You are on page 1of 11

FINAL

EXAMINATION

APRIL 2009
DURATION:

HOURS

No. of Students:

Department Name & Course Name: Mechanical


Course Instructor(s)
Jeremy Lalibert

77

and Aerospace Eng. AERO 3002

AUTHORIZED MEMORANDA

Open Book, calculators


Students MUST count the number of pages in this examination question paper before beginning to
write, and report any discrepancy immediately to a proctor. This question paper has 11 pages.
This examination question paper MAY NOT
In addition to this question paper, students require:

be taken from the examination room.


an examination booklet yes no x
a Scantron sheet
yes no x

Record your Name and Student Number below


Last Name: ___________________________________First Name: ___________________
Student ID No.________________________________

Question

5 (bonus) Total

Mark

Attempt all questions. Answer the questions in the boxes provided on examination pages.
Any writing outside the box will not be marked. The value of each question is in brackets
beside the question number.
State clearly your assumptions and references for any data used. Your answers should be
brief, concise, and legible particularly where descriptions and comparisons are required.
Correct numerical results are essential. Use well drawn sketches to clarify where
appropriate.

kt*1.689=ft/s

AERO 3002 Final Exam


April 2009

Page 1 of 11

Question 1 (18)
Answer the questions below in point form.
a) Below are images of the (a) Avro
Arrow [first flight 1958] and the (b)
Eurofighter Typhoon [first flight
1994]. Identify and explain two
similarities or differences in the
designs between these aircraft.

(a)

(b)
b) Some older launch vehicles used a
specific design approach to decrease
the structural weight of the liquid
propellant tanks. Describe the
approach, the structural failure mode
it prevents, and the reason.

c) Which one is more effective from


aerodynamic point of view: a forward
sweep or a backward sweep? Why is
the former is still uncommon in
aeronautics?

AERO 3002 Final Exam


April 2009

Page 2 of 11

d) What is the main advantage of a


canard configuration aircraft? What
is the difference between liftingcanard and control-canard
configurations?

e) A component has failure load of 2.3


kN and maximum applied (limit)
load of 2.45 kN. Calculate the
margin of safety. Is the component
safe?
f) Why do all currently successful
spacecraft launch vehicles employ
some form of staging design
arrangement for lifting a payload to
orbit?

g) Why is the positive limit load factor


specified in certification regulations
for a civil transport aircraft (n=2.5)
lower than that of a general aviation
utility aircraft (n=4.4).
h) What is the importance of bypass
ratio for gas turbine engine
performance?

i) List three differences between


turbojet and turbofan engines.

AERO 3002 Final Exam


April 2009

Page 3 of 11

Question 2 (30)
The Canadian Forces has a future requirement for a new Fixed Wing Search and Rescue
(FWSAR) aircraft for missions over land and water. Your company has an existing twinturboprop powered aircraft that you have been asked to evaluate for this new mission. The basic
requirements for this new mission are that the aircraft cruise at 240 kts from its base a distance of
500 nm at 25000 ft (=0.001065 slug/ft3), loiter over a search area for 6 hours and then cruise
500 nm back to base. This aircraft must carry 10000 lb of rescue equipment, flight crew and
SAR technicians. The existing aircraft has the following characteristics:
Wo:
60000 lb
We:
32773 lb
(L/D)Max:
16
BHP SFCCruise:
0.40 lb/hp/lb
BHP SFCLoiter:
0.48 lb/hp/lb
p:
0.8
a) Briefly describe two critical design features that are required for this new mission.
b) Sketch the mission profile for this aircraft and estimate the total fuel required to complete
this mission. Can your companys aircraft adequately perform this mission profile based
on the weight values alone without modifications? You may assume the following
weight fraction estimates in your calculations:
Warm-up and Take-off:
0.970
Climb:
0.985
Descent:
0.990
Landing:
0.995
c) On the next page is the performance matching plot for the FWSAR mission. Plotted on
this graph are the landing and take-off performance curves and the aircrafts current
design point. Your companys aircraft as designed does not meet these performance
requirements. What modification(s) would you recommend to your boss to meet these
requirements (explain briefly and/or use calculations to justify your change)?
d) Determine the relationship for cruise performance and add it to the performance matching
plot (show your calculations). You may assume the cruise weight corresponding to the
average weight over the cruise segment.
a)

AERO 3002 Final Exam


April 2009

Page 4 of 11

Power Loading (lb/HP)

b)

20
18
16
14
12
10
8
6
4
2
0

Take-Off CL = 2.0
Landing CL = 2.0
Current Design

20

40
60
Wing Loading (lb/ft2)

80

100

Figure 1: Performance Matching plot for Question 2 parts c) and d).


AERO 3002 Final Exam
April 2009

Page 5 of 11

c)

d)

AERO 3002 Final Exam


April 2009

Page 6 of 11

Question 3 (30)
You have been asked to develop the V-n diagram for a new AWM 525 commuter category
aircraft with the following specifications:
Wo:
34240 lb
VCruise:
405 kts
VStall:
95 kts
CL (lift curve slope):
4.0 rad-1
Mean aerodynamic chord:
6 ft
Sref:
431 ft2
Aspect Ratio:
11
Cruise altitude:
25000 ft
Sea level:
0.002377 slug/ft3
Cruise:
0.001065 slug/ft3
a) What is the wing span of this aircraft?
b) What is VDive for this aircraft? Add VDive to the V-n template below.
c) Calculate the AWM 525 positive and negative maneuvering limit load factors for this
aircraft and indicate them on the V-n diagram template below (see end of exam for copy
of AWM 525 regulations).
d) Show the complete expressions for the stall limit lines and sketch them on the V-n
template below (show calculations on next page in space provided).
e) On the resulting V-N diagram identify the important points and velocities of the flight
envelope. Briefly explain these points in the space below.
f) Ignoring gust effects, what is the positive design ultimate load factor for this aircraft?
g) Show the gust limit lines for a 66 ft/s vertical gust (show calculations and plot lines).
h) With the help of a sketch, explain the effect of a sudden upward vertical gust on an
aircraft such as this in straight and level flight.
5.5
4.5

Load Factor (n)

3.5
2.5
1.5
0.5
-0.5
-1.5
0

50

100

150

200

250

300

350

400

450

VEAS (kts)

Figure 2: V-n diagram template for Question 3.


AERO 3002 Final Exam
April 2009

Page 7 of 11

500

a)

b)

c)

d)

AERO 3002 Final Exam


April 2009

Page 8 of 11

e)

f)

g)

h)

AERO 3002 Final Exam


April 2009

Page 9 of 11

Question 4 (22)
The Russian Space Agency is developing a new partially reusable single-stage launch vehicle
(LV) to replace its single-use Soyuz capsule. This vehicle will be used to ferry personnel and
cargo to the International Space Station (ISS) at an orbital altitude of 350 km and then remain at
the ISS to function as a lifeboat for the on-board crew. The launch vehicle is to be designed
for vertical launch and for parachute landing either on land or in water.
a) Estimate the orbital velocity of the ISS.
b) The launch vehicle liquid bipropellant rocket engine has an ISP of 450 s. The launch mass
of the vehicle is composed of the payload, propellants and the empty mass that includes
the structure, propulsion and systems. The structural mass coefficient is 0.15. Estimate
the total mass of the vehicle required to lift 2500 kg of payload to the ISS.
Please note that:
V f Vi g I SP ln

mi
mf

; rearth = 6378 km; GM=39.9X1013 m3/s2

a)

b)

Question 5 (Bonus 5)
What is the name of the pilot who flew the Silver Dart on its maiden flight over Bras DOr Lake
in Baddeck, NS on 23 February 1909?

AERO 3002 Final Exam


April 2009

Page 10 of 11

Supplemental Information
525.337 Limit Manoeuvring Load Factors [Adapted from Canadian Aviation Regulations Part 525:]
(b) The positive limit manoeuvring load factor "n" may not be less than

except that "n" may not be less than 2.5 and need not be greater than 3.8 where "W" is the design
maximum take-off weight.
(c) The negative limit manoeuvring load factor:
(1) May not be less than -1.0 at speeds up to VC; and
(2) Must vary linearly with speed from the value at VC to zero at VD.

AERO 3002 Final Exam


April 2009

Page 11 of 11