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Political studies

I lekcija
1.Define the word politics?
- Politics ( from Greek politikos citizen) , is a process by which groups of people make
collective decisions. The term is generally applied to behavior within civil governments , but
politics has been observed in other group interactions , including corporate, academic, and
religious institutions. It consists of social relations involving authority or power and refers to the
regulation of a political unit , and to the methods and tactics used to formulate and apply policy.
2. How are states classified according to Aristotle?
- According to Aristotle , states are classified into monarchies, aristocracies,
timocracies, democracies, oligarchies and tyrannies.
3. What kind of documents are constitutions?
- Constitutions are written documents that specify and limit the powers of the different branches
of government . Although a Constitution is a written document , there is also an unwritten
Constitution . the unwritten document is continually being written by the legislative branch of
government this is just one of the those cases in which the nature of the circumstances
determines the form of government that is most appropriate.
4. What are the characteristics of a federal government?
- There are two forms of government the one is a strong central government and the other is a
local government. These two forms the federal government, first in Switzerland , the in the
United States in 1776, in Canada in 1876 and in Germany in 1870. The federal states
introduced the new principle of agreement in contract . Compared to a federation, a
confederation s singular weakness is that the lacks judicial power.
5. What Is a political party?
- a political party I a political organization that typically seeks to attain and maintain political
power within government, usually by participating the electoral campaigns , educational
outreach or protest actions. Parties often espouse an expressed ideology or vision bolstered by
a written platform with specific goals, forming a coalition among disparate interests. As an
academic discipline.

6. What is the major distinction between left wing and right wing political parties?

Political analysts and politicians divide politics into left wing and right wing, often also using the
idea of center politics as a middle path of policy between left and right. This classification is
comparatively recent and dates from the French Revolution era, when those members of the
National Assembly who supported the republic , the common people and a secular society sat
on the left and supporters of the monarchy, aristocratic privilege and the church sat on right.
7. What is the difference between authoritarianism and libertarianism?
- authoritarianism and libertarianism refer to the amount of individual freedom each person
possesses that society relative to the state. One author describes authoritarian political systems
as those where individual rights and goals are subjugated to group goals, expectations and
conformities , while libertarians generally oppose the state and hold the individual and his
property as sovereign. In their purest form , libertarians are anarchists , who argue for the total
abolition of the state , while the purest authoritarians are totalitarians who support state control
over all aspect society.

1.What kind of a political form is democracy?
1. Democracy is a political form of government in which governing power is derived from
the people, either by direct referendum (direct democracy) or by means of elected
representatives of the people (representative democracy).
2. What is separation of powers in the USA?
2. In the United States, separation of powers is often cited as a supporting attribute.
( )
3. What is representative democracy?
3. Representative democracy involves the selection of government officials by the
people being represented.
4. What is parliamentary democracy?
4. Parliamentary democracy is a representative democracy where government is
appointed by parliamentary representatives as opposed to a presidential rule wherein
the President is both head of the state and the head of the government and is elected

by the voters.
5. What kind of a political system is direct democracy?
5. Direct democracy is a political system where the citizens participate in the decisionmaking personally, contrary to relying on intermediaries or representatives.

1. What is public opinion?
1. Public opinion is the aggregate of individual attitudes or beliefs held by the adult
2. How can public opinion be measured?
2. Opinion polls for many years were maintained through telecommunications or in
person-to-person contact. Verbal, ballot, and processed types can be conducted
efficiently, contrasted with other types of surveys, systematics, and complicated
matrices beyond previous orthodox procedures.
3. What is a benchmark poll?
3. A benchmark poll is generally the first poll taken in a campaign. It is often taken
before a candidate announces their bid for office but sometimes it happens immediately
following that announcement after they have had some opportunity to raise funds.
4. What is a tracking poll?
4. A tracking poll is a poll repeated at intervals. For example, a weekly tracking poll uses
the data from the past week and discards older data.
5. What may influence the results of polls?
5. It is well established that the wording of the questions, the order in which they are
asked and the number and form of alternative answers offered can influence results of
6. How are the public opinion surveys divided?
6. Surveys can be formal (scientifically assembled and administered) or informal.
7. What do survey results show?

7. Survey results show public positions or reactions to agency actions and gather
information for use in the process.

1. What kind of process is an election?


An election is a formal decision-making process by which a population chooses

an individual to hold a public office. Elections have been the usual mechanism by
which modern representative democracy operates since the 17th century.

2. Which are the common types of election?


The common types of election are Presidential elections, General elections,

Primary election, By-election, Local election and Co-election.

3. What is referendum?

Referendum (pl. referenda) is a democratic tool related to elections in which

electorate votes for or against specific proposal, law or policy, rather than for a
general policy or a particular candidate or party. Referenda might be add to an
election ballot or held separately and may be either binding or consultative,
depending on the constitution. Referenda are usually called by governments via
legislature, however many democracies allow citizens to petition for referenda
directly, called initiatives.

4. What is suffrage?

The question of who may vote is a central issue in elections. The election does
not generally include the entire population. For instance, young people under 18
years do not have right to vote or once mentally unstable. Historically, other
groups of people were excluded from voting. For example, ancient Athens did not
allow woman, slaves or foreigners to vote and in the USA only white male
population had the right to vote. The most famous suffrage movement is the
womens suffrage movement, which gave women in many countries the right to

5. Are the mandates of presidents of different countries of equal duration?

In different countries, duration of a presidential mandate is not equal. For

example in Ireland the president is elected in seven years, in Russia and USA in
four, in France and Macedonia every five years, in Finland every six

1. What kind of union is the EU?

*The European Union (EU) is an economic and political union of 28 member states that
located primarily in Europe. The
of supranational independent institutions and intergovernmental negotiated decisions by
the member states.
2. Which are the important institutions of the EU?
* Institutions of the EU include the European Commission, the Council of the European
Union, the European Council, the Court of Justice of the European Union, the European
Central Bank, the Court of Auditors, and the European Parliament.

3. What criteria must a country meet in order to join the EU?

*To join the EU, a country must meet the Copenhagen criteria, defined at the 1993
Copenhagen European Council. These require a stable democracy that respects human
rights and the rule of law; a functioning market economy capable of competition within
the EU; and the acceptance of the obligations of membership, including EU law.
Evaluation of a country's fulfilment of the criteria is the responsibility of the European
4. What kind of body is the Council of the EU?
*The European Council gives direction to the EU, and convenes at least four times a
year. It comprises the President of the European Council, the President of the European
Commission and one representative per member state; either its head of state or head
of government. The European Council has been described by some as the Union's
"supreme political authority".[74] It is actively involved in the negotiation of the treaty
changes and defines the EU's policy agenda and strategies.
The European Council uses its leadership role to sort out disputes between member
states and the institutions, and to resolve political crises and disagreements over

controversial issues and policies. It acts externally as a "collective head of state"

and ratifies important documents (for example, international agreements and treaties).

5. What does the Court of Justice of EU consist of?

*The judicial branch of the EUformally called the Court of Justice of the European
Unionconsists of three courts: the Court of Justice, the General Court, and
the European Union Civil Service Tribunal. Together they interpret and apply the
treaties and the law of the EU.

6. How many official and working languages are used in the EU?
*Among the many languages and dialects used in the EU, it has 24 official and working
languages: Bulgarian, Croatian, Czech, Danish, Dutch, English,Estonian, Finnish, Frenc
h, German, Greek, Hungarian, Italian, Irish, Latvian, Lithuanian, Maltese, Polish, Portug
uese, Romanian, Slovak, Slovene, Spanish, and Swedish. Important documents, such
as legislation, are translated into every official language. The European Parliament
provides translation into all languages for documents and its plenary sessions. Some
institutions use only a handful of languages as internal working languages.
Catalan, Galician, Basque, Scottish Gaelic and Welsh are not official languages of the
EU but have semi-official status in that official translations of the treaties are made into
them and citizens of the EU have the right to correspond with the institutions using

4 lekcija
1. What is political campaign?
- A political campaign is an organized effort which seeks to influence the decision making
process within a specific group. In democracies, political campaigns often refer to
electoral campaigns, wherein representatives are chosen or referendums are decided.
2. What does a campaign message contain?
- The message of the campaign contains the ideas that the candidate wants to share with
the voters. The message often consists of several talking points about policy issues. The
points summarize the main ideas of the campaign and are repeated frequently in order
to create a lasting impression with the voters.
3. What is a soundbite in a campaign?

The habit of modern Western media outlets (especially radio and TV) of taking short
excerpts of speeches has resulted in the creation of the term soundbite.

4. Who are the other participants in a modern political campaign, besides the
- Successful campaigns usually require a campaign manager to coordinate the
campaign's operations. Apart from a candidate, they are often a campaign's most visible
leader. Modern campaign managers may be concerned with executing strategy rather
than setting it - particularly if the senior strategists are typically outside political
consultants such as primarily pollsters and media consultants.
5. Which actions are prohibited in political campaigns?
- Activists are the "foot soldiers" loyal to the cause, the true believers who will carry the
run by volunteer activists. Such volunteers and interns may take part in activities such as
canvassing door-to-door and making phone calls on behalf of the campaign.
6. What is a husting in a modern political campaign?
- A husting, or the hustings, was originally a physical platform from which representatives
presented their views or cast votes before a parliamentary or other election body. By
metonymy, the term may now refer to any event, such as debates or speeches, during
an election campaign where one or more of the representative candidates are present.
7. What is informational campaign?
- An informational campaign is a political campaign designed to raise public awareness
and support for the positions of a candidate (or his party).[5] It is more intense than a
paper campaign, which consists of little more than filing the necessary papers to get on
the ballot, but is less intense than a competitive campaign, which aims to actually win
election to the office. An informational campaign typically focuses on low-cost outreach
such as news releases, getting interviewed in the paper, making a brochure for door to
door distribution, organizing poll workers, etc.

What is diplomacy concerned with!?

Diplomacy is the art and science of maintaining peaceful relationships between nations, groups,
or individuals. It usually refers to international diplomacy, the conduct of international relations
through the intercession of professional diplomats with regard to issues of peace-making, trade,
war, economics, culture, environment, and human rights. International treaties are usually
negotiated by diplomats prior to endorsement by national politicians.

What is diplomatic immunity ?!

The sanctity of diplomats has long been observed. This sanctity has come to be known as
diplomatic immunity. While there have been a number of cases where diplomats have been
killed, this is normally viewed as a great breach of honour.Diplomatic rights were established in
the mid-17th century in Europe and have spread throughout the world. These rights were
formalized by the 1961 Vienna Convention on Diplomatic Relations, which protects diplomats
from being persecuted or prosecuted while on a diplomatic mission. If a diplomat does commit a
serious crime while in a host country he may be declared as persona non grata (unwanted
person). Such diplomats are then often tried for the crime in their homeland.

What is "diplomatic bag" ?

Diplomatic communications are also viewed as sacrosanct, and diplomats have long been
allowed to carry documents across borders without being searched. The mechanism for this is
the so-called "diplomatic bag" (or, in some countries, the "diplomatic pouch"). While radio and
digital communication have become more standard for embassies, diplomatic pouches are still
quite common and some countries, including the United States, declare entire shipping
containers as diplomatic pouches to bring sensitive material (often building supplies) into a

What does diplomatic recognition imply !?

Diplomatic recognition is an important factor in determining whether a nation is an independent

state. Receiving recognition is often difficult, even for countries which are fully sovereign. For

many decades after its becoming independent, even many of the closest allies of the Dutch
Republic refused to grant it full recognition. Today there are a number of independent entities
without widespread diplomatic recognition, most notably the Republic of China (ROC)/Taiwan
on Taiwan Island.

What kind of diplomacy is informal diplomacy ?!

Informal diplomacy (sometimes called Track II diplomacy) has been used for centuries to
communicate between powers.Track II diplomacy is a specific kind of informal diplomacy, in
which non-officials (academic scholars, retired civil and military officials, public figures, social
activists) engage in dialogue, with the aim of conflict resolution, or confidence-building.
Sometimes governments may fund such Track II exchanges. Sometimes the exchanges may
have no connection at all with governments, or may even act in defiance of governments; such
exchanges are called Track III.
On some occasion a former holder of an official position continues to carry out an informal
diplomatic activity after retirement. In some cases, governments welcome such activity, for
example as a means of establishing an initial contact with a hostile state of group without being
formally committed. In other cases, however, such informal diplomats seek to promote a political
agenda different from that of the government currently in power.

What is the basic task of an ambassador?

An ambassador is an official envoy, especially a highest ranking diplomat who represents a
State and is usually accredited to another sovereign State (country), or to an international
organization as the resident representative of their own government or sovereign or appointed
for a special and often temporary diplomatic assignment. The basic task of an ambassador is to
report on the political , economic and social in the country where he works , to report on the
policy of his/her government and on his talks with political leaders. He has to reduce friction , if
there's any and to oil the wheels of bilateral or multilateral relations in the event of actual or
potential bilateral or wider conflict .
What do ambassadors usually do during the time of "limbo" ?
During this time in limbo the ambassador may not pay formal calls either on government officials
or on diplomatic colleagues
What kind of documents are credentials ?

Official documents proving that an ambassador has really been appointed legally

1. Who is elected by popular vote in the USA?

- Members of Congress, the President, state officials and those who govern
counties and cities are elected by popular vote.
2. What is the Bill of Rights?
-The Bill of rights added in 1791, are the first 10 amendments to the Constitution
that assure individual rights and freedom. They include provisions for freedom of
speech, of the press and of worship; the right of citizens to meet peacefully, the
right to be secure in one owns home against unreasonable searches and seizure
of person or property; and the right of any person charged with breaking the law
to have a speedy trial by jury of fellow citizens.
3. How are the powers of the US government divided by the Constitution?
-It divides them into three branches: the Executive, headed by the President; the
Legislative, which includes both houses of Congress (the Senate and the House
of Representatives); and the Judicial, which is headed by the Supreme Court.
4. What do the state governments manage?
-State governments manage such affairs such as maintaining order, educating
children and young adults, and building highways.
5. What does the federal government deal with?
-The federal government deals with national problems and international relations
and with regional problems that involve more than one state.
6. Which are the duties of the president of the United States?
-As a head of the Executive branch, he must carry out the government programs
enacted into law by Congress. He recommends programs and laws to Congress
and requests money for federal government operations. If a president vetoes or
refuses to sign a bill passed by the Congress, his veto may be overruled by a
two-thirds vote of both houses of Congress. The president appoints federal
judges, ambassadors and hundreds of government officials, and assigns duties
to the elected Vice-President.
7. What is the role of the State Department?

-Headed by the secretary of State, the department of State advises the president
on foreign relations. Handles all peaceful dealings with other countries, and
issues passports to American citizens and visas to visitors to the United States.

8. What does the legislative branch consist of?

-The Congress consists of the Senate and the House of Representatives. Each
Senator is elected for six years and each Representative for two, with no
limitation on the number of terms.

9. What are the functions of the two branches of American Congress?

-Each of the 50 states elects two Senators under a system in which one-third of
the senate is elected every two years. The House of Representative has 435
members.Both branches of Congress must approve bills before they become

1. Which are the forms of documents used in relations between states?

-The forms of documents used in relations between states are different: statements, addresses,
notes, memoranda, letters, telegrams, aide-memoires, communiques, and reports of official
informational services. They include of course all those documents which are issued by the
leadership of the country and its government, the Ministry of Foreign Affairs, and the diplomatic
missions abroad.

2. What is a note in diplomatic correspondence?

- Note is a form of communication between the Ministry of Foreign Affairs and the Chief of
Diplomatic Mission and vice versa. There are two kinds of notes: verbal and formal. They differ
in their forms of expression.
3. What is a verbal note?
- The note which is written in the third person, and is unsigned is called a verbal note. The word
verbal takes its origin in the Latin word verbalis, which means oral, in words. As applied to

the verbal note the word implies that such note is equal to an oral statement or information. The
verbal note is rather popular in diplomatic communication. It may be used for communication of
high political significance, but it also refers to everyday routine matters.

4. What is a formal note?

- Formal notes (personal notes, personal letters) are written in the first person and are always
signed by the writer. It is used to give the communications a more intimate or confidential
character. It is mostly used for congratulations, expressions of sympathy etc.