CHEMICAL ENVIRONMENT A.
FUNCTIONS OF CHEMICAL ENVIRONMENT Studying environmental chemistry and environmental problems associated with chemical reactions. Chemistry also studied the application of chemical knowledge to protect and improve the environment.Humans use various sources in the environment for living, we take the food from what grows and lives on land and water, we breathe oxygen from the water. we use coal, oil, and other natural materials to produce energy to run factories or - meningkatlkan factory useful for human living conditions.In this case will be discussed environmental issues in terms of sharing, ie water pollution, water pollution, soil pollution and some other issues related to human needs. B. Air Pollution Air pollution caused by the presence of chemicals in the environment above the specified threshold. Element Nitrogen Oksigen Argon Karbon dioksida Neon Helium Metana Kripton Karbon monoksida Nitrogen oksida Hidrogen Xenon N2 O2 Ar CO2 Ne He CH4 Kr CO N2O H2 Xe NO2 78,09 20,94 0,934 0,0315 0,0018 0,00058 0,00010-0,00012 0,0001 0,00001 0,00005 0,00005 0,000008 0,000002 Consentrate % ppm 780900 209400 9340 315 18 5,2 1,0-1,2 1 0,1 0,5 0,5 0,08 0,02
Nitrogen dioksida Ozon
Polluted water that foreign substances enter the increased levels of certain components may bring a result that is not in want and disturb the environment. 1. Karbon dioxide (CO2) Carbon dioxide is classified as greenhouse gases. Before the era of industrylization, levels of carbon dioxide in the water, which is only 280 ppm (0.0280%). With the increasing number of burning coal, petroleum, and natural gas resulted in gas levels rose to 315 ppm. Today, CO2 levels increase diatmosfir of 1 ppm per year. Coal consists of some carbon, which will about them when burned with oxygen to produce carbon dioxide C (s) + O2 (g) CO2 (g) Natural gas and petroleum hydrocarbons including carbon compounds. Combustion of natural gas and oil produces carbon dioxide and water vapor. In fact carbon dioxide is not harmful to humans but increased levels of CO2 in the air has increased the earth's surface temperature. This phenomena is called the greenhouse effect, the effect of the earth's surface temperature rises when the air CO 2 levels rise, global temperatures could rise mencairakan temperature of ice at the poles, due next is that sea level rise could inundate coastal cities around the world 2. Carbon monoxide (CO). Carbon dioxide reacts with hemoglobin in the blood hemoglobin as we know it should about them with oxygen to O2 Hb (hemoglobin oxygen) and carry the necessary oxygen to the cells in the body. 3. Sulfur oxides (SO2 and SO3)
Sulfur oxides cause acid rain Fuels like coal and oil are usually contains sulfur. The burning of this fuel will produce sulfur oxides S (s) + O2 (g) SO2 (g) Apart from fuel, other sources of sulfur oxides are the metal processing industry is a metal ore roasting of sulfide. Sulfur oxide, when inhaled by breathing will about them with water in the respiratory tract and cause pain. When SO3 is exploited, then the shape of sulfuric acid and this acid is more dangerous in the water on the Verge of SO2 limit is 0:10 ppm. 4. Nitrogen oxides (NO and NO2) Nitrogen oxides cause smog (Smog) approximately 10% of the gas produced NO further oxidized to form NO2. N0 gas is colorless, while the red-brown NO2. Smog causing reduced visibility, irritation of the eyes and respiratory tract makes the plants wither and lower quality materials. Smog is a complex mixture consisting of various gases and particles in liquid and solid substances. Produced proto Asbot series of chemical reactions (ie the influence of chemical reactions ray Mata Hari). 5. Heavy polluters Grain contaminants interfere with health and visibility. Contaminants that may come from central power plants, industry and motor vehicles. Other grains pollutants can alter the dust in the wind or dust such as cement industry. Grain contaminants can interfere with breathing. Effects depend on the large grain, chemical and chemical contaminants are absorbed in other grains. 6. Water pollution arising Lead to brain damage. Lead from motor vehicle gas, to produce a good combustion is to increase the efficiency of motors, gasoline additives were given, namely bp (C2 H5) 4 or tetraetil lead. After having a combustion motor leads to the air released in the form of lead oxide and is a strong poison which, when accumulated in the body will lead to permanent brain, blood and other body Organs. 7. Ozone layer depletion The ozone layer protects the earth from ultra violet radiation. If the damaged ozone layer, the ultra-violet rays will enter the earth surface without first filtered. This can cause the earth's surface temperature rises, so that some ice temperature of south and north will
melt and cause sea level rise. Another result is the cause of skin cancer and cataracts in humans damage to the plants A. Water Pollution 1. Understanding water Water pollution caused by the presence of chemical substances that do not meet clean water. Declared contaminated water if there is disruption of the water quality so water can not be used for the purpose intended, water is divided into 4 groups namely: 1. Group A, the water can be drunk without prior treatment. 2. Group B, which is the water that can be used as raw water for drinking. 3. Group C, the water can be used for fisheries and livestock purposes 4. Group D, which is the water that can be used for agricultural purposes be used that can be used for urban businesses, industries and hydropower plants. a. Dissolved Oxygen Water contains dissolved oxygen from the water and water plants photosynthesis result of this oxygen is used for creatures living in water b. . Biochemical oxygen requirement Biochemical oxygen requirement (BOD) is a measure of the amount of oxygen used in the reaction in the bacteria oxidation c. Dissolved substances in Natural water contains dissolved substances originating in the minerals and salts dissolved in water when the soil surface below the content of substances that can lead to contaminants in the water. 1. Sources of water pollution Source of water pollution are the most common industrial waste and agricultural settlements. a. Industrial Waste In general, industrial waste is the most dangerous heavy metals like mercury. Mercury waste can be derived from the drug industry, industrial batteries, cosmetics industry and plastic industry, mercury into the human body through two channels: 1. Dissolved mercury compounds through the food chain from microorganisms and to human consumption of fish.
2. Mercury compounds from smallpox and fungsida entry to The Roots of grass-eating animals to humans. a. Agricultural Waste The use of fertilizers and Pesticides that can pollute the water too much so as to cover the water surface that inhibit the entry of sunlight and the deadly fitoflankton in water. b. . Residential waste Residential waste pollute the water is pontensial besides detergent phosphate detergents contain compounds that stimulate algae and water hyacinth. 1. Water Sadah Water containing ion or Ca2 + and Mg2 + is called sadah water. Hard water causes foaming as above Ions sadah Precipitate soap. Example reaction. Ca2Ca2+2CH3 (CH2)16 COO- (aq) (CH3(CH2)16COO)2(s) Ca
A. PERCEMARAN LAND Due to soil pollution by various household waste, industrial, agricultural, or waste that can not be broken down by micro-organisms Organs. 1. Household and industrial waste. Besides disturbing scene, garbage or solid waste is also disturbing because it covered the ground so as not to be used for other purposes 2. Agricultural Waste Agricultural waste in the form of the remnants of fertilizers or Pesticides. Also Part of residual fertilizer will be washed away so that contaminate water or lake water. 3. Waste materials that are not experiencing biodegradation Materials such as plastics, rubber, glass, synthetic fiber and metal biodegradated can not because the material will disturb the water infiltration into the soil other than that the material affects
macroorganisme. One way to combat the plastic waste is to reduce its use. Reduce its use for the plastic it is recommended to use natural materials, if still possible. For example, traditional markets, can use your banana leaf or leaves identity as a wrapper. A. Substances Additives IN FOOD The food we eat every day must contain substances that the body needs food, but good food is not enough to just contain Nutrients, but also have interesting and tasty. Nowadays many industries, especially in processed foods using synthetic ingredients other than natural ingredients. Spices are classified as synthetic materials, called food additives. Based on the functions of food additives can be classified as follows: 1. Dyes 7. Bleach and flour Embankment 2. Flavor and aroma and 8. Acidity regulator Sense amplifier 9. Anti kempal 3. Sweeteners 10. Hardener 4. Preservative 11. Sekuestren 5. Anti oxidants 6. Emulsifiers 1. Dyes Dyes are substances that can improve or give color to food, so food is more interesting. Dyes can be distinguished on natural dyes, and synthetic. Examples of natural dyes: a. Anato (orange), among others, used for ice cream, cheese, food oils, and margarine. b. Caramelized (dark brown), another used to Conserve anatara, jely, and canned mushrooms. c. Beta carotene (yellow), among others, used for cheese and canned peas.d. Chlorophyll (green), among others, are used to Conserve, jely, and the preparation of processed cheese. Examples of synthetic dyes a. Blue diamonds (blue), used for ice cream, canned peas, jelly and jely. b. Brown HT (brown), used for soft drinks and liquid food. a. Erictrosin (red), used for ice cream, canned Pears, jelly, jely and sauce. d. Green FCF (Green), is used for ice cream and canned Pears. e. Yellow FCF (Yellow), used for ice cream and yogurt. 2. Flavor and
aroma as well as reinforcing a sense Flavor and aroma and a sense amplifier is a material that can provide, add or reinforce the taste and smell of food. a. Flavor and aroma (Plavor). Flavor and aroma that comes from the widely used ester-ester groups such as: Acetate = Flavor Isoamil banana Flavor Isoamil valerat = apple Butyl butyrate = pineapple-Flavor Flavor Isobutil propionic = rum b. Sense amplifier (Flavor enhancer) Raw food or plavour sense amplifier of the most widely used is the daily MSG MSG is known as its chemical formula is H
NH2 These materials are widely used in Chinese or Japanese restaurant. Excessive consumption of these substances cause a variety of complaints, such as headaches, shortness of breath or tired quickly. 3. Artificial Sweeteners Artificial sweeteners are ingredients that can cause a sweet taste in food. This material is not or almost no nutritional value. Examples of Artificial Sweetener may be used that are Saccharin, cyclamate (naterium or calcium cyclamate) and sorbitol. 4. Preservative Preservative is a substance that can prevent or inhibit Fermentation, pickling or other decomposition of food caused by Microorganisms. Some examples of preservatives and their use: a. Benzoic acid, sodium benzoate and potassium benzoate, such as for soft drinks, soy sauce, cucumber in a bottle that, adan sauce. b. Sodium nitrate (NO3 Na), for processed meat and cheese. c. Sodium nitrite (Na NO2), for processed meat, preserved meat, and canned corned beef. d. Propionic acid, for bread and processed cheese preparations. 5. Anti oxidants anti-oxidants are compounds oxidized Relatively young. Therefore, its use can prevent or inhibit oxidation of materials to be protected. a. Ascorbic acid (or the formation of potassium salt, sodium, and calcium), used in processed meat, broth,
and canned fruit. b. Butilhidropsianisol (BHA), is used for Preventing eating fats and oils. BHA and BHT are also used in gasoline, oil, rubber and materials used for food packaging. F. FERTILIZER AND Pesticides 1. Fertilizer Like other living things, plants need food (Nutrients). Of research has been known that 16 kinds of elements should be present in plant Nutrients. The elements are called Nutrients. a. Sources and Function Element Hara 1. Carbon (C), hydrogen (H) and oxygen (O) Carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen is absorbed into the plant from the air and water in the form of CO2 and H2O. The third element is the basic constituent elements of organic compounds in plants, such as carbohydrates, proteins, fats, and chlorophyll. 2. Nitrogen (N) Nitrogen Ions absorbed as nitrate (NO3-) or ammonium ion (NH4 +). Nitrogen function among others for the synthesis of protein, chlorophyll, and stimulate vegetative growth. 3. Phosphorus (P) Source of phosphorus in the soil are the remains of organisms and various types of rock phosphate. Actually, in nature there are quite a lot of rock phosphate compound Ca3 (PO4) 2, but hard to dissolve in water so can not be absorbed by plants. 4. Potassium (K) Source of potassium in the soil is various minerals such as ortoklas (KA1Si3O8) and leusit (KA1Si2O6). 5. Calcium (Ca) Soil containing various types of calcium minerals, including calcite (CaCO3.) Calcium is useful for raising plants and stimulate the formation of seeds. Lack of calcium causes the leaves shriveled and finally dried. 6. Magnesium (Mg) Uses include magnesium for chlorophyll formation. Lack of magnesium causes the color of old leaves turn yellow and brown spots appear red. 7. Sulfur (S) Sulfur is useful to help the formation of chlorophyll formation so that the color Of The leaves become more green. Sulfur deficiency causes stunted growth and the plants become stunted. 8. Micro elements Micro elements is not less important than the macro elements. Iron, for example, is very important in the formation of chlorophyll. Without iron the plants will die. b. Fertilizer Types 1. Natural or Organic Fertilizer Natural fertilizers or organic fertilizers derived from plant or animal waste such as green manure, manure and compost. a. Green Fertilizer Green manure is a young plant parts buried above ground in order to add humus and Nutrients, especially nitrogen
b. Manure Manure in the form of dirt or liquid from cattle c. Compost Composting is a natural fertilizer made with rot or melapukkan organic material remains of the harvest, or garbage. 2. Artificial Fertilizers (Inorganic) Excess fertilizer made are: a. Can be given in accordance denagn type and amount of necessary Nutrients plants b. In general, a compound that is easily absorbed by plants c. Transportation and practical use Lack of artificial fertilizers, among others: a. Does not improve physical properties and biological soil properties b. Less contain micro elements c. Can be washed in kelapisan land that is not absorbed by plants a. Nitrogen Fertilizer We of various nitrogen fertilizers but the most widely used are urea and ZA. b. Phosphorus fertilizer Type of phosphorus fertilizer is widely used superphosphate fertilizer. c. Potassium Fertilizer Potassium fertilizer is very important because it is needed in large quantities, in general much of the phosphorus d. Compound Fertilizer Compound fertilizer contains more than a kind of primary Nutrients (N, P, K). e. Leaf fertilizer Fertilizers applied to plant leaves through which the road leaves spray. 2. Pesticides In this section we will only discuss the Pesticide used to eradicate pest plants. a. Pesticide Types Based on the target usage, Pesticides can be divided into several groups as follows. 1. INSECTICIDE Pesticides Insecticides are to eradicate insects such as Grasshoppers, ladybirds, plant hoppers, and caterpillars. 2. Fungicide Fungicide is a Pesticide to combat / prevent the growth of mold / fungus 3. Herbicide Herbicides are penganggu Pesticides to kill plants (Weeds). 4. Bactericidal Bactericide is a Pesticide to eradicate bacteria and viruses 5. Nematisida Pesticides are Nematisida to eradicate pests in the form of worms. 6. Rodenticides Pesticides Rodenticides are to eradicate rodents such as rats. b. Chemical Pesticides 1. Group Organoklor 2. Group Organofosfat Several compounds are toxic organofosfat thus also be used as a Pesticide. 3. Group Karbamat Toxic compounds are karbamat groups ditiokarbomin called ditiokarbomat acid derivatives. 4. Anticoagulation Group Anticoagulants are substances that can inhibit blood clotting. Anticoagulation is usually used as rodenticides (rat poison). 5. Arsenic Group Group of arsenic is generally used as an INSECTICIDE for termite wood and soil, as well as a fungicide to control fungi on wood. 6. Group Dipiridil Dipiridil groups generally used as a herbicide. 7. Group Zinkfospida Used as rodenticides.