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Soaps and detergent

2.1:What is soap?

Soap is salt that is formed from reaction between an alkali and fatty acid,RCOOH
*Soap is sodium soap if the alkali used is sodium hydroxide
*Soap is potassium soap if the alkali used is potassium hydroxide

General formula of soap is RCOONa or RCOOK

It can be saturated or unsaturated

2.2:Preparation of soap

Soap can be prepared through Saponification, Saponification process is a hydrolysis

process of oil or fats by alkali.

Preparation of soap can be divided into 2 stages:

Stage 1 :

The two parts of oil or fat molecule are seperated by heating the oil with alkaline
soulution through hydrolysis process.
In this process, the ester molecule is broken up into fatty acid and glycerol by water
in the presence of alkali which act as catalysts.
Ester + Water ---------------------------------- Fatty Acid + glycerol
Alkali act as catalysts

Stage 2 :

Fatty acid that is realeased in stage 1 reacts with alkali to form sodium salt of fatty
acid which is soap.
Fatty Acid + Sodium Hydroxide( alkali)-----------------------Sodium salt of fatty acid
(soap) + Water

2.3 What is detergent?

Detergent is a salt that is produced from the reaction between an alkali and a
sulphonic acid.
Detergent is sodium salt of sulphonic acid.

2.4 Preparation of detergent

Natural detergent is made from animal or vegetable oil while synthetic detergent is
normally made from petroleum

2.5 The cleasing action of soap and detergent


Cleansing action of soap

The soap molecule dissoles in water and reduces the surface tension of water.
The hydrophilic region dissolves in water.
The hydrophobic region dissolves in dirt.
The dirt is lifted off the surface of material upon shaken and suspended in water.
The tail regeion emulsifies and breaks up the grease into small drops.
When shaken, the water molecules will attract the soap ions and cause the dirt to
detact from the surface of the material.
7. The soap bubbles help to float the dirt emulsion in the water. When rinsed, the dirt
will be removed together with water.

Cleansing action of detergent

1. Detergent molecule dissociate to form sodium or potassium ions and detergent ions.
2. Hydrophilic region dissolve in water. Hydrophobic dissolve in grease and emulsifies
the grease.
3. When the water is shaken, the detergent ion will remove the dirt.

2.6 Compare and contrast the effectiveness of cleansing action of soap and detergent



Cleaning power

Less Powerful

More Powerful

Ease of rinsing

It is difficult to wash away all

soap on clothes .The soap
remains leave odor and
spoils the fabrics
Slightly alkaline

Rinse out well from clothes

Molecular structure

Determined by fatty acids

found in the oil or fats used
to produce soap

Formation of scum

Form scum with hard water

Can be modified to suit the

cleaning task.For example,a
detergent can be made
speacially for toilet bowl
Does not form scum with
hard water


Can be controlled to suit the

cleaning task

2.7 Additives in detergent and their function

Biological enzyme

To Remove proten stain such as blood

Whitening agent

To convert stain into colorless substances

Optical whitener

To add whiteness and brightness to white

To enhance the cleaning efficiency of
detergent by softening the water

Suspension agent

To prevent dirt particles removed from

redepositing onto clean fabrics


To add to the bulk of detergent and enable it

to be poured easily

Foam control agent

To control foaming in detergent


To add fragrance into both detergent and


Food additives
3.1 Types of food additives,examples and function
Food preservative have been used since ancient times. Ancient civilization used salt
to preserve meat and fish, herbs and spices to improve flavor of food.

Food additives are chemicals that are added to food in small quantities for specific
purposes such as protection against bacterial attack or restoring the colour of food
destryoed during food processing.

Type of food additives

Examples of food additives


Flavoring agents

Sodium nitrate,benzoic acid,sulphur dioxide,

sodium sulfite, sorbic acid ,sodium sorbate
Ascorbic acid (vitamin C), BHA (butylated
hydroxyanisole) ,BHT (butylated
hydrixitoluene) ,citric acid
Monosodium glutamate (MSG) ,aspartame

Stabilisers and thickening agents

Gelatin ,acacia gum (agar)

Dye(Coloring agents)

Azo compounds ,triphenyl compounds


Functions of food additives

1. Preservatives
Preservatives are chemicals that are added to food to retard or to prevent
the growth of microorganism such as bacteria, mould or fungus, so that the
food can be stored for a longer time.
2. Antioxidants
Antioxidants are chemicals that are added to food to prevent the oxidation of
fats and oils by oxygen in the air.
3. Flavoring agents
Flavour enhancer have little or no taste of their own. They are chemicals that
are added to food to bring out the flavours or to enhance the taste of food.

4. Stabilisers and thickening agents

stabilisers and thickening agents improve the texture and the blending of
foods.Stabilisers are chemicals that are used to enable oil and water in the
food to mix together properly in order to form an emulsion of oil and water.
5. Dye(Coloring agents)
Dye is chemical that are added to food to give them or restore colour so as to
improve their appearance.

3.2 Effect of food additives

Excessive intake of food additives for a prolonged period of time will ruin our
health. The side effects arising from taking food additives are allergy,
cancer ,brain damage and hyperactivity.
1) Allergy
*Food additives such as sodium sulphite (perservative), BHA and BHT
(antioxidants), MSG(Flavouring) and some food colorings can cause allergic
2) Cancer
*Chemicals the cause cancer are called carcinogens .Sodium nitrite
(perservative) is a potent carcinogen.
3) Brain damage
*Excessive intake of nitrites for a prolonged period of time can cause brain
damage. In this condition, the supply of oxygen to the brain is disrupted and this
cause brain damage.
4) Hyperactivity
*Children who are hyperactivity become very active, find it difficult to relax or
sleep and are very restless.