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From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

For other uses, see Internal erosion, Piping

(sewing), Bagpipes, Pipe (fluid conveyance),
or Pipe (disambiguation).
For other uses, see Pipe (disambiguation).

Large-scale piping system in an HVACmechanical room

Within industry, piping is a system of pipes used to

convey fluids (liquids and gases) from one location to another.
The engineeringdiscipline of piping design studies the efficient
transport of fluid.[1][2]
Industrial process piping (and accompanying in-line components)
can be manufactured
from wood, fiberglass, glass, steel, aluminum,plastic, copper,
and concrete. The in-line components, known as fittings, valves,
and other devices, typically sense and control thepressure, flow
rate and temperature of the transmitted fluid, and usually are
included in the field of Piping Design (or Piping Engineering). Piping
systems are documented in piping and instrumentation
diagrams (P&IDs). If necessary, pipes can be cleaned by the tube
cleaning process.

"Piping" sometimes refers to Piping Design, the detailed

specification of the physical piping layout within a process plant or
commercial building. In earlier days, this was sometimes
called Drafting, Technical drawing, Engineering Drawing,
and Design but is today commonly performed by Designers who
have learned to use automated Computer Aided Drawing /
Computer Aided Design (CAD) software.
Plumbing is a piping system with which most people are familiar, as
it constitutes the form of fluid transportation that is used to provide
potable water and fuels to their homes and businesses. Plumbing
pipes also remove waste in the form of sewage, and allow venting
of sewage gases to the outdoors. Fire sprinkler systems also use
piping, and may transport nonpotable or potable water, or other firesuppression fluids.
Piping also has many other industrial applications, which are crucial
for moving raw and semi-processed fluids for refining into more
useful products. Some of the more exotic materials of construction
are Inconel, titanium, chrome-moly and various other steel alloys.

1 Engineering subfields
2 Stress analysis
3 Wooden piping history
4 Materials
5 Standards
6 See also
7 References
8 Further reading
9 External links

Engineering subfields[edit]
Generally, industrial piping engineering has three major subfields:

Piping material
Piping design
Stress analysis

Stress analysis[edit]
Process piping and power piping are typically checked by pipe
stress engineers to verify that the routing, nozzle loads, hangers,
and supports are properly placed and selected such that allowable
pipe stress is not exceeded under different loads such as sustained
loads, operating loads, pressure testing loads, etc., as stipulated by
the ASME B31, EN 13480 or any other applicable codes and
standards. It is necessary to evaluate the mechanical behavior of
the piping under regular loads (internal pressure and thermal

stresses) as well under occasional and intermittent loading cases

such as earthquake, high wind or special vibration, and water
hammer.[3][4] This evaluation is usually performed with the assistance
of a specialized (finite element) pipe stress analysis computer
In cryogenic pipe supports, most steel become more brittle as the
temperature decreases from normal operating conditions, so it is
necessary to know the temperature distribution for cryogenic
conditions. Steel structures will have areas of high stress that may
be caused by sharp corners in the design, or inclusions in the

Wooden piping history[edit]

Early wooden pipes were constructed out of logs that had a large
hole bored lengthwise through the center. Later wooden pipes were
constructed with staves and hoops similar to
wooden barrel construction. Stave pipes have the advantage that
they are easily transported as a compact pile of parts on a wagon
and then assembled as a hollow structure at the job site. Wooden
pipes were especially popular in mountain regions where transport
of heavy iron or concrete pipes would have been difficult.
Wooden pipes were easier to maintain than metal, because the
wood did not expand or contract with temperature changes as much
as metal and so consequently expansion joints and bends were not
required. The thickness of wood afforded some insulating properties
to the pipes which helped prevent freezing as compared to metal
pipes. Wood used for water pipes also does not rot very
easily. Electrolysis, that bugbear of many iron pipe systems, doesn't
affect wood pipes at all, since wood is a much better electrical
In the Western United States where redwood was used for pipe
construction, it was found that redwood had "peculiar properties"
that protected it from weathering, acids, insects, and fungus
growths. Redwood pipes stayed smooth and clean indefinitely while
iron pipe by comparison would rapidly begin to scale and corrode
and could eventually plug itself up with the corrosion. [6]

The material with which a pipe is manufactured often forms as the
basis for choosing any pipe. Materials that are used for
manufacturing pipes include:

Carbon steel.

ASTM A252 Spec Grade 1, Grade 2, Grade 3 Steel Pile Pipe

Low temperature service carbon steel

Stainless steel
Nonferrous metals, e.g. cupro-nickel

Nonmetallic, e.g. tempered glass

There are certain standard codes that need to be followed while
designing or manufacturing any piping system. Organizations that
promulgate piping standards include:

ASME - The American Society of Mechanical Engineers - B31

ASME B31.1 Power piping (steam piping etc.)
ASME B31.3 Process piping
ASME B31.4 Pipeline Transportation Systems for Liquid
Hydrocarbons and Other Liquids
ASME B31.5 Refrigeration piping and heat transfer
ASME B31.8 Gas transmission and distribution piping
ASME B31.9 Building services piping
ASME B31.11 Slurry Transportation Piping Systems
ASME B31.12 Hydrogen Piping and Pipelines
ASTM - American Society for Testing and Materials
ASTM A252 Standard Specification for Welded and
Seamless Steel Pipe Piles[7]
API - American Petroleum Institute
API 5L Petroleum and natural gas industriesSteel pipe for
pipeline transportation systems[8]
EN 13480 - European metallic industrial piping code
EN 13480-1 Metallic industrial piping - Part 1: General
EN 13480-2 Metallic industrial piping - Part 2: Materials
EN 13480-3 Metallic industrial piping - Part 3: Design and
EN 13480-4 Metallic industrial piping - Part 4: Fabrication
and installation
EN 13480-5 Metallic industrial piping - Part 5: Inspection
and testing
EN 13480-6 Metallic industrial piping - Part 6: Additional
requirements for buried piping
PD TR 13480-7 Metallic industrial piping - Part 7: Guidance
on the use of conformity assessment procedures
EN 13480-8 Metallic industrial piping - Part 8: Additional
requirements for aluminium and aluminium alloy piping
EN 1993-4-3 Eurocode 3 Design of steel structures - Part 43: Pipelines
AWS - American Welding Society
AWWA - American Water Works Association
MSS Manufacturers' Standardization Society
ANSI - American National Standards Institute
NFPA - National Fire Protection Association
EJMA - Expansion Joint Manufacturers Association

See also[edit]

Hydraulic machinery
Hydrogen piping
Hydrostatic test
Pipe network analysis
MS Pipe, MS Tube

Piping and plumbing fittings

Coupling (piping)
Double-walled pipe
Elbow (piping)
Nipple (plumbing)
Pipe cap
Street elbow
Union (plumbing)
Plastic pipework
Plastic Pressure Pipe Systems
Riser clamp
Thermal insulation

Pipeline pre-commissioning

1. Jump up^ Editors: Perry, R.H. and Green, D.W.
(1984). Perry's Chemical Engineers' Handbook (6th Edition
ed.). McGraw-Hill Book Company. ISBN 0-07-049479-7.
2. Jump up^ Editor: McKetta, John J. (1992). Piping Design
Handbook. Marcel Dekker, Inc. ISBN 0-8247-8570-3.
3. Jump up^ Process Piping: ASME B31.3[dead link]
4. Jump up^ Power Piping: ASME B31.1
5. Jump up^ Temperature & Stress Analysis Piping Technology
and Products, (retrieved February 2012)
6. Jump up^ Piping water through miles of Redwood, Popular
Science monthly, December 1918, page 74, Scanned by
7. Jump up^ H. "ASTM A252 Pipe Pile". China Huayang Steel
8. Jump up^ "API 5L Specification Line Pipe (1) API Terms
and Definitions". China Huayang Steel Pipe.

Further reading[edit]

ASME B31.3 Process Piping Guide, Revision 2 from Los

Alamos National Laboratory Engineering Standards Manual
Seismic Design and Retrofit of Piping Systems, July 2002 from
American Lifelines Alliance website
Engineering and Design, Liquid Process Piping. Engineer
manual, entire document (index page) U.S. Army Corps of
Engineers, EM 1110-l-4008, May 1999

External links[edit]
Wikimedia Commons has
media related to Piping.

Building services piping links at DMOZ

Jump up^ Piling Pipe




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