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PARTICLE

Uses
1.

After
pronouns
nouns (possession)

Examples
and

2a.

Attributive + makes a
noun phrase, with the
noun been understood

2b.

Attributives + can
particularize a noun in
order to put more
emphasis on the attribute
(something that is)

1)

2)

3)

1) (, )
2) (, )
3)
4)
1) (a)
whilst (b)
2) (c)
whilst (d)
3) (e) ,
4) (f) ,
5) (g)

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English
1) my name
the doctors car
whose book
2) mine
his
whose
3) the teachers book
the librarys dictionary

1)
2)
3)
4)

small ones (small hostels, small cars)


good ones (good hostels, good students)
present day ones
Chinese ones

1) (a) This book is large.


whilst (b) This book is a large one.
2) (c) a large hostel
whilst (d) a hostel that is large
3) Hostels that are large are good, hostels that are
small are not.
4) Large hostels are good, small ones are not.
5) I have a dictionary that is in English, and I
am going to buy one that is in French.

Uses
3a.

Verbal phrases or clauses


+ modifies the noun
that follows it
(relative clauses)

3b.

Such relative clauses can


be embedded in a
sentence

3c.

Verb+= The people


who
(English equivalent: -er/ers)
can attach co-verb
clauses/phrases to nouns
to particularize them (coverbs: , , others)

3d.

3e.

is used to attach all


kinds of modifier phrases
to a noun to particularize
it

Examples

English

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2)
3)
4)
5)
6)
1)
2)
3)
4)
5)
1)
2)
3)

1)
2)
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5)

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2)
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1)
2)
3)

1)
2)
3)
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students who came today


children who smoke
books that he read
characters that I know
a friend that she introduced
6) guests that she invited
1)
2)
3)
4)
5)

I am learning characters that I do not know.


I buy the book that the teacher recommended.
This is the dictionary that he gave me.
The books that I read were all very good.
The guests that we invited all drink tea.

1) readers
2) tea drinkers
3) smokers
apple for the teacher
phone call for mother
the library in my college
students in my hostel

1) the 8 oclock bus


2) the pictures in the newspaper
3) the students studying abroad at present

Uses
4.
exc.

is used to tie together


binomial modifier to the
nouns modified
cannot be used with

Examples
1)
2)
3)
1)
2)

English
1) a polite student
2) a pretty picture
3) a very good book
1) many friends
2) many students

Omission
1.

2.
3.

4.

is sometimes omitted
when personal pronouns
modify words denoting
people
in
close
relationship
When a noun is used to
modify another noun
Especially when the first
noun is the name of a
country, a language or a
place of origin
is also omitted when
the modifier and modified
fuse together into one
concept

1)
2)

1)
2)
1)
2)
3)
4)
5)
1)
2)
3)
4)

1) My mother
2) His brother

1) Student hostel
2) Bank manager

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1)
2)
3)
4)
5)

A Chinese
Chinese language teacher
Foreign languages Institute
An English book
A Chinese map

1)
2)
3)
4)

large country/superpower
a country that is large
newcomer
people that are new

PARTICLE
Uses

Examples

English

Completed action

1.

Position in sentence
1.

After verb

2.

After first verb

3.
4.

After first & last verb


After last verb

5.

End of sentence

1.
2.
3.

1.
2.
3.

exc.

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1. I sat for half an hour.


2. Ive only said one sentence.
3. He has sold off all his books.
Please go after the meal. / Please dont go
until you have eaten.
He left after he had finished the meal.
He went to the canteen again and bought a
bowl of dumplings.
1. She has finished learning Chinese.
2. She has gone to China.
3. She has gone to Shanghai to visit a friend.

PARTICLE
1.

Uses
Set structures

Structure

Expressing
"excessively" with "tai"
(excess(too), so, very)
+ Adj +

Making positive
adjectives extreme with
"-ji le"
(positive extreme)
Making negative
adjectives extreme with
"-si le"
(negative extreme)

Adj +

Negative Adj
+

Examples
1)
2)
3)
4)
5)
6)
7)
8)
9)
10)

1)
2)
3)
1)
2)
3)
4)
5)

'hungry to death'
'ugly to death'
'fat to death'
'hot to death'

'expensive to death'
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English
1) He is too heavy. / He is very
heavy.
2) I am too fat. / I am very fat.
3) There is too little rice. / There
is very little rice.
4) The elephant is very big.
5) You are "too good" [so great].
6) He is too tall!
7) The kitten is too cute! / The
kitten is very cute!
8) The teacher is too tired.
9) This woman is too old.
10) Your kids are too smart. /
Your kids are very smart.
1) She is very pretty.
2) This beer is very tasty.
3) Your Chinese is very good!
1)
2)
3)
4)
5)

I'm so/terribly hungry!


He's so/terribly ugly!
You're so/terribly fat!
It's so/terribly hot!
The things here are so/terribly
expensive!
6) It's so/terribly cold!

6)
7)
8)
9)
10)

'cold to death'
'tired to death'
'busy to death'
'anxious to death'
'slow to death'

Intensifying adjectives
extreme with "ke"
(compares the
speakers expectations
with the actual
+ Adj (+ )
situation)

1)

Making adjectives
extreme with "zui"
(superlative (best,
worst, fattest, most
complex, etc.)
+ Adj (+ )
[optional (le) added
after the adjective
(adds emphasis to the
"-est")]

1)
2)
3)
4)
5)
6)
7)
8)

7)
8)
9)
10)

I'm so/terribly tired today!


I'm so/terribly busy!
I'm so/terribly anxious!
You're so/terribly slow!

1) These dogs are so naughty!

(The speaker never expected

dogs to be this naughty)

2) , !
(The speaker never dreamt that
sweet and sour pork could taste
this good)

2) Wow! This sweet and sour


pork is delicious!

1)
2)
3)
4)
5)
6)
7)
8)
9)
10)

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He is the smartest.
You are the skinniest.
I am the tallest.
His girlfriend is the most
beautiful.
Your teacher is the best.
My mother is the youngest.
Your Chinese is the worst.
My Chinese friend is the most
enthusiastic.
His student is the most
serious.
Huang Mountain's landscape
is the most beautiful.

Uses
2. Change of state
( is placed at the
end of the sentence to
mark that the whole
statement describes a
new situation.)

Structure

Examples
1)
(I couldn't before)

2)
[New Situation]
+

(I didn't have one before)

3)
(I didn't before now)

4)
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25

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English
1)
2)
3)
4)
5)
6)
7)
8)
9)
10)

I can speak Chinese.


I have a girlfriend.
I miss my mom.
I'm 25 years old.
I understand.
I have money.
He's laughing.
We don't have any water.
It's raining.
You are fat.