BEE

What You Want To Be!

Fit for Leadership!
Empowerment Tools for Girls In Rwanda

BEE
What You Want To Be!
Leadership and Empowerment Training for Girls and Young Women in Rwanda

Resource Book 2005

Georgina Nitzsche • Edit Schlaffer
Team: Sarah Mchugh Alexander Nitzsche Joanna Godwin-Seidl Ruth Bauer (Illustrator) Supported by the Austrian Social Ministry

Contents
5 8 Planning the Sessions Brain Games Leadership training exercises 14 26 34 42 56 68 78 Theme one ≈ Leadership and Gender Theme two ≈ Identity and Orientation Theme three ≈ Skills for Public Life Theme four ≈ Zones of Impact Theme five ≈ Fit for Life! - Your Personal Force Theme six ≈ Communication Theme seven ≈ Diversity and Synergy Applied Leadership: project steps 90 94 98 102 104 Introduction Project step 1: Innovation Project step 2: Preparation Project step 3: Operation Project step 4: Reflection Acknowledgements

Why the bee? Despite their bright warning colours, bees are animals with highly developed societies and communication skills. They work together to support and provide for eachother. That’s why we chose the bee as the logo for this manual.

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“The Obstacle is the Path”
To the girls and young women of Rwanda
Worldwide women are on the move. Women change the world and you will be part of this challenging movement. But how will it happen? The most important step is your determination. Just let the slogan of the international women’s movement guide you: “The personal is political!” How you live, how you think, how confident and energetic you are will both affect your own life and the future of Rwanda. Your personal ambitions, your creativity and dreams will open windows to the world and help to make it a better place. For as long as anyone can remember, boys and men have been the leaders on the earth. They were the head of the tribe; head of the farm; of the household, of the company, the minister, the president and the priest. Men are famous for inventions, innovations, discoveries and skills such as painting or sports. So it would be reasonable to think that only boys should get leadership training. Not so! It may well be that history has recorded the stories and successes of men, but there is still plenty of historic evidence right across the world, of women having been equally important in the human story, though they are not always appreciated or respected. Indeed, certain customs or traditions actually hurt or hold women back. Women experience exclusion, lack of freedom, violence and hatred. Women often enforce these same customs on their own daughters believing they are the weaker sex. It takes a great deal of bravery for one person to realise that certain behaviour is out of date, or mean or just not working. The human race can be grateful that over the many years of civilised existence these brave people lead the way for change. Many were not ‘born leaders’, aristocrats, or landowners either. They were ordinary men and women who felt strongly about something. “Ladies first!!” might be a polite gesture of outdated patriarchy, but why not take it seriously and put yourself first for a change? Make the choice to take your future into your hands. You will not be alone in this adventure. Look around you and you will find many allies – friends, teachers, family members, books. The starting point will be to identify the limits you might have set yourself from within. Explore your inner-self, gather strength and confidence to realise your potential. Many girls and women around the globe are together in this. They rock the boat, they take risks, they explore opportunities beyond the limitations of societal expectations Together you will be stronger, you will define your goals, explore your options, shape your lives and move the barriers!

Edit Schlaffer, Chairperson, Women without Borders

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Planning the Sessions
“Education is not the filling up of a hole, but the lighting of a fire”
Welcome to the ‘Fit for Leadership!’ training manual from Women without Borders. In your hands is the material for up to 25 hours of leadership and empowerment training for young girls. The curriculum is designed using modern interactive methods of teaching. Together with the personal inputs of a facilitator, this is a ready-made, stand alone and flexible programme, so that girls’ groups can work, under local supervision, on long-term projects independently. The workshop section one tackles themes such as leadership, gender, participation, civil society and personal skills. Girls and young women can learn to develop their abilities for future roles in public life, such as management and decision-making. The applied leadership section twois a step-by-step guide from start to completion of a project undertaken in small teams. The project subjects are inspired by typical government ministry portfolios, such as human rights, environment and social concerns. The project teams are then organised into mini-ministries. These ‘mini-ministries’ can work independently, or even with the support and mentoring of local organisations working in similar areas. The Fit for Leadership! curriculum is offered as an after school club, often held in a school or community building. Facilitators prepare and conduct workshop sessions on a weekly basis, using the exercises and games available in this resource book. Whilst it is perfectly possible to supplement, enhance or develop any of the material in this book, it is advisable not to mix the training themes within a workshop. The order of the themes has been designed to fit with the project steps in section two. Each theme contains enough material for one or more workshops. Workshops should have a certain amount of routine/ritual to them, for example: warm-up exercises, introduction to the training theme, and a good mix of activities. There should be no more than 20 girls in one group. The applied leadership projects are an integral part of the curriculum – there is no better way to teach responsibility than to give it. This section (two) is constructed in four project steps: innovation, preparation, operation, reflection. All the exercises must be completed in order. The project steps are written directly to the participants. Simply make copies of the project steps for the mini-ministries to work through. Each mini-ministry will have a project folder (binder) for all the notes, work, contacts, reports and financial records etc. It should be noted, as for all extra-curricular activities, safety is paramount. Make sure that contact with outside organizations is approved by the participants’ school or parents. At the beginning of the workshop, participants are given an empty book with lined pages. This is their personal journalwhich they will use in each session. In it they can write; what they learnt in the workshop, how they felt, what was important to them, what was difficult? Participants should be encouraged to read and put cuttings in their journal of articles that influenced them, such as political or cultural role models, music, things they like. Participants should be encouraged to write in the book in-between sessions too. An excellent way to conclude the curriculum is to organise a girls’ parliament assembly, perhaps in the real government building. Girls take on shadow parliamentarian roles for one day and meet locally for an assembly-like session. They discuss and frame resolutions that are be forwarded to the real national ministries. In this way, the young people can have a direct voice to the government. 5

Here’s how it works for the facilitator: ∆ Decide how many workshops there will be in the training period. Plan which exercises will be used in each workshop, making sure that all the themes and steps are covered. Choose a range of activities and games that best suit your abilities and the participants’ needs. Include a mixture of about 3 to 5 warm-up, brainstorming, individual development and group activity exercises in each workshop. Allow more time than you think for each exercise! Enliven the curriculum by inviting guest speakers and role models from all areas such as politicians, business women, activists, journalist, scientist etc. Organise excursions, for example to the parliament. Be well prepared for each meeting. Know the material well so that it can be adapted mid-workshop if necessary. Use the introduction to each theme as background information when presenting or evaluating an exercise.

∆ ∆

∆ ∆

Here is a specimen workshop: Warm-up: Sing and Clap » Warm-up: Machines in Motion » Workshop theme and introduction » Activity: Model leaders » Group work: Is there a leader in me? » Round-up » Break » Group work: Girl’s World » Group work: Gender and Leadership » Evaluation » Group hug! Training tips

The job of the facilitator in the workshops is to stimulate learning and motivate girls and young women to take part in public life for the good of women and Rwanda. The workshops should therefore also be participatory, interactive and encouraging and not like traditional school teaching. The facilitator should match the level of curiosity and interest with the right level of information. The messages of the workshops are relevant to all women of different backgrounds and capacities, but the facilitator can draw on material from the resource book and other sources to adapt to the group’s needs. People learn best when they feel valued as individuals and the message is relevant to their life. Facilitators can increase effectiveness by: 1. 2. 3. Leading a respectful, relaxed and well-prepared workshop Ensuring that all participants answer questions and add their comments to discussions Appreciating and managing the contributions from individuals (making sure that the more confident group members leave time for others to speak or ask questions) Speaking slowly, clearly and politically neutral. Present new information in small amounts at a time and repeat key themes. Remembering participants’ needs: provide breaks, refreshments, avoid distractions and keep to timings!

4. 5.

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Feedback A facilitator will easily know if the participants are enjoying the workshops and finding them useful. When a group is interested, they are enthusiastic and constructive. When a group is disinterested, they will seem tired and restless. The mood of the group can depend on many factors that are out of the control of the facilitator, such as the temperature or noise. Sometimes though, knowing what the group likes and doesn’t like can help the facilitator to make the right changes. This is called feedback. The group leader can get feedback in several ways, she can ask directly or the participants can fill out a form at the end of a session. There can be a book and pen left out in a discreet place where participants can freely write down their comments and suggestions. Some questions to the participants might be: Did you find the workshops relevant? Yes / Quite / No (please select) Were the materials adequate? Yes / Quite / No (please select) Was the facilitator competent? Yes / Quite / No (please select) Or simply like this: What did you like about the session?................................(please write here) What could we improve in the session? ............................(please write here)

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Brain Games
Warming up and flexing the body relaxes the muscles and sends oxygen to the brain. This helps to put participants in the mood for taking part in a workshop with freer, open minds. Warm-up exercises should also boost relationships between participants, creating a team atmosphere. In a hot room after lunch, even a well-motivated class can need a wake-up; these are just a few ideas for exercises which can be used in the workshops. They can be adapted as required or replaced entirely with personal favourites.

The Body Shake
Ask participants to relax their bodies, arms down, hands by their sides, eyes closed. Maybe they just want to shake everything for a few seconds. Tell participants to flex the hands, opening and closing them, making a fist then releasing it. Then shake their arms, shake their legs, shake their upper torso. Make sure the movements are gently and quietly done.

Walk/Run
Ask students to find a space in the room, and then they can walk slowly around then say aloud 'freeze!' Participants freeze into a position and hold that position for a few seconds. Ask them to move around again. To speed up the movements, ask participants to walk faster/ slower/ hop/ jump/ walk backwards. They can take interesting poses on as they freeze.

Sing and Clap
Ask participants to sing a short song together, a well know pop song chorus is always fun. Or tell the participants to stand in a circle, clap hands rhythmically and sing a favourite rhyme, see page 91 for the Fit for Leadership chant, or make up your own.

Sculptor and Statue
Tell the participants to divide into pairs. One participant is the sculptor, the other is the statue. The statue stands still but is relaxed, with her hands by her side. The sculptor then moves the statue into any position she wants, sculpting their arms, legs and head until they have a statue that they are happy with. Reverse roles.

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Rat, Snake, Lion
Tell the participants to take their shoes off. Then read aloud: “We are all going to go for a walk in the forest. Whenever I say rat, jump up on a chair and scream (all practise). Whenever I say snake, throw back your arms, draw in your breath in shock (all practise). Whenever I say lion, crouch down, cover your head and groan (all practise).” Make up a story. Here is an example: “One day I was walking through the beautiful forest. The birds were singing. The wind was rustling in the leaves. Then on the path in front I saw, suddenly - a snake. It was gliding along stealthily. I wondered where it was going. Then I saw it was stalking a rat. The snake was getting closer and closer, and I thought it would catch its prey, when there was another noise. And there, coming through the bushes, was a lion. The rat heard the lion and ran away. The disappointed snake gave up and wriggled away. The lion saw the snake and made off back into the trees. And so the forest was peaceful again and I continued my walk.”

All Move Who…
T e l l participants to sit on chairs in a circle with one person standing in the middle who is the announcer (it could be the facilitator to start with). The announcer says, “All Move Who…” and then adds a description, for example: ∆ ∆ ∆ All Move Who.... Are wearing something blue All Move Who....Can speak two or more languages All Move Who.... Got up this morning before 6am

Those participants, who match the description, stand up and move to a chair left by someone else. The person left with no chair in the middle becomes the announcer and gives another “All Move Who”. There should be one less chair than people.

Ladders
Tell the participants to divide into pairs. In two long lines, the pairs sit down opposite each other with their feet touching, with a little space between themselves and the next pair. Their legs should make the shape of a ladder. Each pair is numbered from one to ten. The facilitator calls out a number, say, number 4. Pair number 4 must run up and around the ladder taking care only to step in the spaces! The first one sitting down back in their place is the winner. Repeat many times, calling out the numbers randomly.

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Change Places
Participants will tend to return to the same chair in the workshops. Wake them up by asking them to change places and sit next to someone else in the middle of a workshop.

Group Massage
Tell participants to stand in a circle facing in the same direction. Everyone should be looking at someone elses back. Now the participants put the hands on the person in front of them and give their shoulders a good massage. At the end of the massage everyone turns around and repeats the exercise facing the other direction. At the end, they thank each other.

Real-life Events
Background: The re-enactment of real-life situations, drawn from newspapers or stories, can be an interesting way for participants to examine their own lives, and the lives of those around them. This exercise can be used in any of the workshops. Tell the participants to make a short scene about a real story from a newspaper. If the story has a dramatic ending, the participants could also improvise a new ending for the story to show how the situation could have been handled differently.

10 Steps
Background: By regularly inserting this exercise into the workshops participants practice dreaming big (= innovation) and thinking small (= implemention). Ask: the participants to imagine how they could reach a specific goal in 10 steps or less. For example: national top athlete, to study at a great institution. Ask: the participants to set their own personal goal and determine the 10 steps they would need to be successful, write them in the journals.

Machines in Motion
Background: This exercise encourages imagination, confidence and teamwork. The idea is that everyone is different, but part of something whole. Make sounds and unusual machine movements to enliven it. Tell one participant to find a space and start making a machine-like action in a strong, stiff manner over and over again. One by one other participants link to the “machine” with a different machine like-action of their own and so on. Eventually when all the participants are part of the machine each doing different motions the exercise can be stopped and everyone is applauded.

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News Correspondent
Background: Playing the news reader is not just a presentation exercise; other skills such as clear thinking and prioritorizing are also developed. This game can be used in the workshops as an alternative way to get feedback or overview from an activity or for a real news item. Tell participants about the game in advance so they know what to do. Read aloud: ”And now we go over to our correspondent for a live report at the scene. So, <insert name of participant> what can you tell us about <insert activity or news item>.” This is the signal for the participant to be a news correspondent. She gives a 1 to 2 minute live report of an activity or news item as if she were really on a news programme. The correspondent ends by saying “And now back to the studio!”

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Section One
Workshops

Theme 1 Leadership and Gender

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The aim of the exercises in this chapter is for participants to introduce and promote the stewardship model of leadership. Choose exercises from the selection that best suit your teaching needs, see the chapter “Planning the Sessions” for guidance.

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Leadership and Gender
The leadership taught in this curriculum is following the principle of stewardship, whereby leadership is considered a service and not a divine right or a consequence of power or wealth. The mandate for stewardship comes from the will of those being led; it must be honestly earned and cannot be demanded or coerced. Stewardship is a positive form of leadership, whereby the leader seeks to empower and bring out the best in the group they lead. Stewardship is respectful and responsive; it requires moral, mental and physical strength and is compatible with democratic governing principles. Unlike tyranny, stewardship flourishes on justified criticism and support: this is not a weakness of stewardship but rather a strong point. This form of leadership also has the advantage that it can be practiced at all levels and across the spectrum of activities. We can exercise stewardship with our peers, as good friends and supports. We can be good stewards of our families and neighbourhoods, using leadership skills to build fruitful communities. Stewardship has a rightful place in schools, service industries, commerce, enterprises, diplomacy and government, where service towards a greater goal is paramount. Seen in this context it is clear that this form of leadership is open to both genders. We all know women who in their own way are stewards of their families and communities, bringing out the best in the people they lead. These same qualities can be brought into the wider arena of politics and government. Modern institutions, such as the World Bank, recognise that women often have a unique way of leadership. Women are as able as male counterparts but they are often more holistic, more inclusive and less corrupt. Indeed, when women become more involved in public life then gender gaps in infant mortality rates, nutrition, school enrolment, access to health-care and political participation begin to narrow, and those changes benefit society. Living standards improve, increasing social entrepreneurship and attracting foreign direct investment. There is benefit not just to women when women become leaders, but to all of society. However, the empowerment of women must not be at any price. Mankind is a partnership and it is in no-one's interest to overshadow either sex. That is why we must learn how to appreciate and celebrate the genders, for successful co-operation in the future. Gender equality means that not only can women expect equal access to careers and political participation, but men can expect to have greater access to the experience of fatherhood, to activities and roles outside of the breadwinner mentality. With a more family-friendly and equal workplace, men can explore careers which better suit them, entering the caring professions for example. Men and boys can learn to enjoy a full range of emotional and cultural capacities that are often restricted by the societal norms of behaviour. Men and boys would in fact gain from equality of the sexes. In Rwanda, the emancipation of men could directly enable greater productivity and better conditions for families. For example: when men who have been debilitated by war or sickness are unable to work and take over domestic responsibilities, then able-bodied female family members can seek paid work. Also, men might re-evaluate their function as fathers if they understand that well-educated and cared for children will lead to a better future for their family and society at large. Certainly, men and boys will have to share the responsibility for safe sexual relationships if they are to overcome the huge burden of HIV/Aids in the region. 16

What is leadership?
Background: Leadership is a process by which a person influences others to achieve an aim. Individuals lead by using their own characteristics, such as conviction, competence, imagination and communication skills. These good leaders are made not born. If we have the desire and determination, we can learn effective leadership. Leadership is not the same as authority, which forces individuals to act in a certain way, but rather, good leadership inspires others to share the same aims. One popular theory of leadership from the last century gives three routes to leadership: 1. 2. 3. natural born leaders, those who become leaders out of an extraordinary event and those who choose to become leaders. This last group is the largest.

Read aloud: “The basis of good leadership is honorable character and selfless service. Respected leaders concentrate on what they are (such as beliefs and character), what they know (such as job, tasks, and human nature), and what they do (such as implementing, motivating, and provide direction). To gain respect, they must be ethical. A sense of direction is achieved by conveying a strong vision of the future. In a nutshell - a good leader must be trustworthy and be able to communicate a vision”. (This text is adapted from the Art and Science of Leadership with thanks) Ask: What makes a person want to follow a leader? Do people want to be guided by those they respect and who have a clear sense of direction? What do you think about this definition?

Model leaders
Discuss the qualities of some well known leaders, the facilitator can write notes up on the board. Ask: Are they any common qualities in popular leaders? Use these suggestions:: ∆ Nontsikelelo Albertina Sisulu, who became President of the Federation of South African Women in 1983, and President of the United Democratic Front in the same year. She was married both to the super-hero Walter Sisulu and to the liberation struggle. She still managed to bring up five children. Kofi Annan, seventh Secretary-General of the United Nations. Nelson Mandela. Wangari Maathai, a Kenyan Environmentalist and human rights campaigner, the first African woman to be awarded the Nobel Peace Prize. Princess Diana. Assia Djebar, the courageous and respected Algerian writer. Ellen Johnson-Sirleaf, 24th president of Liberia.

∆ ∆ ∆ ∆ ∆ ∆

Leadership styles
T e l l the participants to divide into pairs or threes. One participant closes one fist up tightly. The others have to try to persuade the participant to open the fist, using only words. Have the participants try a range of styles: such as persuasion, cooperation, scare tactics, and threats. At the end of the exercise, discuss with the participants which style worked best and which gave the participants a good feeling or the opposite. Use worksheet 1 to connect the experiences of this exercise with different styles of leadership, such as military, autocratic, democratic and stewardship. 17

Leader on a desert island
Read aloud: “An airplane has made an emergency landing on one of the Amirante isles, east of Rwanda in the Indian Ocean and north of the Mozambique Channel. Twenty girls are on board and all of them survive unhurt. The radio is hardly working, so the pilot goes in a small boat to get help. All the passengers will have to stay on the island until they are rescued. The airplane has enough supplies for three days. After one day it becomes clear that there needs to be someone in charge. The girls meet under a tree to decide who will be the leader, each of them explaining why they would be right for the job.” T e l l the participants to act out this meeting. Facilitators can help to manage the drama exercise, but should allow the conversation to be as 'real' as possible, end the exercise if the discussion goes on too long or if only a few are participating. M a k e notes of any comments or behaviours from the participants that are noteworthy and d i s c u s s with them the results at the end.

Is there a leader in me?
B a c k g r o u n d :By first recognising our leadership actions in our every day lives we will see that we all have the potential for leadership even in small ways. When we identify these ways, we can then begin to develop our leadership style. Read aloud the statements on worksheet 2 and tell the participants to write down their own endings. Or tell the participants to divide in pairs and they take it in turns to question and respond to each other aloud.

Girl's World
Background: Gender-sensitivity has become a buzzword in development and government policy; it refers not to the natural biological differences between the sexes, but rather to:

“Culturally defined roles and responsibilities for males and females that are learned may change over time and vary among societies”
Tell the participants to sit in a circle. To animate this exercise, use (or draw) pictures of girls from magazines, advertisements and newspapers. These can stimulate conversation and enable participants to talk about the pictures rather than themselves if they prefer. Ask the participants to close their eyes and think back into their childhood. Ask them to remember a time when they realised that they were girls or a woman? When did they notice that girls and boys get different treatment or can do different things? What are those things? When was the first time they heard “Girls don't do that?” How old were they? Was there a time in their life when they questioned these differences? What is their particular family attitude to the different sexes?

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Moon Monster needs a Guide!
Read aloud: “Imagine that an alien ship has landed in a Kigali school and cannot return home until the aircraft is fixed. The alien has to stay here for a while and needs to learn how to adapt to life in Rwanda. There is one thing though; this moon monster is neither male nor female. The participants are the guide for the alien in Rwanda and have to teach it about gender so it can decide whether it will live like a woman or man. The moon monster is of course very curious, it will surely keep asking why, why, why is it so?” Tell one participant to play the alien; tell the others to take it in turns to explain an advantage or disadvantage of being either male or female. This exercise can be a lot of fun, use it to lighten the mood of a group after a difficult discussion.

Gender and Leadership
Discuss gender and leadership. Ask: Why do societies need women leaders? What benefits can women bring to leadership? How have women leaders in Rwanda helped to shape the peace processes and reconstruction? Do women leaders have any limitations? Tell the participants to draw two large overlapping circles on a larg piece of paper or a blackboard. In one circle, list any benefits of women leaders, in the second circle any constraints of women leaders, in the middle portion list those attributes which could be both benefits and limitations.

Double Trouble
Various agencies of the United Nations and many other non-governmental organisations highlight the different ways that natural disasters and wars affect each gender. Gender roles in society give rise to different problems. Armed conflicts are not gender-neutral; women and men experience different access to resources and decision-making efforts, have different roles in peace building and violence reduction, as well as different biological needs and interests. Using worksheet 3, ask the participants to list ways in which women suffer disproportionately to men in times of crisis and conflict. Note for facilitators: An excellent report by the United Nations Population Fund from 2001, called: “The Impact of Armed Conflict on Women and Girls” can be found on the World Wide Web using these addresses: ∆ ∆ www.unicef.org/publications/index_25262.html www.unfpa.org/publications/detail.cfm?ID=29&filterListType=1

Other resources can be found at: ∆ ∆ www.womenwarpeace.org/issues/peacekeeping/peacekeeping.htm www.unicef.org/publications/files/Impact_final.pdf

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Green light for Girls!
Read aloud: “Human rights are the rights people are entitled to simply because they are human beings, no matter their citizenship, nationality, race, ethnicity, language, sex, sexuality, or abilities. Human rights become enforceable when they are codified as conventions, covenants, or treaties, or as they become recognized as customary international law. The United Nations are best known for making these conventions but there are also regional organizations writing them too, such as the Council of Europe or the African Commission on Human and Peoples' Rights.“ Tell the participants to divide into small groups and assign each group one of the following documents (see worksheet 4). Tell the participants to go through the documents and highlight specific text or provisions which particularly interest, appeal and relate to them. Each group presents their top four points to the others. Ask: In what ways do these legal implements give girls the green light for the future?

Boyz4Rwanda!
Background: Recently, there is a new approach emerging in the efforts for gender equity. There is an increasing recognition that a focus on the role of men and boys in the achievement of gender equality will benefit women and girls as well as men and boys. In addition, this approach can contribute effectively to the achievement of human rights and the promotion of democracy. This can be a light hearted exercise, but it does have a serious side: the need for women to understand the needs of men is also important in the struggle for gender equality. Women must make sure that men have something to gain from gender equality! Tell participants imagine they are at a Christmas party or maybe a traditional courtship and they have to bring gifts to the men and boys of Rwanda. Tell the participants that men are also disadvantaged by their social roles so what would participants give them to make their lives better? Draw the outline of a pretty packaging on the board and have the participants suggest 'gifts' that would men and boys would appreciate! Suggestions include: paternity leave from work, and less pressure to be the breadwinner!

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Worksheet 1
Leadership styles
Use worksheet 1 to connect the experiences of this exercise with different styles of leadership, such as military, autocratic, democratic and stewardship. This information is taken with thanks from The Art and Science of Leadership website: www.nwlink.com/~donclark/leader/leader.html. Styles of Leadership There are three different styles of leadership: authoritarian (autocratic), participative (democratic), and delegating (free hand). Although most leaders use all three styles, one of them becomes the dominate one. Authoritarian (autocratic) This type is used when the leader tells her team what she wants done and how she wants it done, without getting the advice of her people. Some people think that this style includes yelling, using demeaning language, and leading by threats and abuse of power. This is not the authoritarian style; it is an abusive, unprofessional style of leadership. Participative (democratic) This type involves the leader consulting and including the views of the team in the decision making process (determining what to do and how to do it). However, the leader maintains the final decision making authority. Delegating (free reign) In this style, the leader allows the team to make the decision. However, the leader is still responsible for the decisions that are made. You cannot do everything! S/he must set priorities and delegate certain tasks. Positive and Negative Leaders Positive: Positive leaders use rewards, such as education, independence, etc. to motivate team. Leaders are concerned about the human needs of their team. They build teamwork and help teams with their problems. Negative: If an emphasis is placed upon penalties, then the leader is using negative leadership. Although it has its place in a leader's tools, it should be used carefully due to its high cost on the human spirit.

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Worksheet 2
Is there a leader in me?
Discuss the opportunities for leadership in each one of the following situations. Imagine each situtation and complete the sentence showing how you can use good leadership and initiative in “everyday life”. 1. Once when my friends and I were having difficulty with our homework/ assignment, I suddenly had an idea and saw how we could do it so I........... .................... 2. During the lunch break I saw some older girls talking to a younger girl. They were calling her names and teasing her, and the girl was unhappy. I did not think this was correct so I....................................................... 3. I wanted very much to buy a new dress for a wedding party, but I did not have enough money. I was sure that I could earn it somehow so I........ ...................... 4. We were all walking and there was still a long way to go. I could see that we were all getting tired and miserable so I........................................ 5. My cousins had some liquor and were drinking it when their parents were away, so I.............................................................................................. 6. At the market I wanted to buy a bag of sorghum (milo). As I watched the people in front of me being served, I noticed that the vendor was not weighing the bags properly and each bag was less than one kilo so I.......... ......................... 7. When our neighbour had her baby, she was very sick and could not manage to care for the family, so I............................................................... 8. Once I saw some necklaces with pretty beads for sale in a shop. When I looked at them I thought I could make them myself so I.......................... 9. My friend was missing her family on her birthday so I........................... 10. My brother/sister told me about the internet and the World Wide Web. It sounded very interesting and I wanted to see it for myself so I............. ........................

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Worksheet 3
Double Trouble
How do problems in war or crises affect men and women differently? AFFECTING FACTOR Less mobility MALE FEMALE

Closure or destruction of health care facilities Closure or reduction of schools Increase of domestic work

Reduced resources such as food, water, energy Increase of domestic and sexual violence on persons Increase of illegal commerce Loss of male family members Reduced access to information

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Worksheet 4
Green Light for Girls!
Tell the participants to divide into small groups and assign each group one of the following documents: Universal Declaration of Human Rights (1948). International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights (1966) and the Convention of the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women (1979). These documents are too large to place in the curriculum here. They can be found easily on the Fit for Leadership CD, or from the World Wide Web. Many libraries and offices keep copies of these documents as well. Recommended URLs (web addresses) on the World Wide Web Universal Declaration of Human Rights www.unhchr.ch/html/intlinst.htm International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights (1966) www.unhchr.ch/html/menu3/b/a_ccpr.htm Convention of the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women (1979) www.unhchr.ch/html/menu3/b/e1cedaw.htm

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Theme 2 Identity and Orientation

Training objectives: ∆ To consider the origins of personal identity ∆ To learn how labels help and harm communication ∆ Introduction to orientation: feeling strongly about an issue that changes your direction in life.

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The aim of the exercises in this chapter is for participants to consider their social and personal identities and to have the self-confidence to develop their own. Choose exercises from the selection that best suit your teaching needs, see the chapter “Planning the Sessions” for guidance.

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Identity and Orientation
Our identities are shaped from the very first minute we are born and are profoundly moulded by the society we are born into. The way new babies are treated even in their first few hours of life can start to set the pattern for our identity: new babies are cuddled and washed and swaddled in very different ways in different societies, and parents have very different attitudes around the world. Identity and personality are not the same. We can understand the difference when we ask ourselves, “Who am I?”, the answer is our identity. When we ask ourselves, “How am I?”, we are talking about personality. Our identity will usually define our expectations of ourselves and others, the roles we undertake in life, and the activities we perform. Identity is strongly linked with family or socially defined roles, either through law or custom - like military service, compulsory education or marriage. Sometimes there are unspoken expectations on individuals and they find themselves in a role they did not or choose, such as the expectation to take up a particular livelihood, or to have a certain number of children. In societies where these expectations are very strong, the individuals are often powerless to change the definitions of their own roles, even when they are harmful. The opposite is true too: in societies where expectations are weaker, individuals develop their roles themselves. In times of crisis or post-crisis, women's identities and roles sometimes change. Women and girls are often the first to lose access to transport, health services or education when there is less money available in the family. Women and girls tend to be kept at home when there are tensions in a community, where women are obliged to carry out most of the domestic work. Women's identities can become used in political struggles to work one side against another. On the other hand, women in history have been able to gain more freedom in times of social upheaval, filling traditionally male jobs and providing invaluable services to armies and governments as well as holding the social fabric together. In these ways women have proved their abilities and achieved new self-determination in peace time. Participants may already have a clear identity for themselves, or they may just be realising what one is. The fact is that in the history of mankind, the idea of having a personal identity is a fairly new one and it is often understood to be a Western ideal. But time has left us rich stories and fragments of information from all over the world, pointing to the struggles of individuals to be their own person. Stories of great courage from paupers to princes have taught us that true heroism does not depend on social status, or outside factors but rather in acknowledging the inner-self: to identify yourself. So, history teaches us that identity, the desire to recognise ourselves according to our own criteria is a human ideal, part of our 'being'. This step is the crucial step on which all empowerment and leadership is based - the belief that each individual matters and is worth something.

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There is nothing either good or bad but thinking makes it so
Write this statement up where everyone can see it. ∆ ∆ ∆ ∆ ∆ Ask the students if they know who wrote this statement? (William Skakespeare in the play called Hamlet) What does it mean? (that when it comes to human perception and experience, attitude is everything) Why are humans different to most other animals? (The ability to learn, have ideas and to imagine, to have codes for example). In what ways are all humans amazing? (The ability to rationalise, to heal, to engineer for example). In what ways are humans different from each other? (Different skills, different ideas, different personalities for example).

New girl in school
Tell a few of the participants to introduce the person sitting next to them to the class, as if she was a new girl to the school. Tell a few participants to introduce themselves as if they themselves were new to the school. Tell the other participants to take notes. After the exercise, discuss which ways we identify others and ourselves. Ask: What common labels do we use to describe ourselves? Which labels are acceptable and which are not? (For example, would you ever say “Hello, I am Marie-Ann. I am an imposing person and I like to get my own way”, although it might describe you well?) What bridges do we build between ourselves and others when we identify ourselves. This can be done as a role-play exercise, with participants pretending to be at a family wedding or conference and meeting new people for the first time. Discussion as for above.

Twins!
Background: This game is useful for recognising the diversity in mankind and particularly because young people often judge themselves harshly on the basis of their idea of what they should be like. Tell the participants divide themselves into pairs. Each pair has a few minutes to find 5 points which they have in common and 5 things which are totally different. They should write a list of these things. Ask them to analyse the list with the following questions: ∆ ∆ ∆ ∆ ∆ How important were the physical characteristics? Were interests, preferences and personalities more often named? What exactly was similar or different? In writing these lists, were things chosen that can be changed by people or not changed by people? Are any of the characteristics typical for girls or typical for young people?

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Identity labels
B a c k g r o u n d :Societies all over the world tend to give names for groups or characteristics. Sometimes these labels help to express an idea so that everyone can understand it. However, some labels can be limiting or unfair. For example, do the participants define themselves as 'African' or 'Rwandan'; how do these labels express and/or limit the expression of an identity? Ask the participants to list 'identity labels' and write them up on the board. Which labels are most positive and helpful, which labels are limiting or unfair? How do participants feel about the ways that others define them? What does this exercise teach us about the ways in which we define our identities? How true or helpful are these labels used by the media when writing about central Africa, for example: 'man/woman' 'corrupt/war-torn' 'tribal/ethnic' 'foreign experts' 'third world/developing country' 'trauma/reconciliation' 'subsistence farmers'

Personality maps - alternative self-descriptions
Background: Participants can try to describe themselves physically as a landscape or as a weather report, or in an abstract way as a news report or favourite food. Ask the participants to take a few minutes making notes individually; encourage them to really think honestly about themselves. Then after a few minutes have a few of the students describe themselves. Or have a few students read out the notes from others, and then let everyone try to guess who it is. Ask: Is this method more honest, more open or less helpful than using standard character labels? Does it help to build bridges between ourselves and others?

“It ain't what you do, it's the way you do it!”
Background:Not only what we do, but the way we do it and why has a strong effect on our identities. Tell participants to write down these questions: ∆ ∆ ∆ What qualities are important to me in life? Which of those qualities do I have? Which of those do I want to have/still need to get?

Use worksheet 6. Tell participants to review this list and grade themselves with: 'not very’, 'sometimes', 'quite', 'often' and 'very'. To make it fun, tell the participants to fold the paper in such a way as to hide the participant's answers and have a friend fill in the grades for how they perceive the other participant, it can be very interesting!

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Moral compass
Read aloud: “The activities we do, and the way we do them, come from the principles that govern our lives. They are like an inner compass that always points to true north. Whatever the weather, whatever the geography, the compass always points true north. Similarly, whatever we do, we do in a way according to our principles. It means our principles guide our lives, whatever our circumstances and whatever happens to us. This is not the same as customs or rules because they, unlike principles, can change.” Tell participants to draw a personal compass for themselves to identify their principles and forces that guide their own lives and are always true. There can be many principles; after all there are 360 degrees in a circle! Here is an example, ask the participants to make their own.

I like to make all things beautiful and effective

I take personal responsibility for my life

I am my own person, I I believe in love, I try to give out love, I try to earn it, I show it in my work and body know what I like and what I don't like, I have ideas

Day Dreaming
PART ONE Background: This can be a pleasing exercise and quite revealing too. Tell the participants do a relaxing physical exercise such as a massage before attempting this exercise, so they are relaxed and ready to day dream. Tell participants that there is no wrong or right answer! Tell participants to picture a perfect day that they could imagine living over and over again for the rest of their lives. They can imagine themselves at any age and in any place and they can of course do anything. Ask: How would they start the day? How would they fill the morning, who else would they share the day with, where would they go and how would they eat? Participants should write no more than one page for this description and keep it in their personal journal.

Tuning the radio!
PART TWO Background:Defining our identities is never a once-and-for-all decision. Many factors and events change our outlook and circumstances. In fact, working out who we want to be is similar to tuning a radio to a radio station. We turn the dial this way a bit, then that way a bit until we get a good sound. 31

Tell participants to re-read their perfect day. In this part of the exercise, participants write down the things that they could live without in their perfect day. (For example, do they really need a personal helicopter? Or wouldn't they get bored being at parties every night?). Explain that this helps to make the perfect day more realistic. Tell participants to decide what they would prefer to keep in their perfect day but are not essential and then write them down. (For example, they would like a big house but it would be okay if they lived in a small one.) Explain that these are the goals in life we set for ourselves. Finally tell participants to decide what they absolutely must have in their perfect day story and write them down too. (For example, any perfect day for them would definitely include a great job and lots of friends.) Explain that these are the ingredients of their identities. Ask: Are there any surprises for the participants doing this exercise? Does their perfect day reflect them as individuals now or just their daydreams?

The Ruzizi River
Background: The Ruzizi River does not flow slowly and easily like melting palm oil. It is not carefree; it must go around the boulders and curves of the river bed. So it is with life, there are obstacles in our paths. Discuss with the participants what factors hinder their self-determination in Rwandan society? Ask: What chances do individuals with disabilities or injuries have? Is there much room for alternative life-styles in Rwanda such as homosexuality, non-mainstream religions, or even holistic living? Use one of the discussion methods described under the ‘games and exercises’ section to enliven this exercise if wished.

Circles!
Background: How do I describe myself? Outer me to inner me. How would someone else describe me? These are the questions of identity that the exercises have been addressing mostly in words. Now the participants can revaluate their identities as a whole using the other language of art. Art has no expectations of ‘grammar’ as words do, so it is a freer language. Materials most suitable for this are coloured pencils or water colour paints but participants can use any method, such as collage, clay moulding or a modelling. Tell the participants make a picture of their identities as a set of concentric circles (circles within circles). The outside circle signifies all their activities, the next is their physical appearance, and the next is their qualities, and so on until the central circle is their inner being. The colours and shapes the participants choose, can be very revealing.

Repeat! New girl in school
Group evaluation exercise Repeat the New girl in school exercise at the end of a workshop on identity. The participants will now have a new set of positive labels and a clearer idea of how they wish to present themselves!
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Worksheet 6
“It ain't what you do, it's the way you do it!”
Put a star next to the qualities you think are most important to you, or which ones you would like to improve in. Keep this list as a personal reminder.

HOW ARE YOU? (not very, sometimes, quite, often, very) Idealistic Compromising Modern Equality-minded Selfish Tolerant Fair Honest Independent Optimistic Ambitious Conservative Organised Envious Adventurous Carefree Energetic Fearful Religious Trust worthy Self confident Brave / courageous Impulsive Extrovert DO THESE ISSUES INTEREST YOU? Human rights Women's rights Caring for the Environment Anti-racism Culture Student issues in school Government and politics Fill in the questionnaire again, this time answering the question as you WANT to be. Is the outcome different?

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Theme 3 Skills for Public Life
Training objectives: ∆ Recognising and appreciating the differences between government, civil society and home life ∆ ∆ Evaluating the current pathways of women in public life Practicing the skills needed for public life.

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The aim of the exercises in this theme is to interest participants in the public spheres of government and civil society and to discover skills to effectively access them. Many people feel that government and civil society are uninteresting and do not affect them on a day-to-day level. This theme's exercises should show that the opposite is true. Choose exercises from the selection that best suit your teaching needs, see the chapter “Planning the Sessions” for guidance.

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Skills for Public Life
Our world is now very complex. Families, the military, producers, commerce, government and civil society constantly interact with each other, nationally and internationally. The results of these interactions form and affect the environment and conditions under which we live. In democracies, we all have the right to have our say and contribute to the development of current affairs. Either by voting in elections, making educated decisions, having informed opinions or being active in government/civil society, our leadership in all these areas can contribute to our society in a way that goes beyond the walls of our homes. Nowhere else in the world are there a greater percentage of women in parliament than in Rwanda. In many other countries of the world though, while women are at home, men take up the most powerful positions in politics, society and business. Women's development programmes, quota systems and financial support have increased the number of women in politics but women can sometimes hold themselves back. Women are often at the top of school classes in maths and science, but by university or in the workplace, they have somehow dropped out of the system. Furthermore, women who do enter employment tend to take up the 'softer' jobs in the caring professions or in 'feminine' sectors such as the environment and education. Young people are often content to do their thing, so long as nothing hinders them. Some prefer not to get involved in pubic life, finding less risk in staying at home, and preferring to avoid the challenge. However because women do not engage enough, structures are built up that do not fully address their needs or interests. The American president John F Kennedy, said, that “The best time to fix the roof is when the sun is shining”, meaning that if we wait until things go wrong before we act, it will be too late. For young girls to have an impact on their own future and the future of Rwanda they need a new self-definition, a new formula of intelligence, logic, and emotions. They must take responsibility for their lives and show vision and charisma to solve future problems. They must stand up for their rights and not be shy about power. If young girls imagine themselves as directors when they are grown up, they have to start mixing in public life when younger. Young people need to want to keep themselves informed, know about the world around them and ask questions about the ever-changing political, economic, and social environment of their life. Politically concerned girls can get involved in school politics, environmental issues, church and youth organisations, as well as political parties. Through engagement, young people will gain personality, strength and self-esteem. There is a lot that women and young girls can do - but they must be sure to do it!

Annoyances
T e l l the participants to think very hard about their daily life. Are there any things which really annoy them? Perhaps they always have to walk home through a dark alley which they wish had street lights. Or perhaps they are always falling over rubbish in the street. A s k them about these annoyances in small groups of 4 or 5. Who do they think is responsible for these annoyances? Is there anything which they could do to changes things, such as make a petition amongst local residents? Would them like to be in charge of these things when they are older? Use this exercise as a way to discuss the smaller aspects of Government, which affect their day-to-day lives.

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Quiz time!
Write the following titles on the board for all participants to see: GOVERNMENT CIVIL
SOCIETY

HOME

LIFE

SPIRITUAL

LIFE

Discuss briefly what part of Rwandan society these titles describe. T e l l the participants to line up in two lines, with the same number of participants in each one. The facilitator is the quizmaster and stands at the front of the line. She reads out the questions below and the two participants at the front of the line compete to give the correct answer. They may confer with the rest of their team, but speed is important! When one of the participants at the front gets the answer correct, she moves to the back of the line and the next participant moves forward to the front of it. The game is over when all the participants have answered correctly and the first participant is back at the start again - then the whole team sits down! Read aloud: Under which heading would you put...? (there can be more than one correct answer!) newspapers / shops / new law / tax levels / washing dishes / where you sit to have your meals / clean water / road building / school / restaurants / hotels / growing crops / post office / military forces / sale of coffee beans / local football club / national football team / street lighting / tourism / plastic factory / household heating / house building / taxes / prisons / international agreements / youth groups (scouts or guides) / music lessons / radio stations / church services / weddings / choice of clothes / insurance companies / cars / aeroplanes / visas / banking / recipes / worship Tip: There are no hard and fast answers in this game. An activity that is initiated by the government in one state can be a private one in another state. For example, schools can be run by the government, can be private, can be run by religious groups or can be run at home! The purpose of the game is to help participants to be aware of how the world around them works in a fun way.

Say what you mean!
Background: Women and girls can overcome their shyness and advance themselves with a few tips and 'rules'. Use worksheet 6 and tell participants to take it in turns to read a point aloud. Tell the participants to explain or give an example of what is meant by each one. This can be done as a short role-play too. Ask: Are there any more rules that can be added to the list? Are there any more that are specific to Rwanda?

Jobs for the Girls!
Background: Women and young girls tend to enter employment in the caregiving professions, such as teachers, nurses or domestic help. Tell the participants to draw seven columns. Label them Government, Technological, Scientific, Business, Professions, Services and Home life respectively. Next each participant should think of women, famous or non-famous and list their work or jobs under the appropriate heading. Help with suggestions if necessary. Ask: In which column are there the most names? Are there many more names in one column? If so, what can be the reason for that? Tell the participants to add their own names to a column of their choice. 37

Pioneer Spirit
Background: In America, the first men and women to conquer the Wild West were known as pioneers. The women, who perhaps normally wore long thick skirt and drank tea in polite company, had to adapt to a new way of life. They reinvented themselves; they began to wear trousers, work in the fields and even shoot at wolves and bears. Girls in Rwanda are also pioneers of a new era in their country; they will also have to adapt in order to thrive. Tell the participants to write a letter to an employer explaining why they have the right attitude and character for the job. Use worksheet 7 to help them.

Girls at the Gym
Background: Being fit for leadership, means doing a few training exercises to build up strength. If girls and young women are ready to face the challenges of public life then they need to have all their skills, talents and personalities in top condition. Make large posters with the text below written on them (write in a language the participants are most familiar with). Stick them up on the wall in a row, with lots of space between them. Tell participants to face one of the posters and to read and follow the text instructions. They should have their journals and a pen with them. After one minute or less, blow a whistle and have the participants move round to the next poster. Repeat this step until the participants have seen all the posters. Text for the posters: Fit for leadership: Start learning and never stop! Decide to learn something new this week. Write down in your journal what it will be. Fit for life: Stand still, back straight, shoulders down. Breathe in slowly and deeply through the nose, hold for a second and exhale slowly through the mouth. Repeat 10 to 15 times. Fit for leadership: Recognise your capacities and appreciate your limits. Out loud say what you think you are good at and one thing you can't change. Fit for life: Stand still, back straight, shoulders down. Then stretch your arms and finger tips right up high as far as you can. Then let your hands swing down by your side. Repeat 10 times. Fit for leadership: Trust yourself. Remember the last time you were right! Fit for life: Crouch down, back curved, head tucked down, eyes closed. Concentrate and be very still, can you feel or hear your heart beat? Fit for leadership: Learn to say “I can do it!” Resolve to do something you have been trying to forget about. Write down in your journal what it is and cross it out when it is completed. Fit for life: From a standing position, jump high and wide stretching out your hands and legs. Repeat this 15 times. Call out aloud “I can do it!” if you feel like it.

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Fit for leadership: Don't set your target too low or too high so that you do not give up from frustration. Fit for life: Sit on the floor with your feet together and stretched out in front of you. With your arms stretched, reach out to your toes. If it strains, then set yourself another target where it is more comfortable, such as ankles, shins, knees. Fit for leadership: Get involved everywhere when you have something to say. Think of a something you tried to change recently, how did you do it, could you have done it differently? Fit for life: Standing with your feet shoulder width apart, bend your knees a little. Stretch out your arms and hands from side to side, in front to the back and all around you. Do this five times. Fit for leadership: Get to know your weaknesses so you can change them if you want. Write in your journal the weaknesses that you would like to work on. Fit for life: Can you do a headstand? Many people find this difficult and uncomfortable, but try it slowly, using the wall for support. Try to make your legs and back straight to make a really neat and impressive move. Fit for leadership: Orientate yourself on or take the lead from people who are open-minded and courageous. People who know when to let go and dare to do something new; and when to hold fast to tradition. Fit for life: Lie down or stand comfortably. Tighten and tense all the muscles in your body as tight as you can, hold for a second or two, then shake it all out. Repeat 6 times. Fit for leadership: Is there a little princess in you, if so, send her away to stay in her palace! Use your charms or tricks to get what you want in moderation; this sort of achievement is shallow and short lived. Live an authentic life (-this means simply: be real and true to yourself!) Fit for life: Curl up in a ball on the floor like a seed. Then slowly 'grow up' in to a great tree, with wide branches and strong roots. Fit for leadership: Take responsibility for all your life. She, who makes mistakes, can learn. She who learns can change, she who changes moves the world! Fit for life: Sit with your legs crossed or stand comfortably. Starting with your toes and shoes and working right up to the hair on your head, go through every part of your body and decide to take responsibility for it. It might go something like this. “Legs: will put them to good use, will learn a new sport. Hands: need nail cutting will do that tonight. Ears: will listen more.” and so on. Write the names of the body parts and any commitments you make in your journal if you like.

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Worksheet 6
Say what you mean!
Tips and rules for girls who rock Rwanda! In the effort for gender equality and access to public life, some women actually hold themselves back. Not the girls who rock Rwanda! Here are some tips and 'rules' to help girls overcome their shyness and advance themselves. 1. 2. 3. 4. Say what you mean, make sure you mean what you say and do not say anything you will regret later. Don't let yourself be interrupted, or let anyone talk over you. If something really bothers you or rests heavily on your heart, speak out about it. Don't let resistance discourage you. Not everyone will agree or be pleased with what you say, so learn to argue your case and learn that a clever compromise can also be a solution. Women and girls often expect others to read their minds or guess what they want through their body language. Girls, use this art sparingly. When you really want something, say it clearly. Drop the use of 'perhaps..' or 'hmn?” in your conversation. Make sure that only those sentences which are questions be phrased like a question. Speak with a purpose and have confident body language. Stop murmuring. Hold your head high - you will feel better and make a better impression on others. Don't speak too quickly; don't speak too slowly or for too long. Make explanations clear and concise. Pat yourself on the back and congratulate yourself on a job well done, if you deserve it. Pat others on the back as well, when they deserve it. The beginning is always hard, but with practice, confidence will become second nature.

5.

6.

7.

8. 9.

10.

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Worksheet 7
Pioneer Spirit
Have you got what it takes to rock Rwanda? Write a letter to an employer explaining why you have the right attitude and character for the job. Before you write your letter for this imaginary job, read these questions below to help you identify the pioneer spirit in you. Am I self-confident and reflective or over-confident and sometimes selfcentred or conceited? Am I curious and hopeful or am I often bored and distrustful? Do I worry and panic or can I trust in myself? ∆ ∆ ∆ ∆ ∆ ∆ ∆ What expectations do I have in the workplace - am I critical and flexible, do I have good qualifications? Am I interested in traditional women's jobs or can I imagine being an engineer, working with computers and heavy machinery? Do I want to work in industry, commerce, as a specialist, a lecturer, in the unions or in my own network? Is there a specific job or profession that I want to have or can I imagine different ways of earning a living? ∆ ∆ ∆ ∆ ∆ ∆ ∆ What can I bring to the job or place of employment, what can I offer that makes me stand out? Have I travelled or lived abroad? Am I inquisitive, love learning and developing? Do I know any foreign languages? Am I part of any other groups? Have I attended any youth programmes such as exchange trips? Do I have a Can-do attitude; am I a pioneer or do I stay in the comfort zone? ∆ ∆ ∆ ∆ ∆ ∆ ∆

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Theme 4 Zones of Impact

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The exercises in this chapter are designed to excite and empower participants to engage in public life and civil society. The skills they learn now in their youth will then develop into strong leadership skills for adult life. Choose exercises from the selection that best suit your teaching needs, see the chapter “Planning the Sessions” for guidance.

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Zones of Impact
Every generation believes that they are unique, that nobody older can understand the challenges they face. In fact, every generation faces some problems which are similar to their parents and some which are new. Every generation, and every person, has to find their own way. Try to imagine your life if you had been born 100 years earlier. What sort of problems do you think you might have faced? Perhaps you would have struggled through life illiterate and facing poverty or ill health. You might have an older female relative you could ask about lives of earlier women in your family. Some people think that your great-grandmother's life was simpler in that she probably had fewer choices - survival skills and crafts were handed down the generations, gender roles were more fixed and paths through life were more clearly defined by society. Think about your own life. You are educated and probably healthier than the women you are descended from, but you face choices and decisions which previous women probably did not. The greater choice which you have about how to live your life as a 21st century woman brings it's own stresses and strains. Decades of social disruption, civil hostilities and epidemics have shaken Africa. Young people today find growing up in a period of rapid social, economic and political change. On the one hand the world is becoming a smaller place, barriers are coming down, human rights are spreading, information travels faster and further than ever before. On the other hand urbanisation is increasing, resources are becoming scarcer, competition is fierce and high levels of education and experience are needed to thrive. In this fermenting mixture of change and choice, teenagers often feel strongly about the issues in their lives but are frustrated and helpless to change circumstances around them. Yet young people are a key force of change in the modern world. The youth absorb new information, which can change national attitudes, they quickly take up and apply technological advances, and their purchasing power drives markets and industries such as entertainment and fashion. Particularly in Rwanda where the average age of the population in Rwanda is just 18 years old, the energies and ideas of the young people make up a large percent of the national productive force. Not only then, does society benefit from the early engagement of young people in public life, the young people themselves benefit from feelings of inclusion, influence and the experience gained. So, youth should be encouraged and enabled to explore their interests and find ways to translate their hopes and concerns into action.

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Toolkit for Young People
Background: This text (worksheet 8) is extracted from a United Nations publication called ‘Making Commitments Matter: a Toolkit for young people to evaluate national youth policy’ and can be downloaded from the web for free on www.un.org/esa/socdev/unyin/untoolkit.htm. Use the worksheetto open a discussion on the participation of youth in public life. Ask: what is public life and civil society? How is it different to home life? Is it true that young people want to participate in their societies, or do they prefer to have everything done for them and to stay at home? Which of the 15 areas identified in the World Programme of Action for Youth (WAPY) do participants feel to be a priority for Rwanda and why? Which areas are of interest to the participants, which do they know the most about? Can participants think of any ways in which governments and civil society around the world support their youth? What is on offer in Rwanda to help youth at the moment? Use worksheet 8 for suggestions and support information.

Dare to Dream
Background: Songs on the radio, stories at the movies and pictures in magazines often portray an unrealistically better world. Even so, we all have dreams and in fact our imagination is one of the most distinctive qualities which human beings have. Being able to envision an idea is a powerful tool, it can help us to ‘see’ a solution or to motivate us towards one. How this generation in Rwanda imagine the future of their country is not, then, a frivolous question. Tell participants to make ‘interviews’ with each other, in pairs similar to a television ‘chat show’ with an interviewer, interviewee and audience. The interviewers can ask: ∆ ∆ ∆ ∆ ∆ “What do you imagine your life will be like in 20 years?” “What kind of job will you have and where will you live?” “Would you like to be famous or well known?” “What will life be like in your neighbourhood then?” “What do you want to see happening in Rwanda?”

My dreams + courage = reality
Background: School, travel, career and hobbies - how can we decide? How can we learn to follow our dreams? Social research in Europe and America has shown common characteristics in people who make their dreams come true. These tips, see below, are taken from a book called ‘See Jane Win for Girls’ (ISBN 1-57542-122-4) written after the author made a study of 1,000 successful women. Write up the list on a board and read them aloud . Tell participants to copy the list of tips into their journals. Ask them to rate them in order of personal preference. ∆ ∆ ∆ ∆ ∆ ∆ It is never too early to imagine, think about and plan for your future. Participate fully in everything that you do. Take the risk of making your best effort. Don't be afraid to take on new challenges. Don't give up - especially when the things get tough. Avoid using words like “can't” or “impossible”. Believe in yourself and in your ability to learn and grow. Trust that you can find interests that are right for you. 45

Mini-study: What are the main elements of achievement?
Using worksheet 9, tell 20 teenagers, i.e. the participants, to agree or disagree with the statements, making crosses for disagree and ticks for agree in the boxes. Next, represent the totals as a graph, which elements were the most popular and in what percentage? What are the top 5 elements selected?

Bang your drum!
Background: Teenagers rarely get the chance to let off steam! This exercise encourages participants to identify their own issues. Tell participants sit in a circle and loudly and rhythmically tap on their knees; this is to help lose the feeling of self-consciousness. Then one by one, going around the circle: each participant has the opportunity to shout out loud something in their lives that really makes them angry, sad or frustrated. For example: Homework!! Spots!! Fighting!! Let each person time to come up with a real answer, making sure that the knee-tapping continues until between answers. At the end have the participants' end the exercise by clapping and cheering.

Making the connection
Background: Teenagers are often convinced that the issues that interest them are utterly remote from the politics of a state. But are they really? Look at the common issues that young girls concern themselves with: love, beauty, femininity, self-discovery, opportunities, duties, future careers. Make 7 long strings and attach the labels provided in worksheet 10 to either end. Tangle up the strings into a big knotted ball. Tell participants to unravel the strings and explain what the 'youth issue' and the 'government or grown up issue' have in common.

Running a government is like running a family
Read aloud: “Running a government is like running a family. The only difference is in the size. Let's look at how the things that are done in a family are just like the things that are done by a government: Ministry of Health Takes care of those who are sick. Ministry of Trade Buys things the country needs, and sells things the country produces. Ministry of Foreign Affairs Keeps good relations with countries who are friends, and tries to resolve disputes with countries where there is a conflict. Ministry of Education Makes sure that children and young people can go to school and learn. Ministry of Agriculture Makes sure there is enough food.

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Mayor Makes sure the city is clean, the garbage is collected that the streets and parks look nice. Ask the participants to identify their present roles in the family and write them up on the board. Ask: Can these roles be matched with similar tasks in the government or civil society? What are these roles? Have the participants write lists of these connections, and reflect on them - can any of them see themselves developing their present family roles into public roles? Use these examples in the discussion: Mukamana enjoyed her baby minding duties in the family, so much so that she decided to become a teacher. She started by helping at the local village school and the teachers there supported her application to the Kigali Institute of Education- and now she is training to be a qualified teacher! Oda did not really like helping to make the beds and clean the house, but the experience helped her to get a job at an international hotel preparing the rooms. She began to take great pride in her work and soon became very active in promoting tourism in Rwanda.

Spider webs - influencing people
PART ONE Discuss what influence means and in what ways we are influenced (feelings, news, persuasion etc). Tell participants to write their names in the middle of a piece of paper. They should then draw lines outwards linking it to other names, so that the further away a name is, the less that person influences the participant. Next participants link up the names that have influence on each other. Soon the picture will look like spiders' web and participants will see that every person is influenced by many others.

Circle of control
Tell the participants, either alone or in a group, to draw a circle of control. On the inside write what we have control over in our lives, such as our attitudes, our responses, our habits. Then on the outside of the circle write what we cannot control, such as the weather, ethnicity, and place of birth. Next have the participants cut out the circle of control and keep it with them. The outside can be disposed of.

Spider web - influencing people
PART TWO Tell participants to consider how much they influence others around them and make human spider threads! Half the group decide to be certain figures in Rwandan society, use the list below for ideas. The others physically line up the figures starting with the Rwandan school pupil in the middle. They place the figures around her with those she influences the most nearest her and those she influences least further away from her. Make lengths of string or use chalk to draw lines on the floor with labels where the figures stand. It will look a bit like a spider's web afterwards and can be left on the floor for other exercises.

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The new Mayor of Kigali Rwandan school pupil Teacher Neighbour Ambassador to Rwanda Government representative PANAC representative Movie star Big business man Friend Family member Market seller United Nations permanent member Representative of the National Youth Council Policeman/woman Journalist

Mr. Théoneste Mutsindashyaka You!

Can do girl!
Background: ‘Can-do’ really means being proactive, this means being imaginative and determined to get things done. American female pilot Elinor Smith once said, “People of accomplishment rarely sat back and let things happen to them. They went out and happened to things”. This is a game to stimulate the can-do girl spirit! Tell the participants to divide into two teams. Read aloud out the statements below to both teams. Team members take it in turns to invent a finish for them, before the other team can; if they do they score a point. (To keep the game orderly, have team members clap or whistle when they are ready to answer). The opposite team can make a challenge calling out 'can-do!' and if they invent a better suggestion, then that team also wins a point. The team with the most points at the end of the statements is the winner. Adapt the questions as necessary, and encourage full answers - the aim of the game is for participants to understand that proactive people seek solutions and take initiative. Watch out - the statements get harder!

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STATEMENTS When I am cold I… When I am tired I… When I am bored I... When I am thirsty I… When I am hungry I… When I don't hear I… When I don't understand I… When I want to listen to music I… When I can’t do my homework I… When my friend is crying I… When I hurt myself I… When I have a flu or headache… When I want to be alone I… When I am cold but I have no jacket I… When no-one understands me I… When no-ones listens to me I… When someone tries to hurt me I… When I am treated unfairly I… When I am angry I… When I read a lie in a newspaper I… When I see a problem in my neighbourhood I… When there is no sports club in my town I… When I have a good idea I… When someone asks me to sign a petition I… When I think I can do it better I…

EXAMPLES OF SUGGESTIONS …put a jacket on. …have a rest …read a book

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Spider web - power and influence
PART THREE Tell participants to look at the lines on the floor from part two. Next draw new lines or tie new lengths of string connecting them up like a spider's web. These lines represent the ways in which the figures influence or have power over each other. Using labels or coloured chalk, write next to these lines some of these methods or influence and power. Ask: What is the difference between influence and power? Use these examples: Market seller Journalist Family Me Police

vote / contact publish information buy goods or not! / contact contact

Government representative Teacher Big business man

Representative of the National Youth Council Neighbour

law / punishment

Just a minute!
Background: This exercise serves as a public speaking training exercise, as well as awareness training. Tell the participants to sit in a circle. The facilitator is the quizmaster and keeps the time and the score. One participant must talk on the subject of either courage or conviction for one minute. She may not however repeat words, pause, or use words such as 'er' or 'um' and she may not deviate from the subject. If she does, another participant can interrupt and point out the error. If the quizmaster accepts the interruption then that participant must try to finish the minute of talking herself. There is no limit to the number of interruptions. The participant who is talking when the minute finishes is the winner. Ask the participants what they can do to build up their courage or conviction? Tip: Give a second participant a stopwatch to keep score of the time.

Visiting speaker
Background: we learn best in life when we can see the practical application of a theory. As children we learn that pottery must be handled with care, when we see that it breaks if it falls. As adults we learn to drive a car best through real driving practice. Uplifting stories of other peoples' personal experiences can be powerful learning tools too. Invite a guest speaker to give a 15-minute presentation of an experience where they were able to influence change in public life. It could be a professional or an 'ordinary' person, but someone who is not in a position of power but who nevertheless used their influence to change a local practice or started a useful service. Ask the speaker to describe her methods, her feelings, the difficulties and the success to the participants.

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Zones of Impact
Background: It can be easy for us all to exist in our own little bubbles, we prefer to stay in our comfort zone rather than face new challenges that might take courage and conviction. The trouble is, things tend to happen around the comfort zone that affect us and we have no say in the matter. On the other hand, when individuals are informed and engaged, they can have great energy and sensation for action. These people make ripples and waves that reach out far beyond their personal zone of impact. The following exercise can be an art project or even a drama exercise, according to time, materials and suitability. Ask the participants to think about their personal zones of impact, are they in a comfort zone, are they proactive can-do girls, are they working on themselves first? Who or what can they change in their lives? Tell participants that the greatest zone of impact they have is themselves! Ask the participants to think of ways they could change or improve themselves. Tell the participants to draw a picture or write and decorate a personal statement describing their own personal zones of impact. Hang up the pictures, and personal statements. Perform any drama pieces for the whole group to see.

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Worksheet 8
Young people everywhere

Youth
are defined by the United Nations as between the ages of 15 and 24. General Assembly resolution A/RES/58/133 was passed in November 2003. Among other things, the General Assembly, in the resolution, “Decides to devote, at its sixtieth session, in 2005, two plenary meetings to review the situation of youth and achievements produced in the implementation of the World Programme of Action ten years after its adoption.” Check out the resolution! (www.un.org/youth).

The General Assembly, in this resolution, also “Recognizes the importance of the full and effective participation of youth and youth organizations at the local, national, regional and international levels in promoting and implementing the World Programme of Action and in evaluating the progress achieved and the obstacles encountered in its implementation…”

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The World Programme of Action for Youth to the Year 2000 and Beyond (WPAY)
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. EDUCATION EMPLOYMENT HUNGER POVERTY THE
ENVIRONMENT ABUSE DELINQUENCY ACTIVITIES

DRUG

JUVENILE

LEISURE-TIME GIRLS THE

AND YOUNG WOMEN

FULL AND EFFECTIVE PARTICIPATION OF YOUTH IN THE LIFE

OF SOCIETY AND IN DECISION-MAKING

11. 12. 13. 14. 15.

GLOBALIZATION INFORMATION HIV / AIDS CONFLICT PREVENTION INTERGENERATIONAL
RELATIONS AND

COMMUNICATION TECHNOLOGY (ICT)

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Worksheet 9
“The main elements of achievement are...”
Make a survey of twenty participants, present the results in a graph and publish them in a school magazine, for example.

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Worksheet 10
Making the connection
Love Peace

Beauty

Environment

Femininity

Gender

Self-discovery

Identity and Politics

Opportunities

Freedoms

Duties

Responsibilities

Future careers

Industry/services

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Theme 5 Fit for Life! - Your Personal Force

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The stewardship model of leadership is understood as the ability to bring out the best in others. However, there are two reasons why it is important to first bring out the best in ourselves. Firstly, leadership takes hard work; leaders have to be in good condition! Next, one of the best ways to lead is to set a good example. Bringing out the best in yourself inspires others to follow your lead. Choose exercises from the selection that best suit your teaching needs. See the chapter "Planning the Sessions" for guidance.

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Fit for Life! - Your Personal Force
Being fit for life means being emotionally, physically and intellectually fit! Emotionally fit means that all your emotional 'muscles' are in good shape. This includes your 'muscle' for reason and thinking, for sympathy, for joy, for indignation and even for reflection. Leadership calls for courage. For example, the courage to speak up when we feel shy, the courage we have to accept our shyness but strengthen our confidence. Having the courage to say 'no', may mean overcoming feelings such as guilt. Being brave enough to make change in your life means that our emotions must be prepared for a windstorm from others who do not want us to change. Our emotions have to be tough, sensitive, agile and under control. Managing our own emotions as a leader has a strong effect on others around us. Physically Fit: Sports, team games and individual exercises are not only good for our well-being but can help us develop skills that we need later in life, such as thinking in a team or being reliable. Sports help build up our physical strength, have fun, relieve stress and work out worries. Team sports can give opportunities to make new friends and travel when we play games with other teams. In short, sports can lead the way to helping you stand up for yourself, by feeling part of a group; purposeful, supported and cheered! It is no wonder that a study in America found that girls in high school who play sports are 92% less likely than non-players to be involved in drugs and 80% less likely to have an unwanted pregnancy. However, there is more to physical fitness than exercising. Being fit for life means taking responsibility for your own body, for the way you use it, treat it and look after it. No woman can truly call herself free who does not have control over her own body. Girls and young leaders in Rwanda need to arm themselves with knowledge and support to protect their bodies from misuse and abuse. They need to follow a healthy diet, avoid poisons, and guard themselves from sexually transmitted diseases and harmful practices. Pregnancy is still difficult; women need to have access to proper medical support and make the right choices for themselves. Intellectually fit means having an open mind, being curious and ready to learn because only then can we find and absorb all the information we need. Being fit for leadership, we also have to sometimes make quick decisions, to know when to act and, sometimes, when not to. So we need to be quick with our wits, watch closely, ask questions and read a lot. Reading is so good for us! Reading books written in a good way can stimulate thought, answer questions we didn't know we had and see the world though the eyes of others. Quizzes and games keep our mind 'on its toes' and just listening to an older relative talk or work keeps our mind well tuned - like the string of a Munahi. For decades, a lot of emphasis has been put on certain aspects of intelligence such as logical reasoning, maths skills, spatial skills, understanding analogies, verbal skills etc. Researchers though, were puzzled by the fact that while IQ (intelligence) could predict academic performance accurately and professional and personal success to some degree, there was something missing in the equation. Some of those people who were very clever were doing poorly in life; one could say they were held back by thinking, behaving and communicating in a way that hindered their chances to succeed (see www.a2zpsychology.com/articles/eq_and_iq.htm for details). Fit for life means having good personal discipline and keeping good habits that will deliver a healthy body, a healthy outlook and positive emotional balance. 58

Self-esteem line up
B a c k g r o u n d :Self worth is the most fundamental building block of human development. It is an important step on the path to steadfast self-esteem, to recognise and value ourselves. A strong self-esteem helps us to cope with disappointment, difficulties, violence. Not only good for the downs in life, but also there for the ups, when your self-esteem is in a fit condition, it can help us make better decisions, communicate more clearly and be more willing to give to others. So a healthy self-esteem is good for us as individuals and for all those around us too. T e l l the participants to make a long line with lots of space in front of them. R e a d aloud the statements below. T e l l p a rticipants to answer 'True' and move forward 2 small steps, 'Sometimes' and move forward one step or 'False' and stay in the same place. Participants can close their eyes so that they do not feel self conscious. At the end of the statements a s k participants to notice where they are standing. T e l l them that participants who have moved forwards the furthest are likely to have the strongest self-esteem (or the longest steps!) Read aloud: ∆ ∆ ∆ ∆ ∆ ∆ ∆ ∆ ∆ ∆ ∆ ∆ ∆ ∆ ∆ ∆ ∆ ∆ I have at least 3 hobbies/interests or passions. When I make a mistake, I take responsibility for it (ie I don't blame anything else or anyone else). When a teacher praises me for what I am doing, I believe him or her. If someone does not like the way I do things, I still do it anyway. If something hurts me, I try to make it better. I am happy with myself and the way I am. I believe that I can contribute to my environment or society. If someone compliments me for what I do, I can say 'thanks' without feeling embarrassed. When I talk with my friends and family, I rarely put myself down. When I see that one of my friends does well in her exams, I am happy for her. If I have a disappointment, I can usually be reasonable about it. If I have a question in class, I am not afraid to ask the teacher in front of all the class If there is something I want to do, I try my best to do it without complaining. When I don't understand or can't do something, it's no problem for me to ask for help. I like to take care of my health. If I see someone I admire, I think to myself: one day, I will be like him/her. I like to spend time on my own. When my parents or teachers think I have broken the rules, I am honest about it. 59

Self-Esteem Tool Kit
Background: Self-esteem is really a way of describing how good we feel about ourselves, or how we rate ourselves. We can actually engineer this feeling by doing things that bring positive results to our mood. Scientists have shown that people who read happy stories or listen to cheerful music can feel better about themselves for the whole day. And when we feel good we tend to actually be better. Draw the outline of a tool box on the board. Read aloud: “Mechanics and technicians use tools to keep their machines in good working order, such as screwdrivers, hammers and saws. What tools or what ways do we use to keep our self-esteem well oiled and working well?” Ask participants to list ways in which we can learn to feel positive about ourselves. Use list below if needed. Write the suggested answers in the tool box. Tell participants to write the list in their journal and draw a nail next to any ideas they would like to follow up on. positive talking (listen to yourself talk!) speak up! keep good company keep fit and healthy choose I can over I can't get a mentor proper breathing invest effort secret Swiss penknife (God's love, visualisation, magic, luck or meditation) be encouraging; don’t criticise yourself or others too badly keep a journal do something you enjoy, join a club have a plan learn more skills good posture time management use imagination

Just a minute
In one minute write a list of 'good' things about yourself and then for another minute write another list of 'bad' things about yourself. Or you can choose to write a list of good and bad memories. Which list is longest? Which was easier to write? If it is easier to write the good list, it usually means you have a good self-esteem. If you found it easier to write the bad list, it usually means that you are experiencing a difficult time in your life right now and your self-esteem needs a boost.

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Emotional Intelligence
Read aloud: “For various reasons and thanks to a wide range of abilities, people with a high emotional intelligence quotient tend to be more successful in life than those with a lower emotional intelligence quotient (EIQ) even if their classic intelligence quotient (IQ) is average. Those with high EIQ tend to have beliefs and attitudes that can nurture a high self-esteem such as self-love and self-worth, a proactive attitude and a willingness to give things a try. They build a support network and feel comfortable in social situations. Those with low EIQ tend to have feelings of inadequacy, doubts about whether they 'measure up', they may make self-deprecating statements and construct negative, self-critical internal dialogue. Socially they need approval, seeking recognition from other people.” Discuss: do participants agree or disagree with this text? How can people with more emotional intelligence be more successful than highly intelligent people with low emotional intelligence?

Are you in touch with yourself?
Write these questions on the board. Tell the participants to write them down in their journals. These questions are for reflection. Tell the participant to quietly close their eyes and really think about their own answers. After 7 minutes or so, move on to the next exercise. ARE you generally in touch with your own emotions (can you identify your true feelings?) CAN you pinpoint underlying reasons for your own actions? CAN you make yourself feel better or bounce back when upset, angry or sad? CAN you control your temper in highly charged situations? MOST people can feel pain - can you enjoy positive feelings?

What is hate? What is happiness?
Tell the participants to draw a picture of hate or happiness. Don't give any more instructions than this and see what the participants produce. Discuss the results.

Push'n'pull
Background: Primarily, discipline means behaviour which we exhibit through our own self-control, or you might say the good habits we have to bring out the best in ourselves. Although some bad habits have short-term gains, generally bad habits hold us back and even do us harm. Read aloud some good habits to the participants, use list below if needed. Ask the participants to suggest some bad habits and write them up on the board. Tell a few participants to walk from one side of the room to the other. Then divide the other participants into 'good habits' and 'bad habits'. The bad habits line up behind a walking participant, with their arms around her waist, to try to pull her back. Then tell the good habits to put their arms under the walking participant's shoulders and pull her forward. Can she get to the other side? Discuss results with participants and tell them to write a list of their own top 5 good and bad habits.

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Suggested good habits: 1. seek the challenge, not the comfort 2. modesty is an adornment - take it off and show your true self 3. expect fun from life not boredom 4. get involved with a professional organization or workers union 5. mix in a bit, give your opinion even if it is not asked for 6. stop trying to be perfect 7. build up a professional network that you can rely on 8. find a friend who can say 'carry on anyway' 9. follow your goals insistently even when they are not reachable on the first time 10. invest your energies not always on others, but on yourself. (from Anita Fetz “Women on the open Parket” with thanks)

There's an angry monster in the field
Background: There are many temptations in our lives which can pull and drain away our energies for positive actions. These might be alcohol, drugs, teen gangs, irresponsible relationships. These are like angry monsters in our lives; we have to avoid them to thrive. Draw an outline of a field on the board. Ask the participants to suggest 'angry monsters' in their lives using the examples above and write them into one corner of the field outline. Ask: If we are in the field, what can we do to avoid being caught by the angry monster? How can we warn others? Write the suggested answers on the board. If any are hurtful or aggressive, draw a line through them. The line simply means 'not recommended'.

Life planning
Background: A vision, dream, ideal or ambition, are all signposts for our own decision making. Having a goal to aspire to sharpens our determination for action and success. Preparation in advance prevents poor choices. Tell participants to complete worksheet 11 below, on life planning. Go through the check list below, with the participants. Life planning check list DOES this goal make you more satisfied or happier? IS this goal concrete and clearly formulated? WILL I know exactly when I have reached this goal? IS this goal positively formulated? IS this goal realistically achievable? IS the price for this goal clear and do I really want to pay it

Global Goals
Background: many of our wishes are so big that we cannot achieve them on our own. But with many people sharing our dreams, this can be beginning of real change. Tell participants to consider their biggest wish for other people. It could be anything from world peace to saving a wild species to wanting a play-ground for their village. Write up the following questions on the board. Tell participants to consider this exercise and ask a few of them to present their answers. ∆ WHAT is my concrete goal that I can complete with others or for others? ∆ HOW many people do I need to reach my goal? ∆ HOW can I persuade others to share my goal? 62

∆ ∆ ∆

HOW can I reach the people who are needed to set my dream in motion? WHAT timeline is realistic? WHERE do I start and what steps do I need to reach my goal?

Inner Conflicts
Ask participants to consider what choices they will have to make in their lives. Tell them that an inner conflict is a conflict inside a person between their needs, values, desires and resources. Draw an outline of a head on the board and write inside the different options the participants suggest. Ask: How can we resolve our inner conflicts? How do our inner conflicts affect others? What role does our conscience play in our decision making? Tell participants to concentrate on one choice. Write in their journals ways they can prepare to make a decision and what they need to follow through. Use example below: INNER CONFLICT: PREPARATION: DECISION: SUPPORT: To study in Rwanda or to study abroad with my relatives get information about new country and college, talk to others who have travelled, analyse my chances in Rwanda, analyse my feelings about my family Stay in Rwanda, but do not want to marry too young. Win approval and support from my family and peer group.

Mentioning Mentors
Background: one of the best things a girl can do is find a mentor. Having a female mentor you can confide in boosts confidence levels. A mentor can be a public figure, and can act as role-model from afar; they can inspire and impress you. Another type of mentor is an adult who takes time to get to know you, and can be approached for advice. This may be a teacher whose style you admire, a relative with an interesting job, a family friend with a business or a friend from your peer group, who is very competent. Ask participants to think of a public role-model who could be a mentor for them. How can they find out more about them? Ask a few participants to talk about their choice and why. Qualities to look for in a mentor: ∆ A positive attitude ∆ A great job AND a personal life! ∆ Ambition - what are their goals? ∆ Enthusiasm - what does she get excited about? ∆ Success - material and spiritual. ∆ Willingness - someone who is interested in helping you. ∆ Respect - someone who talks to you like an adult.

Do Sport! The Knees Game
Background: regular sport and exercise develop confidence and team skills as well as being a great way to unwind and work out unresolved feelings. In addition, responsible sport is great for your heart and lungs. Ask participants how they feel when they play sports. How can they build sport in to their every day life? Try this: Divide the group into pairs. Tell participants to picture something that happened recently that made them sad or angry. Keep the picture in their heads. Then tell participants that they have to 63

cup their hands over their partner's knee caps before they do to it in return. They cannot turn their backs or knock their opponent's hands out of the way. Try this game for a few rounds. At the end, ask how many participants are holding the picture in their heads?

Looking good - feeling good
Background: there is no doubt that personal presentation affects not only our own mood but that of others. Looking good and feeling good go hand in hand. Tell a volunteer participant to get 'dressed up' as she wishes to present herself, explaining each step of the way. She can really act it up, imagining a wardrobe and mirror etc. The audience can call out if they have an opinion or question. As an alternative tell participants to bring real outfits for each scenario and discuss them. Ask: How does clothing make you feel good? How does clothing say something about your character? There are eight scenarios; see below. Dressing scenarios ∆ ∆ ∆ ∆ ∆ ∆ ∆ Interview for college or university Invitation to a wedding of a friend Relaxing at the weekend A date with a new boyfriend A new job as a babysitter An interview with a public figure A date with my best friend

Health Visum
Background: It may be useful to invite a medical professional to speak or be available for questions in this exercise. Tell participants that they have won a competition to go on a holiday in Europe. They have to complete a health form for the visa. Use the worksheet 12 as a check list.

Heart and Soul
Tell participants to make a poster with a recipe for restoring or renewing the senses and the spirit. Decorate the posters and hang them nicely on the wall. Have the participants read the posters. Ask: Are there any common factors? Some examples are: Talk to a friend Read a book in the sunshine Cook a healthy meal without time pressure Write a letter Go for a walk Listen to quiet music Write a journal or story Paint or draw Spend time with animals Make a surprise for someone

Play a musical instrument Spend a long time washing and dressing Collect flowers for a vase Watch the sunrise with Have a long sleep a friend

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Brain Training
Write this quote up on the board “If you think education is expensive try ignorance” (Derek Bok, former president of Harvard University). Ask participants what the quote means. Dedicate an entire session to brain training! Collect favourite memory games, word puzzles, and tongue twisters (see www.uebersetzung.at/twister for details.) Have the participants create their own brain teasers. Here ∆ ∆ ∆ ∆ ∆ ∆ ∆ ∆ ∆ ∆ ∆ are a few examples of tongue twisters to try: As-tu été à Tahiti ? Ces six saucissons-ci sont si secs qu'on ne sait si c'en sont. Croix crème, croix crème... Je veux et j'exige d'exquises excuses. Trois gros rats gris dans trois gros trous ronds rongent trois gros croûtons ronds. Ta izo njyo uze urye izi nzuzi. Ibibiribiri bibiri biri mu murima wa Mubirigi. Hari umugabo wo kwica ibibiribiri bibibri! A quick witted cricket critic. I scream, you scream, we all scream for ice-cream! She sells sea shells on the sea shore; the shells that she sells are sea shells I'm sure. Red lolly. Yellow lolly.

Mind Candy
Background: For the right atmosphere, this exercise can be given after a relaxing moment or calming game. The best ideas come when we are relaxed. Tell participants that they can 'give' their brains a candy treat. Ask them to suggest possible Mind Candy. Tell participants to write their ideas in their journal and put a star by those ideas that they plan to follow up on. Use suggestions below if needed. Read a newspaper Go to the library Watch a non-mainstream movie

Read a Nature magazine Plan a trip, go and take Plant a garden or winor book some pictures dow box Write a story, or song or piece of music Listen to the BBC World Watch an interesting Service Radio documentary

Attend a cultural event, Have a conversation with Surf the internet such as a dance an adult Study for exams and don't give in Open an encyclopaedia Read a biography

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WORKSHEET 11
Life Planning
Life Planning Time 1 week 3 months 1 year 7 years 50th Birthday Education Travel Public life Career Marriage: if yes, when Children: if yes, how many Other ambitions Goal Next step

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WORKSHEET 12
Health Visum
Health Visum Check List Items Name Colour of eyes Height Weight Blood type Blood pressure Heart rate Public life Any allergies? Give details Number of teeth? Any diseases? Give details Any skin conditions? Give details Any family history of illness? Give details When was your last breast check? (A procedure for feeling for any lumps in the breast that could be cancerous) How can you prevent pregnancy? How can you prevent sexually transmitted diseases? What foods contain calcium? What foods contain vitamin C? What causes infections?

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Theme 6 Communication

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In this workshop, participants will recognise the importance of good communication for life, as well as politics and leadership. These exercises introduce a range from interpreting non-verbal messages to creative negotation. Allow plenty of opportunity for participants to practice and develop these skills. Choose exercises from the selection that best suit your teaching needs. See the chapter "Planning the Sessions" for guidance.

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Communication
Body Talk
Background: When we talk to other people, our words are only conveying some of what people understand. We are also using body language or nonverbal communication. Although body language is used all over the world, it is interpreted differently in different cultures. The most universal gesture is the smile, which is understood the same in every country and culture in the world. The most striking form of body talk is done using the large number of facial expressions which humans are capable of. These expressions can convey messages even when our own words contradict them. Tell participants to stand or sit in a circle and pretend that they are all waiting for a bus to come. Whisper to a participant an emotion or feeling. She has to convey this feeling to the other participants without sound or big movements. Use the list below if needed: nervous / pleased / in love / tired / annoyed / interested / curious / worried / at ease / attentive / thoughtful / disgusted / excited / guilty / arrogant Use worksheet 13 to help with interpreting body language. Discuss the results. Remind participants to look carefully at authority figures for the next few days and note any body language they see in their journals. These could be anyone from politicians to their teachers.

Interview with a mouse / dog
Background: this is an individual exercise to increase empathy and non-verbal skills. Write the questions on the board and tell the participants to write their answers in their journals. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. When is the best time to interview a mouse / dog? How do you know when a mouse / dog is ready to talk? How do you know if a mouse / dog is happy to see you? How do you know if a mouse / dog is listening to you? How do you know if a mouse / dog wants to end the interview?

Discuss: Is it easier to communicate with a mouse or a dog? Is it easier to understand animals or humans?

Active Listening Check List
Background: Active listening is a way of listening and responding to another person that improves mutual understanding. Often when people talk to each other, they don't listen attentively. When people are engaged in an argument, they are often busy formulating a response to what is being said. Active listening is a structured form of listening and responding that focuses the attention on the speaker. Write the check list on the board. Tell participants to copy it down.

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Good Listener Check List ∆ ∆ ∆ ∆ ∆ Look at the person who is speaking, make eye contact often Think about what the speaker is saying Think what you will do about it later Ask a question if you don't understand Repeat what the speaker says to make sure you understood

Ask the participants to form pairs. Taking it in turns, each person should spend 2 minutes talking while the second person practices active listening. The second person should then repeat back what they have understood. Ask several of the participants how they felt about being listened to so attentively. Discuss whether they are usually listened to so attentively when they are talking.

Arm wrestling?
Background: The point of this procedure is to highlight that we often assume rather than comprehend. Participants invariably compete in this game although it is not implicit in the instructions. Tell the participants to get into pairs and sit at a table. Read aloud: "The starting position for this game is one hand on your lap and the other holding the hand of your partner, whilst resting the elbow on the table. You will get a prize (a nut or slice of fruit) every time the back of your partner's hand touches the table". Say no more than this. (If a participant asks if the game is arm wrestling, explain that the game starts in the same position) Stop this game after 30 seconds and re-play cooperatively for a further 15 seconds. Discuss: most partners compete to force their opponents hand on to the table, but in fact that was not given in the instructions. If the players were listening well, they could easily just touch each others hand on the table instead. How often have particpants argued from miscommunication?

Father's Cooking Apron
Background: The game gives the participants a chance to practice a range of emphasis and can be a basis for a discussion on language skills. Using the sentence "Have you not seen my father's cooking apron?", tell the participants to say it and act it, using many different styles for example, dramatic, funny, sung, angrily, lazily, happily etc.

Indirect No
Background: Leaders need to be clear without being brutal. Girls often find themselves acting under rigid ideals of femininity and are either unable to speak their mind or are not certain what their view is at all. Saying no, when necessary, without causing offence, is a skill that can be learned and practiced. Tell participants to divide into pairs and decide who is participant 1 and 2. Tell participant 1 to ask questions to participant 2 that she is unlikely to agree to. Participant 2 has to say no without using the actual word. After a few minutes, reverse roles. For example: (1) "Can I borrow your bicycle?” (2) " I would love to say yes, but I will be using it myself" Ask participants what advantages a direct or indirect 'No' answer has?

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Eye Witness
Background: No two people have the same experience. This game highlights the essential communication skills of observation and perception. Ask one or two participants to go out the room where they cannot hear what is being said in the classroom. Ask one participant inside the room to describe an event that all the participants know about: maybe a concert, or competition or even the morning assembly. Tell the participant outside to come back into the room. Now she must give an account of the same event. Ask: Are the descriptions of the event the same? If not, why not? Ask: whose version is the correct one? Discuss: why is it important to have several different sources of news and information?

Communication in Conflict
Background: Where does conflict come from? For as long as there will be problems and differences there will also be conflict. Conflict is not always a bad thing, so long as it promotes some positive changes. Tell participants to divide into 3 or 4 groups. Give them a copy of worksheet 14. Tell them to cut out the boxes and the arrows and to put them together with the arrows in a flow chart like the Kagera River flows into Lake Victoria. See the flow chart solution if needed. Read aloud: "Our conflict flow chart flows like the river Kagera flowing into Lake Victoria. When the water reaches the lake, which is on the Equator it can either go down into the Vitoria Nile and on to the Mediterranean Sea or it heats up and evaporates making dark clouds over the area. It is the same with the conflict flow chart: at the point where it ends the conflict can either deescalate or escalate."

The Big Bad Wolf!
B a c k g r o u n d : This is a fun exercise, promoting compassion. A s k participants to think of a traditional good versus evil story from their childhood, one where there is a bad character who suffers in the end. T e l l the participants to re-write the story in no more than two pages, telling the story from the perspective of the bad character. Read aloud a few of the stories.

Traffic Lights for Fights!
Background: Skilled communicators can control themselves and can judge situations and timing better than most. Ask participants in what ways we can break up at fight, (e.g. go out of the room, turn away, say "lets stop this") or cool it off (e.g. cry alone, think quietly, play music, sleep) or work it out (e.g. forget about it, talk it over, do something nice for the other person). Traffic lights for fights are: "RED!" = break up (stop talking) "AMBER!" = cool it off (calm down) "GREEN!" = work it out (resolve differences)

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Advanced Communication
Intonation Background: Meaning is carried by more than just words. The intonation we use can change the way our messages are understood. Remind participants to listen carefully to news programs and listen how speakers used intonation. Sit participants in a circle and tell the first participant to say a sentence. The next one has to say the same sentence again with a different intonation. Then she makes a new sentence up. A circle of four people could sound like this: Person Person Person Person Person 1: I like Mangoes (neutral) 2: I like Mangoes (you don't) The weather is hot (neutral) 3: The weather is hot (very!) The goats need water (neutral) 4: The goats need water (not the pig)The shop is here (neutral) 1: The shop is here (told you so!)

Dr's of Communication
Background: The process of globalisation refers to the expansion of telecommunications and information technologies and the reduction of barriers to trade and investment from country to country. Tell six participants to play the following experts in the following areas: television / coffee exportation / clothes shop / local trader of mangoes / journalist / car salesman / hotel manager / health advisor / parenting Ask each expert to explain what communication skills they use in their work in the form of a presentation. Each expert can take an assistant if desired.

Open For Business
Background: Word-processing and computer design have transformed communication possibilities. To participate in public life effectively, individuals need to exploit all the tools available. Arrange for participants to have access to personal computers for this exercise. Tell participants that they are about to open their own business. They must decide what it is, (shop, factory, agency etc) and prepare for the opening day. Using word-processing and other programmes, participants must design and produce samples of their business card and letter head. In addition, they must design a poster advertising the opening day of their new business to attract new customers. Tell participants to write a letter about the new business to ten appropriate VIP's, inviting them to the opening day. Ask participants to list the ten guests they would choose. Display all the samples and discuss the results.

Cyber Space debate
Tell six participants to be astronauts. The rest of the group are ground control. The astronauts debate the case for either keeping or ejecting the internet equipment. Read aloud: “You are part of a team going to Mars to start a new colony. However, there has been a power failure and you cannot take all of your equipment. You must decide what you eject. Now you are discussing the equipment for the internet - will you need it in Mars? What is the future of internet anyway?” 73

Use these six options for predicting the impact of the internet. 1. The world will be a better place - everyone will be online. The internet will be used for everything; we will save so much time. Information sharing will reduce conflict and poverty. We will all be much happier The world will be a worse place - everyone in the west will be online, but people outside capitalist societies will be poor. The division will lead to war. People will take over the internet - we won't need government anymore, we will all be free. The governments will take over the internet - watching every thing we do, our emails, bank details and purchases, we will all be oppressed. The internet is a passing fashion - sooner or later people will react towards the other direction. There will be more personal contact. The internet is here to stay - everyone will be connected to every one else, your only chance to thrive is to get connected and work towards greater communication.

2.

3. 4.

5. 6.

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WORKSHEET 13
Body Talk
Action Standing with hands on hips Sitting with legs crossed, foot kicking slightly Arms crossed on chest Touching or slightly rubbing nose Rubbing the eye Hands clasped behind back Emotion Readiness, aggression Boredom Defensiveness Rejection, doubt, lying Doubt, disbelief Anger, frustration, apprehension

Head resting in hand, eyes downcast Boredom Rubbing hands Tapping or drumming fingers Stroking chin Biting nails Anticipation Impatience Trying to make a decision Insecurity, nervousness

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WORKSHEET 14
Why is there conflict?
Cut out the arrows and boxes and put them together in a flow chart like the River Kagera flows into Lake Victoria. Use arrows for the River Kagera.

Cause them to RESPOND INTERACTION and PERCEPTION PERSON/S Their RESOURCES or VALUES DIFFERENCES between or THREATS to POINT OF CONFLICT (Lake Victoria)
ESCALATE through increased emotion or threat more people get involved few peace making skills DE-ESCALATE through attention is focused on problem Reduced exposed emotion or threat peacemaking skills or help

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Why is there conflict? Solution
PERSON/S

INTERACTION and PERCEPTION

DIFFERENCES between or THREATS to

Their RESOURCES or VALUES

Cause them to RESPOND

POINT OF CONFLICT

ESCALATE through increased emotion or threat more people get involved few peace making skills

DE-ESCALATE through attention is focused on problem Reduced exposed emotion or threat peacemaking skills or help

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Theme 7 Diversity and Synergy

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The exercises in this theme explore social discrimination and ideas of diversity and synergy. Choose exercises from the selection that best suit your teaching needs, see the chapter “Planning the Sessions” for guidance.

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Diversity and Synergy
The principal that all human beings are born equal and should be treated equally is the basis of modern Human Rights. Our instinct to compete for the best resources or prestige means that discrimination in one form or another has always been a problem since the beginning of mankind. Certainly mankind, as all life forms, needs particular conditions to thrive; from adequate access to natural sources to equal opportunities in public life, the human spirit needs fertile socio-political conditions to flourish. The 20th century has seen extreme examples of institutionalised racial hatred, from the Nazi Regime, and the apartheid in South Africa to the ethnically motivated genocide in former Yugoslavia. In Rwanda, each past regime, whether Hutu-dominated or Tutsi-dominated, established a structure which discriminated against the other ethnic group, using exclusion, humiliation, and inequality. The structural violence led not only to physical violence, but also to trauma and to enemy images in both communities. In order to try to prevent history from repeating itself, many international treaties, national legislation and other legal methods have been activated to combat discrimination, intolerance and xenophobia. The government, along with many supporting international and grass roots non-governmental organizations, are taking steps to increase awareness and reduce ignorance. The National Commission for Unity and Reconciliation (NCUR) organises events and training sessions in villages and schools calling for tolerance and acceptance. Nevertheless, discrimination and violence based on race, colour and ethnicity are the most frequently violated Human Rights in the world. That is why reconciliation is a crucial necessity to heal psychologically the victims of past cruelty and to break the cycle of violence. For the victims, the most pressing need is the truth, healing, and prevention of future violent conflict. The young leaders of Rwanda will need extraordinary vision and skills to continue this momentum of healing and building a sustainable coexistence in Rwanda for and with all its communities.

National Conference on the Wonders of Nature
Background: Rwanda is the most densely populated country in Africa and the pressures of a massive population growth and poor access to quality land have contributed to the rise in racial hatred in parts of the country. Maintaining a vigorous environment in Rwanda is also an important challenge for the following generations. This exercise encourages the participants to think about the benefits of diversity in life around them. Tell the participants that they are invited to a National Conference and choose six participants to be panel speakers and one more to be the moderator. Arrange the room with a table for the panel to sit at. The moderator introduces each speaker who presents the appropriate text, use worksheet 15. At the end of the presentation ask: why do we bother to protect species? Tips for discussion: IT is right to help all living things (philosophical). WE can learn from them (behaviour). WE can gain from them (products) SOME species may be needed later if our circumstances change (survival)

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The Great Race
Tell the participants to make large paper labels of the following titles: these are socio-political conditions for mankind. Many will be needed! Freedom / Justice / Choices / Respect / Self-determination / Human dignity / Economic-security / Social-security / Peace / Stability / Rights Next t e l l the participants to lay the labels on the floor randomly across an empty space. On one side of the space half the participants line up. They are 'mankind'. On the other side of the space the remaining participants line up, they are 'discriminators'. These discriminators are active against vulnerable groups, minorities, immigrants, race, religion, gender, language, sexuality, age, personalities and physical integrity etc. Say aloud “go!” and the discriminators come into the centre of the space to guard the condition labels against Mankind. Mankind must run to the other side of the space collecting as many 'conditions' as they can without being caught by the discriminators. At the end of the game, have mankind shake hands with the discriminators.

Article 1 CERD
Background: The United Nations Convention on the Elimination of All forms of Racial Discrimination 1965 (CERD) contains a clear definition of racial discrimination. Find the text of this at www.ohchr.org/english/law/cerd.htm Write Article 1 on the board and read it aloud. Tell participants to copy it in to their journals.

'Article 1 states….in this convention, the term 'racial discrimination' shall mean any distinction, exclusion, restriction, or preference based on race, color, descent, or national or ethnic origin which has the purpose or the effect of nullifying or impairing the recognition, enjoyment or exercise, on an equal footing, of human rights and fundamental freedoms in the political, economic, social, cultural or any other field of public life.'

Action or Attitude?
Background: Human Rights documents and national laws make several differences between discrimination and intolerance, between active and passive expressions and between direct and indirect actions. There is also an allowance for positive discrimination and equal opportunity, in these cases the laws or conditions are deliberately advantages (and therefore unequal) to particular groups to compensate for disadvantages in the past. Divide the participants into four groups. Use worksheet 16 and cut them into puzzle pieces. Tell the groups to complete the puzzles. Ask the participants to connect the words on the puzzle to real life examples of active and passive discrimination.

Where do you stand?
Tell participants that one wall will be used for this exercise. One end represents Strong Agreement. The other end represents Strong Disagreement and the space along the wall in between the ends covers the spectrum in between. Make posters of the following quotes (see below) or write your own. Then stick the first one in the centre of the wall for all the partici81

pants to read. They line themselves up along the wall according to their level of agreement with the statement. Ask a few of the participants to share the reasons for their agreement or disagreement. Quotes for posters ALONE
WE CAN DO SO LITTLE, TOGETHER WE CAN DO SO MUCH.

HELEN KELLER

DISCRIMINATION

CAUSES DAMAGE BY ISOLATING AND HURTING PEOPLE AND DIVIDING COMMUNITIES.

IF WE WERE TO WAKE UP ONE MORNING AND FIND THAT EVERYONE WAS THE SAME RACE, CREED AND COLOUR, WE WOULD FIND SOME OTHER REASON FOR PREJUDICE BY NOON. OUR MISSION IS TO CONFRONT IGNORANCE WITH KNOWLEDGE, BIGOTRY WITH TOLERANCE AND ISOLATION WITH AN OUTSTRETCHED HAND OF GENEROSITY. RACISM, CAN, MUST AND WILL BE DEFEATED.

GEORGE AITKEN

KOFI ANNAN

Synergy is
Background: Synergy is created when two or more people work together to reach a solution they could not have achieved on their own. It is the forward thinking productive habit of seeking a solution to a problem where no one person dominates, rather both parties gain. This is sometimes known as a win-win situation. Synergy is the logical opposite from discrimination, which is exclusive and unprofitable. Use these tables below (from The 7 Habits of Highly Effective Teens, ISBN 0 684 85609 3 with thanks.) as a starting point for a discussion on synergy. Write it on the board and tell the participants to copy it into their journals. Synergy is ... Celebrating differences Team work Open-mindedness Finding new and better ways Synergy is not... Tolerating differences Working independently Thinking you are always right Compromise

Getting to Synergy ACTION PLAN 1. Define the problem or opportunity 2. Listen to their ideas 3. Communicate your ideas 4. Create new options and ideas 5. Find the best solution

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Fruit Salad Planet!
Background: this exercise can clear the air after a difficult discussion. Bring a selection of fruits and have the participants prepare them in small bite-size pieces. Ask the participants to describe what they like best about each separate fruit, such as colour, texture, taste, or other. Put the all the fruits in a bowl and let everyone have a taste! Ask the participants to describe what they like best about all the fruits together. Where is the synergy in fruit salad?

Synergy is in me!
Ask participants to consider five ways they can create synergy in their own lives. Tell them to record their ideas in their journals. Tips for suggestions: 1. Next time I have a disagreement with my parents or a school teacher I will get out the “Getting to Synergy ACTION PLAN and ” work through it 2. Next time I have a problem I will ask a trusted adult for their view. 3. I am going to keep my eyes and ears open to find synergy around me, at school and in nature. 4. Listen to the news and think of ways how problems could be solved. 5. Try to make a friend with a shy person in my year group.

Win-Win at the Orange Market! Win-Win at the home of Belle!
Background: this is a role-play game where the aim is to reach a solution which benefits everyone. Still, it is not always easy to find out what everyone wants when they have certain hidden opinions and prejudices that can get in the way. Make the role-play cards for each scenario using worksheet 17 or invent your own. Divide participants into groups of four. Give one role-card to each participant, which they should read but not reveal to the others. Tell the participants to talk to each other in pairs for up to four minutes. They have to switch partners until they have all spoken to each other. They can call for more meetings if needed. They have to reach a solution where everyone is satisfied in a maximum of 15 minutes. End the game when a solution is reached, if the discussions go around in circles or the time is up! Ask participants to identify active and passive discrimination in the scenarios. If needed read aloud the possible Win-Win solution given on the worksheet for each scenario.

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WORKSHEET 15
National Conference on the Wonders of Nature
Speaker 1: From the Albertine Rift and the Hombwy Mountains, the Virunga National Park and the Nyungwe Forest, Rwanda is blessed with exceptional foliage. From mature woodland through lowland to highland forestation, these conditions are rare in Africa and are being lost every day. Speaker 2: Frogs and toads spend a great deal of their day in the dust and dirt, yet they are rarely sick. They have antibiotics in their skins that protect them from infection. Scientists believe that these antibiotics could be used in medicines for humans, and hope that the frogs will not die out before their secrets are discovered. Speaker 3: Every year the African Kingfisher digs a new tunnel in a sandy bank and builds a nest inside. He likes insects, and when he snaps a bee he bangs the stinging end off against a rock or tree. This clever bird thrives on this innovation. Speaker 4: The Hornbill birds have developed very unusual ways of solving their problems. Every year a male and female pair together and then make a big hole in a tree. The female goes inside and together they seal up the hole. The female then sheds her feathers and lays her eggs. She places huge trust in her mate who must bring her food until her feathers grow back and the eggs are hatched. On the other hand the Hornbill eggs are well protected against hungry snakes and lizards. Speaker 5: Every year in Europe, birds fly south for winter in a particular direction. A few always fly using a different route: although most of these perish, it is important that not all the birds are together. If for any reason there is a change of circumstances on the way south, the disorientated birds who went a different way will be better prepared to find alternative routes. Speaker 6: There is a condition of the blood called sickle cell anaemia and it is caused by double recessive genes in the DNA. It can cause extreme pain and cause permanent damage to many different parts of the body. However when African's have a single recessive gene, they seem to be more resistant to malaria.

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WORKSHEET 16
Action or Attitude

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WORKSHEET 17
Win-Win at the Orange Market
Player 1: Male. Aim: Sell Oranges You are an orange grower. This year . the earth was dry and fertilizer is too expensive. Your harvest was not good, so you must sell your oranges at the highest price that you can get. You know that you can get a good price from Player 2, who makes orange essence, but she is from Europe and you hate what the colonialists did to Africa, so you don't want her to benefit from your oranges!

Player 2: Female. Aim: Buy Oranges and help Africa. You have shops in Europe and sell orange essence in shampoo bottles and soaps. You have a good business and can afford to pay a high price for good oranges. You only use the skins of the orange to extract the essence. The rest of the orange is then thrown away. You are from England and could buy oranges in Europe, but you want to help Africa.

Player 3: Male. Aim: Buy Oranges. ou make orange juice. Y You like the work but over the years you have become frustrated at the number of women working in business. You think women should be at home and leave trading to the men. Your own company is not going so well and somehow you blame these new business women for it. You are worried that you do not have enough money to buy all the oranges you need.

Player 4: Female. Aim: Buy Oranges. You are a scientist who has a project in the Nyungwe Forest. You are testing fruit mulch (mash of fruit pith and fibres etc) as an inexpensive fertilizer for the earth. You need a plentiful source of oranges and the project does not provide much money for them. You only want the mulch, not the juice which is too acidic for fertilizer. Possible Win-Win solution : ∆ ∆ ∆ ∆ ∆ ∆ Player 4 makes offers to share costs for oranges with player 3. Player 3 accepts offer from a female scientist, he uses the money to bid a good price to player 1. Player 1 sells his oranges to player 3 and player 4. Player 3 extracts the juice from the orange flesh and transports all the leftovers to player 4. Player 4 offers the orange skins to player 2 and uses the pith and fibres for fertilizer Player 2 pays for orange skins and the money helps the project in the Nyungwe Forest to continue.

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Win-Win at the home of Belle!
Player 1: Female. Aim: To leave her job. You are working as a maid for Belle, player 4. You have just been accepted to study at college and you need to leave your job. Belle has been very kind to you. She even gave your father, player 3, a gardening job. Your father was active in the genocide and since he has served his sentence, no-one wants to give him a job. So you are worried that if you leave, Belle will ask your father to leave as well. Belle also has Aids; who will care for her if you go?

Player 2: Female. Aim: To get a job. You were a friend of player 1, at school. You have a small baby boy and need to find somewhere to live and work. It is hard for you to manage on your own; jobs are not very flexible for single mothers.

Player 3: Male. Aim: To have a job. You are the father of player 1. You were active in the genocide and caught by the police. You served your sentence but now, nobody wants to give you a job. So you are happy to have a job as a gardener for Belle, player 4. You love your daughter though you miss the years when she was growing up!

Player 4: Female. Aim: To be cared for. You are Belle, a wealthy woman with a large beautiful house. The violence in your country makes you angry and you find it hard to forgive the perpetrators. Because of them, your only relatives moved to America. You have Aids which you contracted from a blood transfusion a long time ago. You need someone to care for you, but people are afraid they will also catch Aids. One girl, player 1, is your housemaid and because you are so grateful to her you also employ her father, player 3, who was once active in the genocide. Possible Win-Win solution: ∆ ∆ ∆ ∆ ∆ ∆ Player 1 asks player 2 to take her job at Belle's house. Player 2 accepts offer but is worried about child care. Player 1 tells player 4 that she needs to leave her job, and player 2 will care for her instead. Player 4 accepts, but no longer wants to keep player 3. Player 2 offers to pay player 3 to care for her son while she works. Player 3 accepts, it is less money but he is happy for the job, and loves to be with the little boy. His neighbours see a gentler side to player 3 and start to talk to him more often.

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Section Two
Applied Leadership

“The Great Lake girls make ripples and waves They reach for the stars with the sun on their face Let them show us the way and you'll all be amazed 'Cause the Great Lake girls got courage and faith!!!”

What is a project?
A project is a plan of activities designed to complete an endeavour, or make a specific product. This endeavour or product can be clearly explained. Each project has a team of people and defined resources to implement the activities. The project has clear starting and finishing dates and clear criteria for success.

What is a project life cycle?
We can group project phases into four turns of a circle:

1. Innovation: Projects start with think- 2. Preparation: From the suggested idea ing about an issue. From thinking comes comes a plan of action. an idea of something to do. 4. Operation: From action come results. 3. Reflection: From results come reflection, reports and new innovation.

How can project work teach leadership?
Leadership is a form of social responsibility. We can teach responsibility only by giving young people opportunities to accept responsibility for themselves. A well-run project offers participants a chance to fully engage all their qualities, develop their capacity for leadership AND show direct results of their energies. This 'real life application' style of learning is more powerful than theoretical teaching, especially with younger people. Project innovation enables participants to explore their conviction for an issue and their courage to come up with original ideas. During project preparation, participants recognise their potential influence on a situation. They come to believe that they can affect the actors and forces in their own lives - an essential principal of leadership. When project teams are passionate about an issue, the challenge is to persuade others to share the same point of view. The project operation draws on all areas of leadership, but especially communication skills.

Reflection on the project results can in itself be an empowering act. The effort to review the high and low points is an opportunity to learn for the future.

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How are the “Fit for Leadership!” projects organised?
In each group the participants are divided into five 'mini-ministries' (working groups) that consist of groups of at least four girls. The mini-ministries will cover the following areas:
HUMAN RIGHTS, MEDIA, ECONOMY, ENVIRONMENT, SOCIAL ISSUES.

Each working group can work alone or together with an organisation or party concerning their specific area of interest. Then, a particular project is planned and implemented by each group. In each mini-ministry there will be one minister, one vice minister, one cabinet chief and one press spokesperson. The girls assume one role each and rotate the roles at each subsequent project meeting so that they experience all the roles. In addition to participating in the team, the mini-ministry roles involve some other responsibilities. During the exercises the minister, as head of the group, shall keep up a positive team feeling and make any necessary decisions where none can be taken by consensus. The vice minister must make sure that all the project activities are within the 'law' and spirit of international human rights. The cabinet chief is responsible for 'policy' implementation, and must take care that all agreed activities are completed. The press spokesperson keeps the project diary, and manages any contact with the media. Though these roles have an earnest training purpose, the 'authority' of each character should not be exaggerated.

How to plan the project sessions
The applied leadership section of this curriculum is divided into four steps: innovation, preparation, operation and reflection. Each mini-ministry needs to work through all the exercises and activities in each step. They can complete the steps in organised workshops with all the mini-ministries or by themselves privately. This enables groups who are working with partner organisations or other parties to be more flexible when planning meetings. Some mini-ministries will need several meetings to complete their projects and therefore with a copy of the steps, they can do so in their own time. For this reason the project steps 1-4 can be reproduced as a course handout for each mini-ministry. With this in mind please note that there are no facilitator instructions contained in these steps there are in the theme as chapters. And the exercises are addressed to the girls themselves.

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Tip - Suggestions for Projects
Human rights: 1. Design a human rights poster and distribute it to other schools, offices and shops. 2. Make a presentation to a government representative about a human rights issue that needs more attention. Media: 1. Make a recommendation letter to a local radio station and collect many signatures for it. 2. Arrange for an interview with an influential individual and ask a newspaper to print it. Economy: 1. Design a postcard promoting one or many of Rwanda's main products or exports such as tea, coffee and natural insecticide. Send this postcard to all the foreign Embassies and ask to leave some in hotel lobbies, for example. 2. Create a business plan to market a simple product to sell, for example hand made bracelets. Test the plan and report on lessons learned. Environment: 1. Perform a play or puppet show for primary school children about why the rain forest is threatened in the Virunga Mountains of Rwanda. 2. Create a small recipe book for fish dishes with tilapia and sambaza, for example. Distribute the book to families and in shopping areas to promote the fish aquaculture in Rwanda. Social issues: 1. Use publicly available materials to launch an awareness campaign about violence against youth (see www.seeitandstopit.org, for example) in your school and families. 2. Rwanda's population has grown dramatically in the last few decades. Write a questionnaire and conduct a survey of teenagers to discover how many children they want to have and why. Send a report of the results to the local media.

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Project step 1 Innovation
Appreciation of issues Situation assessment Development of project ideas

Voices of conscience
Have a reader read out a few selected quotations that reflect the voices of concern in different situations. ‘Voices from the poor’ at www.worldbank.org is a good source.

“My husband and I are no longer as close as we used to be when I was working,” a South African Woman tells researchers. “I think because he knows that I am solely dependent on him, especially because the children are still young. I am scared of him because he has even started to abuse me, but I know I have to do my best and listen to what he tells me to do, for the sake of the children.” “Poor men seem to find it harder to make an income and provide for their families. Some men are responding to it by breaking down because a core of their identity is linked to being the main economic provider.” When they collapse, says Narayan, they often collapse into drugs, alcohol, and wife beating. “Women seem to be doing whatever it takes to get out of the household and work. They often end up in low-paying, high-risk, and often demeaning jobs.” “In our village the women cannot do much,” says an Indian man living near Bhopal. “They do agricultural labor, bring fuel wood from the jungle, and look after the children.”
Or have representatives from local partner organisations relate a few stories about their work. Present this in a non-biased and non-judgemental way, so listeners can make up their own minds. After the reading, participants may mention examples from their own context. Through discussion, groups identify certain emotive issues.

News Doodles
Individually or in groups, participants look through newspapers, magazines or advertisements and highlight text related to their area of interest. What information interests them? What news makes them happy or gives them concern? Are there any issues that stir up interest? Are there any issues that are NOT written about? Write any eye catching words, themes, or issues that are interesting down on paper, write them scattered around. Next, draw circles and arrows between key words and phrases that are somehow linked together. Do these news-doodles reveal any patterns? Get copies of two different local newspapers for the same date, making sure that one is a ‘quality’ paper and the other less so. Carefully compare the front pages. How much space on each is given to important news stories? How much is given to less important stories. Look inside the papers and find a story which is told in both papers. How are the articles different? Think carefully about the language used in each paper. How do the words used make you think about the people in the story? 94

Mood board
Using a library or access to World Wide Web on the internet just browse a particular topic, collect prominent phrases, quotes, short stories, pictures or even small items that have a particular meaning. Stick these items with glue on to a large piece of strong paper or card. This is what designers call a mood board. Looking at this material, what issues are suggested? Hang up the mood boards in the classroom for all to see. In one example, a mood board was made using items of rubbish picked up from the street. It included supermarket special-offer advertisements, sweet wrappers, a news story and a used hypodermic needle. The mood board inspired the launch of a community market for local natural products as a neighbourhood meeting space.

Human chess
Participants line up with plenty of space and a ‘goal’ line in front opposite. Give each participant a piece of paper with a character or profession written on it. There must be good range, for example, a lawyer, a teacher, a deaf person, a widow with six children, a man from the government or a woman
1. Are you healthy? 2. Are you a man? 3. Do you have a job? 4. Do you have a home? 5. Do you have access to clean water? 6. Do you have a varied diet, with maybe beans, chicken and vegetables? 7. Can you read and write? 8. Did you have further education after primary school? 9. Are you free to marry whom you choose? 10. Are you paid for your work? 11. Do you work outside the home? 12. Are you ever punished, humiliated or beaten? 13. Do you do sports or have a hobby? 14. Do you have a little bit of money to spend on yourself? 15. Do you have holidays? 16. Can you travel wherever you want to?

employed in a coffee plant. The questions below are read out aloud. The ‘characters’ move one pace forward for a ‘yes’ answer and one pace backward for a ‘no’ and stay on the spot for a ‘sometimes’. Each participant has to decide the answer to the questions for their character, based on what they know and what they assume. At the end of the exercise who is furthest away from the goal line and why? Who is nearest to the goal line and why (maybe they took BIG paces!) Has the deaf person moved at all?

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The world in a village
Imagine the world population of 6000 million people has shrunk to a village of ten villagers. Draw ten sick people to represent them. One person has 60% percent of all the wealth. Draw a big round coin around the first person. 50% of the world's population are hungry or starved. Put five empty bowls under the first five people. Seven are unable to read; draw a book under the first three people. Eight of the villagers would be living in substandard housing or slums, including the homeless, displaced and refugees. Draw a roof over the first two people. Only one percent of the population own a computer so colour the nose of the first person. One percent of the world's population has access to higher education, so colour one shoe of the first person in the village. If a person has food for the next meal, a place to stay and sleep and clothes to wear, they qualify in the top three wealthiest people in the village. Look at the sheet again and mark which of the villagers represent you. What does this exercise tell us?

Information hide and seek
Use books, papers, magazines and websites on the internet to find out more information about a chosen theme. To get a broad picture, look for information from a broad range of sources. Is the information the same in all the material? If there are differences, ask yourself who wrote the material or who owns that particular media and ask: are they subjective (a personal viewpoint) or objective (a factual standpoint)? Make notes of the information gathered and share the information with those in the mini-ministry.

Why-why-why chain
Try to consider why an issue becomes a problem. Start by writing a key word and then think of a reason for that problem. Write that reason down next to the first world with an arrow between the two words and then so on. For example:
why?

Aids in Rwanda

lack of awareness why?

prevention messages not reaching everybody

The arrows indicate the direction of outcomes: so in this example it means that if people do not get information, there is not enough awareness and an increase in Aids. There may be several different boxes with arrows pointing to Aids in Rwanda because there are many reasons for this.

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Associations
In circles of up to 8, one participant starts with a key word related to an issue and says it aloud. Other participants follow with each word suggesting another. If a participant has nothing to add, they should say ‘pass’. After a minute or two, review the exercise. Did any new or interesting ideas or associations come up? For example:

“Poor - old - alone - friend - help - neighbours - together - care - nice happy” leads to the idea that neighbours all be happier if they could work together to care for those who are old and poor.

Gloria Stienham's favourite remedy
Gloria Stienham the famous American feminist writer encourages potential female leaders to do an outrageous act every day! What she means is that sometimes women hold themselves back and only by thinking in bold or original terms can women set their potential free. Take a spoonful of Gloria's medicine and start thinking - do you have a bold idea waiting to break out! What about writing, decorating and sending ‘forgiveness letters’ to key individuals or groups, signed by as many people as possible. Or having an event of looking forward to the future, where everyone plants a seed or small cutting as a symbol of hope and commitment.

Make a case
Each participant takes three minutes to prepare a ‘case’ for their choice of project issue. The case should include a description of the situation, why it is important and how change could make a positive impact. The participant has two minutes to make the case to the other members of the group. If the group cannot reach a consensus on which shall be the project theme, the participant in the minister role shall make the final choice and defend her decision.

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Project step 2 Preparation
Identification of parties involved in the issue, Organization of a work initiative together with a local partner, Assigning tasks, Calculating budgets, Compilation of a work and time plan.

Be Optimistic
Consider the key issue that is of interested or of concern, note down what are the significant factors about it. Is there an optimistic view for each issue? How could the future look better in this matter? Write down the significant factors for this rosy view. Compare the two lists and consider what activities could bring the normal view into the rosy view?

Small stones - big ripples
It can be best to plan a school-based project before attempting a national or community level project. There is potential for action in almost all things when we look: remember that even small stones dropped in the water can make very big ripples. Think about a range of activities that might seem small, but can have an impact nevertheless. Consider these activities: ∆ ∆ ∆ ∆ ∆ ∆ ∆ ∆ ∆ Organise an artistic event in the school. Arrange an interview with a government representative, informing the media of your visit. Invite a good speaker to your school, youth club or community centre. Send letters to schools in other countries, telling them about Rwanda. Organise a story, picture or art competition - get a local business to sponsor a prize. Make a VOX POP: record pupil's comments on an issue and take it to a radio station. Plan a sponsored sports event and give the money raised to a charity of your choice. Collect old cloth and make rag rugs or fun children's clothes for others. Grow aubergine seeds in decorated pots and give the small plants to others who need them.

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Spiders legs
Draw a circle for the body of a spider and write the planned action inside it, then draw legs for any consequences or problems with this action. Repeat with different actions and assess which one is most feasible.

High printing costs Make an Difficult to get transport awareness poster can be seen by lots of people Need a good artist instant impact quite easy to get done

Play ball!
PART 1 Imagine that the project is a ball in a game. There are two teams. The first team is throwing the ball: this team is all the people who make the project happen, such as the mini-ministry, the local partner organisation, government officer or community leader. The second team need to catch the ball: this team is made up of the people who will benefit from the project, such as a local school, a children's charity, a decision maker or Government office. Now write a list of the likely members of each team. Design and draw a coloured shirt for each team at the top of each list!

Play ball!
PART 2: TEAM TALK Look at the list of team players from part one. Do any members have specific strengths or needs? In the throwing team: who has the largest outreach, gives the best performance, is the most well-known? Who works more in the countryside or in cities, what is their motivation, what experience do they have and are they honest players? Look at the catching team: who is most likely to ‘catch’ the ball, who is most likely to benefit from the help? Which member should ‘catch’ the ball first? This exercise will help to decide who will be the key players in the project.

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Be SMART
Look at the project idea, is it SMART? S M A R T specific - can it be clearly explained? measurable - can any result be measured or shown? achievable - is it quite easy to get done? realistic - can it be done within the budget and using the available people? time - can the project be finished in the time available - the school term?

If the project idea is not SMART, do not reject the idea straightaway: look for ways to improve it first.

Consultations
Good leaders know their group: they listen; they consult and canvass (survey) people's opinions. The information that other people give helps to decide what action to take. Think of ways to collect people's opinions for the project idea, either by questionnaire, interview or asking people to comment on pictures about the issue. Ask people who are likely to work with the project or to be affected by it. Do people think it is a worthwhile idea? Do they know about the issue? Could they benefit from the project? Do they have any input? Record the answers and reflect on the content. Was there a common theme to the responses? Can any of the suggestions be used? In light of the information gathered, do any changes need to be made to the project idea?

The game plan
In major sports games, the team captain has a game plan of how the team will play the game, using the best strengths of the players. Begin to write the game plan for the project. Include the time allowed for each activity, what the activity is and which team members will be responsible for it. A formal planning meeting is a common way to get going, with a chairperson to make sure that everybody has a chance to be heard. Bring in everyone's creativity, knowledge, experience and abilities. One tip is to imagine you doing each activity for real: sometimes this helps to identify any forgotten details. Check if the plan is SMART, (see above). Make symbols for potential problem areas or unfinished ideas and come back to them later. The mini-ministry members should agree to the plan. If a consensus cannot be reached the member who has the role of minister must take the decision for the group and be prepared to defend it. This is a sample plan for an imaginary group of four participants called Sophie, Anne, Connie and Bethilde for the project: Make an awareness poster. Make an awareness poster
By By By By week week week week 1 2 3 4 Decide on theme (team). Conduct information surveys (team). Write up plan of action (team). Contact local youth club, (Sophie) and local school head masters, (Anne) Find best price printing shop (Connie) Start artwork for poster (Bethilde).

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By week 5 By week 6 By week 7 By week 8 By week 9

-

Meeting with head masters to agree on delivery date of poster (Sophie /Anne). Complete poster artwork (Bethilde), Bring to printer (Connie). Deliver posters (Sophie and Anne), Pay bills and collect receipts (Connie) Gather feedback, Write report (all) Present results (all)

Project Budgeting
Each team will receive a small amount of money for the project. The idea is not to use as much as possible but to make the project as cost-effective as possible. That means getting the most out of every Rwandan Franc. Each project will have a budget - this money and no more can be used to complete the project plan. Simple budgets must show how much money will be spent and how.

Project cycle
We can group project phases into four turns of a circle. Draw a large circle and draw lines across to 'cut' the circle into quarters. In each quarter write one of the following: innovation, preparation, operation, review. Under innovation write the project issue and the goal of the project idea. Under preparation write the suggested endeavour or product. Under operation write the activities involved in the action plan. Under reflection write the indicatorsthat will show if the project was successful. The above game plan example would produce the following cycle: Make an awareness poster

1. Innovation Intolerance. We want to reduce intolerance in schools 4. Reflection Results of survey and interviews Feedback from project partners New ideas for future projects.

2. Preparation Make a poster about how playing team sports can reduce intolerance in school 3. Operation Meet school leaders, design and test a poster Put posters up in local schools and youth clubs Conduct surveys to know who read the poster

The project cycle will act as a guide throughout the project. Keep a copy handy.

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Project step 3 Operation
Effective communication Effective participation of team members Helpful documentation

Chinese Whispers
Everyone sits in a circle. The starter whispers a message to the person on her right. The message is passed on around the circle. The last person says the message out loud - whatever was understood. Is the message at the end the same as the message at the beginning? What can this exercise teach us about communicating instructions in projects?

Memory Game
The group facilitator calls out the name of 10 ordinary items to the group. Working in pairs, the group must try to remember all ten items. Next the group facilitator can hold up 10 items for all to see, one after the other (it can be a pencil, a hair clip, or other similar objects). Can the girls remember the items any better for having seen them? Repeat the exercise again with 10 different items - this time allow the participants to make notes. Which way was the most effective for remembering all the items? What can this exercise teach us about conveying information in projects?

All Tickets: All Valid
In every group there will be some members who have more to say than the others, but nevertheless all the opinions are valid. It is the same at a sports stadium or at the cinema. Every one has a ticket, some may get good seats and see the action clearly, and others may not get a good view: but everyone who has a ticket can come in! All members can contribute to the project and the enthusiasm of everyone is needed to complete it. Agree some rules in the group for contributing ideas and making sure that everyone can participate. Write the rules up and agree to stick to them. Here are two ideas: have a 'talking stick' so that only the person holding the stick can talk and the others may not interrupt. Or, agree that everybody has to say something, even if it is only: “I have nothing to say right now” or “I'm just thinking about it”.

Team Glue
Make sure that all members of the team get along together. Good communication helps good co-operation. Respect, empathy and a sense of fun will carry the mini-ministry groups over any 'bumps' along the way. Make a

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plan to meet up together, go jogging perhaps, sit together at meal times or do 'make-over's together. The group that plays together stays together.

Weeding the Plot
Even the best made plans can run into trouble. Like weeds in the ground, problems need to be sorted out when they are small. At every project meeting, do a little 'gardening', and weed out any problems. Write about these problems in the diaries; re-reading these diaries will show if the same problems keep happening and will show how previous situations were dealt with. Use communication skills to find the 'root' of any problems. Unearthing the root of the weeds will help keep them away! Here are some common weeds in the plot: Difficulties with people: Is there a lack of respect, communication, skill or support? Are they SMART?, do they need to be changed?

Difficulties with project activities or aims:

Difficulties with the method mate- Are the procedures properly underrials or administration: stood? Are there alternatives? Were there any unforeseen unwanted effects of the project?

Documentation
Keep copies written of all the notes, letters and plans made in the course of the project activities. Keep records of the relevant materials such as photographs, leaflets, pictures, newspaper cut outs, print outs, or tape and video recordings. Keep all the receipts for the financial records. Make a folder and keep all the documentation in an organised way.

Measure your manners!
In the course of the project activities it is possible to meet many new people. Keep a list of names and contact information with a short description of each person in the project folder. First impressions do matter, and remembering names is one way to improve presentation. Writing thank you notes after important interviews and meetings may appear a little old fashioned but can still make a difference. However whether old or new faces, use manners to be respectful and bold in making requests or saying, “No, thank you”.

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Project step 4 Reflection
Project appraisal Final reports: written, oral, budget Project etiquette

Cloud Gazing
At the end of a project, in a peaceful moment, draw some cloud shapes on paper. In each empty cloud, put in a word for a 'thought' about the project. Include any highlights and any challenges, something new learned for example. Gaze at the 'clouds' for a while - are there any patterns? What is the overall feeling?

Looking under the Microscope
Check that the project notes is completed. Highlight key information. If it helps, put the project notes 'under the microscope' and review each step. Here are some helpful questions: ∆ ∆ ∆ ∆ ∆ ∆ ∆ ∆ What are the specific results? Was the project finished on time? Was there enough time? Did the project achieve the intended aim? How do you know? Were any factors outside your control (such as rules or weather)? Were there any extra positive effects? Were there any human factors (like an illness, or problem) affecting the project. Did the team have enough knowledge/experience for this work? Can any follow-up activities be suggested?

Report Writing
Write a project report between one and two typed pages long. The report is a record of achievement for everyone to learn about. Readers need ideas written in a sequential or flowing way. So a common way of writing a report includes these sections:

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Introduction

(what we wanted to do / why we wanted to do it / who we did it with) (what was done / how it was done / the results of what was done / what was good / what could be done better!) (whether or not it was good to be done / what else could be done in future)

Description

Conclusion

Present the report in an organised way. Include other information to decorate or make it more attractive or understandable such as the logframe, pictures, samples. Send a copy of the report to a few interested parties, such as the school, the partner organisation and parents for example.

Project Presentation
Make a presentation of the project of not more than ten minutes long. A presentation is a lot like an oral report but audiences need repetition to help them remember everything said. So a common way of make a presentation includes these steps: Introduction Content Conclusion (say what you are going to present) (make the presentation) (say what you have presented)

Make the presentation stimulating by using some visual material such as charts, photographs and project samples. You might also want to include short audio samples of interviews, for example. Organise a school or public presentation, inviting interested parties such as the schoolteachers and pupils, the media, parents and representatives from partner organisations.

Tie up the Loose Ends
At the end of the project, the budget report has to be in order, listing how much money was spent and on what, each with receipt for every expense. Being responsible and accountable is very important for governments, businesses, organisations and indeed individuals. Get into the good habit of having orderly finances.

Applause!
A project is a team effort. Write a thank you note or email to all the people who contributed to the action. That way the door is always kept open for future co-operation. Plan a small celebration to acknowledge everyone's efforts.

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Acknowledgements

Fit for Leadership
Leadership and Empowerment Training for Girls and Young Women in Rwanda
This resource book has been created by Women without Borders, an international initiative for the inclusion and participation of women in politics and civil society. We support and empower women and girls as they bring their talents and energies into the public arena towards positive change. This project is financed by the Austrian Social Ministry. Women without Borders would like to thank the following individuals and organizations for their contribution to the project: Secretary General, Anne Gahongayire, formerly of the Ministry of Gender and Family Promotion, Rwanda Senator Beatrice Mukabaranga, Rwanda Connie Bwiza Sekamana, Member of Parliament, Rwanda Odetta Mukazi Mutanghua, FAWE, Rwanda Berthilde Gahangayire, UNDP, Rwanda Elizabeth Powley, Women Waging Peace, Rwanda Elisabeth Kasbauer, Women without Borders, Austria Martina Handler, Women without Borders, Austria Dina Margules, Going Public Consulting, Austria
For more information about our organization please contact: Women without Borders Gumpendorfer Strasse 22/9, 1060 Vienna, Austria telephone: +43 5333 455-1 fax: +43 5333 455-2 email: office@women-without-borders.org www.women-without-borders.org

© Women without Borders 2006

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