning certain pressure drop across the valve is X is the cost o f 2 inch diameter pipe ofsame material
available. Pressure drop across rest of the line that is and schedule.
3vailable is thus Limited and pipe must be sized
The pipe will havecertain acceaories such as piping
xcordingly. Tik sitution can come even in two phase elemmts. though thecost ofthese would be application
I~O\V IiEj.
specific, a general process plant average statistics such
P i p . size LS per available pressure drop is diosely as the foJlowingcould be useful to calculate the c o a of
I I : : ! ~io process quirement. Any errors in appreciating accessories per unit length as some factor T: of ths run
..
!!~Is:FL!rnis2.k~ in pi~si7ingcouldincan hur the gravity piw ccot. For example. a typical pipc line (Oj.5 li) may
.'
:rou!d ti,lr .;ustain. !!:snnos:;pl?utl rclwilcr canno[ I I ~ W 1.6 pis valves. 10.2 bends. 5.9 Ila~igcs.2 . I lees.
..k>ln.

33.6 wclds. So thc tornlcapital cost is ( I +!-) C,,. Il'thc


amorti-mtion rate is A,. the arinuali7rd capital cost of
the pipe and accessories is A, (I +F) C,. If the annual
main~enancecost is a Fraction G ofthe capital cost, the
total pipe cost (capital + maintenance) is
(A,+G)(l+F)C,. Substituting the expression for C, in
his. one can write theannualizedcapitalplusmaintenance
cost. C, as a h c t i o n of diameter, D, as follows:

dl' psi

W 1000 Ibshr
P

CP

p 1bs.lfi1
D inch
Substitutingthis in theearlier equation. the cost of
moving the fluid per year3

The second component is the operating cost


involved in pumping the fluid through the pipe. The
frictional losses decide the energy lost. If AP is the
Remember, W above is in 1000 ibsfhr.
hydraulic pressure drop (say in psi) and W is the fluid
flow rate (say I%), the energy expended in fluid flow is .Thetotal annual cost ofunit pipe length is thus
(WIp)(l 44 AP). p is the density (Ib/ft3) and the factor
144 in second parenthesis is simply to convert psi into
psf for consistency ofuniu;. The energy required is then
in f ~ l force.
b
The pump has to supply this force using
elecirical energy. Taking the pump efficiency (E), the
annual usage ofthe pipe in terms of hours of operation
per year (Y) and the cost ofelectrical power, K, (say
The optimum diameter which minimizes C, as
per kW.hr), the annual energy cost ofpumping (C,) can obtained by differentiating C, with respect to D, eqdng
be written as:
theexpression t o m and sim$fying is given as follows:

?..
.?

0.0657YK
..

.'

The units o f cost (e.~.Rs. or % should be Same as


that of power cost). he f~ctoi0.0000542comes only
because of different energy units used for energy (ft.lb.
force and kWhr).
The pressure drop, AP, can be calculated by
cnnventional methods discussed earlier. One of the
simplified formsofp-aauedropequationsrecommended
by Ceneraux has the following form.

It is a dimensionalequation and theunib for various

qu;u\titicsm as follows:

Most quantitiesinhe above expression areproject


specific. Their values themselves may not be very reliable.
What is then the sanctity ofthe optimal value ofD arrived
at? Some order of magnitude analysisshould resolve this
issue and give an idea as to how accurately one should
try and get these project specific parameters.
For example, in the expression in square bracket
of the above expression, one would have reasonably
goo3idea of Y, K, E, X. However, at the time ofpipe
sizing which is done quite early in the project life, values
ofa. b. F'erc. may at most be guestimates. The imponant
pint to note is that the impact o f e m r in estimating the
exprcssion in the bracket is diluted to a great extent by
the exponent 0.169. For example. a 33% cnor in the

- ,I

. valucofthe brackct cspression would lead only to a 8%

error in the optimal size estimate. Another parameter


which is often asource of low confidence level is the
viscosity. But, due to a small exponent of p in the
expression, one can verify that even a 10fold increase in
viscosity changes the optimal diameter by only 6%.
In view of the above, the optimal diameter
expressioii has been further simplified by using
representative values for a(0.143. i.e. 117). b (0.01 ). F
(6.75), E (0.55). X (1.32 Wt),Y (7880 hrdyear), K
(0.0218 SkWhr) to obtain the following simplified
expressions for LAC diameter.
..
.,.....

the absence ol'such csdma[es.and usc h c csprcssion ['or


Dqx,mUm in itsunsimplified form.
Thc values thus calculated may not conform to thc
commercial sizes. The following procedure is
recommended to arrive at the commercial size.
The adjacent commercial sizes on either side of
the LAC diameter are identified. Let these be D,md D,,
on lower and higher sides respectively. An hypothetical
size. called crossover diameter is then defined as

Ifthe LAC diameter calculated earlier is above


Dc.
D,
is recommended. If it is below Dc, D, is
Duc
P
recommended.
with D in ern, volumetric flow.rate Q in rnl/hr.
A good question to ask would be why exponent
"C.
S as Spec~ficgravity of fluid at4 centigrade, and of Dc is 0.6 and that of DLis 0.4 and why not the other
p in kg/cm.sec.
way. Why not equal exponents?
With betiercomputing facilities. one may not be
An alternative expression is as follows.
required to use the simplifiedforms ofFanning equations
and other simplifications used in the above approach.
However, any more elaborate approach should be
justified .by. availability ofmore reliable cost data and
with DuC in inches, Q in US gals/minand p in cp. values of other project specificparameters. ?he essence
of the approach would reiain the same.
if the estimates of a, b, F, E. X, Y.K for a project
are different than the values uxd in anivingat the above RECOMMENDED PIPE SIZE
simplified expressions, correction factorscan be suitably
used. For example if the actual number of hours of
Matever the approach used to arrive at the pipe
operation is Y and not 7880, the calculated LAC
size, it must be kept in mind thatthe pipe sizing activity is
diameter should be multiplied by a factor F, defined as
k i n g carried out rather prematurely. The actual pressure
drops are going to be decided by the actual layout of a
particular pint-to-pint pipe routing. That evolves at a
much later stage. Also, over the normal operating life of
Similarly, ifthe amorrimtion rate is 'a' and not in,
Lhe plant the pipes are subjected to modifications iil their
the correction factorshould be
ID (due to fouling) and surface roughness (dw to scaling.
erosion. corrosion etc.). Also, optimization exercises and
capacity enhancements in f u w e may require the same
pipe to carry larger a r n o u n ~ofprocess fluid. In view of
The reader should ponder a linle to see how these
dl h e x , it is an industrial p=tice to r;commend a pipcr
corrrction iactors are wived at.
ofone size higher than what is arrived at by any of the
.A ktter idea would tx to use the values of realistic
above procedures.
estimates of h e puclmecm (3, b. F. E. X.Y. K) whenever I T l r u I'ulllrcr bus r e l d hruvtly on 1& ~ m c ! ehy Xnhrrr K m , . p r r h l ~ r h d
ihcy are available and u e defaulr values given earlier in in <'lwtn. t:>>xx.World)
= 1.717 Q 0..';9s0.142

Distributive Flow

a)

Bubble

b)

Mist

Intermittent Flow

Segregated Flow

e)

Stratilied

t)

Fig. 3
k h c . 1 2 c ~ i m c sforTwtr P h : w Flow

Annular

Dispersed
MmdV

or

Fannings
1ridion lac(or dim.

Bubble

Slug

Two-Phase Flow Correlations


. ( Stratitied Wave
-

0 = 14.2 X '"
(WJA)"

O=l.lwX'"'

0=15,4WX

(W,lA)"

(WJA)"

Plug

Annular

--

a = 4.8 - 0.3125 d
b = 0.343 0.021 d
d = I.D. at pipe. in
For pipe 12-in and
wer, used = 10.

Fig. 4
Baker parametersdetermined the type oftwo p h w i b w and appropriate two phase flow correlation x*s.unit loss

Fig. 5
I'arnmctcrs fur prcssttrc dnrp in liquid - gas flow throuph horizontal pipes
I IInscd IIII l.ocl;l~arl8.d hlartinclli. Chcm. Eng& Prog.. 45.39 ( 19.1 9)1

0.W 0.W

0.01 0.m

0.m 0.W

0.1

0.2

0.3 0.5

2 3

10

M 30 M

Ldduut-tAarthelli modulus. X'

Fig. 6

L o c k h a r t hfartiaelli Corrclatiom rtlatcs vapour and liquid propcrtics l o csl.blished two pbaSc n o r modules.

3
4
N O U W PIPE SIZE

Pig. 7
A m a r l i z r d c a p i l l l corD Tor onc fool o r pipe.

8
Fig. 8
Annqal cost or operating onc'loot of pipc.

Surface roughness of varmus pipes

~n.
Tubing
Drawn
Clean, seamless
Glass

Miller (32)
mm

0.MX)I

m.

0.0025

0.0031

'

Moody (34)
mm

O.MXX)6

concrete
Smooth
Precasl
Rough
Cast Iron
Uncoated
Coated

0.001
0.01

0.0015

0.0025
0.025
0.25

0.001
0.01
0.02
0.006
0.006

0.001 8

0.025
0.25
0.5

0.15
0.15

0.046

C.Goo064.CCC.4
O.MM06-O.MW)4

0.00154.01
0.0015-0.01

0.0025

0.06

0.008
0.035

0.2
0.9

0.012

0.3

0.03

0.8

0.12

3.0

0.35

9.0

-A

0.01
0.005

025
0.12

wood
Birch veneer
Pine veneer
Rough

Kutateladze (29)
mm

m.

Sled
New
Light rust
Oeaerated salurated Steam
Condensale (heavy rust)

I1

lubes

0.012

0.3

Galvanbed
Smwth finish
Normal fhish

0.001
0.006

0.025
0.15

0.006

0.15

Resistance ta Flow far Various Types af Vabes TaMe.2


!Resistance in equkalenl pipe length. I?)

For partially open globe valves.


multiply tabulated values by 3
for threequarten open, by 12
for one-half open, and by 70
for onequarter open
1. With port area open.
Port area = pipe size2 . Port area equals 80% of the
Pipe area

Resistances of Horizontal andVertica1 Inlets


Resistances of Elbowa.Tees and Bends -Table 3
(Resistance in quivalent pipe length, it)

and Outlets -Table 4


(Resistance in equivalent pipe length. 11)
Lcsistanct
:wfficient

~crninal
Pipe Sks
In

Resistance of Eccentric and Concentric Reducers,


And of Sudden Changes in
Line Size -Table 5
(Resistance in equivalent pipe length. ft.)

_I

Nominal Sizes In.

&-a

*,

*a.

3-1
I

1H

-L

*-.-L

..

Typical Liquid Velocities in Steel Pipelines -Table 6


(Resistance in equivalent pipe length. It.)
Nomnal Pipe Sirar m .

2 of less

0.6

0.5

1.2

0.7

0.6

0.6

1.6

1.O

3 lo I 0

10 lo 20

_C

b u d 6 tine

.-

velociry Fffi

Velocity F'IS

Velocity FUS

Won

P u m ruem

t o 2

PWmdXimn)a(lolql

o;&n)aheaC.(~~l
BdNlsad
D T ~ ~
S
l rmsr

2a3
b a g
4109

2o.(
3 lo 5
510 12
5012

3mr

3105

3 lo 5

HydtmlOon rwkk

(Norrrul r i r a i t i s r )

PurrCsueion

1.5 10 2.2

2 to

D&qe

headsrlkmgl
Babr laad

2.5 :o 3.5
4 to 9

3 lo 5

haia

3 to i

3 10 5

V-r

510 12

oils
P W su&n
M&m Vmx&ty

1.5 10 3

Tar m d lual cih

0.4 la 0.7.5

M r p a (%I
Omns

3m5
1.5 10 3

Typical Velocities In Gas and Vapor Lines -Table 7


Samntec Sleam or

S q x r neared Sleam.

S-

Mated Vapor or Gas

I".

. .
2wLeY
3 10 4

velocq FVS

..
4S b 1W

41080

JOlo60

5olol10

45 to 90

35 m 70
1050

~ a l o
120

5010120

8b10
12 lo 14

65 m 125

8010150
l m t o lw

65 lo 125

16 D 18

75mI35

IIOtoZ10

9010 1W

m l 0 1 ~

120!0220

10010 170

20

mlo

!a

Nolc : W i h i n

80 10 I45

ihc above vclocilics ud lim-rizc nngcs. (a1 largc lincr


h a w h i g k r vclocj~icrhm rmdlcr o n a ( b l r h a n lincr. and
lcsdr from h c d c r r cm h k hi*:
vclocilicr than Ian% lincr and

hcdcn.
Rcboilcr down c o n c r (liquid)
Rcboilcr. i r c r (liquid and r w r )
Ovcrhcrd coodcnrcr
Two-pharc 13or
Comp<crror ruclian
Carnprcsror dirchugc
Intcl. swam lurbinc
Inlcl. gar lvrbinc
Rclicl v d v c dirchvgc
R c t i d r d v c c m r y p o i n ~31 rilcnc::

Two-?>ase
Dispersed

i3 ~ 0 , 1d.2

tise~
and EG. 131

Bubble

(w/AI~~'

Slug

low Corrslarions

Scrarified

0 '= 1 ~. 1 ~9 0 ~ 0
~ =~15.100X
~ ' ~

(w{A]~'-~
Avoid
slug flow

w,uI~.'

'

Wave

P!ug

Use Fig. 5
0. 2 7 , 3 1 5 ~ " " "
and Eq. (91
and [ l o ]
iw/""'7

Horizontal

Horizontal

pipe

pipe

Annula:

b =a,$
;
, =1;.3Ci
~ . 3 - 0-. 3C.021
: 2 5 dd
.* = :.D. 01 1 1 3 e . - 0
For j i p e 12-in anc
or?:, u s e d = 10.

j.
!
i

I
Cour;esy: Mr. Ovid aaker and The Oil and Gas Journal.

";)
%s>

FIG. 1. Baker parameters derxmine the type o i two-phase flow zzd ths ?jpropr:arc two- I
phase-now corelation ss's unir loss.
1
!

Lockhart-Marrinelli modulus, X 2

FIG. 3.

~ b c k h a r t - ~ a r t i n e lcorrelation
li
relates vapor and liquid properties to establish twophase flow modulus.

:;
...
.

PIPING ENGINEERING CELL

CODES AND STANDARDS


T. N. GOPINATH
For scientific design of Piping Systems, selection of proper material of
construction and to detail out the material specifications, knowledge of Codes and
Standards is essential. Standardization can, and does, reduce cost, inconvenience, and
confusion that result from unnecessary and undesirable differences in systems,
components and procedures. Industry standards are published by professional societies,
committees and trade organizations. A code is basicallv a standard that has been
generally accepted by the government. The objective of eaci code is to ensure public and
industrial safety in a particular activity or equipment.
Codes are often developed by the
- .
same organization that develop standards. These organizations also develop good
engineering practices and publish as Recommended Practices. The intent of these
documents is misunderstood since deiinition of Codes, Standards and Recommended
Practices are not always correctly understood. The following definitions are generally
accepted.
CODE

A group of general rules or systematic procedures for design, fabrication,


installation and inspection prepared in such a manner that it can be adopted by legal
jurisdiction and made into law.
STANDARDS
Documents prepared by a professional group or committee who are believed to be
good and proper engineering practice and which contain mandatory requirements.
RECOMMENDED PRACTICES
Documents prepared by professional group or committee indicating good
engineering practices but which are optional.
Companies also develop Guides in order to have consistency in the
documentation. These cover various engineering methods, which are considered good
practices, without specific recommendation or requirements.
Codes and Standards as well as being regulations, might be considered as "design
aids" since they provide guidance from experts.
Each country has its own Codes and Standards. On global basis, American
National standards are undoubtedly the most widely used and compliance with those
requirements are accepted world over. In India, other than American standards, British
standards and Indian standards are also used for the design and selection of equipment
and piping systems. The major organizations for standards are;

Codes and Sbndards

PIPING ENGINEERING CELL


MAJOR ORGANISATION FOR STANDARDS
S. No.
1
2

Country
United States
Canada

3
4
5

France
United
Kingdom
Europe

Germany

Japan

India

Abbreviation
Organization
ANSI
American National
Canadian Standards
CSA
Association
AFNOR
Association Francaise
BSI
British standards
Institute
European Community for CEN
Standardization
Deutsches Institute Fur DIN
Normung
Japanese Industrial
JIS
Standards
Beauro Of Indain Standards

BIS

1.0 AMERICAN STANDARDS


Not all American standards are issued directly by American National Standards
Institute. The material standards are covered under ASTM (American Society for Testing
and Materials) and dimensional standards under ANSI (American National Standards
Institute). Most of these standards are adapted by ASME (American Society of
Mechanical Engineers).
The American Standards referred by Piping Engineers are mainly the standards by:

1.1 The American Petroleum Institute (AH)


1.2 The American Iron and Steel Institute (AISI)

1.3 The Atberican National Standards Institute (ANSI)


1.4 The American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM).

1.5 The American Welding Society (AWS).


1.6 The American Water Works Association (AWWA).

1.7 The Manufacturers Standardization Society of Valves and Fitting Industry Standard
Practices (MSS-SP)
1.8 The American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME)

Codes and Standards

PIPING ENGINEERING CELL

1.1 API STANDARDS


The generally referred API standards by the Piping Engineers are :
API5L

Specification for Line Pipe

API6D

Pipe line Valves, End closures, Connectors and Swivels.

API6F

Recommended Practice for Fire Test for valves.

API593 -

Ductile Iron Plug Valves - flanged ends.

API598

Valve Inspection and Test.

API 600

Steel Gate Valves

API601

Metallic Gasket for Refinery piping

API602

Compact Design carbon stee! Gate.

API604

Ductile Iron Gate Valves - flanged ends.

API 605 -

Large Diameter Carbon Steel Flanges

API607 -

Fire test for soft-seated ball valves

API 609 -

Butterfly valves

API 1104-

Standard for welding pipeline and facilities.

1.2 AISI STANDARDS


The American Iron and Steel Institute Standards specifies the material by its
chemical and physical properties. When specific model of &anufacWe of the element is
not to be specified, then the material can be identified by the AISI standards. The most
commonly used AISI specifications are:
1) AISI410

13% Chromium Alloy Steel

2) AISI304

1818 Austenitic Stainless Steel

3) AISI316

181813 Austenitic Stainless Steel

1.3 ANSI STANDARDS


The American National Standards Institute's standards used in the design
" of the
Piping Systems are as listed. In 1978,ANSI B31 committee was reorganized as ASME
Code for Pressure Piping B 31 committee. Subsequently the code designation was

Codes and Standards

PIPING ENGINEERING CELL

changed to ASME B31.Code for pressure piping is at present a non-mandatory code in


USA, though they are adopted as legal requirement.
Power Piping
Fuel Gas Piping
Process Piping
Pipeline Trans~ortationSystem for liquid
hydrocarbon and other Liquids
Refiigeration Piping
Gas Transmission and Distributor Piping Systems.

Building Services Piping


Slurry Transpiration Piping Systems
Manual for determining the remaining strength of
corroded piping - A supplement to ASME B31.
Of the above, the most commonly used code is ASME B 31.3. Refineries and chemical
plants are designed based on the same. All power plants are designed as per ASME B
31.1.
Other major ANSI 1ASME dimensional standards referred for the piping elements are:
Unified Inch Screw Threads
Pipe Threads general purpose (Ex ANSI B2.1)
Cast Iron Pipe Flanges and Flanged Fittings
Malleable Iron Threaded Fittings.
Cast Iron Threaded Fittings
Steel Pipe flanges and Flanged Fittings
Steel Butt welding Fittings
Face to face and end to end dimensions of
Valves

Codes and Standards

PIPING ENGINEERING CELL

Forged steel Socket welding and Threaded


fittings

10) ASME B 16.20

Metallic Gaskets for pipe flanges -ring


joint, spiral wound and jacketed flanges

11) ASMEB 16.21

Non Metallic Gasket for pipe flanges

12) ASME B 16.25

Butt Welding Ends

13) ASMEB16.28

Short Radius Elbows and Returns

14) ASME B 16.34

Steel Valves, flanged and butt welding ends.

15) ASME B 16.42

Ductile Iron Pipe Flanges & Flanged


Fittings -Class 150 and 300

16) ASME B 16.47

Large Diameter Steel Flanges - NPS 26-60

9)

ASME B 16.1 1

17) ASME B 18.2 1 & 2 -

Square and hexagonal head Bolts and Nuts (in & mm)

18) ASME B 36.10

Welded and seamless Wrought Steel Pipes

19) ASME B 36.19

Welded and Seamless Austenitic Stainless


Steel Pipes.

1.4 ASTM STANDARDS


ASTM standards consist of 16 sections on definitions and classifications of
materials of construction and test methods. Most of the ASTM standards are adapted by
ASME and are specified in ASME Section 11. The Section I1 has four parts.
Ferrous materials specifications
1.4.1
Part-A
1.4.2
Part-B
Non-ferrous metals specification
Specification for welding materials
1.4.3 Part-C
Properties of materials.
1.4.4
Part-D

In Part-II, the materials are listed in the Index based on the available forms such as plates,
castings, tubes, etc. and also on the numerical index.
he selection of ASTM specification depends upon the type of manufacture, form
of material, its mechanical strength and the corrosion properties.
The specification number is given on Alphabetical prefix, 'A' for Ferrous materials
and 'B' for Non-ferrous materials.
ASTM also specifies standard practice for numbering metal and alloys as Unified
Numbering System.

Codes and Standards

PIPING ENGINEERING CELL

Unified Numbering System (LTNS) establishes 18 series numbers of metals and


alloys. Each UNS number consists of a single letter prefix followed by five digits. In
most cases the alphabet is suggestive of the family of the metal identified.
1.

AOOOOl - A 99999

Aluminium and A l ~ I n i ~ ualloys


m

2.

C00001 - C 99999

Copper and Copper alloys

3.

EOOOOl

4.

LOO001 - L 99999

Low melting metals and alloys

5.

MOO001 - M 99999

Miscellaneous nonferrous metals and alloys

6.

NO0001 - N 99999

Nickel and Nickel alloys

7.

POOOOl - P 99999

Precious metals and alloys

8.

ROO001 - R 99999

Reactive and Reffactory metals and alloys

9.

z00001 -

E 99999

99999

Rare earth and rare earth like metals and


alloys

Zinc and Zinc alloys

10. DOOOOl - D 99999

Specified mechanical properties of Steels

11. F00001 - F 99999

Cast Iron and Cast Steels

12. GOOOOl

G 99999

AISI and SAE Carbon and Alloy steels

13. H00001

H 99999

AISI H Steels

14. JOOOOl - J 99999

Cast Steels

15. KO0001 - K 99999

Miscellaneous Steels and Ferrous alloys

16. SO0001 - S 99999

Stainless Steels

17. TOO001 - T 99999

Tool Steels

18. W00001 - W99999

Welding Filler Metals and Electrodes

1.5 AWS STANDARDS


The American Welding Society (AWS) standards provide information on welding
fundamentals; weld design,- welders' training qualification, testing and inspection of
welds and guidance on the application and use of welds. Individual electrode

Codes and Standards

PIPING ENGINEERING CELL

manufacturers have given their own brand names for the various electrodes and are sold
under these names.
1.6 AWWA STANDARDS
The American Water Works Association (AWWA) standards refer to the piping
. elements required for low-pressure water services. These are less stringent than other
standards. Valves, flanges, etc. required for large diameter water pipelines are covered
under this standard and are referred rarely by piping engineers here.
-

1) C-500

Gate Valves for water & sewage system

2)

C-510

Cast Iron Sluice Gates

3) C-504

Rubber Seated Butterfly Valves

4) C-507

Ball valves 6" - 48"

5') C-508

Swing Check Valves 2" - 24"

6) C-509

Resilient Seated Gate Valves for water & sewage

1.7 MSS-SP STANDARDS


In addition to the above standards and material codes, there are standard practices
followed by manufacturers. These are published as advisory standards and are widely
followed. The most common MSS-SP standards referred for piping are:
1) MSS-SP-6

Standard Finishes for Contact Surface for Flanges

2) MSS-SP-25

Standard Marking System for Valves, Fittings


Flanges

3) MSS-SP-42

Class 150 Corrosion Resistant Gate, Globe and


Check Valves.

4)

MSS-SP-43

Wrought Stainless Steel Buttweld Fittings

5) MSS-SP-56

Pipe Hanger Supports: Materials, Design and


Manufacture

6) MSS-SP-61

Pressure testing of Valves

7) MSS-SP-67

Butterfly Valves

8) MSS-SP-68

High Pressure Offseat Butterfly Valves

Codes and Standards

PIPING ENGINEERING CELL

Pipe Hanger Supports: Selection and application


Cast Iron Gate Valves
Cast Iron Check Valves
Ball Valves
Cast Iron Plug Valves
Bronze Gate, Globe and Check Valves
Stainless Steel Bonnetless Knife Gate Valves
Pipe Unions
Cast Iron Globe Valves
Diaphragm Valves
Pipe Hangers and Supports: Fabrication and
installation practices.
Pipe Hangers and Supports: Guidelines on
terminology
MSS Valve user guide
Resilient Seated Eccentric CI Plug Valves.
2.0 BRITISH STANDARDS

In many instances, it is possible to find a British Standard, which may be


substituted for American Standards. For example, BS 2080 -British Standard for Face to
Face / End-to-End dimensions of valves is identical to ASME B16.10. Similarly BS
3799 and ASME B 16.11 also compare.
There are certain British Standards referred by Indian Manufacturers for the
construction of piping elements such as valves. The most commonly referred British
standards in the Piping Industry are:
1)

BS 10

Flanges (obsolescent)

2)

BS 806

Pipes and Fittings for boilers

Codes and Standards

PIPING ENGINEERING CELL

Black Bolts, Nuts and Screws (obsolescent)


Steel for forging, bars, rods, valve steel, etc.
Specification for float operated Valves
Copper and Copper alloy pressure piping system
Gate Valves for petroleum industry
Steel Pipe Flanges (class designated)
Dimensions of Steel Pipes
Butt Welding Fittings
Wrought steel screwed pipe fittings
Steel Check Valves for petroleum industry
Steel Globe & Check Valves for petroleum industry
Butt welding pipe fittings
Face to Face / End to End dimensions of Valves
Glass Pipelines and Fittings
SW and Screwed valves - 2" and Smaller
(withdrawn, superseded by BS 5352)
Boiler and Super Heater tubes
Dimensions of Gaskets for pipe flanges
(obsolescent)
Piping System for petroleum refineries -

(withdrawn)
Metallic Spiral Wound Gaskets
Dimensions of Welded and Seamless Pipes &
Tubes.

Codes and Standards

PIPING ENGINEERING CELL

23) BS 3601

C.S. Pipes & Tubes for pressure purposes at room


temperature

24) BS 3602

C.S. Pipes & Tubes for pressure purposes at high


temperature

25) BS 3603

C.S. and Alloy steel Pipes &Tubes for pressure


purposes at low temperature.

26) BS 3604

Alloy steel Pipes & Tubes for high temperature

27) BS 3605

S.S. Pipes & Tubes for pressure purposes

29) BS 3974

Pipe hangers, Slides & Roller type Supports.

30) BS 4090

CI Check Valves for general purpose (withdrawn).

31) BS 4346

PVC pressure Pipe -joints & Fittings

32) BS 4504

Steel, CI & Copper alloy Flanges (F'N designated).

33) BS 5146

Inspection and Testing of valves (withdrawn,


superseded by BS6755)

34) BS 5150

CI Wedge and Double Disc Gate Valves for general


purposes

35) BS 5151

CI Gate (parallel slide) valves for general purposes

36) BS 5152

CI Globe & Check valves for general purposes.

37) BS 5153

CI Check valves for general purposes.

38) BS 5154

Copper alloy Gate, Globe, Check valves

39) BS 5155

CI and CS Butterfly valves for general purposes

40) BS 5156

Diaphragm valves for general purposes

41) BS5157

Steel Gate (parallel slide) valves for general


purposes

42) BS5158

CI and CS Plug valves for general purposes

Codes and Standards

PIPING ENGINEERING CELL


CI and CS Ball valves for general purposes
Flanged steel Globe and Check valves for general
purposes
Double flanged Cast Iron wedge gate valves for
water works purposes.
Steel Ball Valves for petroleum industries
Steel Gate, Globe, Check Valves < 2" NB
Specification for Plug Valves

Aluminium Piping Systems (withdrawn)


Specification for ABS Pressure Pipes
Specification for ABS Fittings
Specification for underground Stop Valves for
water senices
Specification for GRP Pipes and Fittings
Specification for Valves for cryogenicservices
Testing of valves
Safety Valves
3.0 INDIAN STANDARDS

Bureau of Indian Standards @IS) have so far not developed an Indian standard for
the design of Piping Systems. Hence, ANSI standards ASME B 31.1131.3 are widely
referred for the design. These standards also accept materials covered in other standards.
Unlike American Standards, Indian Standards cover dimensions and material
specifications under the same standard. There are also no groupings done based on the
series/branch of engineering as well.. Some of the most commonly referred Indian
Standards by the Piping Engineers are:
1)

IS -210

Grey Iron Castings

2)

IS -226

Structural Steel (superseded by IS 2062)

Codes and Standards

PIPING ENGINEERING CELL

Dimensions of Pipe Threads


Specification for Copper Alloy Gate, Globe and
Check Valves.
Specification for Sluice Valves - 50 NB to 300 NB
Specification for Mild Steel Tubes and Fittings.
Part I & I1
-

Hexagonal bolts, screws and nuts - Grade C


Hexagonal bolts, screws and nuts - Grade A & B
Technical supply conditions for threaded steel
fasteners
Centrifugally Cast Iron Pipes
Vertically Cast Iron Pipes
Cast fron Fittings
Comparison of Indian and Overseas Standards
Malleable Iron Pipe Fittings
Line Pipe
High Test Line Pipe
Steel Plates
Plain Washers
Steel Plates for pressure vessel used at moderate
and low temperature
Steel for general structural purposes
Colour code for identification of pipelines
Compressed Asbestos Fibre jointing
Code for unfired pressure vessels

Codes and Standards

PIPING ENGINEERING CELL


24) IS 2906

Specification for Sluice Valves (350 - 1200 NB)

25) IS 3076

Specification for LDPE Pipes

26) IS 3114

Code of Practice for laying CI Pipes

27) IS3516

CI Flanges and Flanged Fittings for petroleum


industry

28) IS 3589

Seamless or ERW Pipes (150 NB to 2000 NB)

29) IS 4038

Specification for Foot Valves


Sizes for Pressure Vessels and leading dimensions
Radiographic examination of butt weld joints in
pipes.
Shell Flanges for vessels and equipment
Specification for HDPE Pipes for water supply
specification for PVC Pipes
Specification for Swing Check Valves
Classification of hazardous area for electrical
installation
Code of practice for laying welded steel pipes
Valve Inspection and Test
Seamless and Welded Pipe for subzero temperature
Steel Pipe Flanges
Seamless Alloy Steel Pipes for high temperature
services
Stainless steel tubes for food and beverage industry
Horizontally Cast iron pipes
Code of practice for cold insulation

Codes and Standards

PIPING ENGINEERING CELL


45) IS 7413

Code of practice for hot insulation

46) IS 7719

Metallic spiral wound gaskets

47) IS 7806

SS Castings

48) IS 7899

Alloy steel castings for pressure services

49) IS 8008

Specification for moulded HDPE Fittings

50) IS 8360

Specification for fabricated HDPE Fittings

51) IS 9890

Ball Valves for general purposes

52) IS 10221

Code of practice for coating and wrapping of


underground MS pipelines

53) IS 10592

Eye wash and safety showers

54) IS 10605

steel Globe Valves for petroleum industries

55) IS 10611

Steel Gate Valves for petroleum industries

56) IS 10711

Size of drawing sheets

57) IS 10805

Foot Valves

58) IS 10989

CastForged Steel Check Valves for petroleum


industries

59) IS 10990

Technical drawings - Simplified representation of


pipelines.

60) IS 11790

Code of practice for preparation of Butt welding


ends for valves, flanges and fittings.

61) IS 11791

Diaphragm Valves for general purposes

62) IS 11792

Steel Ball Valves for petroleum industries

63) IS 12709

Specification for GRP pipes

64) IS 13049

Specification for Diaphragm type float operated


Valves.

65) IS 13095

Butterfly Valves

Codes and Standards

PIPING ENGINEERING CELL

66) IS 13257

Ring type joint Gasket and Grooves for flanges.

67) IS 14333

HDPE pipes for sewerage purposes

There are certain other international standards also referred in the piping industry. They
are the DIN standards of Germany and the JIS standards of Japan. DIN standards are
more popular and equivalent British and Indian standards are also available for certain
piping elements.
Periodic renew of the standards by the committee is held and these are revised to
incorporate the modified features based on the results of research and feedback kom the industry.
Although some technological lags are unavoidable, these are kept minimum by those updations.
Hence, it is necessary that the latest editions of the codes and standards are referred for the design
and year of publication also to be indicated along with.

Codes and Standards

PIPING ELEMENTS
T. N. GOPINATH
One of the major tasks in any
process industry is the transportation of
materials often in fluid form from one place
to another. The most commonly adopted
method for the same is to force the fluid
through the piping system.
The piping
system is the inter-connected piping subject
to the same set of design conditions. The
piping system involves pipes but also the
fittings, valves and other specialties. These
items are known as piping components.
Code specifies the piping components as
mechanical elements suitable for joining or
assembly into pressure-tight fluid-containing
piping systems. Components include
1.0
Pipes
2.0
Fittings
3.0
Flanges
4.0
Gaskets
5.0
Bolting
6.0
Valves
7.0
Specialties
Piping element is defined as any
material or work required to plan and install
the piping system. Elements of piping
include design specifications, materials,
components,
supports, -. fabrication,
inspection and testing.
Piping elements should, so far as
practicable, conform to the specification and
standards listed in the code referred for
design. Unapproved elements may also be
used provided they are qualified for use as
set forth in applicable chapters of the code.
Piping specification is a document
specifying each of the components.
Different material specifications are
segregated in different "Piping Class".
Identification of the "Piping Classes"
depends on each Designer, and the logic
helshe adopts.
'

Piping Elements

MATERIAL SELECTION OF PIPING


COMPONENTS
The first thing to be considered is the
selection of suitable material for the service.
The selection of piping material requires
knowledge of corrosion properties, strength
and engineering characteristics, relative cost
and availability.
The main process considerations in
the material selection are the corrosion
properties of the fluid, the pressure
temperature conditions of the service and the
nature of the service.
The Piping Designer selectsldesigns the
piping components based on the mechanical
properties such as the following.
a.
Yield strength
b.
Ultimate strength
c.
Percentage elongation
d.
Impact strength
e.
Creep-rupture strength
f.
Fatigue endurance strength
Based on the material of construction piping
elements could be classified as shown in
Fig.1. 1
The basic material or the generic
material of construction is specified by the
Process Licenser for the process fluids. The
Piping Engineer is expected to detail out the
same based on the Codes and Standards.
The material of construction for the utilities
will be selected by the Piping Engineer
based on the senrice conditions.
The Piping Design Criteria originates
from the Line List, which specifies design
conditions with respect to pressure and
temperature.
In absence of this data, the Piping
Engineer considers the following for
strength calculations.

IAatollic

Ferrous
i40leriols

Ilon-Ferrous
Moleriols

I
Copper
+

Aluminium

Iblickel

Copper
Alloys

Aluminium
Alloys

Ilickel
Alloys

*-

Cost
Iron

Steel

IIon-Melolic

Carbon
Steel

Steel

I
+

Lined

MSGL

MSRL

MS
PTFE
Lined

MS
PP
Lined

MS
PVDF
Lined

MS
MS
MS
FRP
Cemept Leod Ceramic
PP
Lined Lined
Lined
Lined

I
Lead

I'
PVC

CPVC

I
PP

I
HDPE

I
UHMW-HDPE

I
FRP

PTFE LDPE

I
LLDPE

Gloss Ceramic Cement

Alloys

FIGURE 1.1

CLASSIFICATION BASED ON MATERfAL OF CONSTRUCTION

a)
Design Pressure as 10% higher
than the maximum anticipated operating
pressure.
b)
Design Temperature as 25" above
the maximum anticipated operating
temperature.
c)
When operating temperature is
15C and below, the design temperature as
the anticipated minimum operating
temperature.
The design should meet the
requirements of the relevant code.
The material used shall be in
accordance with latest revision of
standards. If ASTM materials are used,
then the
materials adapted by
A S W A N S I should be preferred.
The selection of materials in
general shall follow the norms below:
(The basis in the design code governs.)
Carbon steel shall be used up to
a)
800F (425OC).
b)
Low temperature steel shall be
used below - 2 0 ' ~(- 2gC)
c)
Alloy carbon steel shall be used
above 800F (425OC).
. .
d)
For
corrosive
fluids,
recommendations from the Process
Licensor to be followed.

1.0
1.1

PIPES
General

Pipe can be defined as a pressure tight


cylinder used to convey a fluid.
The word "pipe" is used as distinguished
from "tube" to apply to tubular products of
dimensions commonly used for piping
systems. The pipe dimensions of sizes 12
inch (300 mm) and smaller have outside
diameter numerically
larger than
corresponding sizes. In contrast, the

Piping Elements

outside diameter of tubes is numerically


identical to the size number for all sizes.
1.2 Size
The size of the pipe is identified by the
NOMINAL BORE or the NOMINAL
PIPE SIZE. The manufacture of pipe is
based on outside diameter, which is
standardized. The 0 D was originally
selected so that pipe with standard wall
thickness, which was typical of .that
period, would have an internal diameter
approximately equal to the nominal size.
In American standard, the pipes are
covered under
a) ASME B 36.10 - Welded
and
Seamless Wrought Steel Pipe
b) ASME B 36.19 - Stainless Steel Pipe
The nominal bore and the
corresponding outside diameters specified
therein are as given in the accompanying
table. American standards have not
metricated' the pipe sizes and the
equivalent metric sizes widely followed
are also noted along with. However, the
latest revisions of these standards include
the SI metric dimensions for OD,
thickness and unit weight.
As regards the non-metallic and
lined piping systems, the thickness of pipe
andlor lining are not covered under any of
the above standards. These are as per the
relevant ASTM standards. For certain
plastic pipes, Indian Standards are also
available.

Pipe Size
NB (Inch)

118
114
318
112
314
1
*1%
1%
2
*2%
3
*3%
4
*5
6
8
10
12
14
16

Eq. Metric
Pipe Size
NB (mm)

Outside
Dia (Inch)

Outside
Dia (mm)

6
8
10
15
20
25
32
40
50
65
80
90
100
125
150
200
250
300
350
400

0.405
0.540
0.675
0.840
1.050
1.315
1.660
1.900
2.375
2.875
3.500
4.000
4.500
5.563
6.625
8.625
10.750
12.750
14.000
16.000

10.3
13.7
17.1
21.3
26.7
33.4
42.2
48.3
60.3
73.0
88.9
101.6
114.3
141.3
168.3
219.1
273.0
323.9
355.6
406.4

1.3
Wall Thickness
Prior to ASME B 36.10 & ASME B 36.19
became effective,. the pipes were
manufactured as per the Iron Pipe Standard
(Ips)
with
wall
thickness
designations Standard (STD), Extra Strong
(XS) and Double Extra Strong (XXS).
Subsequently schedde numbers were added
as convenient designations. The pipe
thickness is designated by Schedule Number
and the corresponding thickness is specified
in the standard ASME B 36.10 for carbon
steel pipes & ASME B 36.19 for stainless
steel pipes.
Stainless steel pipes are available in
schedule 5S, 10S, 40s and 80s whereas
carbon steel pipes are available in schedule
10, 20, 30, 40,60, 80, 100, 120, 140, 160,
STD, XS, XXS.

Piping Elements

Thickness as Standard and Schedule 40 are


identical for nominal pipe sizes upto 10 inch
(250 mm) inclusive. All larger sizes of STD
have 118-inch (3 mm) wall thickness. Extra
strong and Schedule 80 are identical of
nominal pipe sizes upto 8 inch (200 mm)
inclusive. A!l larger sizes of Extra strong
have L/z inch (12.7 mm) wall thickness. The
thickness Double Extra Strong is more than
Schedule 160 in pipe sizes upto 6 inch (150
mm) NB. This thickness is specified for pipe
up to 12 inch (300 mm) NB. For 12 inch
(300 mm) NB the thickness matches to that
of Schedule120 and for 10 inch (250 mm)
NB it is Schedule 140.
The figures indicated in these standards are
the nominal thickness and mill tolerance of
12.5% is applicable to those values.

Generally the thickness specified by


schedule numbers of B36.10 and B36.19
match except in the followings:
10" SCH80ISCH80S
12" SCH40lSCH40S
12" SCH80ISCH80S
14" SCHlOISCHlOS
16" SCHIOISCHIOS
18" SCHIOISCHIOS
20" SCHIOISCHIOS
22" SCHlOlSCHlOS
In Indian Standard IS 1239, the
thicknesses of pipes are specified as Light,
Medium and Heavy.
The medium and
heavy pipes are only used for fluid handling.
In IS 3589, the thicknesses are specified in
actual dimensions in mm.
As regards the nonmetallic and
lined piping systems, the thickness of pipe
andlor lining are not covered under any of
the above standards. These are as per the
relevant ASTM standards. For certain plastic
pipes, Indian Standards are also available.
The pipes are available in standard
lengths of 20 feet (6 m).
1.4 Pipe Ends
Based on the material of construction and
the pipe to pipe joint, the ends of the pipes
are specified as follows.

1.4.1
1.4.2
1.4.3
1.4.4
1.4.5
1.4.6

Beveled ends
Plain ends
Screwed ends
Flanged ends
SpigoUSocket ends
Buttress ends

Beveled ends are specified when pipe


to pipe andlor pipe to fittings joints are done
by butt welding.

Piping Elements

Plain ends are specified when pipe to


pipe andor pipe to fittings joints are done by
fillet welding.
Screwed joints are specified when pipe
to pipe andor pipe to fittings joints are done
by threaded connections.
Flanged ends are specified to
provide bolted connections between pipes
and between pipes and/or fittings.
Spigot/ Socket ends are specified when
lead caulkedcemented joints are provided
between pipes and between pipes and
fittings.
Buttress ends are used in glass piping
and are joined by bolting with the use of
backing flanges.
1.4.1 BUTT WELD PIPE JOINTS

Advantages
a) Most practical way of joining big bore
piping
b) Reliable leak proof joint
c) Joint can be radiographed
Disadvantages
a) Weld intrusion will affect flow
b) End preparation is necessary
1.4.2 SOCKET WELD PIPE JOINTS
d

EXPANSION JOINT
TO PREVENT WELD
FROM CRAC'ING UNDER
1HER.WL W E S S

Advantages
a) ~asTerAlignment than butt welding
b) No weld metal intrusion into bore
Disadvantages
a) The 1/16"(1.5 mm) recess pockets
liquid
b) Use not permitted by code if Severe
Erosion or Crevice Corrosion is
anticipated.

..

1.4.3 SCREWED PIPE JOINTS

1.4.4 FLANGED PIPE JOINTS

-.

Advantages
a) Can be easily made at site
b) Can be used where welding is not
permitted due to material properties or
fire hazard.
c) Dismantling is very easy
Disadvantages
a) It is a point of potential leakage
b) Cannot be used when piping is
subjected to high bending moment.

Advantages
a) Easily made at site
b) Can be used where welding is not
permitted due to fire hazard
Disadvantages
Joint may leak when not properly
sealed
Use not permitted by code if severe
erosion, crevice corrosion, shock or
vibration are anticipated.
Stren,& of pipe is reduced as threads
reduce wall thickness
Seal welding may be required
Code specifies that seal welding shall
not be considered to contribute for
strength of joint

Piping Elements

1.4.5 SPIGOT SOCKET PIPE JOINTS

Advantages
a) Can be easily made at site.
b) Can accept misalignment upto 10' at
pipe joints.
Disadvantages
a) Suitable for low pressure application.
b) Special configuration at pipe ends
required.

1.4.6 BUTTRESS END PIPE JOINTS

e) Spiral Welded
Pipes having helical seam with
either a butt, lap, lock-seam joint'which is
welded using either an electric resisrance,
electric fusion or double submerged arc
welding process.
1.5.2 Seamless
Pipes produced by piercing a billet
followed by rolling or drawing or both.

used only for glass piping and not capable


to hold high pressure.

The most commonly used material


standards for the pipes are listed below

1.5 Types Of Pipes


Based on the method of manufacture pipes
could be classified as
1.5.1 Welded
a) Electric Resistance Welded (ERW)
Pipes having longitudinal butt joint
wherein coalescence is produced by the heat
obtained from resistance of the pipe to flow
of electric current in a circuit of which the
pipe is a part, and by application of pressure.
b) Furnace Butt Welded, Continuous
Welded
Pipes having longitudinal weld
joints forge welded by mechanical pressure
developed in passing the hot-formed and
edge-heated skelp through round pass weld
rolls.
c) Electric Fusion Welded (EFW)
Pipes having longitudinal butt joint
wherein coalescence is produced in the
preformed tube- by manual or automatic
electric arc welding. Weld may be single or
double.
d) Double Submerged-Arc Welded
Pipes having longitudinal butt joint
produced by at least two passes, one of
which is on the inside of the pipe.
Coalescence is produced by heating with an
electric arc or arcs between the bare metal
electrode or electrodes and the pipe.
Pressure is not used and filler material is
obtained from electrode.

Pipe Materials
ASTM A 53 Welded and Seamless
Steel Pipe, Black and
Galvanized
ASTM A106 Seamless CS Pipe for
High Temp. Services
ASTM A120 Black and Hot Dipped
Zinc
coated
(Galvanized)
welded
and seamless pipe for
ordinary use
ASTM A134 Electric fusion welded
steel plate pipe
(Sizes 2 16" NB)
ASTM A135 Electric
resistance
welded pipe
ASTM A155 Electric fusion welded
steel pipe for high
temperature service
ASTM A312 Seamless and welded
austenitic stainless steel
pipes
ASTM A333 Seamless and welded
steel pipe for low
. . .~
temperature service
ASTM A335 Seamless ferritic alloy
steel pipe for high
temperature service
ASTM A358 Electric fusion welded
austenitic - chromenickel steel pipe for

Piping Elements

11. ASTM A369

12. ASTM A376

13. ASTM A409

14. ASTM A426

15. ASTM A430


16. ASTM A45 1

17. ASTM A452

high
temperature
service
Carbon and ferritic
alloy steel forged and
bored
for
high
temperature service
Seamless
austenitic
steel pipe for high
temperature
central
station service
Welded large diameter
austenitic steel pipe for
corrosive
or
high
temperature service
Centrifugally
cast
femtic alloy steel pipe
for high temperature
service
Austenitic steel forged
and bored pipe for high
temperature service
Centrifugally
cast
austenitic steel pipe for
high
temperature
service
Centrifugally
cast
austenitic steel cold
wrought pipe for high
temperature service

18. ASTM A524 Seamless carbon steel


pipe for atmospheric
and low temperature
services
19. ASTM A587 Electric welded low
carbon steel pipe for the
chemical industry
20. ASTM A660 Centrifugally
cast
carbon steel pipe for
high
temperature
service
21. ASTM ~ 6 7 1Electric fusion weldei:
steel
pipe
for
atmospheric and low
temperature service

Piping Elements

'

(Sizes 2 16" NB)


22. ASTM A672 Electric fusion welded
steel pipe for high
pressure service at
moderate temperature
services
(Sizes 2 16" NB)
23. ASTM A691 Carbon and alloy steel
pipe, electric fusion
welded
for
high
pressure service at high
temperatures
(Sizes >- 16" NB)
24. ASTM A731 Seamless and welded
femtic stainless steel
pipe
25. ASTM A790 Seamless and welded
ferriticl
austenitic
stainless steel pipe
26. ASTM A813 Single or double welded
austenitic stainless steel
pipe
27. ASTM A814 Cold worked welded
austenitic stainless steel
pipe
28. ASTM F1545 Plastic L i e d 'Ferrous
Pipe
Line pipe
29. AF'I 5L
Steel pipes for general
30. IS 1239
purposes
(Sizes 5 6" NB)
31. IS 1536
Centrifugally cast iron
pipe
Vertically cast iron pipe
32. IS 1537
33. IS 1978
Line pipe
High rest line pipe
34. IS 1979
'Steel pipe for general
35. IS 3589
services
.
HDPE pipe for water
36. IS 4984
service
37. IS 4985
PVC pipe
1.7 Pressure Design
Codes specify the farmula to arrive at
the required thickness for the pipes to
withstand internal!ssternal pressure to

X
'(

3%

.-. i.'
,. p

a'

>.

%$$

which the system is subjected to. Unlike


pressure vessels, the pipes and fittings are
manufactured
to
certain
standard
dimensions.
Hence, it is necessary for the Piping
Engineer to select the best suited thickness
of the element.
Corrosion allowance, depending on the
service to which the system is subjected to
and the material of construction, is to be
added to the calculated minimum thickness.
The thickness arrived thus is to be
compared with the available standard
thickness after allowing for the mill
tolerance of *12.5% on the nominal
thickness.

1.7.1. THICKNESS OF STRAIGHT PIPE


UNDER INTERNAL PRESSURE
ASME B 3 1.3, the Process Piping Code,
in clause 304.1.1 gives minimum thickness
as follows:
Tm=T+C
PD
where T
=
2 (SE + PY)
where
P = Internal Desi gauge pressure
P
psig (Wmg)
D = Outside Diameter of pipe
inch (mm)
S = Allowable Stress from
Appendix A 1- psi (kg/cm2)
E = Joint Quality factor from
Table A - 1B
Y = Coefficient f;om 304.1.1
C =Cl+C2
C1 = Corrosion Allowance
= 1.6 mm in general for carbon
steel
= 0 for stainless steel
C2 = Depth of thread
(used only upto 1 !4" NB)
The calculated thickness to be corrected
to consider the mill tolerance of - 12.5% as

Piping Elements

The use of the above equation is best


illustrated by means of the following
example.
Exam~le:
A 12" (300 mm) NB pipe has an internal
maximum operating pressure of 500 psig
(35 k g / ~ mand
~ ~temperature
)
of 67.5'~. The
material of construction of the pipe is
seamless carbon steel to ASTM A106 Gr B.
The recommended corrosion allowance is
118" (3mm). Calculate the thickness of pipe
as per ASME B 3 1.3 and select the proper
schedule.
PD

Tm=

+C

2 (SE + PY)

P
D

= 10% higher than the MWP


= 1.1 x 500 = 550 psig
= 12.75" (OD of 12" NB

pipe)
Design temperature

= 675 + 25

S = 16500 psi
(Refer-ASME B 3 1.3 Appendix 'A'
Table A-1)
E = 1 (Joint Quality factor.
Refer ASME B3 1.3, Appendix
'4' Table A-IB)
Y = 0.4 (Refer Table 304.1.1)
C = 0.125" (Specified)

= 0.2097"
= 0.335"

+ 0.125"

Hence, considering the mill tolerance of


12.5%, the nominal thickness for a
minimum thickness of 0.335" will be

In practice we will specify SCH 40 pipe,


which has a nominal wall thickness of
0.406" and minimum 0.355" (0.406x0.875).

1.7.2 THICKNESS OF STRAIGHT PIPE


UNDER EXTERNAL PRESSURE
The pipe with a large ratio of diameter
to wall thickness will collapse under an
external pressure which is only a small
fraction of internal pressure which it is
capable of withstandiilg.
To determine the wall thickness under
external pressure, the procedure outlined in
the BPV Code ASME Section VIII Div. 1
UG-28 through UG-30 shall be followed.
Example:
A 6" (150 mm) NB pipe has an external
Design Pressure of 400 psig
at 750' F. The
material of construction of pipe is seamless
austenitic stainless steel to ASTM A 312 TP
304L. The corrosion allowance is nil.
Calculate thickness and select proper
schedule.
Refer ASIME: Section VIII Div.1. UG 28
Assume value of 't' and determine ratios
L
Do
- and
Do
t
= 6.625"
Do for 6" NB pipe
Assume SCH 5 S pipe
Nominal thickness = 0.109"
Minimum thickness considering negative
mill tolerance of 12.5%
t = 0.875 x 0.109 = 0.095"
Consider,
L
-- 50
Do

Piping Elements

since L is unspecified.
Do
6.625
- -- - =69.7
t
0.095
From Graph (Fig. G) in ASME Section I1
Part D,
Factor A = 0.000225
From Graph (Fig. HA-3) in ASME Section
I1 Part D,
Factor B = 2750 for the above factor A and
for 7 5 0 ' ~
Allowable pressure
4
B
Pa =
3
Dolt
4 x 2750
= 52.6 psig
3 x 69.7
This is less than the Desim Pressure.
Therefore, assume higher thickness.
Consider SCH 80 S pipe
Nominal thickness = 0.432"
Minimum thickness = 0.875 x 0.432
= 0.378"
Do
6.625
- - -= 17.5
t
0.378
Do
is 0.0038
Factor A for the new value of

Corresponding factor B = 5500


Allowable Pressure;
4 x 5500
Pa =
= 419psig
3 x 17.5
More than Desicm Pressure
Hence select SCH SOS pipe.

1.7.3 THICKNESS OF BEND


ASME B3 1.3, in it the latest revision,
has added the formula as below for
establishing the minimum thickness of bend.
The rninimc~ilthickness ,1 of a bend
after bending, in its finished form, shall be

2.0

Where at the intrados (inside bend radius)

and at extrados

PIPE FITTINGS

The branching tree shown (refer Fig.2.1)


indicates the various types of fittings.
These fittings can have various types of end
connections or can have combination of end
connections. The dimensional staidards
referred for the fittings are as follows:
DIMENSIONAL STANDARDS
ASMEIANSI B 16.1
- Cast Iron Pipe Flanges and Flanged
Fittings
ASMEIANSI B 16.3
- Malleable-Iron Threaded Fittings
ASMEIANSI B 16.4
- Grey Iron Threaded fittings
ASME B 16.5
- Pipe Flanges and Flanged Fittings
ASME B 16.9
- Factory-Made Wrought Steel Butt
welding
ASME B 16.11
Forged Fittings, Socket welding and
Threaded
ASMEIANSI B 16.28
Wrought Steel Butt welding Short
Radius Elbows and Returns
ASMEIANSI B 16.42
Ductile Iron Pipe Flanges and Flanged
Fittings
BS 1640
- Butt weld Fittings
10: BS 3799
- Socket weld and Screwed end fittings
11. BS 2598
- Glass Pipelines and Fittings
12. IS 1239 Part-I1 - M.S. Fittings
- Cast Iron Fittings
13. IS 1538
14. MSS-SP-43
.
- Stainless Steel Fittings

'

\.<\'

and at side wall the bend centre line radius


I = 1. The thickness apply at mid span y12.

Extrados

Pipins Elements

2.1
Classification Based On End
Connections
2.1.1 SOCKET WELDISCREWED END
FITTINGS

For Socket WeldScrewed end fittings are


covered under ASME B 16.1 11SS 3799. For
these fittings, four pressure classes are
available.
They are;
1
2000 # Class
2
3000 # Class
3
6000 # Class
4
9000 # Class
These designations represent
the
mmimum cold non-shock working pressure
of the fitting in pounds per square inch.
1. 2000 % Class
This class is applicable only to screwed
fittings and is covered only in ASME B
16.1 1. The corresponding pipe thickness for
this class is SCH 80 or XS.
2. 3000 # Class
This class is applicable to both screwed and
socket weld fittings. The corresponding pipe
thickness for this class is SCH 80 or XS for
socket weld end connection~andSCH 160
for screwed end connections.
3 6000 3 Class
This class is also applicable to both screwed
and socket weld fittings. The socket weld
fittings under this class are normally used
with SCH 160 pipes and screwed fittings
with XXS pipes.
4. 9000 X Class
This class is applicable only to socket weld
fittings, which are normally, used with XXS
pipes.
The screwed end fittings can be with
parallel threads or with taper threads. Taper
threads are preferred for the fittings. These
could be to NPT as covered in American
Standards or to BSPT as covered in British
standards or to relevant Indian Standard
specifications.
The dimensional standard ASME B
16.1 11BS 5799 cover the sizes upto -1" (100
mm) NB only.

The socket weld /screwed fittings are


manufactured by forging. The materials of
construction used for the same are as
follows:
SWlSCRD FITTING MATERIALS
Forged Carbon Steel
1 ASTM A105 Forged
Carbon Steel
2 ASTM A181 for General Purposes
3 ASTM A182 Forged Alloy Steel
and Stainless Steel
4 ASTM A234 Wrought Carbon Steel
and Alloy Steel pipe
fittings for moderate
and
elevated
temperatures
Forged Alloy Steel
5 ASTM A350 for Low Temperature
Services
2.1.2 BEVELED END FITTINGS
These types of fittings are connected by
means of butt welding. The thickness of
these fittings is to be specified the same as
that of pipes because the bore of the pipes
and the attached fittings should match. That
means both the items should have the same
schedule number.
There are certain
exceptional cases where fittings of higher
thickness are used.
The beveled end fittings could be of
seamless or welded construction.
The material of construction specified in
the American Standards for the beveled
weld fittings are;
BW FITTING MATERIALS
1. ASTM A 234 - Carbon Steel fittings
2. ASTM A 403 - Austenitic Stainless
Steel fittings
3. ASTM A 420 - Alloy Steel for low
temperature services.
Beveled end fittings are covered under
ASME B 16.9, B 16.28 and BS 1640.

I SOCKETWELD I SCREWED ( BUTTWELO I FLANGED I SPIGOT/SOCKET I

End Sonneclions

BUTTRESS

I
1

ELBOWS

45'

180'
TEES
RETURNS

90'

CROSS

TEES

CROSS

TEES

CAPS REDUCERS

STUBENOS

REDUCERS

SRELBOWS

UNIOHS

'

SPECIAL
FITTINGS

ECCEIdTRIC

WELDOLET SOCKOLET THREADOLET ELBOLET SWEEPOLET NIPOLET

REDUCERS

r
LRELBOWS

SWAGE NIPPLE

CONCENTRIC

CROSS

COUPLINGS

FULL
COLlPLlNGS

HALF
REDUCING
COUPLINGS COUPLINGS

FIGURE 2.1
STANDARD PIPE FITTINGS

LATROLET

2.1.3 FLANGED END FITTINGS


Fittings with both ends flanged are used
where welding is not possible or not
permitted. Normally these are made by
casting. Classification of these fittings,
based on the pressure temperature ratings, is
same as that of flanges.
Flanged fittings fabricated ram
standard butt-welded or socket welded
fittings are not covered under this standard.
The material specification is the same as that
for castings.
END
FITTING
FLANGED
MATERIALS
1. ASTM A 2 16 - Carbon Steel Castings
2. ASTM A 351 - Stainless Steel Castings
3. ASTM A 352 -Alloy Steel Castings
4. ASTM F 1545 - Plastic Lined Fittings
- CI Fittings
5. IS 1538
These fittings are covered under ASME B
16.5 and BS 1650 for carbon and alloy steel
piping and ASMEIANSI B 16.1 for cast iron
fittings.
2.1.4 SPIGOT SOCKET FITTINGS
Spigot Socket fittings are used in Cast
Iron piping for low-pressure services. The
joints are sealed by Lead caulking. This
type of connection has the advantage that it
can take misalignment to a certain extent.
Flanged sockets and flanged spigots are used
for connection to flanged equipments and
valves. These fittings are covered under IS
1538,
2.15 BUTTRESS END FITTINGS
Buttress ends fittings are used in glass
piping. These fittings are bolted together
with the help of backing flanges and PTFE
inserts. These fittings are covered under
BS 2598.
2.2 Types Of Fittings
There are various types of fittings used
to complete the piping system. These are
used to change direction, change diameter

Piping Elements

or to branch off from main run of pipe. The


special features of these are as below.
2.2.1 ELBOWS
Elbows are used to make 90 deg. or 45
deg. changes in the direction of run pipe.
There are two types of 90 deg. butt-welding
elbows available for use. These are the
long radius and short radius elbows. The
long radius elbows have a bend radius of
lSD, where D is the nominal size, whereas
the short radius elbows have a bend radius
of ID. The 45 deg. elbows are of 1.5D
radius. Any bend with more than 1.5D
bending radius has to be specially made as
per requirements. For large diameter piping,
bends are fabricated by profile cutting of
pipes and are called mitre bends. Mitre
bends with two piece, three piece or four
piece construction can be made. These are
normally not used in critical services. 22.5
deg. elbows &e also available in cast iron
construction.

Fig. 2.5: Elbows - Socket weld


Fig. 2.2: Short Radius Elbow

WID)

Fig. 2.6: Mitre Bend 90"


I

Fig. 2.3: Long Radius Elbow

(R=1.5D)

Fig. 2.7: Mitre Bend 45"

Fig. 2.4: Elbows - 45"

Piping Elements

2.2.2 RETURNS
Returns change the direction through
180 deg. This is mainly used in heating
coils, heat exchangers, etc. Retums with
1.5D radius and 1D radius are available.

.......

-\ :
........

. .:
,

'1: -

Fig. 2.10: Tees

Fig. 2.8: Long Radius Return


2.2.3 TEES
Tees are used for branching off. For
low pressure services, branching off is done
by direct welding of branch pipe to run pipe
instead of using a standard Tee. In certain
cases, reinforcing pads are used for
structural stability of such conne&ions.
Design code gives the calculation by which
the requirement of reinforcement pad can be
established and provided for branch
c o ~ e c t i o n(Refer Appendix H of ASME B
31.3). The branching schedule specified
along with piping specification explains
what sort of a branch connection is to
be used for that particular piping class.
.
The manufacturing restrictions do not
allow reducing tees of all size combinations.
To arrive at available sizes of reducing tees
in the standard, use the thumb xule of
dividing the major diameter by 2 and
consider the next lower size.
For example, the minimum size of
reducing tee available for 4." NB size is 4" x
1!h" (next lower size of 412 = 2").

- Socket weld

CROSS
This is a fitting very rarely used in
piping system. There are two types of
crosses, the straight and reducing. To reduce
the inventory, it is preferred to use tees
except where space is restricted as in marine
piping.

Fig. 2.11: Cross

2.2.5 REDUCERS
. There
are two types of reducers
available, the concentric reducers and the
Eccentric reducers.

'C_.
,

Fig. 2.12: Concentric Reducer

Fig. 2.9: Tees -Butt weld


Fig. 2.13: Eccentric Reducer

Piping Elements

considered long pattern as the standard when


nothing is specified in this respect.

Fig. 2.14: Cap

.r.

.-I

LW

1'

\
..,

':.I

-:,

When the center lines of the larger pipe


and smaller pipe are to be maintained
same, then concentric reducers are used.
When one of the outside surfaces of the
pipelines are to be maintained same, then
eccentric reducers are required. There are no
eccentric reducers in socket weld fitting and
Swage nipples are used for such service. The
size restrictions for manufacture as
explained in Tees is also applicable to
reducers.
2.2.6 STUB ENDS
To reduce the cost of piping, stub ends
are used with backing flanges for flange
joints when exotic materials are used in
piping. ASME B16.9 specifies two types of
stub ends, the long stub ends and the short
stub ends. The length of stub ends as per
MSS-SP-43 is the same as that of short stub
ends. MSS-SP-43 specifies two classes,
Class A with radius. and Class B without
radius at the comer. Class. B can be .used
with slip-on flanges. Designer selects stub
end (ionglshort) ensuring the weld of pipe to
stub end not get covered by flange. When
Class A stub en& are used, the inner
diameter of backing flange is chamfered for
better seating.
The minimum lap thickness should
be the same as that of the pipe wall. When
special facings such as tongue and groove,
male and female etc. are employed
additional lap thickness shall be provided.
The gasket face finish shall be provided with
serrations as required. ASME B 16.9

Piping Elements

Fig. 2.15: Stub End - Class A

Fig. 2.16: Stub End - Class B


2.2.7 COUPLINGS
Couplings are of three types:
1.Full Coupling
2.Half Coupling
3.Reducing Coupling

Fig. 2.17: Full Coupling

Fig. 2.18: Half - Coupling


Full couplings are used to connect small
bore pipes as projection of welding inside
the pipe bore, when bun welding is used,
reduce the flow area. Half couplings are
used for branch connections and reducing
couplings for size reduction. Reducing

couplings maintain the pipe centerlies same


and eccentric swage nipples are used to
maintain the outside surface same for such
systems.
2.2.8 SWAGE NIPPLES
Swage Nipples are like reducers but are
used to connect butt welded pipe to smaller
screwed or socket welded pipe. There are
two types of swage nipples, the concentric
and the eccentric. Various combinations of
end connections are possible in swage
nipples. These are designated as
PBE - Plain Both Ends
PLE - Plain Large End
PSE - Plain Small End
BLE - Beveled Large End
TSE Threaded Small End
These are covered under the regulatory Code
BS 3799.

Unions can be with threaded end or %th


socket weld ends. There are three pieces in
a union, two end pieces to attach to the run
pipe and the third threaded piece to connect
these two. The ball type metal seating ensure
sealing.

Fig. 2.21: Union


2.2.10 SPECIAL FITTINGS
The items referred under special fittings are;
* Weldolet
* Sockolet
* Threadolet
* Elbolet
* Sweepolet
* Nipolet
* Latrolet

Fig. 2.19: Concentric Swage Nipple

Fig. 2.22: Weldolet

Fig. 2.23:Sweepolet

Fig. 2.24: Sockolet

Fig. 2.25: Thredolet

Fig. 2.20: Eccentric Swage Nipple


2.2.9 UNIONS
Unions are used in low pressure piping
where dismantling of the pipe is required
more often, as an alternative to flanges.
Piping Elements

acceptable leak tightness. Classification of


flanges is done in several alternate ways as
follows:

Fig. 2.26: Latrolet

.--

I.'

i
...:9.

Fig. 2.27: Elbolet

r)

Fig. 3.1 :Slip-on Raised Face Flange

Fig. 2.28: Nipolet

-29

-:I

G-2

These are fittings, which have restrictive


use. Weldolet is used for butt-weld branch
connection where standard tee is not
available due to size restriction and the
piping is of criticalhigh pressure service.
Sockolet is used for socket welding branch
connection, which require reinforcing pad.
Threadolet is used for threaded
branch
connections. Elbolet is used for branch
connection on elbows and have the profiles
made to suit the elbow. Sweepolet is
integrally reinforced butt weld branch
connection. Latrolet is used for branch
connection at an angle:

Fig3.2: Socket Welded Raised Face


Flange

Fig. 3.3: Threaded Raised Face Flange

3.0 FLANGES
Flanges are used when the joint needs
dismantling. These are used mainly at
equipments, valves and -specialties. In
certain pipelines where maintenance is a
regular feature, breakout flanges are
provided at definite intervals on pipe lines.
A flanged joint is composed of three
separate and
independent although
interrelated components; the flanges, the
gaskets and the bolting; which are
assembled by yet another influence, the
fitter. Special controls are required in the
selection and application of all these
elements to attain a joint, which has

Piping Elements

Fig. 3.4: Lap Joint Flange with Stub End

Fig.3.5: Welding Neck Raised Face


Flange

3.2 Based

On

Pressure-temperature

Rating
The flanges are also classified by the
pressure temperature rating in ASME B 16.5
as below;
3.2.1
150 #
3.2.2
300 #
3.2.3
400 #
3.2.4
600 #
900 #
3.2.5
3.2.6
1500 #
3.2.7
2500 #
Pressure temperature rating charts, in
the standard ASME B 16.5, specify thenonshock working gauge pressure to which the
flange can be subjected to at a particular
temperature. The indicated pressure class of '
150#, 300#, etc. are the basic ratings and the
flanges can withstand higher pressures at
lower temperatures. . ASME B 16.5 indicates
the allowable pressures for various materials
of construction vis - a -vis the temperature?
ASME B16.5 does not recommend the use
of 150# flanges above 400 "F (200 "C).

3.3 Based On Facing


The flanges can also be classified based
on the facings as below:

.:.

,+i

..,,
w

I.

3.3.1 Flat face (FF)


3.3.2 Raised face (RF)
3.3.3 Tongue and groove (TIG)
3.3.4 Male and Female (MF)
3.3.5 Ring type joint (RTJ)
Plat face flanges are used when the
counter flanges are flat face. This condition
occurs mainly on connection to Cast Iron
equipments, valves and specialties.
For 150# and 300# flanges, the raised
face is of 1116 inch and is included in the
thickness specified. For higher rating, the
flange thickness does not include the raised
face thickness. The raised face thickness for
higher rating is !h inch.

Piping Elements

Fig. 3.8: Flat Face

Fig. 3.9: Raised Face

'

Fig. 3.10: Ring Joint

+-!i<
1
1
: ,

I
I

..

. ~.
- .-

Fig. 3.11: Tongue and Groove Joint


-

-..

Fig. 3.12: Male 1 Female Joint

21

3.4 Based O n Face Finish

There are two types of finishes done on


to the facings. They are the smooth finish
and the serrated finish. The smooth finish
flanges are specified when metallic gaskets
are specified and serrated finish is provided
when a non-metallic gasket is provided.
The serrations provided on the facing could
be concentric or spiral (phonographic).
Concentric serrations are insisted for face
finish when the fluid being carried has very
low density and can find leakage path
through the cavity. The serration is specified
by the number, which is the Arithmetic
Average Roughness Height (AARH). This
is the arithmetic average of the absolute
values of measured profile height deviations
taken within the sampling length and
measured from the graphical centre line.

3.5 Based O n Material Of Construction


The flanges are normally forged except
in very few cases where they are fabricated
from plates.
When plates are used for fabrication,
they should be of weldable quality. ASME
B16.5 allows only reducing flanges and
blind flanges to be fabricated fiom plate.
The materials of construction normally used
are as follows;
FLANGE MATERIALS
3.5.1 ASTM A105 - Forged Carbon Steel
3.5.2 ASTM A181 - Forged Carbon Steel
for General Purpose
3.5.3 ASTM A182 - Forged Alloy Steel
and Stainless Steel
3.5.4 ASTM A350 - Forged Alloy Steel for
low
temperature
services
3.6 Other Standards
Certain British Standards, German
Standards and Indian Standards are also
followed in India for flange specifications.
BS-I0 is the most popular among them even
though
British
Standards
Institute

Piping Elements

themselves have withdrawn the same. D M


flanges are also popular because they have a
wider range of pressure temperature classes.
IS has developed IS 6392 in line with DM
standards and the same is also in use.
ASME B 16.5 Covers Sizes from %"
NB to 24" NB only and ANSI B16.47 1API
605 are referred for higher sizes.
4.0 GASKETS

4.1 Selection
Proper selection of gasket depends upon
following factors.
4.1.1 Compatibility of the gasket material
with the fluid.
4.1.2 Ability to withstand the pressuretemperature of the system.
4.2 Type
Based on the type of construction, gaskets
are classified as:
4.2.1 Full Face
. 4.2.2 Inside bolt circle
' 4.2.3 Spiral wound metallic
4.2.4 Ring type
4.2.5 Metal jacketed
4.3 Material
Experience on the job and published
literature shall be used to select the gasket
material with respect to the compatibility of
the same with the fluid.
The material, which is most commonly used,
is the Compressed Asbestos Fibre.
Indian Standard IS 2712 specifies three
different materials at three different grades.
4.3.1 IS2712GrWll,W/2andWI3
- for Steam, Alkali and general
applications.
4.3.2 IS 2712 Gr All,
- for Acid applications.
4.3.3 IS 2712 Gr 011: 0 / 2 , 0 8
- for Oil applications.
Asbestos free gaskets are also available
for.above applications. For very comosive
applications, PTFE or PTFE enveloped
gaskets are used.

&,
,?

.\

>;
"'

'3
ir

...:.
I,

si

For high temperature and high-pressure


applications, s p d wound metallic gaskets
are used. The selection of material of
construction for winding depends upon the
corrosive nature and concentration of the
fluid, the operating temperature and the
relative cost of alternate winding materials.
The most commonly used are the Austenitic
stainless steel 304, 316 and 321 with
Asbestos filler. For very high temperatures,
graphite filler is also used. Alternate
winding materials also can be used
depending upon the services.
ASME B 16.5 does not recommend
the use of 150# rating spiral wound
gaskets on flanges other than welding
neck and lapped joint type.
Spiral wound gaskets are provided with
carbon steel external ring known as
centering ring to position the gasket. When
used in vacuum services, an internal ring is
also provided. The material of inner ring
should be compatible with the fluid. The
spiral wound gasket will perform when the
flange face is 125-250 AARH f ~ s h .

4.4 ~imensionalStandards
Gasket dimensions are covered under
the following standards.
4.4.1 API 601
- Metallic Gasket for Refinery Piping
4.4.2 BS 3381
- Metallic Spiral Wound Gaskets
4.4.3 ANSI B 16.20
- Metallic Gaskets for pipe flanges
4.4.4 ANSI B 16.21
- Non-metallic Gaskets for pipe
flanges.
5.0 BOLTING
Depending upon the service, its
~ressure/temperatureand the type of gasket,
type of bolting is selected.
For low pressure, low temperature
services, machined bolts are used and studs

Piping Elements

are used otherwise. Normally, the bolts are


provided with hexagonal head, hexagonal
nut and a round washer. Studs are provided
with two hexagonal nuts and two washers.
The length of bolts/studs required for the
flange joints of all pressure classes are
specified in ASME B 16.5.
Flanged joints using low strength
carbon steel bolts shall not be used above
200 "C or below -29 'C
ASTM F-704 specikes the standard
practice of selecting bolt lengths for piping
system-flangedjoints.

5.1 Material Of Construction For Bolting


Bolting materials normally used are:
5.1 .I ASTM A 307 -Low Carbon Steel
Bolting Material
5.1.2 ASTlM A 320 -Alloy Steel Boiting
material
5.1.3 ASTM A 563 - Carbon and alloy
steel nuts
5.1.4 ASTM A193 - Alloy Steel Bolting
Material for high
temperature service
5.1.5 ASTM A 194 - Alloy Steel nut
material for
high
temperature service
- Threaded steel
5.1.6 IS 1367
fasteners
5.2 Dimensional Standards For Bolts
The dimensional standards referred for
the studslbolts are:
flanges
5.2.1 ANSI B 18.2.1 - Square & Hexagonal
head bolts
5.2.2 ANSI B 18.2.2 - Square & Hexagonal
nuts
5.2.3 BS 916
- Black bolts & nuts
5.2.4 IS 1367
- Threaded steel
fasteners.

3.4 Based On Face Finish


There are two types of finishes done on
to the facings. They are the smooth finish
and the serrated finish. The smooth finish
tlanges are specified when metallic gaskets
are specified and serrated finish is provided
when a non-metallic gasket is provided.
The serrations provided on the facing could
be concentric or spiral (phonographic).
Concentric serrations are insisted for face
finish when the fluid being carried has very
low density and can find leakage path
through the cavity. The serration is specified
by the number, which is the Arithmetic
Average Roughness Height (AARH). This
is the arithmetic average of the absolute
values of measured profile height deviations
taken within the sampling len-4 and
measured from the graphical centre line.

3.5 Based On Material Of Construction


The flanges are normally forged except
in very few cases where they are fabricated
from plates.
When plates are used for fabrication,
they should be of weldable quality. ASME
B16.5 allows only reducing flanges and
blind flanges to be fabricated from plate.
The materials of conshction normally used
are as follows;
FLANGE MATERIALS
3.5.1 ASTM A105 - Forged Carbon Steel
3.5.2 ASTM A181 - Forged Carbon Steel
for ~ e n e r aPurpose
l
3.5.3 ASTM A182 - Forged Alloy Steel
and Stainless Steel
3.5.4 ASTM A350 - Forged Alloy Steel for
low
temperature
services
3.6 Other Standards
Certain British Standards, German
~ta"dards and Indian Standards are also
followed in India for flange specifications.
BS-10 is the most popular among them even
though
British
Standards
Institute

Piping Elernenrs

themselves have withdrawn the same. Dm


flanges are also popular because they have a
wider range of pressure temperature classes.
IS has developed IS 6392 in line with Dm
standards and the same is also in use.
ASME B 16.5 Covers Sizes from 5'
NB to 24" NB only and ANSI B16.47 1API
605 are referred for higher sizes.
4.0 GASKETS
4.1 Selection
Proper selection of gasket depends upon
following facrors.
4.1.1 Compatibility of the gasket material
with the fluid.
4.1.2 Ability to withstand the pressuretemperature of the system.
4.2 Type
Based on the type of construction, gaskets
are classified as:
4.2.1 Full Face
2' 4.2.2 Inside bolt circle
' 4.2.3 Spiral wound metallic
4.2.4 Ring type
4.2.5 Metal jacketed
4.3 Material
Experien:: on the job and published
literature shall be used to select the gasket
material with respect to the compatibility of
the same with rhe fluid.
The material. which is most commonly used,
is the Compressed Asbestos Fibre.
Indian Standvd IS 2712 specifies three
different marcrials at three different grades.
4.3.1 IS 2712 Gr Wll, W12 and Wl3
- for Steam, Alkali and general
applications.
4.3.2 IS 2 i i 2 Gr All,
- for Acid applications.
4.3.3 IS 2-i2 Gr 011, 012,013
- for Oil applications.
Asbestos free gaskets are also available
for.above applications. For very corrosive
applications. PTFE or PTFE enveloped
gaskets are used.

+'<

"'3

.$

9.0 TIPS FOR THE PREPARATION


OF PIPING SPECIFICATIONS
The approach should be to minimize the
number of different elements and thus
simplify and rationalize inventory.

>:
~2

9.1 Materials
* Carbon Steel shall be used for
temperature upto 425C (800 OF) only.
* Low temperature steel shallbe used for
temperature below -29 "C (-20 OF)
* Alloy steel shall be used for temperature
above 426 "C (SO 1 OF)
* Stainless steel shall be used for
corrosive fluids.
Basic material of
construction specified by Process Licenser
to be referred for the type.
* Galvanized steel piping shall be used for
services such as drinking water, instrument
air, nitrogen (LP) etc.
* Selection of Non-ferrous, Non-metallic
and Lined piping shall be as per the
recommendation from the Process Licenser.

9.3 Piping Components


9.3.1 PIPES
* All pipelines canying toxiclinflammable
fluids shall be seamless.
* Utility piping can be ERW or Seam
welded.
* Steam pipelines shall preferably be
seamless.

9.3.2 FITTINGS
* Fittings shall preferably be seamless.
* Butt weld fittings shall be used for pipe
sizes 2" (50 rnm) NB and above for all
AlloyICarbon steel piping.
* For stainless steel piping where
thickness is less, all fittings could be buttwelding type.
* Welding tees shall be used for full size
branch connections. For reduced branch
sizes upto 2 steps less than run diameter, it
can be fabricated. For smaller sizes half
couplings shall be used.
Full size
unreinforced branch welding can be done
where pressure temperature condition are
mild.

9.2 Piping Joints


* Butt-welded connection shall normally
be used for all AlloyICarbon steel piping 2" 9.3.3 FLANGES
(50 mm) NB and larger and also for * Rating shall be based on the pressure
-Austenitic Stainless Steel.
"temperature conditions. However 150 lb
* ~lloyldarbonsteel piping 1%'' (40 &)I
flanges are not permitted beyond 200C
NB and below shall be socket welded.
(400F).
* Threaded connection shall be avoided * Socket welding flanges may be used for
except in galvanized piping.
all pressure ratings upto 1 !A" (40 mm) NB
* Flanged joints shall be minimized, as size except on lines subjected to severe
they are points of potential leakage. It may cyclic conditions..
be used to connect piping to equipment or * Screwed flanges shall be used for
valves, connecting pipe lines of dissimilar galvanized steellcast iron piping.
materials, where spool pieces are required to * Slip on flanges are used in 150 lb and
permit removal or servicing of equipment 300 lb rating upto a maximum of 200".
and where pipes and fittings are with Welding neck flanges shall be used for
flanged ends.
higher pressure ratings.
* Raised face is used for flanges upto 600
Ib'rating. For flanges 9001b rating and above
RTJ is recommended. Tongue and groove
facing shall be used selectively.

Piping Elements

Depending on pressure and temperature,


gasket shall be either CAF, spiral wound
metallic for raised face flanges or selected
based on the corrosive nature of the fluid.
* Use flat face flanges to mate with cast
iron valves and equipments.

Piping Elements

* Use Spiral wound gasket with inner ring


for Vacuum seivice
* Low strength carbon steel bolting shall
not be used above 200 'C and below -29 OC

VALVES
T. N. GOPINATH
GHARDA CHEMICALS LTD:
INTRODUCTION
Estimates reveal that a substantial
portion, approximately 8-lo%, of the
total capital expenditure of the chemical
process industry is used for the
procurement of valves. In terms of the
number of units also, valves exceed any
other piping component. Hence, proper

thought should be given for the selection


of valves. The first step in the selection
is to determine exactly what function the
valve is expected to perform after it has
been installed.
Valves are installed on equipmentfpiping
to perform any one of the following
functions;

Functions of Vdves

Isolation

Regulation

The design of the valves are done in such


a way as to perform any of the above
functions. The type of valves used can be
classified in the following categories.

Non-Return

Special Purpose

2.2

Needle Valves

2.3

Butterfly Valves

2.4

Diaphragm Valves

2.5

Piston Valves

2.6

Pinch Valves

Ball Valves

3.0

NON-RETURN

Plug Valves

3.1

Check Valves

Piston Valves

4.0

SPECIAL PURPOSE

Diaphra,m Valves

4.1

Multi-port Valves

Butterfly Valves

4.2

Flush Bottom Valves

Pinch Valves

4.3

Float Valves

4.4

Foot Valves

4.5

Line Blind Valves

4.6

Knife Gate Valves

ISOLATION
Gate Valves

REGULATION
Globe Valves

Valves

The above classification is


based on functions. The valves could
. also be classified based on the type of
construction. Valve manufacttirers offer
endless varieties of constructions. Based
on the operation, valves can be broadly
classified as operated valves and selfoperated valves. Mainly the check valves
are self-operated and all other types
come under operated valves.
The valves can fur&her be claisified
based on the end connections. End
connection means the arrangement of
attachment of the valves to the
equipment or to the piping. The types of
end connections are:

4.0

Gun metal

5.0

Carbon Steel

6.0

Stainless Steel

7.0

Alloy Carbon Steel

8.0

Poly

Propylene,
UHMW-HDPE etc.

9.0

Special Alloys

W - P E ,

10.0 Fluoro polymerElastomer lined


metals
11.0 Glass

Screwed ends
Socket weld ends
Flanged ends
Butt weld ends
Socketted ends
Wafer type ends
Buttress ends
The valves could also be classified based
on the materials of construction. There
can be any number of combinations
possible with the materials of
construction. It is for the piping engineer
to select the same in consultation with
the process engineer to suit the process
fluid. The environment in which the
valves are installed is also to be
considered for selection of materials of
construction. However, the most
commonly available materials are:

TERMS USED. FOR VALVES


SPECIFICATION
1. Pressure - Temperature Ratings
Pressure - Temperature Rating
is the maximum allowable sustained
non-shock pressure at the corresponding
tabulated temperature. These are listed in
ANSI B 16.34 and ANSI B 16.5.
2. Class

The valve is specified by the


pressure rating of the bodv of the valves.
The ~ m e r i c i s t a n d a r dspecifies,the
following classes.
Class
Class
Class
Class
Class
Class
Class

!.O

Cast Iron

Class

2.0

Ductile Iron

Class

3.0

Bronze

3. Trim
The trim is comprised of stem; Seat
Surfaces, Back Seat ~ d s h i nand
~
other small internal parts that
normally contact the surface fluid.
The table below indicates trim of

4. Wetted Parts
All parts, which come in contact with the
service fluid, are called the wetted parts.

..

.-.I,

5. Wire Drawing
This term is used to indicate the
premature erosion of the valve seat'
caused by excessive velocity between
seat and seat disc. An erosion pattern is
left as if a wire had been drawn between
the seat surfaces. Excessive velocity can
occur when the valve is not closed
tightly. A WOG (Water-Oil-Gas,
relatively cool liquids) disc is the best
defense against wiredrawing because its
resiliency makes it easier to close tightly.
Discs of hrder material are to be closed
cikefidly to prevent wire drawing. In
LPG Service, the wire drawing effect
causes a threat of anti-re~geration.The
ice formation on the wedge will obstruct
movement thereby increasing the leak
throu,oh seat further.

6. Straight Through Flow


This refers to the valve in which the
closing element is retracted entirely so
that there is no restriction of flow.

Valves

common types of valves. API 600


specifies Trim numbers in table 3 of
the standard. It specifies the types of
material, which can be used for the
p W with its typical specification and
grade.

7. Quarter Turn Valves


This refers to the valve where the entire
operation of valve is achieved by 90
degees turn of the clos,ingelement.
8. Pressure Drop
Pressure drop is the loss of pressure
through resistance across the valve while
flows and is expressed in terms of
equivalent length in pipe diameters.
~ y p eof Valve

Gate
Globe
Angle globe
Swing check
Plug Rectangular
Plug Port
Ball - Regular
POfl
Ball - Full pon

- Position

Fully
open

Eouivalenr
(er;@ in pipe
dia
I!
340
145

50
18
"

40

"

9. Upstream Pressure
This is the pressure of the fluid that
enters the valve. This is sometimes
referred to as inlet or supply pressure.

10. Downstream Pressure


This is the pressure of the fluid that is
discharged fiom the valve. This is
sometimes referred to as outlet or
reduced pressure.

13. LEAKAGE CLASS


Leakage class

11. LDAR
Sigifies "Leak Detection And Repair"
to ensure that the fugitive emissions
standards of EPA are met. Fugitive
emissions are the minute amount of
process media that escape into the
atmosphere though gland packing along
valve stem.

Maximum seat
leakage
A modification of
any class II,III or
IV valve where
design intent is the
s&e as the basic
class, but by
ageement between
user and supplier.
No test is required.
0.5% of rated
valve capacity
0.1% of ratec
valve capacity

12. LAER
Si,gifies "Lowest Achievable Emission
Rate". It is the minimum rate of fugitive
ermssicn, which is achieved by
deploying proper sealing arrangement.

Jlass IV

0.01% of ratec
valve capacity
5 x 10' ml pel
minute water pel
inch of orifice
diameter per psi
differential

as per table below


Size, NB
I

rnl. per min.


0.15

Bubble per minute


I

1.5
2
2.5
3
4

6
S

Valves

FLOW COEFFICIENT (Cv) OF VALVE

n o w COEFFICIENT

EXPRESSED AS cv OF A VALVE IS USED TO CALCULATE

THE PRESSURE DROP THROUGH A PARTICULAR VALVE FOR A GIVEN FLOW


RATE.

TKE cv OR COEFFICIENT OF FLOW EXPRESSES THE RATE OF n o w IN


GALLONS PER MINUTE AT 60 DEGREES FARENHEIT WATER WITH A
PRESSURE DROP OF l(0NE) PSIG ACROSS THE VALVE.
THE SAME IS ALSO KNOWN AS KVOF A VALVE AS PER DIN STANDARDS AND
INDICATES
FLOW OF WATER IN CUBIC METERS PER HOUR AT 20
DEGREES C THAT WOULD TAKE PLACE UNDER A PRESSURE LOSS OF 1 BAR

THE RELATION BETWEEW Cy AND KVIS AS FOLLOWS

THE FORMULAE FOR CALCULATING THE FLOW RATE IS

I
=QTG
Q = ~ V Kv
G

d~
WHERE

Q =FL.owRATEINM~/HR
G = SPECIFIC GRAVITY OF LIQUID
P = P E S S W DROP ACROSS V-ALm IN BAR.

FROM THE ABOVE, IT IS FAIRLY OBVIOUS THAT THE QUANTITY OF FLOW


THROUGH ANY VALVE WILL BE DIRECTLY PROPORTIONAL TO THE KV OF THE
VALVE HIGHER THE KV MORE THE FLOW.
INVERSELY PROPROTIONAL TO THE ROOT OF SPECIFIC GRAVITY OF THE
LIQUID THEREFORE THE THICKER I MORE VISCOUS THE LIQUID THE LESSER
IS THE FLOW.
F k D ALSO DIRECTLY PROPORTIONAL TO THE ROOT OF THE PRESSURE HEAD
/ DROP / DIFFERENTIAL THEREFORE MORE THE PRESSURE DIFFERENTIAL THE

MORE THE FLOW.

LESS THE DIFFERENTIAL / MORE THE BACK PRESSURE LESS THE now.
LESS THE DIFFERENTIAL /MORE THE BACK PRESSURE LESS THE FLOW.
THE ABOVE IS ESSENTIAL IN CALWLATING THE FLOW AS ALSO IN
SELECTING THE RIGHT TYPE AND SIZE OF THE VALVE.

TaMe 3 W n d Seating M a c e Merials

TW M:

Typical Specification (Grade)

seat
T"m
~ 3 .

i\h-rid
Trim

kchss
Weid
(kg,m r i W Type

130
1 8 80 - N
25-23 0 - N
Had130
cna A n
N-0
130
CUN
130
klarl130
1 30
Co 0-A"
130
N-9
N-CUdIoy
1880-N
N-CU d l q
Tnrn5a54
1880-N
Trim5a5.4
14290-N
14z9Q.N
Tnrn5a54

cmt

Forged
ASTM A182 (F6a)
ASTM A1 82 (F304)
ASTM A182 (F310)

ASTM A182 (F6a)


ASTM A1 82 (F6a)
ASTM A1 82 (F6a)
ASTM A182 (F6a)
Manuiacturer's standard
ASTM A1 82 (F316)
Manufacturer's standard
ASTM A182 (F316)

--..-

ASTM 8473
ASTM 8473

WM

RECO1MR.lENDATION FOR VALVES

CBEWIICAUBULK DRUG PLANT

team H.P.

;team LP.

solation

Legulation

ion-return

C.S. Body
stellited him
800# Globe
with SW ends
3) C.S. Body
stellited him
800# Piston
with SW ends
:) C S Body SS
Ball. Sp
PTFE seats.
800# SW ball
valve
a) CS Body
Stellited kim
300#1150#
Flgd Gate
with flex
Wedge
b) CS Body
13% Cr him
300#/1SO#
Flgd Piston

) C.S. Body
tellited him
00# Globe
vith SW ends
I) C.S. Body
tellited him
loo# Piston
vith SW ends

3.Body
jtellited
rim 8 0 G
Lift check
with SW
Ends

iston
alves are
osdier.
rom the
oint of
iew of
.nergy
onservaon they
re O.K.

I) CS Body
~tellitedhim
100#1150#
'lgd
ilobe

a) CS Body
stellited trim
300#/150#
Flgd swing
check

LLL
IALVES
'0 BE
iPPROVID BY
BR

t-)

a)

b)

c)

a)

b)

CSBody
13% Cr. Trim
800# Globe
with SW en&
CSBody
13% Cr. Trisr
800# Piston
With SW
ends
C S Body SS
Ball. Special
PTFE seats.
800:: SW ball
valve
CS Bodya
13% Cr. Trin
Flex wedge
150;: Flgd
Gate
CS Body
13% Cr tnm
150:: Flgd
Piston

)) CS Body
L3% c r &im

500#/150#
'lad Piston
r) CS Body
13% Cr. Trim
300# Globe
with SW ends
5) CS Body
13% Cr. Trim
800:: Piston
With SW en&

a) CS Body
13%Cr
trim I508
Flgd
Globe
b) CS Body
I3%Cr aim
150# Flgd
Piston

C.S. Body
13% Cr him
800# Lift
check With
SW Ends

C.S. Body
13% Cmim
150:: Lift
check With
SW Ends

Valves

3.

Condensate

4.

Utilities like
-Water, Air: JSHS

%" - 1 '/.."

2"- 12"
- 1 K'

a) C.S. Body SS a)
ball PTFE
seat 8008 SW
Ball
b) C.S. Body
13% Cr. Trim
8004 SW
Globe
SAi\iE
a) C.S. Body SS a)
Ball PTFE
Seat SOO*
Scrd. Ball
b) G.M. Body
b)
Bronze fim
Scrd Gate to
IS 778

C.S. Body
13% Cr.
Trim 8001:
SW Globe
valve

AS LP STEAM
C.S. Body a)
13% Cr.
Trim 800:
SW Globe
G.M.
Body
Bronze
.Trim S a d
b)
Globe to
IS 778

C.S.
Body
13% Cr.
Trim
800:: Lift
check
Wirh SW
Ends
G.M.
Body
Bronze

I Bronze

body not
Recommen
ded in
acidic
amosphere

Trim

I
2"- 12"

a) CIBody 13%
Cr disc 12%
wafer type
Butterfly
Gear
Operator
above 6" NB
b) CIBody 13%
Cr or 18% Cr
fim 12%
Flgd Gate to
IS 780

c) CS Body
13% Cr
uim 150:
Flgd Gate
d) Cast Iron
Body 13% Cr
plug 125 4
Fldg Lub.
Plug Valve

Scrd
check to
.
IS775
a) CI Body
a) cs ~ o d y Recornmen.
13% Cr disc
13% cr. dation for
Air CS
125# wafer
aim
Body
Ball
type Bunerfly
water
or
Gate
for
Gear Operator
w e
Isolation
above 6" NB
check
b) .CIBody
13% or
18% Cr
him 12%
Fkd
Globe

b) CIBody
13% or
18% Cr
~ 12%
flgd
swing
check to
IS 53 12

c) CS Body
13% Cr aim
1501: flgd
Globe

c) CS Body
l3%Craim
150:
flgd
-.
swing check

I
I

------I

__ _ _ __ _

!
I

I
!

Valves

5)

Hot Oil I Heating


Fluid

1W

a) C.S. Body
SteUited trim
Graphoil pkg
800# SW
Globe
b) C.S. Body
13% trim
800# SW
Piston with
suitable
se&g rings
,

CS. Body
Stellited
him
Graphoil -.
pkg 800#
SW Globe
b) CS.Body
13% trim
800# SW
Piston with
suitable
sealing

a) C.S.
Body
stellited

a)

.
800# SW
lift check

trim

M ~ S

2" - 12"

~.

a) CS Body
stellited @im
Graphoil pkg
300:: (iMin)
Flgd Gate
with 125 250
Flgd Finish

a) CS Body
stellited trim
graphoil pkg
300:: (Mii)
Flgd Gate with
.
125 -250
AARH Flgd
finish

b) CSBody
13% Cr @im
Graphoil pkg
300 # (Miin)
Flgd Piton
with Suitable
sealing ring
and 125 250 AARH
Flgdfinish

b) CSBody
13% Cr trim
Graphoil pkg
300 # (Min)
Flgd Piton
with Suitable
sealing ring and
125 - 250
AARH Flgd
f ~ h
Globe Valve
with CS Body
Monel I
Hastalloy C
him
a) C.S. Body
13% Cr.
trim 150#
~ l Globe
~ d

6)

Chlorine (Dry)

%" - 12"

Ball valve with


CS body MoneV
Hastalloy C ball
& stem.

7)

Solvent1 Process
(Carbon Steel)

%" - 12"

a) C.S. Body SS
Ball 150 Flgd
full port Ball
valve with
PTFEI GFT
seats
b) CS Body
13% Cr plug
150# Flgd
sleeved plug
seats

..

CS Body
stellited trim
300%(Min)
Flgd swing
check with
125 -250
AARHFlgd
Finish

Check (LaI
Swing ) valve
CS Monel I
Hastalloy C
trim
a) C.S. Body
13% Cr. trim
Flgd Lift
check %" to 1
%" and Flgd
swing check
2" & above

Valves

Solvent/ Process
:Stainless Steel)

Solvent/ Process
(Highly
Corrosive)

a) SSBody SS
ball 150 Fldg
full poa ball
valve with
F'TFE I GFT
seats
b) SS Body SS
Plug 150::
Flgd sleeved
plug
a) Ductile Iron
body % plug
lined with
fluoropoymer
plug valve
b) Ballvalve
with suitable
plastic body
and baU

I) SS body SS

rim 150:: Flgd


:lobe
.

jS Body SS
rim 150#
3gd swing
:heck

i)

Valves

Doctile
Iron
body
lined
with
fluoro
polymer
ball
check
valve
--do-

hitabi.iry with
remperanre to be
:hecked

1.0 ISOLATION VALVES


The isolation valves used in the
Process Industry u e :
1.1
Gate Valves
1.2

Ball Valves

1.3

Plug Valves

1.4

Piston Valves

1.5

Diaphragm Valves

1.6

Butterfly Valves

1.7

Pinch Valves

Of these, the Butterfly, Diaphragm and


Piston Valves can be used for regulating
the flow as well. Similarly, the Globe
Valve design could be modified to use it
for positive shut-off purposes. The
present trend in industry is to go for
quarter turn valves for this duty due to
ease of operation. The types of valves in
this category are the Ball valves, Plug
valves and Butterfly valves. Ball and
Plug valves are also can be used for flow
control with shaped port of the closing
element. More over the design of quarter
turn valves are inherently better suited
for emission control applications. The
linear stem movement of the gate and
globe valve tends to open the path
emissions release and in its dynamic
node, emissions can be "dragged" along
the stem. .

Stem
Gland
Seat rins
Yoke
Packing
Gland Flange
Valve Port
Yoke Bush
Lantern
Back Seat Bushing

1.l. GATE VALVES

Gland eyebolts &nuts

A'typical Gate valve will have the


following parts, which could be
identified.
1.1.1
Body

Bonnet bolts & nuts

1.1.2

Bonnet

1.1.3

Wedge

Hand Wheel
Hand Wheel nut
Bonnet Gasket

Valves

1.1.1

Body
The body is the part which gets
attached to the vessel or piping. The
classification of the body could be done
depending on the end connections as
indicated earlier. Body could also be
specified based on the material of
construction of the same. This could be
cast, forged or fabricated.
The wall thickness and end to
endlface to face dimensions of the body
shall be as per the Regulatory code to
which it is designed.
The end flanges shall be
integrally cast or forged with the body. It
can also be attached by welding, if so
specified. The end connection shall suit
the rating specified. The flanged
connection shall be to ANSI B 16.5 or
any of the flange standards. The buttwelding end connection shall be to ANSI
B 16.25 or any other end preparation
required. The socket weldlscrew
connection shall be to ANSI B 16.11 or
any other equivalent standards. The body
can have auxiliary connection such as
drains, by-pass connections, etc.

1.1.2 Bonnet
The bonnet is classified based
on the attachment of the same to the
body. The type of connection normally
adopted are Bolted, Bellow sealed,
Screwed-on, Welded, Union, Pressure
sealed etc.
The bolted connection shall be
flanged, male and female, tongue and
groove or ring type joint. In low pressure
rating valves, it may be flat faced. The
bonnet gasket is selected to suit bodybonnet connection. It can be corrugated
flat solid metal, flat metal jacketed,
asbestos filled, metal ring joint, spiral
wound asbestos filled or flat ring
compressed asbestos in case of low
pressure rating, Teflon or Teflon filled
for corrosive applications.
The bellow sealed bonnets can
be bolted or welded on to the body.
These are selected for very critical

services like the nuclear, very high


temperature and lethal services. The
screwed-on bomet/union bonnet is used
for very low priority application and
small size valves.
When valves are used for Cryogenic
Service extended bonnet design is used
to take care of large insulation thickness.
When used for very high temperature
bonnet attached with fins are also used.
1.1.3 Wedge
This is the part, which facilitates the
service by its movement up and down.
The types of wedges are classified as;
Solid Plain Wedge

Solid Flexible Wedge


Split M7edge
When solid disc is wedged into the ri$d
body seat and the valve undergoes
temperature changes, the wedge gets
jammed in the seat. Hence the' flexible
wedge and split wedge d e s i y is
developed to overcome this difficulty.
Normally the solid plain wedge
is referred as solid wedge and the split
wedge is referred as flexible wedge. The
design slightly alters with the
manufacturers though the basis remains
the same.
The flexible wedge desiy is
followed for valve sizes 50 NB and,
above. Valves 40 PC3 and below are
available in solid wedge design only.
Flexible wedge design is superior as it
will 'not get jammed during high
temperature operations.
The wedge material should be
at le&t of the same quality as that of the
body. In case of integral seat rings the
wedge circumference is deposited with
superior quality material. In smaller
valves, the whole wedge will be
manufactured out of superior material.

Valves

i I'

1.1.4 Stem
The stem connects .the hand
wheel and the wedge for operations. The
design can have rising stem and nonrising stem. The stem is operated
rotating the stem nut by hand wheel
mounted at the top of the yoke.
In the rising stem design, the
stem moves up along with the wedge to
open. This is called the OS & Y (Outside
Screw and Yoke) type of design. In case
of non-rising stem the wedge moves up
and down and the stem is stationary.
This is called the inside screw design.
Normally, bar stock or forging
are used for the construction of stem.

1.1.5 Gland, Gland flange, Packing


and Lantern
There are two types of gland
designs possible, Single piece and Two
piece.. In two-piece design, there will be
gland flange and a follower. The
follower will have a spherical end, which
facilitates proper aligning of follower
and loading on the packing. In Single
piece, the gland and follower will be
integral. This design is used mostly in
low-pressure valves.
Normally gland follower will be
of superior material than the gland
flange. Gland flanges are made of carbon
steel only. The glands are bolted to the
bonnet with gland eyebolts in lowpressure valves.
The regulatory codes specify
that
the
stuffing box
should
accommodate minimum six packing
rings for class 150 valves. As regards
higher rating valves, it should have
lantern ring .with five packing rings
above and two packing rings below
lantern. Lantern is not provided for class
150 valves. Lantern is provided for
higher rating if required. When lantern is
provided, the stuffing box shall be
provided with two plugged holes. The,
material of lantern shall have corrosion
resistance equal to that of the body.

140mally, the 'packing is of


braided asbestos with suitable corrosion
inhibitor. -When special packing such as
'Graphoil' is used, the number of packing
rings required will be more. To
accofnmodate more packing rings, the
length of gland is also modified. This
design is called the 'Deep Gland' design.
This is used for the hi$ temperature
services. But this cannot satisfy the
EPA's fus$tive emission standard of
4 0 0 PPM threshold. Hence frequent
LDAR will result in excessive
expenditure.
1.1.6 Seat Rings
There are two types of designs
possible in seat rings. They are the
integral and renewable. Ln case of
renewable seat rings, it may be either
threaded, rolled-in or weided-in. In case
of integral seat rings, the seat materid is
weld-deposited directly on to the valve.
body. The minimum hardness specified
by the code for this material is 250 HB,
with 50 HB minimum differential
between body and gate seats, the body
se?t being harder. Deposition of harder
materials like "Stellite-6" is also done
for valves used in special services.
The back seat arrangement is
provided to repack the stuffing box when
the gate is in fully open position. The
stem shall have an integral conical or
spherical backseat surface to seat against
the bonnet backseat.
1.1.7 Yoke and Yoke Bush
Yoke may be integral with or
separate e o n the bonnet. When the yoke
is integral, the stem nut should be
removable without removing bonnet.
The yoke should have the same material
of construction as that of the shell. The
Yoke bush is normally a Ni-resist
material. his is tci prevent gauling of the
stem, as stem will normally be of a
Nickel alloy.

Valves

1.1.8 Hand wheel and Hand wheel Nut


The h a ~ wheel
d
is fixed to the stem
by a threaded hand wheel nut. The arrow
pointing the direction to open the valve
will be marked with the word "open" or
"close" or "shut", unless the size makes
it impracticable. Valves shall be closed
by turning the hand wheel in clockwise
direction.
The material of construction of hand
wheel shall be malleable iron, Carbon
steel, Nodiilar iron or Ductile iron. Cast
iron is not prefened. The nut shall be of
carbon steel or stainless steel.
When the installed position of the
valve is such that the hand wheel is not
accessible, then the hand wheels are
replaced by chain wheels and the valve
is operated with chains. For large
diameter valve where the operating
torque is high, gear arrangement is
provided to facilitate operation. Mostly,
bevel gear equipment is adopted.
General recommendation for specifymg
Gear operator is:

There are two types of port designs


possible in gate valves, full bore and
reduced bore. In case of full bore, the net
area of the bore through the seat shall be
as nearly practicable equal to the
nominal pipe size. For reduced port
valves, the port diameter is normally one
size less than the size of the end.
The compact design small bore (% 1 % inch) ,oate.valves are as per MI 602
or BS 5352. Unless the full bore design
is specifically asked for, manufacturers
supply the reduced bore valves. The full
bore design sate valves are also covered
in BS 5352 and is designated as 'std
bore'. In full bore design, the net area of
the bore through seat shall be equivalent
to that of Sch 80 pipes for class 800
valves and Sch 160 pipe for class 1500
valves. In no case less than 90% of the
above figure is acceptable as per code.
1.2 B A L L V.4LVES
HPl D LBJEA

. Size
Valve Ratinz
14"NB & above
Class 150
12" NB & above.
Class 300
Class 600 & above 8" NB & above

If remote operation of the valve is


required, then this could be achieved
through motor with limit switches.
Proper selection of the drive unit should
be done depending on the services.
1.1.9 Bolting
Normally high tensile stud bolts are
used for bonnet bolts and low carbon
bolts for gland and yoke bolting. Gland
bolts are normally hinged bolts with
hexagonal nuts.
1.1.10 Valve Port
The valve size is specified by the
size of the end connection or the body
end. The port or the bore is the passage
through the valve.

Valves

The ball valves are normally used as


positive shut off valves. The positive
shut off is attained because of the soft
seats. Special design is also available
with ball having shaped port for
reglation. Metal seated ball valves are
also available for high temperature
service. The ball vaives can be classified
based on:

IS

The port size


The type of body construction

The construction of seat


The construction of ball

The above classification is in


addition to the ones based on the end
connections, material for construction
and the pressure classes. The pressure
temperature ratings of the ball valves
are generally established by the materials
of the seat rings. The service
temperatures are also limited by the
material of seat rings.
The ball valve offers minimum
resistance to the flow. There are two
types of designs available as far as the
flow area through the valve is concerned..
They are the Full Port design and the
Regular Port (Reduced Port) design. In
full port valves, the port diameter will be
equivalent to the nominal size of the
valve, whereas in the regular port valves,
the port diameter will be one size smaller
than the nominal size. Valves with
shaped port are used for flow control
applications.
Based on the body construction the valve
could be classified as:
Single piece design

Two piece design


Three piece design
The short pattern
The long pattern

Sandwich design.
Flush bottom dzsip.
Extended body design.

Iri the sir,gle piece d e s i p valve,


the body will be castlforged as one piece.
The insertion of b e ball will be through
the end or through top of the body and is.
held in position by body insert or bonnet.
The side entry design restricts the valve
to be of regular port only.
In two-piece design, the body is
constructed in two pieces and the ball is
held in position by body stud. There can
be full port or reglar port design
possible in this construction. In case of
three-piece construction, the body has
two end pieces and one centrepiece.
These are held by body studs.
The three-piece construction
permits in-line servicing without
disturbing the existing pipe work. If the
valves have socket weld, screwed or
butt-welding ends, this design totally
dispense with the necessity of
companion flanges.
The short pattern and the long
pattern of the body is on the basis of the
end to end dimensions. Normally short
pattern body is adopted by the
manufacturer up to 300 NB valves for
150 LB class. In case of 300 NB to 400
NB, class 150 short pattern valves, the
ball may protrude beyond the body and
flange
- faceswhen the valve is in closed
position.
The sandwich design is the
flangeless design adopted b y some
manufacturers. This is to confine the use
of the high cost exotic materials like
Alloy-20, Hastelloy-B, Hastelloy-C, etc.
to the wetted areas only. The valve is
designed to fit between the flanges. The
body cover gets bolted to body with
studs or hexagonal head screws.
The seat rings are renewable in
the ball valves except for those having
one-piece sealed body construction. The
hvo different types of seat construction
are possible, viz., the fire safe desip and
the non-fire safe design. In the fire safe
design, a secondary metal seat will be
provided so that when the soft seat is

.,

&
7..

fully burnt, the ball will shift its position


and seat against secondary metal seat
and arrest full leakage. The modified
design incorporates a double staged stem
seat design and a seating system that
adjusts to the line differential pressure.
At low differential pressures the floating
ball seats against resilient tip seat. At
higher differential pressures, the ball
deflects to produce contact across the
entire seating surface of the seat ring.
In an actual fire, the heat
intensity of the fire could be so different
that it is impossible to ensure that
elastomer seats are fully damaged during
fire. If the seats are only partially
damaged, the ball cannot take seating
against the secondary metal seat and
hence the valve would leak. Hence, in
my opinion, none of the soft-seated ball
valves can be declared fire safe since the
valves are bound to leak in case of
partially
damaged
seats,
The
manufacturers have come up with metalseated ball valves, which are fully fire
safe. Here the resilient seats are replaced
by metal seats, which could even be
deposited with high temperature resistant
materials. The fire safe design should
also ensure that any development of
static electricity should be fully
discharged by proper design -and
manufacture of valve. Such an
arrangement is called the 'Anti-static'
design. This ensures to have a discharge
path &om ball to the spindle and from
spindle to the valve body with an
electrical resistance of not seater than-.
10 ohms when the valve is .new. A
typical method of achieving earthed
continuity is to provide stainless stsel
spring-loaded plungers, one fitted
behveen the stem tongue and ball and
second fitted between stem and body.
The ball could be o i full bore or
a reduced bore. The d e s i g aspect of the
same has been explained earlier. The ball
at the bottom end of the body could be
supported fully by the seat or it could be
trunnion supported. The ball can be solid

ball or of hollow construction with


cavity. The cavity is to be sealed when
the valves are used in volatile liquid.
This design of the ball is called sealed
cavity design.
The gland shall be bolted type
or screwed. Internally screwed stuffing
box is not allowed by code. Bellow
sealed bonnet is also provided in case of
valves used in lethal services. Two basic
bellow seal designs are available. The
same is explained under plug valves.
The valves shall be operated by
wrench or by hand wheel with gear
arrangement. The wrench shall be
designed so that it is parallel to the flow
passage of the ball. The valve shall be
closed by turning the wrench or the hand
wheel in clockwise direction. The length
of the wrench or the diameter of the hand
wheel shall be such that minimum force
is required to operate the valve under the
maximum differential.pressure.
When added emission control is
required, additional packing and leak off
port are options that can be added.
Normally all the parts are metal
except the resilient seats in a ball valve.
Plastic valves are also. selected for
corrosive process fluids while they
operate up to 150 psi and 100-150C and
also in food industry. To select the best
plastic valve, process data such as
number of cycles before failures is
critical. Ball valves !ined with PTFE on
the body and ceramic ball is used for
extreme corrosive fluids.
PLUG V--iLVES
The plug valves, like ball
valves, are quarter turn positive shut off
valves. Two major types of plug valves
are in use. They are the lubricated metalseated plug valves and Teflon sleeved
plug valves. Thes: valves can have
flanged, butt-weldd, screwed or socket
weld ends. The pressure classification is
the same as that specified for the gate
valves. The :ange of pressure to which
these valves could be used depends upon
1.3

the seat, seals and the lubricant. Plug


valves with shaped port are used for flow
control applications.

1.3.1 Metal Seated Plug Valves


In lubricated plug valves, the
lubrication of the seating surface is by
means of lubricant, which is fed into the
operating surface of the valve either in
the form of mastic sticks or by grease
gun. The selection of the lubricant
depends upon the service to which the
valve is subjected to. In certain designs,
a low fiction Poly Tetra Fluoro Ethylene
(PTFE) is impregnated on the surface
structure of the valve plug. This is called
'LOMU' treatment. This reduces the
frequency of valve lubrication.
The plug valve design refers to
three patterns considering the shape or
port through the valve and the overail
len,&. They are the regular pattern, the
short pattern and the venturi pattern.
The regular pattern valves have
plug ports generally rectangular in
section and have area substantially equal
to full bore of the pipe. The transition
fiom the round body to rectangular seat
ports is smooth without sudden alteration
in section, which causes turbulence.
These are used where pipeline losses are
to be kept minimum.
The short pattern valves have
face-to-face dimensions corresponding
to wedge gate valves. This is used as an
alternative to gate valves.
The Venturi Pattern Valves have
reduced port area. The change of section
through the body throat is so graded as to
produce a venturi effect to restore a large
percentage of velocity head loss through
the valve and produce a resultant total
pressure drop of relatively low order.
The plug could be installed with
the taper towards the bottom end of the
body or reverse. When the installation is
with the tapered portion towards the top,
it is called 'inverted plug'. Normally
larger diameter (8"NB and above) have
this design.

Another design in use is the


Pressure Balanced Plug. The benefit of
the pressure-balanced design is the
elimination of the possibility of
unbalanced forces causing taper locking
of the plug. This is achieved by using the
live line pressure to replace the sealant
pressure. The regular sealant injection is
not needed to keep the valve fiee to turn.
The pressure balance system
consists of two holes in the plug
connecting the chambers at each end of
the plug with the port, whjch contains
line pressure.
The valve having pressure
balanced is called dynamically balanced
plug. IWs Audco called these types of
valves as 'Super-H' pressure balanced
valves. The break away torque required
to operate these valves are lower than
(almost haif) that for the reduced port
ball valves.
Comparison of Breakaway Torque
Requirement of Valves
The following data has been published
by a valve manufacturer to indicate the
easiness in operation of the pressure
balanced plug valve.

1.3.1 Teflon Sleeved Plug Valves


.

..

..

Handh steel
stcticeiiminator
stainless Steel
+diLFtingscre~
Stcinles steel, siber p l c t d
Cwer nth, stainless stel
T q ccnrr, malleabk ircn

+
I

m r ~CItIOI,

stainless deel
fcrmed dbphragm, PTFE

,,G
.,
<,

De to ring. PTFE

.
3

Diaphragm. PTFE

pug, FEPar PFA lined dudik


iron

be subjected to. The sleeved plug valve


also is available complying with the fire.
safe atmospheric seal. They are not
manufactured fire safe through seat. The
anti static design as explained for ball
valve is also possible in Sleeved plug
valves.
The sleeved plug valves are also
designed with bellow seals to contol the
emission rates. There are two basic
bellow seal design for quarter turn
valves. One is the "goose neck" or the
"bent-straw" design. The other is the
"rack and pinion" type. The rack and
pinion type maintains a h e a r bellow so
there is less stress and no for,hg. There
is an alternative to bellow design is
available and is called a 'caged' plug
valve. In this design the plug is inserted
in another plug and it provides inherent
emission control characteristics of the
sleeved plug valve while improving the
throttling ca~abilitiesand reducing wear
and nluo
r--a-

1.3.3 "Permaseal" Plug Valves


Bdtcm dcphragm. PTFE

t:;:-;

Bdtm dbphragm,
stainless st+

a!!!

B d t m adNstment p~effiure
buttom,steel

"
I
I

Bdtm C C d s
maleable iron
Cwer bots.dainkss~teel
Bdtcm adj~stmentzcrewbith
locknbi, stainless stml

&

In Teflon sleeved plug valves, the


plug and the body in the valve are
stparated by a PTFE Sleeve. This sleeve
serves as the seat for the valve plug, thus
eliminating the contact of hvo metal
surfaces. Here, the turning effort is low
and fiiction is avoided. The limitation is
the temperature to which the sleeve can

Valves

These valves are similar to the


sleeved plug valves but are provided
with Teflon seats instead of sleeves as in
the case of ball valves. These are
designed for on-off applications and can
handle clean viscous and corrosive
liquids. The construction features and
operation are identical to that of the
sleeved plug valves. Graphite seats also
can be provided for high temperature
service. But-this design cannot provide
drip-tight shut off.
1.3.4 Eccentric Plug Valves

These valves are ~rovidedwith plugs,


which are mounted off-centre. Eccentric
plug valves are used in corrosive and
abrasive service for on-off action.
Eccentric action plug moves into and

away from seat eliminating abrasive


wear. These are covered under MSS-SP
standards.

1.4

Piston valves are of two types,


balanced and unbalanced. Balanced
valves are used in high-pressure services
and unbalanced one for low-pressure
services.

PISTON VALVES
The main parts of the valve can
be identified as
1.4.1 Body
1.4.2

Bonnet

1.4.3

Piston

1.4.4

Valve rings

1.4.5

Lantern bush

1.4.6

Spindle

1.4.7

Gland

1.4.8

Packing

1.4.9

Hand wheel

1.4.10 Yoke bush


1A.11

Bonnet stud

1.4.12 Gland eyebolt


'

Piston valves resemble in' construction


more towards a globe valve and are used
for shut off and regulation. These valves
provide positive shut off. The shut off
assembly comprises of a metal piston,
two resilient valve rings and a metal
lantern bush. The sealing surface
consists of the outer vertical surface of
the piston and the corresponding inner
surfaces of the sealing rings. This
provides a large sealing surface
compared to
globe valves of
conventional design.

Valves

The body is normally of cast


construction. It can have screwed ends,
flanged ends or butt-welding ends. These
valves follow the regulatory codes to
DIN. There are no API or ANSI
standards covering the piston valves. The
end-to-end dimensions are to DIN 3202,
which is more than a gate or globe valve
of the same size to APYANSIBS
standards. Of late, the Piston Valves are
also made to ANSI B16.10 dimensions.
The end connections are also available to
ANSIBS standards.
The b o m t is also of the same
material as that of the body and it is of
bolted construction. The piston along
with the two resilient seats provides

--.
.

L:

proper sealing. The upper valve ring seal


to atmosphere, the lower valve ring
provides seal - across the ports: The
lantern ring serves as the distance piece
between the two rings.
There are two types of piston
designs available: Regulating type and
the normal. In regulating type the bottom
part of the piston is tapered to have
throttiing effect. Tht valves are the heart
of the piston valves. The sealing rings
are made fiom specially developed high
quality elastomer material or graphite.
The materials are selected depending
upon the service conditions viz. The
fluid for which the valve is used and its
pressure temperature conditions.
Spring washers are fitted under
the bonnet nuts to ensure that the
pressure of the bonnet on the valve ring
is kept constant. This along with the
resilient sealing rings produces a spring
action, which compensates for any
differential expansion that can occur.
There are two types of stem
designs available, the inside screw rising
stern and the 0, S and Y type with rising
stem. The hand wheel is of rising design.
In 0, S and Y type, a stuffing box with a
bolted gland is provided. This design is
mainly used for Thermic f l u i d m a
temperature services.
The piston valves are preferred
by maintenance people, as they need
lesser attention. They call it as 'Fit and
Forget' type of valve.

The valve body can be lined or unlined.


Lining- material is selected to suit the .
corrosive nature-of the service fluid.

Diaphragm valve with plastic body is


also manufactured.
There are two types of
diaphra-gn valves available. They are the
'Weir' type and 'Straight flow' type. The
most commonly nsed one is the weir
type and are popularly known as the
'Saunders' type. In this type, the body
configuration is such that isolation as
well as control is possible.
A typical diaphragm valve has
the following major parts that could be
identified. They are:
1. Body
2. Diaphragm
3: Bonnet

1.5 DIAPHRAGM VALVES

D i a p h r a , ~ valves are mainly used for


low-pressure corrosive services as shutoff valves. These can also be used as
control valves. Here the diaphra,m
moves up and down to operate the valve.

Valves

4. Stem

5. Stem bushing
6. Compressor
7. Hand wheel

1?

8. Bonnet bolting.
The body and the bonnet are
made of casting. The material of
construction of the body depends upon
the service for which it is used. The body
can also be lined with corrosion resistant
materials like PTFE, Glass, Rubber, etc.
depending upon the corrosive nature of
the fluid or could be entirely made out of
plastic material. The diaphragm is
normally made fiom an elastic material
like PTFE or rubber. The diaphragm
presses against the body to give positive
shut off. The port can also be adjusted by
coneolling the position of diaphragm,
which is being done for cone01
applications. The diaphragm is secured
between the b o ~ e and
t the body. The
compressor attached to the diaphragm
facilitates the up and down movements.
There are two types of stem designs
possible in a diaphragm valve. They are
the 'Indicating' and Won-indicating' type.
In the indicating type, the position of the
spindle indicates the port opening. The
opening and closing of the valve is
effected by the hand wheel in a manually
operated valve. The material of
construction of the hand wheel could be
ductile /malleable iron or even plastic.
The body ends could be flanged,
screwed or butt-welded as required. In
case of diaphra-m valve with lined body,
the ends are always flanged and the
lining extends to the flanged surface.
The use of these valves is
restricted as they can withstand a
maximum operating pressure of 7 to 10
kg/sq.cm g. The damage to the
diaphra,m
occurs and hence the
maintenance is more frequent. On lined
valves, spark test is also conducted in
addition to the pressure tests. This is to
ensure that the lining is continuous and
no 'holiday' occurs.
There are no API or ANSI
standards for this type of valves. These
are covered by British Standard and
MSS-SP Standards.

1.6

BUTTERFLY VALVES

Butterfly valves are positive


shut off quarter turn valves. The major
parts of the butterfly valves are:
1. Body

2. Disc
3. Shaft
4. Body seat

5. Disc seat or seal


6 . Shaft seal
7. Shaft bearing

8. Hmdle.

There are three types of body


desi$s possible in a butterfly valve.
They are the double flanged type, wafer
lug trpe and wafer type. Li the doubleflanged body design, the disc is
contained within the body and is fitted to
the pipeline like any other conventional
valve. These types of valves are used
rarely as the advantage of sandwich
design is not available with the same.
In the wafer lug type and wafer
type, the valves are designed to permit
installation between ANSI/BS/DN
flanges. There are different designs
available in these types. In certain
designs, the body is lined with a resilient
material such as Nitrile rubber, Ethylene
Propylene Diene Monomer (EPDM),
PTFE. The metallic disc with or without
coating ensures proper sealing against
these liners. By selecting proper disc
material, this type of valve can be used
for corrosive services. The body could
be of any material. There is no gasket
needed for the installation of these
valves.
In certain other designs, the
body will be provided with soft seat
instead of a liner. This seat flexes against
the sealing edge of the disc when the
valve is closed. The seat is made of
PTFE with certain reinforcements. This
seating is designed to replace the PTFE
seats when-worn out.
Another design is the offset
shaft and eccentric disc design, which
imparts camming action to the disc. In
this, the stem centre line, the disc centre
line and the pipe centre lines are offset.
This feature causes the disc to swing
completely out of contact with the seat
upon opening, eliminating wear points at
top and bottom of seat. On closing, the
disc moves tightly into the flexible lip
for reliable seating around the entire
seat.

.
The -difference between the
wafer lug and wafer type body design is
that the former has provision for all the
studs to pass through the body whereas
the latter has provision for only locating
bolts. The wafer lug design is also called
single flange design,
As regards the shaft is
concerned, there can be a single shaft or
a main shaft and a stub shaft at the
bottom of the disc. Single shaft is a
better design as it minimizes the
deflection. The shaft sealing can be done
with ' 0 ' . ring or stuffing box and
packing. These valve designs provide
inherent emission control advantages
over rising stem valves.
Valves up to 12" NB are
operated with lever. The lever can have
positions to control. the flow. Higher
diameter valves are provided with gear
unit and hand wheel. When used as
control valves, these can be provided
with actuators also.
The use of this type of valve for
high temperatures is limited by the
material used for seats. Only resilient
seats can provide positive shut off.
Metallic seating can also be provided for
use at higher temperatures but will not
provide positive shut off;
These valves can be used for
vacuum service. When used for
cryogenic service, the valve shall be
provided with extended shaft to clear the
insulation.
When used beneath a -hopper
for solid handling applicatiom, tight shut
off is troublesome since particles jam
between valve .closure surfaces. Further,
the valve must be strong to lift half the
disc against the wei$t of the solids in
the hopper. The advantages. of these
valves . are that the wear resistant
elastomer has a longer life expectancy
than the conventional metallic seated

(even stellited) valves when used in


high-density mineral slunies. The
seating problem in other type of valves
does not affect these 'valves as the
encrusted scale will break when the
vahe operates and solids flush away
with the flow. The sleeve is the only
wetted part and by selecting the right
sleeve material, the valve body can be
made out of low cost material. As the
design calls for no gland, there is no
fugitive emission and meets the EPA
requirements.

2.3

Buttefly Valves

2.4

Diaphragm Valves

2.5

Piston Valves

2.6

Pinch Valves

'

PINCHVALVES
Pinch valves are also similar to
diaphragm valves. In Pinch valves, the
bodies provided with sleeves, which get
squeezed to control or stop the flow. The
sleeve could be of corrosion resistant
materials like Rubber or PTFE. The
body is normally made' from cast iron.
These are used for special services
where senice pressures are very low like
isolation of the hose co~ectionsetc. in
the chemical process industry. The body
is cast and can have flanged or screwed
ends.
Of late manufacturers . have
developed these valves to endure higher
pressures and temperatures (0 to 100 bar
& up to 120C respectively) for
application in mining and mineral
industry.
These valves are also not
covered under API or ANSI standards
and
are manufactured as per
Manufacturers' standards.
1.7

The features of Burteifly,


Diaphragm, Piston and Pinch valves
were already explained under isolating
valves. There are many identical features
in the construction of gate and globe
valves. The foregoing note is intended to
explain the comparison between these
valves hiwghting the differences.

GLOBE VALVES
A typical globe valve has the
following parts, which could be
identified.

2.1

2.0 REGULATING VALVES

The valves normally used in the


plant to regulate/control the flow are:
2.1
Globe Valves
2.2

Valves

Needle Valves

1. Body .

..

..

... ..

2. Bonnet
3. Yoke
4. Backup Ring
5. Thrust Ring

6. Gasket
7. Gland

Gj

8. StudandNut

9. Plug
10. Seat Ring
11. Spindle
12. Plug Nut
13. Back seat
14. Clamp
15. Gland Bush

.-,;
p

.-

..

-25. Anti-Rotation Device

..

Body
The construction of the body
differs &om that of the gate valve. The
body ports are arranged such that the
flow is &om the underside of the disk.
Though the code specifies that the globe
valves shall be designed suitable for
installation in either direction of flow,
the preferred direction of flow for globe
valve shall be &om under the disk.
Normally the direction of flow is cast or
embossed on the valve body.
There are two types of port
designs possible, the full port and the
reduced port. In the full port design the
body ports shall be as large as
practicable design considerations permit.
However, in no case the net area of the
bore through the seat of globe shall be
less than the 85% of the area of the
actual pipe bore. In the reduced port
design, the port diameter is normally one
size less than that of the connected pipe.

2.1.1

2.1.2 Bonnet .
The body bonnet connection for
the globe valve is the same as that of
gate valves.

16. land Fiange


17. Yoke Sleeve
18. Cross -Bolt and Nut

2.1.3 Disk
The disk of the globe valves
shall be:
Flat faced type

19. Eye Bolt and Nut

Plug type

20. Yoke Nut

Ball type

2 1. Hand Wheel

Needle type

22. Hand Wheel Xu:

V port type

23. Grub Screw


24. Grease Nipple

The flat-faced type disks are


used when the valve is to be used for the
positive shut off service. For such

..

valves, disk can be provided with an


elastomer ring- orfacing which will
ensure the same. The needle type disks
are used when finer flow control is to be
achieved. These disks can be also of
contoured design as used in flow control
valves. These are generally used for
precise flow control applications. V port
type disc is used for throttling
application.
The disk shall be either loose or
integal with stem. The integral design is
used mainly for the needle type of disc.
The loose plug design allows the same to
be renewable. When in the fully open
position, the net area between the disk
and the seat shall be equal to the area
through the seat.
Bellow seal is the only way to
achieve emission control in this type of
valve.

2.1.7 Yoke and Yoke bush


The construction of the Yoke is
the same as that of the gate valve. The
Yoke sleeve of the gate valve is machine
finished on ail surfaces whereas that of
the globe valve shall be screwed or fitted
in the position and locked in case of
rising stem design.
2.1.8 hand Wheel & Hand Wheel Nut
Unlike in gate valve the hand
wheel also rises along with the stem for
globe valve. When used as a control
valve, actuators are fixed so that the
stem movement is effected through the
same. In case of bellow-sealed globe
valves, the non-rising hand wheel design'
is provided similar to that of gate valve.
This is to ensure that the bellows are not
subjected to torsion.

In case, of globe, valves, the


stem is always of rising design along
with the hand wheel. The stem is
provided with a disk nut at the lower
end. The upper end is provided with a
hand wheel screwed by stem nut. In case
of bellow sealed valves rising stem with
non-rising hand wheel is provided
similar to that in the case of gate valve.

The above are the major design


aspects of the globe valves and
comparison of the same with that of the
gate valves. As regards the material of
construction, end connection etc. are
concerned, the same shall be selected by
the piping en,+eer based on the service
of the line to which the valves are used.
The environment in which the valve is
installed also will have to be considered
while selecting the niaterial

2.1.5 Gland, Gland flange, Packing &


Lantern
Design and details same as that
of gate valves.

There could be slight variation in


from
manufacturer
to
design
manufacturer, but the basic -design
features as specified are not altered.

2.1.6 Seat rings

NEEDLE VALVES
The needle valves, like globe
valves, are used for flow control.
i\lormally needle valves are used in
smaller sizes and are provided with
either screwed or socket weld end The
design of the needle valve can be exactly
same as that of the globe valve except
for the disk. In globe valves, the di'sk is

2.1.3 Stem

In case of globe valves of


carbon steel, the hard faced seats can be
directly deposited on the body or the seat
rings shall be shoulder seated.

Valves

'

1.2

like a m c a t e d pyramid where& in the


needle valves it will be full. This facility
eures finer flow control. The disk could
also be integal with the stem, in which
case the bottom part of the stem will be
machined accordingly.

code covers this design, t h a e are mostly


made as per Manufacturers' standard.
2.3 BUTTERFLY, DIAPHRAGM,
PISTON AND PINCH V a V E S
The design and the construction
features of the same are already
explained under the head 'Isolation
Valves'. These valves can perfom the
dual duty of control as well as isolation.
3.0 NON - RETURN VALVES

As the name indicates, these


valves are used to ensure unidirectional
flow of fluids. Check valves are mainly
divided into G o types based on check
mechanism.

;
Screwed Ends

:Socket
Weld Ends

A totally different type of


construction is also used for the needle
vzlves of smaller sizes. The body1
bonnet connection will be screwed on
type instead of bolted. In place of a
flanged gland with gland bolting, the
packing will be positioned with a
screwed union gland nut. The stem will
be of inside screw arrangement: This
makes the valve compact.
The body and bonnet can be of
?:,-r-d
- construction or can be fabricated
from barstock.
These valves are used only for
limited applications. Even though the

Valves

3.1

Lift check valves

3.2

Swing check valves

The type is selected depending


upon the service, size and material of
construction. Normally, small bore
valves (up to 4.0" hB) are selected as
lift check and big bore as swing check
due to constructional limitation.

LIFT CHECK V S V E S
These valves operate by the
lifiing action of the disktelement. The
different types of lift check valves
available are 3.1

3.1.1

Piston lift check

3.1.2

Ball lift check

3.1.3

Non-s!m check

3.1.1 Piston lift check


The piston liir valve has body
similar to that of globs valve. The piston

11
7

will be in cflidrical form, the lower end


of which is shaped to form a seating
disk. The cylindrical part fit into the
guide making an effective dashpot.
When it is in fully open position, the net
area between the seating disk and the
seat will be equal to the area through the
seats.
R e body will be provided with
renewable body seat rings like in globe
valves. In carbon steel valves, there can
be hard faced seats deposited directly on
to the body.
The piston lift check valves can
only be placed in the horizontal pipeline.
The lift check valves can also
be provided with spring-loaded piston.
In this case, a spring of specified tension
has to be placed, between the guide and
the piston within the cylindrical portion.
This type can be placed in any location.
3.1.2 Ball l i t check
In ball lift check valves the
unidirectional flow is achieved by the
movement of a ball. There are two
designs possible in this pattern, the
horizontal and the vertical. In vertical
design, the valve should be placed in
such.a way that the flow is always in the
upward direction.
These check valves are
provided with guides to guide the ball
throughout the travel. The. travel should
be such that in fully open position, the
net area between)the ball and the seat
shall be at least equal to the area throu@
the seat.
The main parts of lift check
valves are the following.
1. Body
2. Ball /Piston

4. Seat

5. Guide
6. Gasket
7. Cover stud nut

The body shall be of forged or


cast construction and with socket
welded/screwed/flanged ends, integrally
cast or with welded-on flanges.
The cover shall be either bolted
or welded or with union nuts. The union
nuts could be of hexagonal or octagonal
shape. The cover material shall be same.
as that of the body.
The seating shall be integral or
renewable. The hardness difference can
also be achieved by weld deposit on
seating surfaces. The renewable seat
rings shall be screwed-in type either
shoulder seated or bottom seated.
3.1.3 NON-SLAM CHECK VALVES
The non-slam check valve is a
spring loaded lift check valve with a
modified design of the body. The valve
is designed in such a way that the same
can be sandwiched behveen the two
flanges. Here the disc is held in position
by a spring, which is housed, in a
huusing cap or yoke.
3.2

SWING CHECK VALVES

These valves operate by the


swinging action of the disk. There are
two types of swing check valves
available. They are the conventional
swing check valves with flanged' ends
and the wafer type spring loaded check
valves.

3. Cover

Valves

3.2.1 Conventional Swing check valves

In these types of valves, the


check mechanism is the disk, which is
hinged. The pressure of the fluid lifts the
disk and allows the flow. The disk

returns to the seat with its own weight.


This allows the valve for mounting in
horizontal as well as vertical position
with upward fluid flow. The main parts
of the valves are 1. Body
2. Cover

3. Hinge

p.

k,)
4. Hinge Bracket

5. Gasket
-

6. Cover Stud and Nut


7. Bracket Stud and Nut

8. Disc

9. Szat Ring
10. Hinge Pin
11. Disc Pin
Valves

12. Washer

The body will be cast with a tapered


wedge seat and will be provided with
renewable seat rings. The wall thickness
and end to endlface to face dimensions
of the body shall be as per the regulatory
code to which it is designed. The end
flanges shall be integrally cast or
attached by welding. The flanged
connection shall be to ANSI B 16.5 or
any other flange standard. The buttwelding end connection shall be to ANSI
B 16.25.
The disk will be attached to the
body through hinge and h g e pin and
swings against the same controlling the
flow. The disk material shall be of
quaiity at least equal to that of the body.
The cover will be bolted on to
the body. The bolted connection shall be
raised face/ tongue and groove/male and
femalelring type joint depending on the
pressure rating of the valve. The gasket
shall be selected to suit the type of
connection. It can be corrugated or flat
solid metal, corrugated or flat metal
jacketed, asbestos filled, metal ring joint,
spiral wound asbestos filled. Flat ring
compressed asbestos is used for lowpressure application, Teflon or Teflon
filled for corrosive applications.
Normally high tensile bolts are used for
cover bolting. In cast iron check vaives
low carbon steel bolts are used.
3.2.2 Wafer check valves
The wafer check valves are the
flangeiess swing check valves. These are
covered under the regulatory code API
594. There are two types of wafer check
valve desigs available.
Single plats wafer check valve
a)

b)

Dual plate wafer check valve

The m g e m e n t of single plate


check valve is somewhat similar to the
conventional swing check valve. Here a
circular plate seated against the valve
body seat by line backpressure or flow
reversal acts as a valve closure. This is
further aided by the provision of spring.
In dual plate check valves, there
are two spring loaded semi circular
plates. The plates are arranged in such a
way that the s p ~ force
g acts beyond the
centre of area of each plate and the fluid
force acts within the same. This fulcrum
causes the heel to open first preventing
rubbing of the seat surface prior to
normal opening. The sues specified in
API 594 are fiom 2" NB to'48" NB.
Manufacturers have developed standards
beyond these sizes as well.
The plates shall be made of
material at least equal to that of the
body. The body and plate seating surface
can be renewable or integral or with
deposited metal. The seat surface could
be stellited or can be of resilient
material. In these valves, the items
specified under trim are the seating
surfaces, springs, hinge and bearings.
Table 4 of API - 594 gives trim numbers
and the corresponding material of
construction.
Compared to the conventional
check valves, these have less pressure
drop across the valve in larger sizes,
reduced water hammer and are compact.
SPECIAL-PURPOSE
VALVES
Valves, which perfom duties
other than the two-way isolation, control
and check, are classified under the
category of special purpose valves. Few
of such vzlves are
4.1
Multi-port Valves

4.3

Float Valves

4.4

Foot Valves

4.5

Line Blind Valves

4.6

Knife gate Valves

MULTI-PORT VALVES
Any valve, which has more
than two ports, is classified as Multi-port
Valves. The multi-port valves on certain
services reduce the time for operating
and the over all costs. There are three
port valves and four port valves in
common use. Five-port designs are also
available. Two types of three port
designs are available viz. The 'T' port
' port. The possible flow
and the 2
patterns of these are as below:
4.1

L PORT VALVE

1 PORT VALVE

4.0

4.2
Valves

Flush Bottom Valves

A most economical .layout could be


selected from the study of above flow
patterns.
The typical applications of the three way
valves are-

(1) alternate connection of the Wo


supply lines to a common delivery,

(3) Simplification of piping layout and


thus economy in fittings,

(2) diversion of flow to either of two


directions,

(4) Less risk of product mixing by


incorrect valve operation,

(3) isolation of one of a pair of safety


valves for maintenance purpose,

(5) The stops can be arranged to arrest


the unrequired flow patterns and at
the same time make it impossible
for desired positions to be obtained.

(4) division of flow with isolation


facility.

The flow patterns of a four-way valve


are -

The typical applications of four way


valves are:
(1) Reversal of pump suction and
delivery

(2) By pass of strainer or meter


(3) Reversal of flow through filter,
heat exchanger or dryer.
Tne types of valves used
for this design are the ball or the plug
valves. However, globe pattern valves
also can be designed with suitable disc
positions to achieve the three-port
desig.
The advantages of multi-port design
valves are (1) Reduction in number of valves
used.
(2) Quick and easy operation,

Two of the multi-port valves can


also be inter coupled to permit fast
multiple operation in the simplest
possible way and with minimum
manpower.
It is essential for the designer to
specify the exact requirement of flow
patterns based on the piping
arrangement to the manufacturer. Lack
of proper coordination will result in a
totally different output than what is
required.
FLUSH BOTTOM VALVES
These are special type of
valves, which are used to drain out the
piping, reactors and vessels. These are
attached to the vessels on pad. type
.nozzle. The disks in closed position
match with the bottom of the vessel or
piping leaving no room for hold up or
stagnation.
There are two types of flush
bottom valves.
a) Valves with disk opening into the
tanks.
4.3

b) Valves with disk into the valve.


In the first case, the stem
pushes the disk into the tank to drain the
liquid. This type cannot be used when
there are any internals, which restrict the
movement of the disk. The draining of
the material could be effected

completely. In the second case, the disk


gets pulled down into the valve effecting
the discharge of material.
There are two types of disk
d e s i g available, the plug type and the
ram type.
Normally, the inlet size of a
standard flush bottom valve is one size
higher than that of the outlet size. There
are special constructions possible with
both sizes same.The outlet port is at an
angle to the inlet port. Normally 45 or 60
degrees deviation is provided. The end
connections are normally flanged.
However, smaller size sampleldrain
valves have been developed with
welding end at inlet to withstand higher
pressures. The maximum rating
available at present for flanged valves is
ANSI 300 lbs.
The parts of the flush bottom
valve are identical to that of a globe
valve and the closing and opening
actions are also similar. The shut off is
achieved by disk closing against the
body seat. The disk could be Globe type
or Ram type.
Jacketed flush bottom valves
are also possible if required for the
service. The disk and seat also could be
machined to such accuracy to serve the
.
vacuum duty as well.

FLOAT VALVES
Float valves are used to control
the level of fluid in a reservoir. Only the
inlet of the valve is connected with the
supply pipeline and the outlet is'open to
the reservoir. There will be a float with.
lever, which controls the movement of
the piston reylating the flow.
4.3

These valves are covered under


the Indian Standard IS 1703. There are
two types, the "HP" and the 'LP'

depending upon the pressure holding


capacity of the valve.
The body lever and internals
are manufactured out of gunmetal and
the float is of PVC or copper depending
upon the temperature of the fluid. The
lever length could be adjusted to suit the
level in the reservoir.
These valves have threaded
ends and are connected to the wall of the
reservoir with hexagonal nut. The
reservoir need not be provided with a
nozzle, only an opening is required. The
level of liquid will always be below inlet
connection.
The maximum size of valve
covered under the standard is 50 NB and
special design has to be done if higher
size valves are required. These are called
equilibrium float valves.
4.4 FOOT VALVES
Foot valves are a sort of nonreturn valves with strainers mounted at
the open end of the pimp suttion
pipelines. These are used when the pump
has negative suction. The check action
of the valve holds the priming fluid of
the pump while ths pumps are filled
before starting. The suction strainer
helps to hold the solids while the pump
is sucking the fluid.
Thes_evalves are covered under
the Indian Standard IS 4038. There are
two types o f check mechanisms
available viz. the lift check and the
swing check. The operation of this is
similar to the Non-return valves. Valves
are available with either flanged end
connection or screwed end connection.
The material of construction of the body
is Cast Iron or Gunmetal for the valves.